Multiple Choice Questions...
1-A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions and records the answers himself is known as the: A. Interview schedule B. Questionnaire C Interview guide D. All of the given options 2-The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the………. A. Variables B. Hypothesis C. Concept D. Theory 3-Hypothesis test may also be called as: A. Informal test B. Significance test C. Moderating test D. T-test
4. Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, EXCEPT; A. Health care B. Religion C. Business D. Government offices 5- Hypothesis refers to A. The outcome of an experiment B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter D. A tentative statement about the relationship 6- A literature review requires A. Planning B. Good & clear writing C. Lot of rewriting D. All of the above 7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the A. Descriptive research B. Exploratory research C. Applied research D. Explanatory research 8- The literature survey provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical framework. A. True B. False 9- A literature review does not consider the prior studies, their agreements or disagreements in the field. A. True B. False
10- A researcher is interested in studying why the “new math” of the 1960s failed. She interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are considered as: C. A. Primary sources D. B. Secondary Sources E. C. External critics F. D. Internal critics 1. What is meant by significant test? Testing of hypothesis is called significant test. 2. Differentiate between contrived and non-contrived setting. Noncontrived setting -- Natural environment where events normally occur, Field study (minimal interference), Field experiment (manipulation of variables) Contrived setting -- Artificial environment, Lab experiment (manipulation of variable with high degree of control) 3. Differentiate between basic and applied reserach. To solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting. Such research is called applied research.To generate a body of knowledge about how to solve problems that could be occurred in organizations. This is called basic research or fundamental research. It is also known as basic research. 4. What is meant by replicability? The results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances. 5. Differentiate between hypothesis and proposition. First time research use propositions and if already litrature is present then we make hypothesis. Q3:- Write Answers of the following questions. (5x2) 1. Explain the hallmarks of scientific research. Purposiveness -- It has to start with a definite aim or purpose, The focus is on increasing employees commitment, Increase employee commitment will translate into more turnover, less absenteeism and increased performance levels, Thus it has a purposive focus. Rigor -- A good theoretical base and sound methodological design would add rigor to the purposive study. Rigor adds carefulness, scrupulousness and the degree of exactitude in research Testability – scientific research lends itself to testing logically developed hypothesis and tested by applying certain statistical tests to the data collected for the purpose
Replicability – the results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances. Precision and confidence – Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to reality based on a sample and confidence means the probability that our estimations are correct. Objectivity – The conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data, and not on our subjective or emotional values. Generalizability refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organization setting to other settings. Obviously, the wider the range of applicability of the solutions generated by research, the more useful the research is to the users Parsimony -- Simplicity in explaining the phenomena or problems that occur, and in generating solutions for the problems, is always preferred to complex research frameworks that consider an unmanageable number of factors. 2. Expalin the components of a research paper. Title -- Statement about paper, Minimum 8 words (Main variables and relationship) Authors Name + Affiliations -- Affiliations, designation, contact, address Abstract -- Summary about research paper, States (Purpose, Methodology and Analysis (results)) Introduction -- Use to catch the attention of reader, Create scenario, State background of problem, importance, how this will benefit to us Literature Review -- Review of selected variables, Publish or unpublished material, First define variable, theory behind it, Develop hypothesis e.g. H1, H2, First time research P1, P2, Theoretical Framework -- Conceptual Framework,,Model, Based on some theory Methodology -- Method through which we get results Measure How variables are measure Constructs (Indicators, latent variables, facets) Give name, year, items (questions), scale, example “(first question)”, reverse coded questions, reliability (Cronbach alpha value)
Data Collection Population, targeted population, sample size, where to collect sample, sampling technique, percentage of population Analysis -- Use technique relating our purpose, Interpretation (What communicate) Conclusion -- Weather hypothesis are accepted or rejected Discussion -- What is hypothesis (Name, Year), Our analysis accept or reject, Our findings are same as previous Limitations -- Specific area, specific instrument, If limitations are changed, then results may vary References -- Name, Year, title, journal, volume, issue, page no. Appendix – Questionnaire, Figures, Extra details
6. What is meant by replicability? The results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances. 7. Differentiate between hypothesis and proposition. First time research use propositions and if already litrature is present then we make hypothesis. 8. Differentiate between directional and non-directional hypothesis. If, in stating the relationship between two variables or comparing two groups, terms such as positive, negative, more than, less than, and the like are used, then these hypotheses are directional because the direction of the relationship between the variables is indicated. Non-directional hypotheses are formulated either because the relationships or differences have never been previously explored and hence there is no basis for indicating the direction, or because there have been conflicting findings in previous research studies on the variable. 9. What is meant by significant test? Testing of hypothesis is called significant test. 10. Differentiate between cross sectional and longitudinal research. Cross-Sectional Study -- Data are gathered just once, perhaps over a period of days or weeks or months, in order to answer a research question
Longitudinal Study -- The researcher undertakes a study at several points in time in order to answer a research question Q3:- Write Answers of the following questions. (5x2) 3. Explain the hypothetic-deductive method of scientific research. The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductive Method 1. Observation -- Observation is the first stage, in which one senses that certain changes are occurring or that some new behaviors, attitudes, and feelings are surfacing in one’s environment (i.e., the work place). 2. Preliminary Information gathering -- It involves the seeking of information in depth, of what is observed. This could be done by talking informally to several people in the work setting or to clients or to other relevant sources, thereby gathering information on what is happening and why. (Unstructured interviews) 3. Theory Formulation -- Theory information, the next step is an attempt to integrate all the information in a logical manners, so that the factors responsible for the problem can be conceptualized and tested. 4. Hypothesizing -- It is the next logical step after theory formulation. From the theorized network of associations among the variables, certain testable hypotheses or educated conjectures can be generated. For instance, one might hypothesize that if a sufficient number of items are stocked on shelves, customer dissatisfaction will be considerably reduced. This is a hypothesis that can be tested to determine if the statement would be supported. 5. Further scientific data collection -- After the development of the hypotheses, data with respect to each variable in the hypotheses need to be obtained. In other words, further scientific data collection is needed to test the hypotheses that are generated in the study. 6. Data analysis -- In this step, data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported. For instance, to see if stock levels influence customer satisfaction, one might want to do a correlational analysis and determine the relation ship between the two factors. 7. Deduction -- Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning of the results of the data analysis.
4. What is meant by variable? And define the types of variables. A variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values. The values can differ at various times for the same object or person, or at the same time for different objects or persons.
Type of variables: The dependent variable (also known as the criterion variable) -- The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researcher’s goal is to understand and describe the dependent variable, or to explain its variability, or predict it. It is the main variable that lends itself for investigation as a viable factor. Through the analysis of the dependent variable, it is possible to find answers or solutions to the problem. The independent variable (also known as the predictor variable) -- Is one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way. That is, when the independent variable is present, the dependent variable is also present, and with each unit of increase in the independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also. (the variance in the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variable. The moderating variables -- The moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent-dependent variable relationship. That is, the presence of a third variable (the moderating variable) modifies the original relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. The intervening variables -- The intervening variables is one that surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their