Manual AMIR 12a Edicion-Pediatría

July 6, 2022 | Author: Anonymous | Category: N/A
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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Cbslkrjk cb okabrk jrktu`tk aubstrk kpd`lkl`üa wbg pkrk pmcbr kllbcbr k lmatba`cm oudt`obc`k. Ykrk kllbcbr kd lmatba`cm oudt`obc`k, bafmlk lma dk lëokrk cb tu oüv`d m tkgdbt dms lüc`jms [W `asbrtkcms k dm dkrjm cb bstb okaukd. Ykrk cbslkrjkr aubstrk kpd`lkl`üa wbg, bafmlk dms lüc`jms [W qub kpkrblba k lmat`aukl`üa>

Kacrm`c

Kppdb

OKARKD [email protected] [email protected]ÏK (;7.ª bc`l`üa) @\GA 0:5-53-;:26:-37-7 CBYÜ\@SM DBJKD O-77;29-79;0

[email protected] CB B\[email protected]\ [email protected], \.D. www.klkcbo`ko`r.lmo `afmIklkcbo`ko`r.lmo [email protected]\BÛM, OK[[email protected]ÜA B @DR\[email protected]\ @lbgbrj V`sukd C`sbûm, \.D.A.B. Aubstrk okymr jrkt`tuc k Kdgbrtm Krjüa, kduoam cb dk klkcbo`k, pmr ekgbr rbkd`zkcm cb okabrk cbs`atbrbskck uak rbv`s`üa cb brrktks cb aubstrms okaukdbs cb ;;.ª bc`l`üa, qub ek pbro`t`cm obnmrkr bstk ;7.ª bc`l`üa. Dk prmtbll`üa cb dms cbrblems cb kutmr sb bxt`bacb tkatm kd lmatba`cm rbckll`makd cb dk pugd`lkl`üa lmom kd c`sbûm, `dustrkl`mabs y fmtmjrkfïks cb dk o`sok, pmr dm qub qubck prme`g`ck su rbprmcull`üa tmtkd m pkrl`kd s`a bd pbro`sm cbd prmp`btkr`m cb dms cbrblems cb kutmr.

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

KRSMWB\

[email protected]@ÜA [email protected]@KD

\ËALEB^ [email protected], @WBAB (3) JKDDM \KASKLWR^, \KWK (73) \B\OK WMOBWM, [email protected] (75) [email protected] \ËALEB^[email protected], [email protected] (6)

FWKALM CÏB^, BCRKWCM (7 ;9-29% cbd vbat vbatrïludm rïludm (oës frblubatb, frblubatb, ba tmram kd 39%). 39%). - @@@> 129% cbd vbatrïludm, klmopkûkcm cb c`dktkl`üa vbatr`ludkr. - @V> jrkcm @@@ nuatm k ebomrrkj`k `atrkpkrbaqu`oktmsk. • E`crmlbfkd`k pmstebomrrëj`lk (EYE)> kprmx`okckobatb ba bd ;9% cb dms lksms, dk [email protected] sb lmopd`lk lma e`crmlbfkd`k, qub sb prmculb lmom lmasblubal`k cb dk mgstrull`üa kd crbaknb cb DLW pmr oþdt`pdbs pbqubûms lmëjudms cb skajrb, `op`c`bacm su rbkgsmrl`üa ba dks jrkaudkl`mabs cb Yklle`ma`.   Kuaqub am sb ek bstkgdbl`cm uak obc`ck bstëackr cbd tkokûm vbatr`ludkr ua`vbrskdobatb ua`vbrskdobatb klbptkck, uam cb dms ïac`lbs oës ut`d`zkcms bs bd ïac`lb vbatr`ludkr cb Dbvbab (@VD), qub sb o`cb pmr blmjrkfïk trkasfmatkabdkr y qub o`cb dk c`stkal`k batrb dk emz `atbrebo`sfàr`lk y bd gmrcb bxtbram cbd vbatrïludm dktbrkd ba ua lmrtb lmrmakd k trkvàs cb dk fmatkabdk katbr`mr (vbr f`jurk ;; ba dk pëj`ak s`ju`batb). Lma bd ïac`lb vbatr`ludkr cb Dbvbab sb cbf`ab dk c`dktkl`üa cb ua vbatrïludm lukacm àstb sb balubatrk pmr bal`ok cbd pbrlbat`d 0: pkrk dk bckc jbstkl`makd (BJ) m dk bckc pmstobastrukd (BYO).

Skgdk 6. Lkrkltbrïst`lks cbd lkput sulbckabuo y cbd lbfkdmeboktmok ([email protected]).

@atrkpkrbaqu`oktmsk Yrmgdboks   \ubdb ksml`krsb k e`pmx`k-`squbo`k (vbr tbok ;.2. Yrmgdboks ksml`kcms k dms pkrtms trkuoët`lms / Balbfkdmpktïk e`püx`lm-`squào`lk y ksf`x`k pbr`aktkd). \ugkrklam`cbk Sïp`lk cbd WAYS8 pubcb sbr pr`okr`k m sbluackr`k k lmkjudmpktïks m pmr bxtbas`üa cb ebomrrkj`ks dmlkd`zkcks ba mtrks zmaks. \ubdba sbr ks`atmoët`lks y bd c`kjaüst`lm sb rbkd`zk obc`katb pual`üa duogkr. Bd trktko`batm bs s`atmoët`lm y bd prmaüst`lm fkvmrkgdb.

• Yrbvbal`üa> bv`tkr fkltmrbs fkltmrbs prbc`spmabatbs. • Srktko`batm> pual`mabs duogkrbs rbpbt`cks pubcba rbcul`r dms sïatmoks cb dk e`crmlbfkd`k pmstebomrrëj`lk, pmstebomrrëj`lk, kuaqub tkog`àa kuobatka bd r`bsjm cb oba`aj`t`s.

Ebomrrkj`k cb dk oktr`z jbro`akd (EOJ), ebomrrkj`k `atrkvbatr`ludkr ([email protected]) Wmturk cb vksms cb dk oktr`z jbro`akd sugbpbac`okr`k, qub cbskpkrblb k dks 75 sbokaks, pmr dm qub kpkrblb bxldus`vkobatb ba WAYS. Dms fkltmrbs prbc`spmabatbs sma c`f`ludtkc

  \` dk e`crmlbfkd`k bs mgstrult`vk eky qub lmdmlkr ua rbsbrvmr`m Mookyk m uak vëdvudk cb cbr`vkl`üa vbatr`ludkr.

7;

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

C`kjaüst`lm Dk dbulmokdkl`k pbr`vbatr`ludkr sb c`kjamst`lk obc`katb blmjrkfïk pmr e`pbrblmjba`l`ckc kd kabo`k, seml semlh, h, lkrc`mpktïks lmajàa`tks m kdtbrkl`mabs pudomakrbs.

WAS

WAYS

Ldïa`lk

Balbfkdmpktïk e`püx`lm`squào`lk

Dbulmokdkl`k pbr`vbatr`ludkr

Ebomrrkj`k `atrkvbatr`ludkr

Dk kamx`k fbtkd lrüa`lk m dk dbs`üa e`püx`lm-`squào`lk kjuck trks bd akl`o`batm cka dujkr k uak aburmpktmdmjïk bspblïf`lk pkrk lkck bckc cb jbstkl`üa.

Lmavuds`mabs ba dks ;.ks 73 emrks

C`pdbnïk bspëst`lk ba dk dkltkal`k

\`jams cb jrkvbckc s`stào`lk

• WAS> subdb prmcul`r uak balbfkdmpktïk e`püx`lm-`squào`lk sbluackr`k k ablrms`s aburmakd cb dk lmrtbzk lma pmstbr`mr ktrmf`k lmrt`lkd y dbs`mabs `squào`lks pkrkskj`tkdbs. Mr`j`ak lmavuds`mabs fmlkdbs m ebo`pdbn`k.

F`jurk ; ebomrrkj`k `atrkvbatr`ludkr, stktus okromrktus cb dms aþldbms cb dk gksb, y dm oës lkrkltbrïst`lm, dbulmokdkl`k pbr`vbatr`ludkr. Àstk lmas`stb ba uak ablrms`s cb dk sustkal`k gdkalk pbr`vbatr`ludkr y dbs`üa cb dks f`grks cb dk lëpsudk `atbrak, sbju`ck cb ktrmf`k cbd tbn`cm lma kpkr`l`üa cb c`dktkl`üa vbatr`ludkr sbluackr`k y qu`stbs. \ubdb sbr ks`atmoët`lk ekstk btkpks tkrcïks cb dk dkltkal`k, lukacm ck dujkr k dk c`pdbn`k bspëst`lk lma m s`a càf`l`ts `atbdbltukdbs.

Cb smpmrtb (mx`jbamtbrkp`k, kat`lmavuds`vkatbs, jdulmsk y lkdl`m). Ba dms þdt`oms kûms ek prbsbatkcm gubams rbsudtkcms bd usm cb e`pmtbro`k klt`vk (lmom trktko`batm aburmprmtbltmr) ba bd WAS. Dk e`pmtbro`k lmas`stb ba bd bafr`ko`batm cbd pkl`batb, ba bfbltm seuat). Bstm prmvmlk uak tbacbal`k k dk e`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr lma seuat cbrblek-`zqu`brck (pbrs`stbal`k cbd cultus krtbr`msm y cbd fmrkoba mvkd) ([email protected]). Bd surfkltkatb bs prmcul`cm pmr dms abuoml`tms t`pm @@ k pkrt`r cb dks 79 sbokaks, pbrm ba bd dïqu`cm koa`üt`lm sb cbtbltk oës tkrcb. Dk okcurbz pudomakr sb kdlkazk k dks

Lmrt`lm`cbs k dk okcrb (cbxkobtksmak m gbtkobtksmak) 35-:7 e katbs cbd pkrtm ba fbtms cb 73 k skd`ck bxtrkpudomakr cb k`rb (abuomtürkx m abuomobc`kst`am), ebomrrkj`k pudomakr, bstbams`s trkqubkdbs pmr dk `atugkl`üa.

Skgdk 5. Fkltmrbs qub `afduyba ba dk okcurkl`üa pudomakr.

Wblubrck...

Ldïa`lk

½[uà pktmdmjïk tïp`lk cbd WA prbtàro`am kpkrblb nustm lukacm bop`bzk k obnmrkr cb su BOE= Bd CKY.

C`stràs rbsp`rktmr`m cb `a`l`m prblmz lma tkqu`pabk, qubn`cm, rbtrkll`mabs sug b `atbrlmstkdbs, kdbtbm akskd y l`kams`s prmjrbs`vk lma okdk rbspubstk kd mxïjbam. Bopbmrko`batm prmjrbs`vm ekstk dms trbs cïks y pmstbr`mrobatb obnmrïk jrkcukd. Dks fmroks obams jrkvbs pubcba oka`fbstkrsb þa`lkobatb pmr kuobatm

Kprbacb k rblmamlbr bd tïp`lm lksm ldïa`lm cbd prbokturm lma BOE qub, cbg`cm k dk e`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr, okat`bab bd cultus pbrobkgdb lma seuat [email protected] Lukacm bop`bzk k obnmrkr cb su pktmdmjïk pud-

cb dks ablbs`ckcbs cb mxïjbam (F`M7 19. lma M7 kd ;99% am eky kuobatm cb dk YkM7.

Bd dïqu`cm koa`üt`lm oblma`kd subdb sbr sbluackr`m k sufr`o`batm fbtkd b e`pmx`k. Bs tïp`lm cb WA pmstàro`am. Dk jrkvbckc vk k cbpbacbr cb dm bspbsm qub sbk bd oblma`m, qub bs uak sustkal`k `rr`tkatb y bstàr`d.

Srktko`batm

Ldïa`lk

uak e`pmx`k pbrs`stbatb, sb cbgb `a`l`krpudomakr kpmym lma vbat`dkl`üa ks`st`ck y mx`cm aïtr`lm (vksmc`dktkcmr sbdblt`vm). Ba lksms qub am rbspmacba k bstks obc`cks sb `a`l`k mx`jbakl`üa pmr obogrkak bxtrklmrpürbk (BLOM).

Mx`jbamtbrkp`k, qub prmculb vksmc`dktkl`üa pudomakr. \` eky

Kd akl`o`batm, bd WA kpkrblb tbû`cm cb oblma`m, cbpr`o`cm y prbl`sk oka`mgrks cb rbka`okl`üa. Ymstbr`mrobatb, dk mgstrull`üa cb dks vïks rbsp`rktmr`ks pbqubûks prmvmlk uak abuoma`t`s quïo`lk lma c`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k (tkqu`pabk, rbtrkll`mabs, qubn`cm) y l`kams`s. Yubcb bnbrlbr oblka`som vkdvudkr ckacm dujkr k abuomtürkx m abuomobc`kst`am lma c`stbas`üa cbd türkx. Dk abuoma`t`s pubcb smgrb`afbltkrsb pmstbr`mrobatb (dk gkltbr`k oës frblubatb bs bd B. lmd`  y  y D`stbr`k). \ubdb obnmrkr ba :7 e kuaqub dk tkqu`pabk pubcb pbrs`st`r curkatb cïks m sbokaks.

K`rb bltüp`lm> abuomtürkx, abuomobc`kst`am y baf`sbok `atbrst`l`kd pudomakr Smcms bstms lukcrms pubcb kpkrblbr cb okabrk bspmatëabk (`c`mpët`lms), pbrm jbabrkdobatb sma uak lmopd`lkl`üa cb pktmdmjïk pudomakr prbv`k m sbluackr`ms k vbat`dkl`üa ks`st`ck (`aldusm lma okslkr`ddk). \ma oës frblubatbs ba vkrmabs (WAS y WA pmstàro`am) lma katblbcbatbs cb sïacrmob cb ksp`rkl`üa oblma`kd, bafbrobckc cb obogrkak e`kd`ak m kdtbrkl`mabs cb dks vïks ur`akr`ks.

C`kjaüst`lm Ba dk Wx cb türkx sb mgsbrvka `af`dtrkcms cb c`str`gul`üa `rrbjudkr, jrubsks gkacks, kuobatm cbd c`ëobtrm katbrmpmstbr`mr y kpdkako`batm cb dms c`kfrkjoks.

Yktmjba`k

Yrmaüst`lm

Lmom lmasblubal`k cb uak e`pbr`asufdkl`üa pudomakr sb prmculb uak rmturk kdvbmdkr y bslkpb cb k`rb ekl`k bd bspkl`m `atbrst`l`kd (baf`sbok `atbrst`l`kd) m ckûm cbd e`d`m pudomakr c`sblkacm dks vk`aks pbr`grmaqu`kdbs m pbr`vksludkrbs. \` bstb k`rb kdlkazk bd vmduoba suf`l`batb, ckrë dujkr k abuomtürkx, abuomobc`kst`am, baf`sbok suglutëabm m abuomtürkx k tbas`üa (s` dk prbs`üa `atrkpdburkd bs supbr`mr k dk ktomsfàr`lk).

Cbpbacb cb dk kfbltkl`üa aburmdüj`lk m cb dms sïatmoks ksml`kcms lmom e`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr m abuomtürkx.

Ldïa`lk

E`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr pbrs`stbatb cbd WA (ESYY) (pbrs`stbal`k cb dk l`rludkl`üa fbtkd)

• Abuomtürkx> subdba sbr ua`dktbrkdbs (;9% g`dktbrkdbs). Yrmculba c`sabk, tkqu`pabk y l`kams`s cb `a`l`m jbabrkdobatb gruslm. Bd türkx bstë ks`oàtr`lm, lma prmo`abal`k cb dms bspkl`ms `atbrlmstkdbs ba bd dkcm kdtbrkcm, c`so`aul`üa m kusbal`k cb dms ru`cms rbsp`rktmr`ms lma e`pbrrbsmakal`k y dkt`cm cb

Yubcb sbr `c`mpët`lk, kuaqub lma frblubal`k bs sbluackr`k k pktmdmjïk abmaktkd lmom dk bafbrobckc cb obogrkak e`kd`kak, ksp`rkl`üa oblma`kd, sbps`s, pmd`l`tbo`k, e`pmjdulbo`k, e`pmpdks`k pudomakr, md`jmkoa`ms, btl.

puatk cbspdkzkcm ekl`k bd dkcm skam. • Abuomobc`kst`am > dm oës frblubatb bs qub sbk ks`atmoët`lm kuaqub pubcb prmcul`r c`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k, prmo`abal`k cb dk dïabk obc`k cbd türkx, c`stbas`üa vksludkr

Srktko`batm Yubcb ablbs`tkr vbat`dkl`üa oblëa`lk, üx`cm aïtr`lm, kjbatbs tbas`mklt`vms y kat`g`üt`lms.

72

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

Srktko`batm • Ldïa`lk dbvb> mgsbrvkl`üa ldïa`lk, frkll`makr dks tmoks y kco`a`strkr mx`jbamtbrkp`k lma M7 kd ;99%. • \`atmoët`lm> crbaknb ksp`rkt`vm.

(Vbr tkgdk 0)

C`spdks`k grmalmpudomakr (CGY) m bafbrobckc pudomakr lrüa`lk cb dk prboktur`ckc Bafbrobckc pudomakr prmjrbs`vk ba WA cb ouy gknm pbsm  qub rbqu`brba mx`jbamtbrkp`k y vbat`dkl`üa oblëa`lk prmdmajkck pmr pktmdmjïk pudomakr prbv`k. Dms fkltmrbs qub lmatr`guyba k su cbskrrmddm sma dk tmx`l`ckc pmr mxïjbam, dk `aokcurbz pudomakr y bd gkrmtrkuok ([email protected]). \b lmas`cbrk qub uak WAYS prbsbatk uak CGY lukacm pbrs`stba dks ablbs`ckcbs cb mxïjbam lma uak F`M7 okymr k dk kog`batb (9.7;) oës kddë cb dms 75 cïks cb v`ck y dks dm oës frblubatb bs qub cbgutb lmom ua semlh gruslm lma tkqu`lkrc`k, tmams lkrcïklms kpkjkcms y pudsms càg`dbs.

Ldïa`lk C`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k, s`g`dkal`ks y bstbrtmrbs, qub kuobatka prmjrbs`vkobatb ba 7-6 sbokaks, nuatm k ua `alrbobatm cb dk cbpbacbal`k cb mxïjbam, qub pbrs`stb vkr`ms obsbs. Db s`jub uak obnmrïk jrkcukd m uak `astkurkl`üa prmjrbs`vk cb dk `asuf`l`bal`k rbsp`rktmr`k m lkrcïklk. Bx`stb okymr tbacbal`k k dks `afbll`mabs rbsp`rktmr`ks.

C`kjaüst`lm Ldïa`lm y rkc`mdüj`lm.

BAFBWOBCKC CB OBOGWKAK [email protected]@AK

SK[[email protected] SWKA\@[email protected] CBD WA

[email protected]ÏK

Càf`l`t surfkltkatb pudomakr

Am bxpuds`üa cbd dïqu`cm pudomakr

FKLSMW CB [email protected]\JM

Yrboktur`ckc

Ykrtm rëp`cm m lbsërbk

LDÏ[email protected]

\ÏACWMOB CB K\[email protected]@ÜA [email protected]

[email protected]\@ÜA YRDOMAKW [email protected] BLSÜ[email protected] YBW\@\SBASB

[email protected]\YDK\@K GWMALMYRDOMAKW

Ksp`rkl`üa cb oblma`m

Am cbslbasm f`s`mdüj`lm cb dks prbs`mabs pudomakrbs

\kd`ck bxtrkkdvbmdkr cbd k`rb

Ckûm pudomakr pmr mx`jbamtbrkp`k y vbat`dkl`üa

WA pmstàro`am

Yktmdmjïk pudomakr prbv`k

Yktmdmjïk pudomakr prbv`k

Mx`jbamtbrkp`k, gkrmtrkuok WAOGY

C`stràs rbsp`rktmr`m (Sbst cb \`dvbroka) y/m kuobatm cb ablbs`ckcbs cb M 7

WU SÜWKU

V`cr`m bsobr`dkcm

[email protected]

\urfkltkatb `atrktrkqubkd +/- kat`g`üt`lms +/- smpmrtb rbsp`rktmr`m

Dïqu`cm ba l`surks

@af`dtrkcms `rrbjudkrbs y gkacks jrubsks

\mpmrtb rbsp`rktmr`m

\mpmrtb rbsp`rktmr`m +/- kat`g`üt`lms

Skgdk 0. Yktmdmjïk rbsp`rktmr`k.

76

\mpmrtb rbsp`rktmr`m +/- üx`cm aïtr`lm `aekdkcm

K`rb bxtrkkdvbmdkr

—Yudoüa ba bspmank‟

Mgsbrvkl`üa +/Crbaknb

Wbstr`ll`üa eïcr`lk \mpmrtb rbsp`rktmr`m C`uràt`lms Cbxkobtksmak

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;

º Abmaktmdmjïk

• C`kjaüst`lm> blmjrkfïk prbaktkd y, pmstaktkdobatb, Wx kgcmo`akd v`sukd`zëacmsb ksks cb `atbst`am m lëokrk jëstr`lk ba dk lkv`ckc tmrël`lk ([email protected]).

C`kjaüst`lm Wx türkx> mpkl`f`lkl`üa lma grmalmjrkok kàrbm m ërbks trkaspkrbatbs, pbqubûks y rbcmacks qub kdtbraka lma mtrks cb cbas`ckc `rrbjudkr (—pudoüa cb bspmank‟).

• Srktko`batm> `atugkl`üa bdblt`vk ba pkr`tmr`m lma e`pbrvbat`dkl`üa dbvb y trktko`batm cb smpmrtb ekstk dk l`rujïk c`fbr`ck (sb rbtrksk ekstk bstkg`d`ckc cbd abmaktm). \b pubcb ut`d`zkr mx`cm aïtr`lm `aekdkcm pkrk rbcul`r dks rbs`stbal`ks vksludkrbs pudomakrbs, fëroklms `amtrüp`lms y BLOM lmom bstkg`d`zkl`üa rbsp`rktmr`k y ebomc`aëo`lk ekstk dk l`rujïk, b `aldusm pmstbr`mrobatb s` bx`stb e`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr rbs`cukd.

Srktko`batm cb smpmrtb Vbat`dkl`üa oblëa`lk lmat`auk, mx`jbamtbrkp`k, c`uràt`lms, grmalmc`dktkcmrbs y cbxkobtksmak.

• Yrmaüst`lm> bs uak bafbrobckc jrkvb lma uak omrtkd`ckc cbd 39-29% s`bacm bd okrlkcmr prmaüst`lm oës `opmrtkatb bd cbskrrmddm cb e`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr pbrs`stbatb.

Yrmaüst`lm Dk pr`al`pkd lkusk cb oubrtb bs dk `asuf`l`bal`k lkrcïklk cbrblek y dk grmaqu`md`t`s mgd`tbrkatb.

Ebra`k cb Omrjkja`

Ebra`ks c`kfrkjoët`lks

Ykrkbstbrakd katbr`mr m rbtrmbstbrakd, oës frblubatbobatb cbrblek. Jbabrkdobatb ks`atmoët`lk kuaqub ba mlks`mabs pubcb prbsbatkr ldïa`lk s`o`dkr k dk katbr`mr. Oës prmp`k cb kcudtms mgbsms lma cmdmr kgcmo`akd bp`jëstr`lm. Bd c`kjaüst`lm sb rbkd`zk lma Wx m SKL lma lmatrkstb. Bd trktko`batm bs qu`rþrj`lm, pmr vïk kgcmo`akd, pmr r`bsjm cb bstrkajudkl`üa.

Ebra`k cb Gmleckdbh Bs dk oës frblubatb cb dks ebra`ks c`kfrkjoët`lks. \b prmculb pmr fkdtk cb l`brrb cb uam cb dms lkakdbs pdburmpbr`tmabkdbs pmstbrmdktbrkdbs (oës frblubatbobatb `zqu`brcm), lma pksm cb ürjkams kgcmo`akdbs kd türkx. Bd lmatba`cm ebra`kcm pubcb bstkr fmrokcm pmr bstüokjm, `atbst`am cbdjkcm y jrubsm, r`ûüa y gkzm. Bstk `avks`üa pubcb ddbjkr k cbspdkzkr bd obc`kst`am lmatrkdktbrkdobatb y c`f`ludtkr bd cbskrrmddm cb kogms pudomabs fbtkdbs, ckacm dujkr k uak e`pmpdks`k pudomakr tkatm `ps` (oës frblubatb) lmom lmatrkdktbrkd. Dk e`pmpdks`k pudomakr lmac`l`mak uak e`pmx`k qub ck dujkr k uak vksmlmastr`ll`üa pudomakr (lma e`pbrtbas`üa pudomakr), dm qub k su vbz pubcb mr`j`akr uak pbrs`stbal`k cb dk l`rludkl`üa fbtkd l`rludkl`üa fbtkd y cbd cultus krtbr`msm, cultus krtbr`msm, lma lmrtml`rlu`tm cbrblek-`zqu`brck  cbrblek-`zqu`brck  ([email protected] ;5, ;6;). Ba ua ktrbs`k c`stkd lma lma fïstudk prmx`okd. • S`pm @@@ (52%)> ktrbs`k prmx`okd y fïstudk c`stkd. • S`pm @V> cmgdb fïstudk. • S`pm V> fïstudk s`a ktrbs`k ktrbs`k (t`pm —E‟).

@

@@

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F`jurk ;2. Ebra`k cb Gmleckdbh.

F`jurk ;6. Ktrbs`ks y fïstudks bsmfëj`lks.

• Ldïa`lk> cbprbs`üa abmaktkd jrkvb, c`stràs rbsp`rktmr`m lma l`kams`s y dkt`cm lkrcïklm cbspdkzkcm k dk cbrblek, kgcmoba bxlkvkcm.

Oka`fbstkl`mabs ldïa`lks

@V

V

• Katblbcbatbs cb pmd`e`crkoa`ms ba bd bogkrkzm (pmrqub bd fbtm am pubcb cbjdut`r bd dïqu`cm).

7:

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

• \AJ qub am pubcb pkskr ekstk bstüokjm, bxlbsm cb sblrbl`mabs mrkdbs ba bd WA (bd WA am t`bab skd`vkl`üa klt`vk), tms l`kamskatb y ktrkjkatko`batm lma dms `atbatms cb dk kd`obatkl`üa.

Vüo`tms Bt`mdmjïk

• \` dk fïstudk bs c`stkd, bd kgcmoba bstk bstkrë rë c`stbac`cm, t`opka`zkcm y rbddbam cb k`rb  k`rb ([email protected] ;2, ;:9).

• Cbjdul`üa cb sblrbl`mabs cbd pkrtm> oulmsms oulmsms m skaju`amdbatms, sbluackr`ms k `rr`tkl`üa cb dk oulmsk jëstr`lk.

  \` dk ffïstudk ïstudk bs prmx`okd sbrë bxlkvkcm. Ba lksms cb fïstudk s`a ktrbs`k, bd sïatmok lkrc`akd bs dk tms frblubatb, pmr abuomaïk ksp`rkt`vk, qub pmab ba pbd`jrm dk v`ck cbd a`ûm.

• Wbjurj`tkl`üa pmr okdk tàla`lk kd`obatkr`k (lkusk oës frblubatb), smgrbkd`obatkl`üa, WJB m pmr k`rb cbjdut`cm. • Mgstrull`üa `atbst`akd> eky qub smspblekrdk ba vüo`tms qub

• Ba ua 29% cb dms lksms sb ek ksml`kcm k okdfmrokl`mabs lmajàa`tks ↗ sïacrmob cb VKSBW m VKLSBWKD.   Okdfmrokl`mabs vbrtbgrkdbs, kamrrbltkdbs, trkqubkdbs, bsmfëj`lks, lkrcïklks y rbakdbs ksï lmom cbd rkc`m y cb dms o`bogrms.

kpkrblba ba dks pr`obrks emrks cbspuàs cbd akl`o`batm, lmastkatbs, lmp`msms, am ba bslmpbtkzm y ba mlks`mabs g`d`msms (s` mgstrull`üa c`stkd kd cumcbam). Dks mgstrull`mabs oës frblubatbs sb dmlkd`zka ba bsüfkjm b `atbst`am cbdjkcm. Ksml`ka c`stbas`üa kgcmo`akd, macks pbr`stëdt`lks v`s`gdbs y c`so`aul`üa cb dks cbpms`l`mabs. cbpms`l`mabs. Yubcb ekgbr katblbcbatb cb pmd`e`crkoa`ms ba lksms cb ktrbs`k cb tugm c`jbst`vm prmx`okd.

C`kjaüst`lm • Wx kgcmoba> sb mgsbrvk dk smack bar barmddkck mddkck ba bd gmdsüa bsmfëj`lm. \` bx`stb k`rb k a`vbd kgcmo`akd, bx`st`rë fïstudk batrb trëqubk y pmrl`üa c`stkd cbd bsüfkjm. Dk rkc`mjrkfïk lma lmatrkstb e`crmsmdugdb pubcb rbsudtkr cb kyuck.

- Bt`mdmjïk> dk ktrbs`k `atbst`akd ([email protected]) bs dk lkusk oës lmoþa cb mgstrull`üa `atbst`akd ba bd rbl`àa akl`cm. Rak tbrlbrk pkrtb cb dms WA lma ktrbs`k `atbst`akd sma prbokturms. Bx`stb ksml`kl`üa lma mtrks okdfmrokl`mabs, bspbl`kdobatb ba dk ktrbs`k cumcbakd y ktrbs`ks oþdt`pdbs. \bjþa dk dmlkd`zkl`üa cb dk zmak ktràs`lk m bstbaüt`lk tbaboms, pmr mrcba cb frblubal`k>

• Grmalmslmp`k> cboubstrk dks fïstudks ba —E‟.

• Ktrbs`k cumcbakd> bs dk oës frblubatb. Yubcb sbr lmopdbtk m pkrl`kd, pmr bstbams`s m obogrkak. \ubdb dmlkd`zkrsb ba dk 7¾- pktrüa mldus`vm lma c`so`aul`üa cb k`rb ba rbltm. - Yktrmabs rkc`mdüj`lms. • —Cmgdb gurgunk‟- ktrbs`k cumcbakd> tïp`lm cbd sïacrmob ([email protected]) (vbr f`jurk ;5 ba dk pëj`ak s`ju`batb). cb Cmwa ([email protected]) (vbr

F`jurk ;:. Abuomaïk ksp`rkt`vk ba WA lma fïstudk trkqubmbsmfëj`lk.

• —Þa`lk gurgunk jëstr`lk‟ - bstbams`s p`dür`lk ([email protected])  m ktrbs`k p`dür`lk (dk þa`lk c`fbrbal`k batrb bddks bs qub ba dk ktrbs`k dms vüo`tms sma cbscb bd pr`obr cïk cb v`ck).

Srktko`batm [u`rþrj`lm y urjbatb, pkrk bv`tkr pkrk bv`tkr ksp`rkl`mabs y abuoma`t`s sbluackr`ks  ([email protected] ;7, ; ba pr`obr dujkr sb rbkd`zkrë bd l`brrb cb dk fïstudk y sb `atrmcul`rë ua tugm cb jkstrmstmoïk. Ba uak sbjuack fksb sb rbkd`zkrë kakstmoms`s cb dms cms bxtrboms bsmfëj`lms. Dk tmdbrkal`k mrkd sb cbgb `a`l`kr k pkrt`r cb dms 5-;9 cïks cb dk kakstmoms`s pr`okr`k. Srks dk l`rujïk pubcba pbrs`st`r kdtbrkl`mabs cb dk omt`d`ckc bsmfëj`lk, bstbams`s y rbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm ([email protected]), ksï lmom dbat`tuc pkrk dk kd`obatkl`üa y fkdtk cb obcrm. Bd cbskrrmddm cb dk trëqubk bs amrokd (s`boprb qub am bx`stk fïstudk). \` kpkrblb trkqubmokdkl`k dbvb pmstbr`mr k dk l`rujïk dk lmacultk bs bxpbltkatb, lma trktko`batm lmasbrvkcmr ([email protected]).

• Abuompbr`tmabm - pbrfmrkl`üa `atbst`akd. • Mtrks lkusks obams frblubatbs cb vüo`tms> ebra`k c`kfrkjoët`lk lmajàa`tk, bafbrobckc cb E`rslespruaj (lma bstrbû`o`batm), kdbrj`k k prmtbïaks cb dbleb cb vklk, kuobatm cb dk prbs`üa `atrklrkabkd, `afbll`mabs (@SRs), jkdkltmsbo`k, e`pbrpdks`k suprkrrbakd lmajàa`tk (p`brcb skd)…

75

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;

º Abmaktmdmjïk

• Crmjkc`ll`üa oktbrak. • Srktko`batm oktbram lma sudfktm okjaàs`lm (uskcm lmom e`pmtbasmr ba dk prbbldkops`k).

Okabnm Babok cb jkstrmjrkfïa c`du`cm, smdul`üa `smtüa`lk cb skd`am f`s`mdüj`lm m klbt`dl`stbïak, `atrmcul`cms k trkvàs cb uak smack rbltkd cb pbqubûm tkokûm. V`j`dkr pmstbr`mrobatb dk pms`g`d`ckc cb objklmdma lmajàa`tm.

Ïdbm oblma`kd Oblma`m bspbskcm b `opkltkcm ba dk duz `atbst`akd (oës frblubatb ba ïdbma c`stkd) qub prmvmlk ïdbm pkrkdït`lm y lmom lmasblubal`k uak mgstrull`üa `atbst`akd. ;2% rbdkl`makcm lma f`grms`s quïst`lk.

Ldïa`lk C`stbas`üa kgcmo`akd, vüo`tms prblmlbs y lmastkatbs y fkdtk cb cbpms`l`üa. Yubcba pkdpkrsb oksks pkstmsks y kdkrjkcks k dm dkrjm cbd `atbst`am.

F`jurk ;5. @okjba cb cmgdb gurgunk.

Bstrbû`o`batm

C`kjaüst`lm • Wx kgcmoba> ksks `atbst`akdbs c`dktkcks cb fmrok vkr`kgdb, ddbaks cb jks cb fmrok am emomjàabk. Ba dms puatms cb okymr lmalbatrkl`üa cb oblma`m, bd jks `af`dtrkcm lmaf`brb ua kspbltm jrkaudkr bspuomsm.

Yktrüa cbpms`l`makd amrokd cbd abmaktm Bd 09% cb dms WAS bxpudsk bd oblma`m ba dks pr`obrks 73 e cb v`ck8 bd rbstm dm eklba ba dks pr`obrks bcbok cb ksks, abuoktms`s `atbst`akd (jks ba dk pkrbc cb dks ksks `atbst`akdbs, mlurrb ba bd 29-:2%), jks ba

KSWB\@K [email protected]@KW

[email protected]@\ ABMAKSKD @[email protected]Ë[email protected]

([email protected] ;3, ;:5)

@atrkebpët`lk

Bxtrkebpët`lk Eblbs klüd`lks s`boprb

vbak pmrtk (s`jam cb jrkvbckc) y abuompbr`tmabm (pbrfmrkl`üa). Dk abuoktms`s `atbst`akd y bd jks ba dk vbak pmrtk sma lks` pktmjamoüa`lms.

LDÏ[email protected]

Vbsïludk g`d`kr ktràs`lk

BLMJWKFÏK JKOOKJWKFÏK [email protected]@KW

Ebpktmobjkd`k Wkrm> mtrks okdf. lmajàa`tks (pmd`bspdba`k, dbvmlkrc`k…)

Klmd`k trkas`tmr`k Eïjkcm tkokûm amrokd Yrboktur`ckc

Kdtbrkl`üa lkptkl`üa

Kdtbrkl`üa bxlrbl`üa

Dbs`üa cbd dmgud`ddm ebpët`lm lma `af`dtrkcm `afdkoktmr`m y ablrms`s ebpktmlbdudkr ebpktmlbdudkr

Yrmd`fbrkl`üa cb lmacultms g`d`krbs, tkpmabs cb g`d`s y bcbok y f`grms`s pmrtkd

(YMLM R\KCK)

[email protected]\@K EBYË[email protected] YBWLRSËABK

Skgdk ;9. Lkrkltbrïst`lks cb dks pr`al`pkdbs lmdbstks`s.

Srktko`batm cb dk ktrbs`k g`d`kr bxtrkebpët`lk \updbobatms cb v`tko`aks d`pmsmdugdbs K, C, B ([email protected]) y H (yk qub prbl`ska cb dks skdbs g`d`krbs pkrk su kgsmrl`üa), SKJ cb lkcbak obc`k, ël`cm ursmcbsmx`lüd`lm m lmdbst`rko`ak (s` klþoudm klþoud m cb ël`cms g`d`krbs m lmdbstbrmd). \` am bs lmrrbj`gdb sb rbkd`zkrë uak pmrtmbatbrmstmoïk tmbatbrmstm oïk m tàla`lk cb Hksk`, `atbatkcm lmasbju`r ua fdunm g`d`kr qub bd`o`ab m rbtrksb dm oës pms`gdb bd trkspdkatb ebpët`l ebpët`lm. m.

F`jurk ;0. Batbrmlmd`t`s ablrmt`zkatb.

Srktko`batm

Cbfbltms cb dk pkrbc kgcmo`akd

• C`btk kgsmdutk + smack aksmjëstr`lk cb bvklukl`üa> kat`g`mtbrkp`k bopïr`lk (kop`l`d`ak + jbatko`l`ak) pkrk lugr`r o`lrmmrjka`soms jrko pms`t`vms y abjkt`vms. Ba lksm cb pbrfmrkl`üa kûkc`r obtrma`ckzmd, ld`acko`l`ak m obrmpbabo.

Ebra`k uog`d`lkd

• Srktko`batm qu`rþrj`lm s` bx`stb pbrfmrkl`üa, pbr`tma`t`s m sbps`s rbfrkltkr`k kd trktko`batm fkroklmdüj`lm ([email protected]). Ra ksk `atbst`akd f`nk, br`tbok ba dk pkrbc `atbst`akd m pkdpkl`üa cb uak oksk kgcmo`akd sma `ac`lkl`mabs pkrk uak dkpkrmtmoïk bxpdmrkcmrk y rbsbll`üa cbd tbn`cm ablrüt`lm.

Cbfbltm cbcbdjkcm l`brrb k ebra`kcm a`vbd uog`d`lkd pmr cmacb bp`pdüa m `atbst`am rblug`brtm pmr p`bdprmtruyb y pbr`tmabm. \b eklb oës bv`cbatb lma bd ddkatm, dk tms m dk cbfblkl`üa8 rkrk vbz sb bstrkajudk. Lma frblubal`k cbskpkrblb bspmatëabkobatb curkatb dms pr`obrms kûms cb v`ck, pmr pmr dm qub dk l`rujï k sb pdkatbk k pkrt`r cb dms càf`l`t jbaàt`lm, prboktur`ckc, e`pmx`k, e`pmt`rm`c`som ([email protected]). • Lmopbtbal`k baz`oët`lk. • C`so`aul`üa cb dk lkptkl`üa lkptkl`üa ebpët`lk.

E`pbrg`d`rrug`abo`k c`rbltk (lmdbstks`s) • Mgstrull`üa cb vïk g`d`kr bxtrkebpët`lk> ktrbs`k ktrbs`k cb vïks g`d`krbs bxtrkebpët`lks (lkusk oës frblubatb cb trkspdkatb ebpët`lm ba a`ûms) ([email protected]), qu`stb cb lmdàcmlm, gr`cks, `afbll`mabs. • Kdtbrkl`üa `atrkebpët`lk> - Mgstrull`üa> bafbrobckc cb Kdkj`ddb, bafbrobckc cb Lkrmd`. F`jurk 7;. Jkstrmsqu`s`s.

- Bstks`s s`a mgstrull`üa> càf`l`t cb λ-;-kat`tr`ps`ak, f`grms`s quïst`lk. - L`tmd`s`s> ebpkt`t`s abmaktkd `c`mpët`lk (lkusk oës frblubatb), bafbrobckcbs obtkgüd`lks (jkdkltmsbo`k, t`rms`ams`s).

Wblubrck... Wbsuoba cb kdjuams truqu`ddms pkrk c`fbrbal`kr uams lukcrms kgcmo`akdbs cb mtrms> Mgsbrvk qub tkatm ba dks ebra`ks c`kfrkjoët`lks lmom ba dms abuomtürkx dk ldïa`lk bs pkrbl`ck (c`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k, e`pmvbat`dkl`üa ba ua ebo`türkx, ↜ ru`cms lkrc`klms, btl.). Dk c`fbrbal`k bstë ba qub ba dks ebra`ks c`kfrkjoët`lks bd kgcmoba bstë bxlkvkcm y ba dms abuomtürkx kgmogkcm, pmrqub bd k`rb bopunk bd c`kfrkjok ekl`k bd kgcmoba.

E`pbrg`d`rrug`abo`k o`xtk • Bafbrobckc cb Cug`a-Nmeasma. • Bafbrobckc cb Wmtmr.

Ldïa`lk

Gurgunks> Rak smdk> ktrbs`k m bstbams`s cb pïdmrm> dk c`fbrbal`k batrb bddms bstë ba qub dk ktrbs`k vmo`tk cbscb bd `a`l`m cb dk dkltkal`k y dk bstbams`s lmo`bazk k dms ;2 cïks. Dms vüo`tms am sbrëa g`d`msms. Cmgdb gurgunk> ktrbs`k cb cumcbam, pmrqub pkrtb cbd k`rb dm rbt`bab bd pïdmrm y dk mtrk pkrtb dk ktrbs`k. Yubcb tbabr vüo`tms g`d`msms m am (sbjþa dk kdturk).

@a`l`m ba lkrk y lmanuat`vks y cbslbasm prmjrbs`vm ekstk dms p`bs k obc`ck qub kuobatka dms a`vbdbs (lukacm ddbjk ekstk dms p`bs dk l`frk bst`okck bs cb 79 oj/cd). Yubcb ksml`kr dbtkrj`k y rblekzm cb dks d ks tmoks. Ba dks lmdbstks`s, dk `ltbr`l`k ksml`k lmdur`k, klmd`k m e`pmlmd`k y ebpktmbspdbamobjkd`k, y pubcb bx`st`r e`pmprmtb`abo`k y trkstmrams ebomrrëj`lms pmr kdtbrkl`üa cb dms fkltmrbs v`tko`ak H-cbpbac`batbs.

dk babrjïk duoïa`lk lmav`brtb dk g`d`rrug`ak am lmanujkck ba ua fmtm`süobrm lkpkz cb bxlrbtkrsb s`a ablbs`ckc cb lmanujkl`üa. \ubdb c`so`au`r dms a`vbdbs cb g`d`rrug`ak sàr`lk ba ;-7 oj/cd lkck 3-6 e.



@ltbr`l`k pktmdüj`lk Lukacm am luopdb lr`tbr`ms cb `ltbr`l`k f`s`mdüj`lk, trkculb pktmdmjïk sugyklbatb. Dms a`vbdbs cb g`d`rrug`ak sàr`lk qub sb ksml`ka lma kpkr`l`üa cb `ltbr`l`k auldbkr cbpbacba cb dk bt`mdmjïk cb dkdk`ltbr`l`k.

• Lmopd`lkl`mabs cb dk fmt fmtmtbrkp`k> mtbrkp`k> cbpms`l`mabs gdkacks, oëludks br`tboktmsks, cbse`crktkl`üa pmr kuobatm cb dks pàrc`cks `asbas`gdbs, e`pbrtbro`k, sïacrmob cbd a`ûm grmalbkcm (ba dms qub dk e`pbrg`d`rrug`abo`k subdb sbr cb t`pm o`xtm).

Hbraïltbrus m `ltbr`l`k auldbkr \ïacrmob aburmdüj`lm sbluackr`m kd cbpüs`tm cb g`d`rrug`ak `ac`rbltk ba dms jkajd`ms cb dk gksb. Bs oës frblubatb ba WAYS, smgrb tmcm s` t`baba pktmdmjïk ksml`kck (ksf`x`k, [email protected], eboüd`s`s, fëroklms, btl.), y ba WAS qub supbrka a`vbdbs 172oj/cd.

Ldïa`lk @a`l`kdobatb kpkrblb dbtkrj`k, rblekzm cb dk `ajbstk y kusbal`k cbd rbfdbnm cb Omrm (;.ª sbokak) ba bd lmatbxtm cb dk `ltbr`l`k. Ymstbr`mrobatb kpkrblb c`so`aul`üa cb dms rbfdbnms mstbmtbac`amsms, c`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k, mp`stütmams, fmatkabdk katbr`mr kgmogkck, lmatrklturks fkl`kdbs y cb o`bogrms y ddkatm kjucm, sbju`cm cb bspksoms, lmavuds`mabs, btl. Bx`stb uak obnmrïk k dms 7-< obsbs y pmstbr`mrobatb sb lkrkltbr`zk pmr prmjrbs`üa ba dms s`ju`batbs obsbs/kûms, lma mp`stütmams, omv`o`batms `rrbjudkrbs y lmavuds`mabs, r`j`cbz/e`pmtmaïk, lmrbmktbtms`s, bxtrkp`rko`ckd`som, lmavuds`mabs, rbtrksm obatkd, c`skrtr`k b e`pmklus`k. Ba dms lksms dbvbs bx`st`rë cbslmmrc`akl`üa, smrcbrk pkrl`kd m c`sfual`üa lbrbgrkd oïa`ok.

F`jurk 77. Fmtmtbrkp`k ba WA lma `ltbr`l`k.

Bxkaju`amtrkasfus`üa Wblkog`m skajuïabm cbd WA, qub c`so`auyb dms a`vbdbs cb g`d`rrug`ak `ac`rbltk sàr`lk. @ac`lkl`mabs>

Yrmaüst`lm

• Ldïa`lk cb `ltbr`l`k auldbkr, `acbpbac`batbobatb cb dks l`frks cb g`d`rrug`ak.

\mogrïm, bd :2% fkddblba.

• A`vbdbs lrït`lms cb g`d`rrug`ak curkatb dks pr`obrks 35e s` sb prbvà ua kuobatm, m pmstbr`mrobatb s` bstëa lbrlk cbd rkajm

@ltbr`l`k sbluackr`k k dkltkal`k oktbrak m sïacrmob cb Kr`ks

cb hbra`ltbrus (179 oj/cd). • \` bx`stb eboüd`s`s, lma dk `atbal`üa cb bd`o`akr kat`lubrpms oktbrams prbsbatbs pmr `almopkt`g`d`ckc cb jrupm.

Kuobatm cb dk g`d`rrug`ak `ac`rbltk k pkrt`r cbd :.¾ cïk ba kusbal`k cb mtrms s`jams cb bafbrobckc. @al`cbal`k> ;/799 a`ûms kd`obatkcms lma DO.

@ltbr`l`k f`s`mdüj`lk f`s`mdüj`lk  ([email protected]) Kpkrblb k pkrt`r cbd 7¾ cïk cb v`ck, pmr ksml`kl`üa cb fkltmrbs lmom dk cbstrull`üa cb dms eboktïbs fbtkdbs y dk `aokcurbz trkas`tmr`k cb dk lmanujkl`üa ebpët`lk, y lma kusbal`k cb pktmdmjïk cb gksb. \b lkrkltbr`zk pmr luopd`r tmcks y lkck uak cb dks s`ju`batbs lkrkltbrïst`lks>

Bt`mdmjïk

• (7) G`d`rrug`ak c`rbltk 7 oj/cd.

Srktko`batm

Am bstë ldkrk8 sb ek `opd`lkcm uak jdulurma`cksk cb dk dbleb oktbrak qub fkl`d`tkrïk dk cbslmanujkl`üa cb dk g`d`rrug`ak.



• (2) @alrbobatm cb g`d`rrug`ak tmtkd 2 oj/cd/cïk ( 9,2 oj/cd/e).

Batrb dks mpl`mabs tbrkpàut`lks sb balubatrka dk mgsbrvkl`üa m dk fmtmtbrkp`k. \b rblmo`back bxpmabr k dms a`ûms k dk duz smdkr `ac`rbltk y am bstë nust`f`lkck dk rbt`rkck cb dk DO, yk qub am sb

• (:) Curkl`üa `afbr`mr k : cïks (ba bd WAYS bs oës prmdmajkcm).

eka v`stm lksms cb hbraïltbrus pmr dk dkltkal`k oktbrak.

• ( • Yr`obrms cïks> dk lkusk oës fr frblubatb blubatb sma dks kabo`ks ebomdït`lks. • Ybrïmcm abmaktkd tkrcïm> kabo`k ebomdït`lk, v`tko`ak H k jrkacbs cms`s ba bd WAYS, ebokaj`moks cbd tugm c`jbst`vm prmx`okd, bxtrkll`mabs rbpbt`cks m càf`l`t cb lmgrb. • Dkltkatb> gbtk-tkdksbo`k8 aualk sb oka`f`bstk ba bd pbrïmcm abmaktkd yk qub prbcmo`ak dk Eg fbtkd (λ7-μ7). Bd pktrüa cb Eg kcudtk kpkrblb ekl`k dms 6 obsbs cb v`ck. Dk ebomrrkj`k trkaspdklbatkr`k, skdvm qub sbk `atbask, am subdb sbr suf`l`batb pkrk lkuskr uak kabo`k abmaktkd ldïa`lkobatb bv`cbatb. \b ut`d`zk pkrk su c`kjaüst`lm bd tbst cb Hdb`ekubr-Gbthb  qub cbtbro`ak dk Eg y dms eboktïbs fbtkdbs ba dk skajrb oktbrak. Yubcb ckr fkdsms abjkt`vms ba dk `almopkt`g`d`ckc cb jrupm, yk qub dms eboktïbs qub pkska k dk skajrb oktbrak sb cbstruyba([email protected]).

Ldïa`lk Ykd`cbz, tkqu`lkrc`k, smpdm s`stüd`lm y, ba lksms kjucms, `asuf`l`bal`k lkrc`klk m semlh. Ba WAYS bx`stb rblekzm cb dk `ajbstk, pkusks cb kpabk, e`pmklt`v`ckc m tkqu`lkrc`k.

Srktko`batm F`jurk 7 dk `almopkt`g`d`ckc We sb prmculb ba dk pkrbnk fmrokck pmr ua emogrb qub t`bab bd KjC (We pms`t`vm) y uak ounbr qub lkrblb cbd o`som (We abjkt`vk), jbstkatb cb ua fbtm We pms`t`vm.   Ba bd 2% cb dms bogkrkzms lma `almopkt`g`d`ckc We, t`bab dujkr ua prmlbsm `aouamdüj`lm cb `sm`aoua`zkl`üa, lmasblubal`k cb dk batrkck ba dk l`rludkl`üa cb uak ounbr We abjkt`vk cb eboktïbs qub lmat`baba bd KjC, pmr dk lukd prmculb kat`lubrpms cbst`akcms k cbstru`r eboktïbs fbtkdbs.   Ba dk rbspubstk pr`okr`k dms kat`lubrpms sma cb t`pm @jO, qub am ktrkv`bska dk pdklbatk, pmr dm qub bxlbpl`makdobatb sb

• C`kjaüst`lm. - Cbtbro`akl`üa cbd jrupm y We oktbram (sb rbkd`zk k tmck ounbr bogkrkzkck). - Cb sbas`g`d`ckc oktbrak> e`stmr`k ldïa`lk (trkasfus`mabs, kgmrtms, bogkrkzms prbv`ms, btl.), cbtbro`akl`üa cb kat`lubrpms oktbrams (tbst cb Lmmogs `ac`rbltm) y lukat`f`lkl`üa cb dms o`soms. - Cbd bstkcm fbtkd `atrkþtbrm> blmjrkfïks, koa`mlbatbs`s koa`mlbatbs`s (pkrk vkdmrkl`üa dk eboüd`s`s obc`katb dk cbtbro`akl`üa cbd a`vbd cbcb g`d`rrug`ak ba bdfbtkd dïqu`cm koa`üt`lm pmr bspbltrmfmtmobtrïk), lmrcmlbatbs`s (pkrk cbtbro`akl`üa cbd jrkcm cb kabo`k fbtkd) y oma`tmr`zkl`üa fbtkd.

prmculb dk pr`obrk jbstkl`üa. Ba dmsprmcul`r pmstbr`mrbs bogkrkzms, cms`sba obamrbs cb katïjbam pubcba ua kuobatm cb Kl t`pm @jJ, qub sï ktrkv`bska dk pdklbatk prmcul`bacm eboüd`s`s ba bd fbtm ([email protected]).

cbtbro`akl`üa ba skajrb cb lmrcüa cbd jrupm skajuïabm, We, tbst cb Lmmogs c`rbltm (pms`t`vm) y g`d`rrug`ak sàr`lk.

- Fbtkd> ba a`ûms lma `aokcurbz pudomakr, trkasfus`mabs `atrkþtbrm cb lmalbatrkcms cb eboktïbs, s` kabo`k m eycrmps fbtkd`s. \` dk okcurbz pudomakr bstë lmopdbtkck (1 ba lksms dbvbs gkstkrë lma fmtmtbrkp`k. \` bx`stb kabo`k omcbrkck m jrkvb, bxkaju`amtrkasfus`üa. Ba lksm cb eycrmps sb rbkd`zkrë uak bxkaju`amtrkasfus`üa lma skajrb 9 We abjkt`vk.

@almopkt`g`d`ckc KG9 Lukcrm oës dbvb y oës frblubatb cb kabo`k ebomdït`lk pmr `sm`aoua`zkl`üa. Kpkrblb lukacm dk okcrb bs cbd jrupm 9 y bd a`ûm K m G (oës frblubatb K), y lukacm dk okcrb bs cbd jrupm K y bd a`ûm G m v`lbvbrsk. Bd pr`obr fbtm pubcb rbsudtkr kfbltm, yk qub bx`stba Kl akturkdbs kat` K y G (t`pm @jJ) s`a ablbs`ckc cb `aoua`zkl`üa prbv`k ([email protected]).

F`jurk 73. Eycrmps fbtkd`s v`stm pmr blmjrkfïk.

• Ldïa`lk> oka`fbstkl`mabs dbvbs, s`bacm dk `ltbr`l`k cb `a`l`m ba dks pr`obrks 73 e, ba oulems lksms, dk þa`lk oka`fbstkl`üa.

• Yrmf`dkx`s> `aybll`üa cb jkookjdmgud`ak euokak kat`-C k dks okcrbs We abjkt`vks lma pkrbnks We pms`t`vks (m We cbslmaml`cm) y am sbas`g`d`zkcks (Lmmogs `ac`rbltm abjkt`vm). @ac`lkl`mabs>

• C`kjaüst`lm> jrupm skajuïabm cb dk okcrb y bd fbtm, Lmmogs c`rbltm d`jbrk m omcbrkckobatb pms`t`vm (kuaqub ba kdjuams lksms bs abjkt`vm y eky qub rblurr`r k tàla`lks cb c`dul`üa) b `ac`rbltm pms`t`vm, e`pbrg`d`rrug`abo`k, Eg amrokd m d`jbrk-

- \bokak 75- fmtmtbrkp`k m bxkaju`amtrkasfus`üa.

- \`boprb qub sb rbkd`lb lukdqu`br prubgk `avks`vk smgrb bd þtbrm jbstkatb (koa`mlbatbs`s, lmrcmlbatbs`s, g`mps`k lmr`kd), ksï lmom katb trkuokt`soms kgcmo`akdbs. - Ba dks :7 emrks pms pmstbr`mrbs tbr`mrbs kd pkrtm, kgmrtm m tbro`akl`üa cb bogkrkzm bltüp`lm cb ua WA We pms`t`vm.

Wblubrck... Ba rbsuoba… • \` dk okcrb bs We pms`t`vk> akck. • \` dk okcrb bs We abjkt`vk y bd pkcrb tkog`àa> akck. • \` dk okcrb bs We abjkt`vk y bd pkcrb We pms`t`vm> \` dk okcrb bs We abjkt`vk y bd pkcrb We pms`t`vm>

@ALM @ALMOY OYKS [email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @CKC KC WE

@ALM @ALMOY OYKS [email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @CKC KC KG KG99

Frblubal`k gknk

Frblubal`k kdtk

 ba bd pr`obr bogkrkzm Am Am ba

\ï ba \ï ba bd pr`obr bogkrkzm

A`ûm> We+ (KjC)

A`ûm> K, G m KG (oës frblubatbobatb K)

Okcrb> We-

Okcrb> 9, K m G

@jO, @jJ

@jJ akturkdbs

Ba jjbbabrkd, jjrrkvb.

Ks`atmoët`lm, ``lltbr`l`k

\ï prmf`dkx`s, \ï prmf`dkx`s, s` Lmmogs -> 75- gbgà We pms`t`vm

Akck

7.ª cms`s cb jkookjdmgud`ak kat`-C ba dks pr`obrks :7 e

Wblubrck... Lmmogs c`rbltm ? eboktïbs cbd a`ûm lma dms Kl pbjkcms ? prubgk qub sb ekrïk ba bd WA. Ba dk `almopkt`g`d`ckc We, lukacm yk bstë kfbltkcm bd a`ûm sbrë s`boprb pms`t`vm. Ba dk `almopkt`g`d`ckc KGM pubcb sbr d`jbrk m omcbrkckobatb pms`t`vm.

Wblubrck...

Lmmogs `ac`rbltm ? Kl subdtms ba dk skajrb oktbrak ? prubgk qub sb ekrïk k dk okcrb. Ba dks KGM sbrë pms`t`vm ba tmcks dks okcrbs M, o`batrks qub ba bd We∗ smdm sbrëa pms`t`vks dks okcrbs qub sb ekyka sbas`g`d`zkcm prbv`kobatb.

Bx`stb ua lksm ba bd qub am pmacrïks dk prmf`dkx`s kat`-C k uak ounbr We abjkt`vm. ½\kgbs luëd= Bs bd lksm cb dk pkl`batb lma ua Lmmogs `ac`rbltm pms`t`vm, pubstm qub yk bstë `sm`aoua`zkck.

trksfuac`r pdkqubtks oktbraks dkvkcks » @js.

Lmrt`lm`cbs oktbrams ; sbo katbs cbd pkrtm + @js kd f`akd cbd bogkrkzm. Lbsërbk s` pkrtm c`f`ludtmsm. \` skajrkcm ba bd WA> `aouamjdmgud`ak m lmrt`lm`cbs »trkasfus`üa cb pdkqubtks

Skgdk ;7. Yþrpurk trmogml`tmpàa`lk kdm`aouab abmaktkd vs. [email protected] oktbrak.

Bafbrobckc ebomrrëj`lk cbd WA Càf`l`t cb v`tko`ak H

Mtrks lkusks cb trmogml`tmpba`k abmaktkd

• Fmrok ldës`lk> sïacrmob ebomrrëj`lm ba dks pr`obrks 35-:7 e cb v`ck, cbg`cm k ua càf`l`t cb fkltmrbs cb dk lmkjudkl`üa v`tko`ak H cbpbac`batbs.   Bstë lmac`l`makck pmr dk kusbal`k cb fdmrk `atbst`akd balkrjkck cb s`atbt`zkrdk, pmr dk bslksk trkasfbrbal`k batrb dk okcrb y bd fbtm cb cbtbro`akcms fkltmrbs cb dk lmkjudkl`üa y pmr su cbf`l`bal`k ba dk dbleb oktbrak ([email protected]).   \u `al`cbal `al`cbal`k `k ek c`so`au`cm jrkl`ks k dk kco`a`strkl`üa prmf`dëlt`lk cb v`tko`ak H trks bd akl`o`batm.   Wbspmacb jbabrkdobatb k dk kco`a`strkl`üa cb v`tko`ak H ;-2 oj `.v. \` bs jrkvb tkog`àa pubcb kco`a`strkrsb pdksok m skajrb.

• Srmogml`tmpba`k kobjklkr`mlït`lk> kusbal`k kusbal`k cb objklkr`ml`tms ba oàcudk üsbk. \b trktk lma trkspdkatb cb prmjba`tmrbs eboktmpmyàt`lms. • lmajàa`tks \bluackr`k k(rugbmdk, `afbll`mabs> gktbr`ks jrko abjkt`vks, `afbll`mabs LOV, Smxmpdksok…). Dk `afbll`üa pmr LOV bs dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb trmogmpba`k abmaktkd.

 ;.;;. @afbll`mabs abmaktkdbs Dks `afbll`mabs abmaktkdbs lmast`tuyba dk tbrlbrk lkusk cb omrtkd`ckc pbr`aktkd.

• Fmrok prblmz> kpkrblb ba dks pr`obrks 73 e pmr càf`l`t cb v`tko`ak H sbluackr`k k fëroklms oktbrams m lmkjudmpktïk ebrbc`tkr`k. \ubdb prmvmlkr skajrkcms `atrklrkabkdbs m c`jbst`vms rbdbvkatbs.   Bs ouy rkrk y dk prbvbal`üa pubcb rbkd`zkrsb kco`a`strkacm v`tko`ak H kd WA kd aklbr, m k dk okcrb katbs cbd akl`o`batm, y bv`tkacm dms fëroklms cb kdtm r`bsjm.

 ;.;;.; @afbll`mabs pbr`aktkdbs Ldks`f`lkl`üa \bps`s prblmz

• Fmrok tkrcïk> càf`l`t ba dk kgsmrl`üa cb dk v`tko`ak H. Bt`mdmjïk> lmdbstks`s, càf`l`t cb gbtkd`pmprmtbïak, `c`mpët`lk (ba ks`ët`lms kd`obatkcms kd pblem) m pmr `ajbst`üa cb wkrfkr`ak.

Kpkrblb cbatrm cb dks pr`obrks :7 e cb v`ck y t`bab su mr`jba ba uak `afbll`üa kslbacbatb `atrkþtbrm m trkaspdklbatkr`k. O`lrmmrjka`soms oës frblubatbs> bstrbptmlmlm cbd jrupm G (BJG), Bslebr`le`k lmd` , batbrmlmlm y D`stbr`k omamlytmjbabs.

\tkpeydmlmllus bp`cbro`c`s, \tkpeydmlmllus kurbus, gkl`dms jrko abjkt`vms y Lkac`ck.

Ra ebomjrkok amrokd am cbslkrtk dk `afbll`üa. \b lmas`cbrk kamrokd s` eky dbulmpba`k (42999/²d), abutrmpba`k (4;299/²d), ïac`lb abutrüf`dms `aokcurms/tmtkdbs ([email protected]/AS19,7) m dbulml`tms`s (1 làdudks 1 prboktur`ckc. Lmdma`zkl`üa cbd pkl`batb curkatb bd `ajrbsm. Rsm cb lktàtbrbs vksludkrbs lbatrkdbs (LVL), kd`obatkl`üa pkrbatbrkd, `atugkl`üa prmdmajkck, trktko`batm prbv`m lma kat`g`üt`lms, `atbrvbal`mabs qu`rþrj`lks, qu`rþrj` lks, btl. Dk kfbltkl`üa obaïajbk ba lukdqu`brk cb dms cms lksms bs oës frblubatb ba bd WAYS. Dk fmrok oës frblubatb bs dk c`sbo`akl`üa eboktüjbak y dk oës rkrk pmr lmat`jô`ckc (lmom ba dms cbfbltms cb l`brrb cbd tugm aburkd, fïstudks lmajàa`tks m ebr`cks pbabtrkatbs). Dks lkusks oës frblubatbs cb oba`aj`t`s abmaktkd sma> \JG ([email protected]), B. lmd`  sbrmt`pm  sbrmt`pm H; y D. omamlytmjbabs ([email protected]).

Ldïa`lk  ([email protected] 90, ;59) Ldïa`lk Ouy `abspblïf`lk. C`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k m kuobatm cb dk ablbs`ckc cb ks`stbal`k `abxpd`lkgdb, okdk pbrfus`üa, tkqu`lkrc`k, semlh, dbtkrj`k, f`bgrb, okd lmatrmd cb tbopbrkturk, e`pm m e`pbrjdulbo`k, e`pmtmaïk, kpabks, `atmdbrkal`k c`jbst`vk, btl.

Oàtmcms c`kjaüst`lms Ludt`vms

\BY\@\ YWBLM^

\BY\@\ SKWCÏK

4:7 emrks cb v`ck

1:7 emrks cb v`ck

Kslbacbatb8 jàrobabs cbd lkakd cbd pkrtm> \JG, B. lmd` , batbrmlmlm, D`stbr`k , VE\, batbrmv`rus

Ymsaktkd8 `avks`üa pmr jàrobabs lmdma`zkcmrbs cb vïk rbsp`rktmr`k y p`bd> \JG sbrmt`pm @@@, B. lmd`   H; (oba`aj`t`s), D`stbr`k , VE\, ba \. bp`cbro`c`s   yy Lkac`ck   ba WAOGY

WAYS, gknm pbsm, rmturk prmdmajkck cb obogrkaks, \JG+ oktbram, lmr`mkoa`ma`t`s

WAYS, emsp`tkd`zkl`üa

Kfbltkl`üa oudt`s`stào`lk fudo`akatb

Oba`aj`t`s, mstbmo`bd`t`s, krtr`t`s, @SR

Oba`aj`t`s 79%

Oba`aj`t`s :2%

Kop`l`d`ak + jbatko`l`ak

Kop`l`d`ak + jbatko`l`ak

Kop`l`d`ak + lbfmtkx`ok (s` oba`aj`t`s)

Vkalmo`l`ak/ldmxkl`d`ak + jbatko`l`ak (s` bstkgk `ajrbskcm)* Kop`l`d`ak /vkalmo`l`ak + lbfmtkx`ok (s` oba`aj`t`s)

Kdtk omrtkd`ckc

Kdtk omrg`d`ckc (e`crmlbfkd`k, smrcbrk, rbtrksm obatkd, pkrëd`s`s lbrbgrkd `afkat`d)

• Ebomludt`vm. • Dïqu`cm lbfkdmrrkquïcbm> t`al`üa cb jrko y ludt`vm cb v`rus/  gkltbr`ks8 ludt`vm cb emajms ba `afbll`üa ` afbll`üa amsmlmo`kd. • dk Rrmludt`vm> ba sbps`s ttkrcïks krcïks y s`boprb qub bx`stk kamokdïk ba vïk ur`akr`k.

* Vkdmrkr kûkc`r bopïr`lkobatb Kafmtbr`l`ak G katb smspblek cb `afbll`üa amsmlmo`kd s` WA 4;999j m bvmdul`üa am fkvmrkgdb

• Mgtbabr oubstrk cb lukdqu`br fmlm `afbll`msm bx bx`stbatb `stbatb (p`bd, lmanuat`vk, btl.).

Skgdk ; L LOV, OV, rugbmdk, sïf`d`s. • Ybr`aktkd> \JG, GJA batàr`lms, D`stbr`k, Oylmpdksok , Ledkoyc`k, LOV, VE\, Lkac`ck. • Amsmlmo`kd> bstkf`dmlmlm, GJA batàr`lms, Ysbucmomaks, VW\ (v`rus rbsp`rktmr`m s`al`t`kd).

• ;.br tr`obstrb cbd bogkrkzm - obams r`bsjm cb trkaso`s`üa, pbrm okymr kfbltkl`üa fbtkd (lukatm oës `aokcurm bs ua mrjka`som, oës ckûm db prmculb uak `afbll`üa).

Ldïa`lk

• dbtkrj`k, rblekzm cb dks tmoks, `rr`tkg`d`ckc, okd lmdmr, kdtbrkl`mabs cb dk tbopbrkturk y c`stbas`üa kgcmo`akd. Yubcb kpkrblbr tkqu`pabk, tkqu`lkrc`k, kdbtbm akskd, t`rknb, l`kams`s, `asuf`l`bal`k rbakd prmjrbs`vk, btl.

Smcks dks `afbll`mabs lmaaktkdbs lmopkrtba s`jams `abspblïf`lms ba bd WA lmom prboktur`ckc, [email protected], pbtbqu`ks, ebpktmbspdbamobjkd`k, kcbampktïks, `ltbr`l`k, kabo`k, trmogmpba`k b e`pbrtrkasko`aksbo`k (sïacrmob SMWLE).

C`kjaüst`lm \ubdb sbr cb prbsual`üa. Dms ebomludt`vms subdba sbr abjkt`vms8 dms ludt`vms cb sblrbl`mabs rbsp`rktmr`ks südm t`baba vkdmr pkrk VW\ y Ledkoyc`k. Bd dkvkcm grmaqu`mkdvbmdkr am bs f`kgdb.

LOV (fko`d`k ebrpbsv`rus)

Srktko`batm • Kop`l`d`ak + jbatko`l`ak m lbfmtkx`ok.

• \` bs pmr Ledkoyc`k> oklrüd`cms.

Bs dk `afbll`üa lmaaktkd oës frblubatb (;-7%), pbrm südm ;-7/;999 sma s`atmoët`lms. \b lmatkj`k pmr vïk trkaspdklbatkr`k y bs b s oës frblubatb lukacm dk okcrb sb `afbltk ba bd pr`obr tr`obstrb, kuaqub tkog`àa pubcb ckrsb cb okabrk pmstaktkd obc`katb lmatkltm pbrsmakd, dkltkal`k oktbrak, skajrb m ebomcbr`vkcms (sb cbgb tbabr bspbl`kd lu`ckcm ba dms WAYS, pmd`trkasfuac`cms).

Mstbmkrtr`t`s

Ldïa`lk ([email protected] ;0, 7 bd 02% cb dms a`ûms bstëa ks`atmoët`lms y südm ua 2% prbsbatk kfbltkl`üa oudt`s`stào`lk m sïacrmob SMWLE. Lmopd`lkl`mabs> o`lrmlbfkd`k, lkdl`f`lkl`mabs `atrklrkabkdbs (pbr`vbatr`ludkrbs) ([email protected]), lmr`mrrbt`a`t`s, kdtbrkl`mabs cbd cbskrrmddm, smrcbrk (oës frblubatb, subdb sbr aburmsbasmr`kd, g`dktbrkd y sbvbrk), rbtrksm obatkd, bspkst`l`ckc, cbfbltms cbatkr`m cbatkr`ms. s.

• \` bs amsmlmo`kd> vkalmo`l`ak + lbfkdmspmr`aks cb lbftkz`c`ok + ko`amjdulüs`cms.

Srktko`batm • \` bstë `ajrbskcm> vkal vkalmo`l`ak mo`l`ak + lbfmtkx`ok.

• Ybr`aktkd> abuoma`t`s lma lmr`zk `opmrtkatb (oka`fbstkl`üa oës frblubatb) m smrcbrk (WAYS). \` bs pmstrkasfus`makd (oës jrkvb), pubcb lurskr lma sïacrmob cb c`stràs rbsp`rktmr`m, pkd`cbz, objkd`ks, eboüd`s`s, trmogmpba`k y d`afml`tms`s ktïp`lk. Dk omrtkd`ckc bs cbd 79% ba WAYS.

• \` am bstë `ajrbskcm> ldmxkl`d`ak + lbfmtkx lbfmtkx`ok. `ok. • Srktko`batm qu`rþrj`lm urjbatb s` eky kfbltkl`üa cb lkcbrk u emogrm.

C`kjaüst`lm

lmaaktkdbs lmajàa`tks m  ;.;;. dk lmr`mrrbt`a`t`s bs dk oka`fbstkl`üa oës frblubatb cb dk tmxmpdksoms`s lmajàa`tk.

• Srïkck cb Jrbjj> lktkrktks, smrcbrk, lkrc`mpktïk lmajàa`tk (CKY y/m bstbams`s cb dk krtbr`k pudomakr). Dks kdtbrkl`m-

• Sàtrkck cb \kg`a> lmr`mrrbt`a`t`s, e`crmlbfkd`k, lkdl`f`lkl`mabs y lmavuds`mabs ([email protected]).

abs kuc`t`vks (smrcbrk aburmsbasmr`kd) sma dks oës frblubatbs. • Mtrks> sïacrmob SMWLE, rbt`ampktïk, o`lrmftkdo`k, oba`ajmbalbfkd`t`s, e`pmtmaïk, kdtbrkl`üa ba dms cbroktmjd`fms, kdtbrkl`mabs üsbks ba eubsms dkrjms (s`a rbkll`üa pbr`üst`lk), CO, e`pmjkookjdmgud`abo`k, e`pmpdks`k tïo`lk, kdtbrkl`üa t`rm`cbk, lr`ptmrqu`c`k, pmd`qu`stms`s rbakd.

C`kjaüst`lm • Cbgb rbkd`zkrsb ua slrbba`aj sbrmdüj`lm k tmcks dks jbstkatbs. \` am sma `aouabs sb rbp`tb lkck tr`obstrb. Bs `ac`lkt`vm cb `afbll`üa klt`vk oktbrak dk cbtbll`üa cb @jO pms`t`vks m tïtudms lrbl`batbs cb @jJ, o`batrks qub s` dms a`vbdbs cb @jJ sb okat`baba lmastkatbs lmastkatbs suj`brb `afbll`üa `afbll`üa lrüa`lk y am bs ablbskr`k dk prmf`dkx`s prmf`dkx`s ([email protected] ;9, ;2:).

C`kjaüst`lm • \b rbkd`zk slrbba`aj s`stboët`lm ba tmcks dks jbstkatbs ba bd pr`obr tr`obstrb. \` dk @jO bs pms`t`vk `ac`lk `afbll`üa rbl`batb y mgd`jk k cbtbro`akr dk @jO fbtkd ([email protected]).

• Fbtm> blmjrkfïks sbr`kcks (sb cbgb guslkr e`crmlbfkd`k m lkdl`f`lkl`mabs `atrkpkrbaqu`oktmsks) y YLW ba dïqu`cm koa`üt`lm pkrk cbtbltkr bd CAK cbd Smxmpdksok (sbas`g`d`ckc cbd 0:% y bspbl`f`l`ckc cbd ;99%).

• Bd c`kjaüst`lm cb `afbll`üa ba bd WA sb gksk ba dk cbtbro`akl`üa cb @jO bspblïf`lk m @jJ pbrs`stbatb (curkatb 6-;7 obsbs trks bd akl`o`batm) m ba kuobatm.

• WA ([email protected]).

• K`sdko`batm cbd v`rus ba mrmfkr`ajb u mr`ak (ekst (ekstkk dms ;7 obsbs, omobatm ba qub dms oblka`soms cb cbfbask cbd WA bstëa okcurkcms).

- K`sdko`batm cbd bd pkrës`tm ba dk pdklbatk (c`kjaüst`lm (c`kjaüst`lm cb lmalmaf`rokl`üa). c

sïacrm sïacrmob ob SMWLE, kdtbrkl`mabs üsbks (mstbmlmacr`t`s cmdmrmsk), kdtbrkl`mabs eboktmdüj`lks (kabo`k ebomdït`lk Lmmogs abjkt`vk, dbulml`tms`s), jdmobrudmabfr`t`s m sïacrmob abfrüt`lm, kfbltkl`üa mludkr, abuomaïk, y ba dms lksms jrkvbs, eycrmps fbtkd am `aouab y oubrtb `atrkutbr`ak.

- \brmdmjïk @jO ([email protected]\K, prubgk oës sbas`gdb y bspblïf`lk), b @jJ ba skajrb y DLW (qub sma dms oës uskcms).

• Skrcïk (7-79 kûms)> pbr`mst`t`s lma bajrmsko`batm pbr`üst`lm (t`g`k ba skgdb), c`batbs cb Eutle`asma (`al`s`vms supbr`mrbs lbatrkdbs ba tmabd)8 kdtbrkl`mabs cbd \AL, qubrkt`t`s `atbrst`l`kd, smrcbrk, krt`ludkl`üa cb Lduttma (s`amv`t`s cb rmc`ddk) y jmoks s`f`dït`lms.   Srïkck cb Eutle`asma> smrcbrk dkgbrïat`lk, qubrkt`t`s y kdtbrkl`mabs cbatkr`ks.

- Cbtbll`üa cbd CAK cbd tmxmpdksok tmxmpdksok pmr YLW.

Srktko`batm • @afbll`üa klt`v klt`vkk oktbrak> ba bd pr`obr tr`obstrb tr`obstrb sb ut`d`zk bsp`rko`l`ak (am ktrkv`bsk dk gkrrbrk pdklbatkr`k) y ba bd sbjuacm y tbrlbr tr`obstrb sb ut`d`zka sudfkc`kl`ak y p`r`obtko`ak,  nuatm lma ël`cm fmdïa`lm pkrk bv`tkr dk cbprbs`üa obcudkr (kogms sma katkjma`stks cbd ël`cm füd`lm).

C`kjaüst`lm

• @afbll`üa ba bd WA.

Bd  slrbba`aj   sb rbkd`zk k tmcks dks jbstkatbs obc`katb dk cbtbro`akl`üa cb VDCW m WYW (prubgks am trbpmaào`lks) ba bd pr`obr tr`obstrb. Dk lmaf`rokl`üa sb mgt`bab obc`katb dk cbtbro`akl`üa cb FSK-Kgs m OEK-SY (prubgks trbpmaào`lks) m o`lrmslmpïk cb lkopm mslurm s` dks prubgks am trbpmaào`lks sma pms`t`vks. Smcms dms abmaktms akl`cms cb okcrbs qub t`baba rbsudtkcms rbklt`vms am trbpmaào`lms y trbpmaào`lms cbgba bvkdukrsb lma ua bxkoba sbrmdüj`lm am trbpmaào`lm (WYW m VCWD). Am sb rblmo`back rbkd`zkr uak prubgk trbpmaào`lk (bs cbl`r, SY-YK, FSK-KG\, [email protected] m [email protected]) ba subrm abmaktkd pmr su c`fïl`d

- \udfkc`kz`ak + p`r`o p`r`obtko`ak btko`ak + ël`cm fmdïa`lm fmdïa`lm curkatb ; kûm. kûm. - Bd pr`al`pkd bfbltm sbl sbluackr`m uackr`m cbd trktko`batm bs dk abutrmpba`k (smgrb tmcm sbluackr`m k dk p`r`obtko`ak).

Yrmf`dkx`s Ykrk dk prmf`dkx`s dm oës `opmrtkatb bs bv`tkr bd lmatkltm lma jktms y dk `ajbstk cb lkrab pmlm lml`akck.

\ïf`d`s lmajàa`tk ([email protected])

`atbrprbtkl`üa. Skog`àa sbrë þt`d ba bd abmaktm>

Dk kfbltkl`üa fbtkd bs cbd ;99% ba sïf`d`s pr`okr`k m sbluackr`k am trktkck, lma uak omrtkd`ckc ksml`kck cbd 29%. Dk `afbll`üa cbd fbtm sb prmculb pr`al`pkdobatb pmr vïk skajuïabk (trkaspdklbatkr`k), kuaqub tkog`àa pubcb `afbltkrsb ba bd omobatm cbd pkrtm pmr lmatkltm c`rbltm, s` bx`stba dbs`mabs jba`tkdbs.

• V`s`üa c`rbltk obc`katb bxkoba ba lkopm mslurm cb bxuckcm akskd, DLW m rkspkcm cb dks dbs`mabs lutëabks

Ldïa`lk

• Kaktmoïk pktmdüj`lk cb dk pdklbatk, bd lmrcüa y dks obogrkaks lma t`al`üa bspblïf`lk.

• Wkc`mdmjïk> s`jams cb pbr`mst`t`s u mstbmlmacr`t`s. • DLW> kuobatm omamauldbkr y prmtb`lm, lma sbrmdmjïk ba dïqu`cm pms`t`vk pmr VCWD (bdbvkck bspbl`f`l`ckc8 s` bs pms`t`vk bs c`kjaüst`lk cb aburmsïf`d`s8 s` bs abjkt`vk am dk cbslkrtk).

• Yrblmz (47 kûms)> ks`atmoët`lms kd akl`o`batm (dm oës frblubatb). Dms sïatmoks jbabrkdbs qub pubcba kpkrblbr sma>

C`kjaüst`lm cbf`a`t`vm

- Objkd`ks> dm oës frblubatb. frblubatb.

• Lkopm mslurm m bxkoba e`stmdüj`lm pms`t`vm. pms`t`vm.

- \ïacrmob lutëabm-oulmsm> dm oës lkrkltbrïs lkrkltbrïst`lm t`lm bs bd pàaf`jm s`f`dït`lm, dks dbs`mabs okludmpkpudmsks br`tboktmsks smgrb tmcm ba pkdoks y pdkatks, dms lmac`dmoks ba ërbks eþobcks y dk lmr`zk skaju`ampurudbatk.

• WYW lma l`frks 3 vblbs okymrbs qub kd akl`o`batm, ba rbdkl`ü rbdkl`üa a k dk okcrb m pmstbr`mrobatb lma ebokjdut`akl`üa pms`t`vk.

F` F`ju jurk rk 7: 7:.. W`a W`a`t `t`s `s skaju kaju`a `amp mpur urud udbbat atkk ba ba WA WA kfb kfblltm cb sïf ïf`d`d`s `s lma majà jàa` a`ttk.

F`ju F` jurk rk 75 75.. C`b C`bat atbs bs cb Eutl Eutle` e`as asma ma..

• Okcrb am trktkck lma sïf`d`s, bv`cbal`k cb rblkïck m rb`afbll`üa oktbrak. • Bxpdmrkl`üa fïs`lk yy/m /m rkc`mdüj`lk lmopkt`gdb. • VCWD pms`t`vm ba DL DLW W m kdtbrkl`mabs g`mquïo`lks ba bd DL DLW W (s` dk okcrb t`bab sïf`d`s). • Sbst am trbpmaào`lms lma l`frks 3 vblbs dks cb dk okcrb kd akl`o`batm.

F`jurk 70. Ebrpbs abmaktkd.

• @jO y tbst trbpmaào`lm pms`t`vms.

C`kjaüst`lm • Wkspkcm cb dks vbsïludks y ludt`vm (bspbl`f`l`ckc (bspbl`f`l`ckc bdbvkck).

Bd fëroklm cb bdbll`üa bs dk pba`l`d`ak J süc`lk `.o. m `.v. curkatb ;9-;3 cïks. Ba prbsbal`k cb aburmsïf`d`s> pba`l`d`ak J süc`lk (`.o. m `.v.) m pba`l`d`ak prmlkïak `.o. curkatb 7; cïks. \` bx`stb r`bsjm cb `aluopd`o`batm tbrkpàut`lm, kdjuams kutmrbs rblmo`backa pba`l`d`ak J gbazkt`ak `.o. ba omamcms`s, k skg`backs cb qub bx`stba frklksms ba bd trktko`batm.

• K`sdko`batm mrmfkrïajbm, aksmfkrïajbm, lmanuat`vkd, eblbs u mr`ak (t`al`üa cb Szkalh y cbtbll`üa cb katïjbam/CAK). • DLW sulbs`vms. • @jJ (tkrcïk). • BBJ/SL/WO (dmlkd`zkl`üa oës frblubatb ba dügudm ttbopmrkd). bopmrkd).

VE\

Srktko`batm Kl`ldmv`r `atrkvbamsm.

•  VE\ t`pm ;> kfbltk kd 79% cb dms WA `afbltkcms pmr VE\ lmajàa`tm.

Yrbvbal`üa

• VE\ t`pm 7 (dbs`mabs jba`tkdbs oktbraks)> kfbltk kd 59% cb dms WA `afbltkcms pmr VE\ lmajàa`tm. Bx`stb okymr r`bsjm cb `afbll`üa cbd fbtm/WA s` curkatb dk jbstkl`üa sb prmculb bd ebrpbs jba`tkd pr`okr`m, dk okcrb lkrblb cb Kl frbatb kd v`rus m eky dbs`mabs klt`vks ba bd omobatm cbd pkrtm.

• K`sdko`batm cbd rbstm cb WA y bxtrkll`üa cb oubstrks pkrk ludt`vm.

Srkaso`s`üa

• Dkvkcm obt`ludmsm cb okams y usm cb okslkr`ddk s` bx`stb dbs`üa dkg`kd.

• \` bx`stba dbs`mabs jba`tkdbs klt`vks ba dk okcrb> lbsërbk. lbsërbk.

• Dkltkal`k krt`f`l`kd s` eky dbs`mabs ba dk okok.

• @atrkpkrtm> omobatm oës frblubatb cb `afbll`üa (02%).

(VV^)  ([email protected]) V`rus Vkr`lbdk ^mstbr (VV^)

• Yrbaktkd (vïk trkaspdklbatkr`k m kslbacbatb)> bxlbpl`makd. • Ymstaktkd k pkrt`r cb lukdqu`br kcudtm lma ebrpbs dkg`kd.

Ldïa`lk y c`kjaüst`lm Ldïa`lk

• Lmajàa`tk> frblubatbobatb ks`atmoët`lms. \` eky ldïa`lk, sb prmculb ua lukcrm ldïa`lm s`o`dkr k dk `afbll`üa lmajàa`tk pmr VE\.

• @afbll`üa prbaktkd (`atrkutbr`ak)> sïatmoks prbsbatbs kd akl`o`batm. Vbsïludks m l`lktr`lbs lutëabks, s`jams mludkrbs (lmr`mrrbt`a`t`s, qubrktmlmanuat`v`t`s) y kdtbrkl`mabs cbd cbskrrmddm cbd \AL (o`lrmlbfkd`k, e`crkabalbfkd`k).

• Ybr`aktkd. - \` bd bxkatbok kpk kpkrblb rblb ba dms pr`obrms pr`obrms ;9 cïks cb v`ck, v`ck, dk `afbll`üa ek tba`cm dujkr `atrkþtbrm, lma prmaüst`lm fkvmrkgdb.

• @afbll`üa `atrkpkrtm m pmstaktkd> dms sïatmoks kpkrblba trks ;-7 sbokaks cbd akl`o`batm y bx`stba < pktrmabs pktmdüj`lms pms`gdbs>

- Balbfkd`t`s (lma m s`a kfbltkl`üa kfbltkl`üa p`bd-gmlk-mnms).

- \` bd bxkatbok kpkrblb pkskcms dms ;9 cïks cb v`ck, dk `afbll`üa ek tba`cm dujkr `atrkpkrtm, puc`bacm prbsbatkr uak bafbrobckc s`stào`lk jbabrkd`zkck m cbd s`stbok abrv`msm lbatrkd qub mlks`mak omrtkd`ckcbs lbrlkaks kd ludt`vm m cbtbl-

- Bafbrobckc c`sbo`akck oudt`s`stào`lk (eïjkcm, \AL, pudomabs, lmrkzüa, p`bd…), lma omrtkd`ckc cbd 09% y sblubdks jrkvbs.

l`üa cb katïjbams. • Ymstaktkd> bafbrobckc dbvb. \b c`kjamst`lk pmr bd bxkatbok nuatm k dms katblbcbatbs oktbrams cb vkr`lbdk.

- Bafbrobckc dmlkd`zkck lma vbsïludks ba p`bd y gmlk, y qubrktmlmanuat`v`t`s.

39

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;

º Abmaktmdmjïk

Srktko`batm • Ybr`aktkd> kl`ldmv`r. • @aouamjdmgud`ak bspblïf`lk kd rbl`àa akl`cm s` dk `afbll`üa oktbrak sb prmculb batrb dms 2 cïks katbr`mrbs kd pkrtm m dms 7 cïks cbspuàs, pkrk c`so`au`r bd r`bsjm cb bafbrobckc s`stào`lk abmaktkd.

VEG Bd fbtm pubcb kfbltkrsb s` dk okcrb bs pmrtkcmrk lrüa`lk, t`bab uak `afbll`üa klt`vk curkatb dk jbstkl`üa m pkcblb uak ebpkt`t`s lrüa`lk klt`vk. \b bst`ok qub dk prbsbal`k cb KjEGb (ksml`kck m am k KjEGs) lmac`l`mak bd 09% cb trkaso`s`üa vbrt`lkd, o`batrks qub s` dk okcrb südm bs pms`t`vk pkrk KjEGs bd r`bsjm cb

F`jurk ;. Lktkrktks 7. \mrcbrk e`pmklus`k, o`lrmlbfkd`k, rbtrksm obatkd, lmr`mrrbt`a`t`s

Jkal`ldmv`r Yrmf`dkx`s> dkvkcm cb okams lmrrbltm

@atrkpkrtm

[email protected] lma vbsïludks lutëabks, kfbltkl`üa aburmdüj`lk jrkvb y mludkr lmastkatb

Kl`ldmv`r Yrmf`dkx`s> lbsërbk s` dbs`mabs jba`tkdbs klt`vks ba dk okcrb

Ydklbatkr`k

Yrblmz (lmajàa`tk)> Ybr`aktkd> Kl`ldmv`r ks`atmoët`lms, l`lktr`lbs, @j bspblïf`lk kd WA s` `afblktrmf`k o`bogrms l`üa oktbrak 2 cïks katbs Skrcïk (pbr`aktkd)> k 7 cïks cbspuàs cbd pkrtm vbsïludks, kfbltkl`üa v`slbrkd

[email protected]\ G;0

Eycrmps fbtkd`s am `aoua`tkr`m, kfbltkl`üa mludkr, o`mlkrc`t`s, ebpkt`t`s

Cb smpmrtb

[email protected]@\

Ks`atmoët`lms kd aklbr Objkd`k, sïacrmob lutëabm oulmsm, kdtbrkl`mabs üsbks lma rbkll`üa pbr`üst`lk Srïkck cb Eutle`asma> Eutle`asma> smrcbrk dkgbrïat`lk, qubrkt`t`s, kdtbrkl`mabs cbatkr`ks

Yba`l`d`ak J süc`lk `.o. m `.v. ;9-;3 cïks

Ks`atmoët`lms m sïatmoks dbvbs

@jlma y vkluak WA cb okcrb KjEGs kpms`t`vm ba ;7 pr`obrks emrks cb v`ck

Lukatm oës rbl`batb `afbll`üa oktbrak, oës prmgkgdb `afbll`üa cbd e`nm

VEG Skgdk ;3. @afbll`mabs lmaaktkdbs.

3;

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

• Yrboktur`ckc.

trkaso`s`üa vbrt`lkd bs oulem obamr. Bd r`bsjm bs oëx`om s` dk okcrb bs KjEGb pms`t`vk ba bd omobatm cbd pkrtm. \b cbgb rbkd`zkr `aouamprmf`dkx`s klt`vk y pks`vk ba dk jbstkatb bxpubstk k pbskr cb qub dk jbstkl`üa am kuobatk bd r`bsjm cb ua lursm ldïa`lm jrkvb ([email protected]).

• Oklrmsmoïk (kuobatm cb trkuokt`soms curkatb bd pkrtm) m [email protected] (s` dk okcrb pkcblb vksludmpktïk). • V`slbrmobjkd`k (bxlbptm lbrbgrm), `asuf`l`bal`k lkrcïklk b e`pbrtrmf`k o`mlërc`lk> o`mlërc`lk> dm oës frblubatb bs dk ks`obtrïk cbd tkg`qub, qub sb oka`f`bstk pmr bstbams`s e`pbrtrüf`lk sugkürt`lk `c`mpët`lk.

Srkaso`s`üa Yubcb sbr trkaspdklbatkr`k, `atrkpkrtm (vïk oës frblubatb) m pmstaktkd, k trkvàs cb dk dbleb m skd`vk (rkrm).

• Bslksk rbspubstk k dk kcrbakd`ak y kd jdulkjüa, qub tkog`àa lmatr`guyba k dk e`pmjdulbo`k qub subdb kpkrblbr ba dks pr`obrks 73 e ([email protected]).

Yrmf`dkx`s

• Kamokdïks lmajàa`tks (bfbltm tbrktüjbam cb dk e`pbrjdulbo`k)> dks oës frblubatbs sma dks okdfmrokl`mabs lkrc`klks ([email protected], [email protected], trkspms`l`üa cb jrkacbs vksms…) y dk kjbabs`k duogmsklrk. Mtrks kamokdïks sma dk e`crmabfrms`s, cbfbltms cbd tugm aburkd, s`tus `avbrsus, m bd rbtrksm pksknbrm cbd cbskrrmddm cbd lmdma `zqu`brcm (sïacrmob cb lmdma `zqu`brcm e`pmpdës`lm).

Kco`a`strkr katbs cb dks pr`obrks ;7 e cb v`ck `aouamjdmgud`aks y dk vkluak VEG kd WA e`nm cb okcrb KjEGs pms`t`vk. Ymstbr`mrobatb sb cbtbltkrë bd KjEGs y Kat`EGs k dms ;7-;2 obsbs. \` KjEGs bs pms`t`vm sb cbf`a`rë lmom ua pmrtkcmr lrüa`lm (frklksm vkluakd). \` am bx`stba katïjbams a` Kl, eky qub kco`a`strkr mtrk cms`s vkluakd pkrk vbr s` sbrmlmav`brtb. \` dk prmf`dkx`s bs kcblukck am bstë lmatrk`ac`lkck dk dkltkal`k oktbrak.

• \ïacrmob cb c`stràs rbsp`rktmr`m rbsp`rktmr`m (BOE)> bx`stb ua bfbltm bfbltm katkjüa`lm cbd lmrt`smd b `asud`ak smgrb dk sïatbs`s cb surfkltkatb. • E`pmjdulbo`k (oëx`ok k dk ;-< e cb v`ck, bd lmatrmd jdulào`lm curkatb bd pkrtm c`so`auyb dk `al`cbal`k), e`pmlkdlbo`k, pmd`l`tbo`k, `ltbr`l`k.

(Vbr tkgdk ;3 ba dk pëj`ak katbr`mr)

• Srmogms`s cb dk vbak rbakd. • Cbskrrmddm aburmdüj`lm y puatms cb ms`f`lkl`üa ms`f`lkl`üa `aokcurms.

 ;.;7. Bafbrobckcbs obtkgüd`lks

• Kuobatk dk `al`cbal`k cb CO pmstbr`mr, pmstbr`mr, mgbs`ckc y kdtbrkl`mabs cbd cbskrrmddm `atbdbltukd.

E`pmlkdlbo`k

(Vbr f`jurks `a`l`kr dk kd`obatkl`üa mrkd prblmz y rbkd`zkr cbtbro`akl`mabs cb jdulbo`k sbr`kcks dks pr`obrks 6-5 e. \` am tmdbrk dk kd`obatkl`üa mrkd sb kco`a`strkrë jdulmsk `atrkvbamsk bv`tkacm dms gmdms cb jdulmsk e`pbrtüa`lk, qub pubcba tbabr bfbltm rbgmtb.

Bt`mdmjïk • Yrblmz.   4< cïks cb v`ck. Cbg`ck k lkusks oktbraks oktbraks (c`kgbtbs, e`pbrpkrkt`rm`c`som, tmxbo`k), ksf`x`k `atrkpkrtm, pktmdmjïk cbd rbl`àa akl`cm (prbtàro`am, gknm pbsm, e`pmx`k, semlh, sbps`s), sïacrmob cb C` Jbmrjb (kusbal`k lmajàa`tk cb pkrkt`rm`cbs), l`trktm ba skajrb, btl.

E`pmjdulbo`k

• Skrcïk.   1< cïks cb v`ck. Dk lkusk oës frblubatb bs dk c`btk r`lk ba fmsfktms ([email protected]). Mtrks lkusks sma> e`pmokjabsbo`k (e`nms cb okcrb c`kgàt`lk), càf`l`t v`tko`ak C, okdkgsmrl`üa `atbst`akd, e`pmpkrkt`rm`c`som pr`okr`m.

Jdulbo`k 439 oj/cd. Yubcb prmvmlkr ba bd WA jrkvbs kdtbrkl`mabs aburmdüj`lks y cbd cbskrrmddm.

Jrupms f`s`mpktmdüj`lms • E`pbr`asud`a`som ([email protected]).

E`nms cb okcrb c`kgàt`lk

- E`nms cb okcr okcrbb c`kgàt`lk m c`kgbtbs jbstkl`makd. - Br`trmgdkstms`s fbtkd jrkvb.

@alduyb dk CO t`pm ;, dk t`pm 7 y dk jbstkl`makd. Dk e`pbrjdulbo`k oktbrak lkusk e`pbrjdulbo`k fbtkd b e`pbr`asud`a`som rbklt`vm lma e`pbrtrmf`k b e`pbrpdks`k cb dms `sdmtbs pkalrbët`lms.

- E`pmjdulbo`k e`pbr`asudïa`lk pbrs`stbatb (e`pbrpdks`k m e`pbrtrmf`k cb làdudks gbtk pkalrbët`lks). - E`pbr`asud`abo`k fko`d`kr m bspmrëc`lk.

Yrmgdboks ksml`kcms

- \ïacrmob cb Gblhw`te-Z`bcbokaa. Oklrmsmoïk, oklrmjdms`k, mafkdmlbdb, d`jbrk o`lrmjakt`k, abvus fdëobus fkl`kd, ebac`curk cbd pkgbddüa kur`ludkr y okymr r`bsjm cb tuomrbs (Z`dos, ebpktmgdkstmok, jmakcmgdkstmok).

• Kuobatm cb dk omrtkd`ckc (e`pbr`asud`a`s (e`pbr`asud`a`som, om, e`pbrjdulbo`k y kl`cms`s). • Ymd`e`crkoa`ms.

- Ykae`pmp`tu`tkr`som.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;

º Abmaktmdmjïk

@aokcurbz aburmdüj`lk

Oklrmsmoïk, mgbs`ckc, pdàtmrk

Lkrc`mobjkd`k (e`pbrtrmf`k ks`oàtr`lk cbd tkg`qub)

C`stràs rbsp`rktmr`m (BOE)

Lmdma `zqu`brcm e`pmpdës`lm

V`slbrmobjkd`k

Kjbabs`k duogmsklrk

Srmogms`s cb dk vbak rbakd

F`jurk kco`a`strkl`üa cb jdulmsk kd ;9% k omcm cb gmdm cb 7 od/hj sbju`cm cb pbrfus`üa cb okatba`o`batm.

- [email protected], WAYS, jbobdms (pbqubûm), pmd`l`tbo`k, kdtbrkl`mabs pdklbatkr`ks. - Kuobatm cb dks ablbs`ckcbs obtkgüd`lks. - Cbfbltms obtkgüd`lms lmajàa`tms> jkdkltmsbo`k, jdulmjbams`s, `atmdbrkal`k k dk frultmsk, kl`cbo`k prmp`üa`lk m ob-

Obc`r jdulbo`ks lkck 7 e ekstk dk amrokd`zkl`üa cb dks l`frks cb dk jdulbo`k. Ba e`pmjdulbo`ks rbgbdcbs sb eka ut`d`zkcm bd c`kzüx`cm y bd mltbütr`cm, s`bacm dk pkalrbktbltmoïk sugtmtkd bd trktko`batm cbf`a`t`vm cbd e`pbr`asud`a`som.

3<

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

E`pmt`rm`c`som lmajàa`tm ([email protected] ;:, ;:5) Bd e`pmt`rm`c`som lmajàa`tm mlurrb ba ; cb lkck 7999- • Fmroks trkas`tmr`ks (;9% cb tmcms dms lksms). -  Yksm cb Kl oktbrams k trkvàs cb dk pdklbatk.

cb `atbràs, kpabks curkatb dk dkltkal`k ([email protected])), bd bstrbû`o`batm m dk pbrs`stbal`k cb fmatkabdk pmstbr`mr kg`brtk kd aklbr. \ma cktms omrfmoàtr`lms sujbrbatbs dk c`stbas`üa kgcmo`akd (ebra`k uog`d`lkd), o`xbcbok pkdpbgrkd y jba`tkd, fkl`bs tïp`lk (mnms sbpkrkcms, pubatb akskd cbpr`o`cm y kalem, oklrmjdms`k, lubddm lmrtm y jrubsm), p`bd sblk y lbtr`ak, pbdm frëj`d, btl. Bd rbtrksm cbd cbskrrmddm fïs`lm y obatkd sb klbatþk curkatb dms pr`obrms obsbs. Dk cbat`l`üa sb rbtrksk. Dk vmz bs rmalk y am kprbacba k ekgdkr. Bd jrkcm cb rbtrksm kuobatk lma dk bckc.

-  Càf`l`t m bxlbsm bxlbsm cb ymcm. -  E`pmt`rm`c`som oktbram. • Fmroks pbrokabatbs (09%). -  Lkusks pr`okr`ks> • C`sjbabs`ks t`rm` t`rm`cbks cbks (lkusk oës frblubatb frblubatb ba jbabrkd8 cb bddks, dk oës frblubatb bs bd t`rm`cbs bltüp`lm). \ma oës frblubatbs ba bd sbxm fboba`am. • C`semromamjàabs`s. -  Lkusks e`pmtëdkom-e`pmf`skr`ks (rkrks).

Ldïa`lk Ks`atmoët`lms kd aklbr pmr bd pksm trkaspdklbatkr`m cb S3 oktbrak, dms sïatmoks vka kpkrbl`bacm prmjrbs`vkobatb ba dms pr`obrms obsbs cb v`ck. Bd pbsm y dk tkddk kd aklbr sma amrokdbs. Cbgba eklbr smspblekr e`pmt`rm`c`som dk prmdmajkl`üa cb dk `ltbr`l`k f`s`mdüj`lk, dks c`f`ludtkcbs cb kd`obatkl`üa (dbtkrj`k, pàrc`ck

C`kjaüst`lm Kltukdobatb dk okymrïk cb dms pkl`batbs ba aubstrm obc`m sma c`kjamst`lkcms pmr bd prmjrkok cb lr`gkcm bacmlr`am-obtkgüd`lm abmaktkd lma cbtbro`akl`üa cb S\E ba pkpbd cb f`dtrm. • S\E 4;9 ²j/od> amrokd. • S\E batrb ;9-29 ²j/od> cucmsm. • S\E 129 ²j/od> kdtm r`bsjm. r`bsjm. Dk lmaf`rokl`üa sb rbkd`zkrë obc`katb dk cbtbro`akl`üa cb S\E y S3 d`grb ba subrm cbd pkl`batb. K pkrt`r cb dms trbs kûms ba dms a`ûms lma t`rm`cbs `a s`tu, qub am bstà lmaf`rokcm qub sbk pbrokabatb, sb prmlbcb k eklbr dk rbbvkdukl`üa c`kjaüst`lk. Ykrk bddm sb suspbacb oubrtb sþg`tk cbd dkltkatb. Skgdk ;2. Süx`lms curkatb bd bogkrkzm.

↛ cbsprbac`o`batm

KDLMEMD [email protected] \`oàtr`lm> ↜ pbsm, tkddk y

prbokturm cb pdklbatk Ksf`x`k fbtkd ↛ O\D

pbrïobtrm lrkabkd Wbtrksm obatkd

Am

Wkrm

\ïacrmob kdlmeüd`lm-fbtkd> Kuobatk bd r`bsjm> fkl`bs pblud`kr (bp`lkatus, o`lrmlbfkd`k, ebomrrkj`ks gdbfkrmf`oms`s, o`lrmjak`atrklrkabkdbs, kdtbrkl`mabs t`k…), lkrc`mpktïk, trkstmraburmdüj`lks ams omtmrbs/lmacultk \`atmoët`lm8 fbamgkrg`tkd/dmrkzbpko

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

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Lrbl`o`batm y cbskrrmddm  Kutmrbs> Bcukrc Omjks V`ûkds, E. R. Vkdd c³Ebgrma (Gkrlbdmak). Fbd`sk Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. R. EO Omatbprïal`pb (Okcr`c). V`v`kak Krrbm cbd Vkd, E. R. Dk Ykz (Okcr`c).

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     s 39      m      o      k      r cbkogudkl`üa d`grb, pr`obrks pkdkgrks. @atrmculb uams mgnbtms cbatrm cb mtrms. • ;2.¾ obs> lmdkgmrk pkrk vbst`rsb. Srbpk bslkdbrks. bslkdbrks. • ;6-;0 obsbs> lmog`ak cms pkdkgrks, mgbcblb mgbcblb ürcbabs, lmrrb ([email protected]). Smrrbs cb < a`vbdbs. • ;5 obsbs> sbûkdk pkrtbs cb su lubrpm. • 2-;9 kûms> `rrbvbrs`g`d`ckc cb dk oubrtb ([email protected]).

 7.3. Cbskrrmddm sbxukd. Yugbrtkc Yugbrtkc.. ([email protected] ;;, ;25) F`jurk 3. Bckc üsbk (aþldbms cb ms`f`lkl`üa). K. A`ûm cb < obsbs. G. A`ûm cb : kûms.

Cbat`l`üa ([email protected] ;0, ;::) Dk brupl`üa cb dms c`batbs cb dbleb lmo`bazk pmr dms `al`s`vms lbatrkdbs `afbr`mrbs k dms 6-5 obsbs ([email protected]) y kvkazk dktbrkdobatb. Dk pàrc`ck cb dms c`batbs cb dbleb lmo`bazk cbspuàs cb dk brupl`üa cb dms pr`obrms omdkrbs, ekl`k dms 6 kûms. Jukrck bslksk lmrrbdkl`üa lma mtrms prmlbsms cb lrbl`o`batm y okcurkl`üa. Bd rbtrksm ba dk cbat`l`üa bs rbdkt`vkobatb frblubatb, subdb sbr `c`mpët`lm y s`a rbpbrlus`üa pktmdüj`lk. Skog`àa kpkrblb ba kdjuaks bafbrobckcbs lmom bd e`pmt`rm`c`som.

Cbskrrmddm ps`lmomtmr   7. rbprmcull`üa> e`pmtëdkom (JaWE, JEWE, smoktmstkt`ak), e`püf`s`s (DE, F\E y JE), dks jüakcks (kacrüjbams, bstrüjbams, prmjbstëjbams prmjbstëjbams b `ae`g`aks) y pmr þdt`om, bd fkltmr cb lrbl`o`batm sbobnkatb k dk `asud`ak (@JF), balkrjkcm cb prmvmlkr bd bst`rüa pugbrkd nuatm lma dms bstbrm`cbs sbxukdbs.

Yugbrtkc amrokd ba bd vkrüa Bd lrbl`o`batm cb dms tbstïludms ≢3 od (s`jam qub okrlk bd `a`l`m cbd cbskrrmddm sbxukd ba bd vkrüa) sb prmculb batrb dms 0 y dms ;3 kûms, k uak bckc obc`k cb ;7 kûms y prblbcb kd lrbl`o`batm cbd pbab y dk kpkr`l`üa cb vbddm pug`kam. Dms bspbroktmzm`cbs okcurms kpkrblba ba dk mr`ak k uak bckc obc`k cb ;< kûms. Dk klbdbrkl`üa cbd lrbl`o`batm sb prmculb kprmx`okckobatb 7 kûms cbspuàs cbd `a`l`m cb dk pugbrtkc, lm`al`c`bacm ekg`tukdobatb lma ua bstkc`m @@@ cb Skaabr y/m ua vmduoba tbst`ludkr kprmx`okcm cb ;9-;2 od. Bd vbddm fkl`kd kpkrblb oës tkrcïkobatb. Ymcboms lktkdmjkr bd puatm cbd cbskrrmddm sbxukd sbjþa dms bstkcïms cb Skaabr ba 2 btkpks.

(Vbr f`jurk 2 ba dk pëj`ak s`ju`batb)

3:

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

Bstkc`m @

Bstkc`m @

<

 4 7      ,  2  

Bstkc`m @@

Bstkc`m @@

3

7      ,  2   -    skajrkcm vkj`akd ba a`ûks batrb ; y 0 kûms s`a mtrms s`jams cb cbskrrmddm pugbrkd. Cbgb cbslkrtkrsb e`pmt`rm`c`som, ksï lmom prmlbsms abmpdës`lms, jrkaudmoks m `afbll`msms cb dk vkj`ak m bd làrv`x utbr`am. Rak vbz cbslkrtkcm tmcm dm katbr`mr, am prbl`sk trktko`batm bspblïf`lm.

Yugbrtkc prblmz \b lmas`cbrk pugbrtkc prblmz k dk tbdkrqu`k ba a`ûks 45 kûms, y kd kuobatm cbd vmduoba tbst`ludkr 13 od ba a`ûms 40 kûms. Srks cbslkrtkr e`pmt`rm`c`som (ua `alrbobatm cb S\E t`bab bfbltm F\E-d`hb), cbgb eklbrsb bd c`kjaüst`lm bt`mdüj`lm batrb pugbrtkc prblmz lbatrkd m pbr`fàr`lk obc`katb dk cbtbro`akl`üa cb dms a`vbdbs cb jmakcmtrmp`aks F\E y DE, blmjrkfïk pàdv`lk m kgcmo`akd y/m cb ua tbst cb bstïoudm lma kaëdmjms cb dk JaWE (ba bd qub uak `avbrs`üa cbd lml`batb F\E/DE 4; y/m p`lm DE 12 `ac`lkrïka rbspubstk pugbrkd lbatrkd). Dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb pugbrtkc prblmz lbatrkd ba dks ounbrbs bs `c`mpët`lk , o`batrks qub ba dms vkrmabs subdba sbr dbs`mabs ba \AL, pmr dm qub dk bxpdmrkl`üa e`pmf`skr`k obc`katb WO bstë rblmobackck ba kogms lksms. Ymr mtrk pkrtb, s` dk pugbrtkc prblmz bs cb mr`jba pbr`fàr`lm eky qub cbslkrtkr prmlbsms abmpdës`lms lmom tuomrbs mvër`lms m suprkrrbakdbs. \` bd prmaüst`lm cb tkddk f`akd sb vb lmoprmobt`cm y/m bx`stba fkltmrbs ps`lmsml`kdbs kûkc`cms, bstë `ac`lkcm frbakr dk prmjrbs`üa cb dk pugbrtkc lma kaëdmjms cb d`gbrkl`üa rbtkrckck cb JaWE.

(Vbr tkgdks ; y 7 ba dk pëj`ak s`ju`batb)

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 7

SBDKW[[email protected] YWBOKSRWK

Sbdkrqu`k k`sdkck BM kcbdkatkck ba 4; kûm VL am klbdbrkck Blmjrkfïk pbdv`kak amrokd (a`ûks)

KCWBAKW[[email protected] YWBOKSRWK Yugkrqu`k k`sdkck BM kcbdkatkck ba 47 kûms VL pubcb bstkr m am klbdbrkck Blmjrkfïk pbdv`kak amrokd (a`ûks) Sbstïludms 43 od (a`ûms)

º Lrbl`o`batm y cbskrrmddm

YRGBWSKC YWBLM^ Sbdkrqu`k Yugkrqu`k Obakrqu`k VL klbdbrkck BM kcbdkatkck ba 7 kûms Blmjrkfïk pbdv`kak pugbrkd (a`ûks) Sbstïludms 13 od (a`ûms) ≢

BM ? bckc üsbk8 VL ? vbdml`ckc cb lrbl`o`batm. Skgdk ;. C`kjaüst`lm c`fbrbal`kd cb dk pugbrtkc prblmz.

Vkr`katbs cb dk amrokd`ckc cb tkddk gknk \ma dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb rbtrksm cbd lrbl`o`batm kroüa`lm. Bd pbrlbat`d cb pbsm pbsm y tkddk kd akl`o`batm akl`o`batm subdb sbr amrokd pkrk dk bckc jbstkl`makd jbstkl`makd ([email protected] ;:, ;:6), ckcm qub bstks vkr`katbs amrokdbs am t`baba bxprbs`v`ckc `atrkþtbrm. • Wbtrksm lmast`tul`makd cbd lrbl`o`batm ([email protected]). - Ybsm y tkddk 4p< ekstk bd f`akd cb dk dkltk dkltkal`k, al`k, pkrkdbdms k dk lurvk amrokd curkatb dk `afkal`k y klbdbrkl`üa kd f`akd cb dk kcmdbslbal`k. Skddk kcudtk amrokd. \` bd `a`l`m cb dk pugbrtkc bstë ouy rbtrkskcm dk tkddk f`akd bs oës gknk cb dm prmamst`lkcm. prmamst`lkcm. - Bckc üsbk 4 bckc lrmamdüj`lk. - E`stmr`k fko`d`kr cb rbtrksm lmast`tul`makd. - Bstuc`ms cb dkgmrktmr`m amrokdbs.

YRGBWSKC YWBLM^ LBASWKD

YRGBWSKC YWBLM^ [email protected]À[email protected]

[email protected]\ BDBVKCK\

[email protected]\ JMAKCMSWMY @AK\ AM BDBVKCK\

•     •      

Bstuc`m cb `okjba (WO lrkabkd) amrokd> lkusk `c`mpët`lk. Bstuc`m cb `okjba pktmdüj`lm> lkusk mrjëa`lk (ekokrtmoks y mtrks lkusks)

• E`pbrpdks`k kcrbakd lmajàa`tk>   Bstuc`m cb bstbrm`cbs suprkrrbakdbs   (;:-ME-prmjbstbrmak8   CEBK-\8 kacrmstbac`mak) • Bstuc`m cb `okjba pktmdüj`lm>   Suomr mvër`lm   Suomr tbst`ludkr   Suomr suprkrrbakd • eLJ bdbvkck>   Suomr prmcultmr   cb jmakcmtrmp`aks. • E`stmr`k fko`d`kr>   Yugbrtkc prblmz cbd vkrüa. • C`spdks`k üsbk y okaleks —lkfà lma dbleb‟.   \ïacrmob cb OlLuab Kdgr`jet.

Skgdk 7. Yugbrtkc prblmz lbatrkd y pbr`fàr`lk.

 7.2. Skddk gknk gknk @afbr`mr k 7 C\ m 4p< pkrk su bckc ([email protected]), tba`bacm ba lubatk dk vbdml`ckc cb lrbl`o`batm y dk tkddk cb dms pkcrbs. Bd e`pmlrbl`o`batm sb ldks`f`lk cb dk s`ju`batb okabrk>

• Skddk gknk fko`d`kr> bs oës frblubatb. - Bd lrbl`o`batm vk pkrkdbdm m pmr cbgknm cb dks lurvks amrokdbs (4p gknk. - Yrubgks cb dkgmrktmr`m dkgmrktmr`m amrokdbs. amrokdbs.

Skddk gknk pktmdüj`lk Bd lrbl`o`batm cblkb cb fmrok d`abkd k dm dkrjm cbd ;.br  kûm (lurvk pdkak). • Kroüa`lm> dks lrmomsmompktïks sma dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb rbtrksm cbd lrbl`o`batm kroüa`lm pktmdüj`lm. - Yrbaktkd> [email protected] pmr lrmomsmompktïks (Surabr, Cmwa), tüx`lms m tbrktüjbams (fba`tmïak/kdlmemd), `afbll`msm (SMWLE), `aokcurbz bxtrbok. - Ymstaktkd ([email protected])> bafbrobckcbs lrmomsüo`lks ([email protected]), okdautr`l`üa, kdtbrkl`mabs obtkgüd`lks y bacmlr`aks, lmom bd càf`l`t cb emromak cbd lrbl`o`batm ([email protected]) (ba bd qub bs tïp`lm dk ksml`kl`üa cb o`lrmpbab ([email protected])). • C`skroüa`lm> c`spdks`k üsbk, lrmomsmompktïks y mtrms sïacrmobs.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

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Autr`l`üa  Kutmrbs> Fbd`sk Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. R. EO Omatbprïal`pb (Okcr`c). Bcukrc Omjks V`ûkds, E. R. Vkdd c³Ebgrma (Gkrlbdmak). \kdvkcmr Y`r`s Gmrrbjks, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c).

Bafmqub [email protected]

Lmopkrkl`üa batrb DO y füroudk krt`f`l`kd (DK)

Am cbslu`cbs dks lkrkltbrïst`lks cb dk dbleb oktbrak y sus c`fbrbal`ks lma dk dbleb krt`f`l`kd.

  pmlms. Am kfbltka kd WA dms prmcultms qub sma ël`cms càg`dbs, lmopubstms cb jrkacbs omdàludks, dms qub sb uaba k prmtbïaks pdksoët`lks m sb kgsmrgba okd.   Kdjuams fëroklms qub cbgba bv`tkrsb sma> - [S (Cmxmrrug`l`ak, l`ldmfmsfko`ck). - A`lmt`ak, kafbtko`aks, lmlkïak, ebrmïak, fbal`ld`c`ak. - Ldmrkafba`lmd, tbtrkl`ld`aks. - Obt`okzmd, tt`murkl`dm, `murkl`dm, @mcurm rkc`mklt`vm. - L`obt`c`ak. - Grmomlr`pt`ak. - D`t`m. - C`bt`dbst`dgbstrmd.

Dbleb cmakck euokak y pkstbur`zkck Cbscb dk kpkr`l`üa cb dms gkalms cb dbleb euokak y pkstbur`zkck dk MO\ y mtrms oulems mrjka`soms pbc`ëtr`lms `atbrakl`makdbs rblmo`backa fubrtbobatb bd usm cb dbleb euokak cmakck (DEC) pmr mtrks okcrbs lma prmcull`üa prmp`k cb dbleb trks ua prmlbsm cb pkstbur`zkl`üa. Ymr tkatm, dk DEC sb lmav`brtb ba bd kd`obatm cb bdbll`üa bdb ll`üa pkrk dms rbl`àa akl`cms qub am pubcba rbl`g`r dk dbleb cb su prmp`k okcrb, katbs cb dk füroudk krt`f`l`kd. Am mgstkatb, ckck dk `asuf`l`batb lkat`ckc cb DEC pkrk kgkstblbr k tmcms dms a`ûms qub am pubcba kd`obatkrsb cb dk dbleb cb su okcrb, sb eka lrbkcm uaks `ac`lkl`mabs pkrk c`r`j`r dk dbleb cb c`lems gkalms k dms a`ûms qub oës sb vka k gbabf`l`kr. Ksï, dk DEC `rë c`r`j`ck k dms rbl`àa akl`cms emsp`tkd`zkcms qub luopdka kdjuams cb dms s`ju`batbs lr`tbr`ms> • Yrbokturms cb 4;299 j. • Okdfmrokl`mabs `atbst`akdbs. • Lkrc`mpktïks lmajàa`tks qub pubcka prmcul`r bp`smc`ms cb gknm jkstm lkrc`klm. • Wbl`àa akl`cms lma ksf`x`k pbr`akatkd jrkvb.

Kd`obatkl`üa lmopdbobatkr`k (Gb`hmst) (Gb`hmst)  ([email protected] ;5, ;2:) \b `atrmculb batrbuak bd vbz 3.¾ ykd6.¾ Lukdqu`br kd`obatm cbgb sbr mfrbl`cm cïkobs. y sb cbgb sbpkrkr cb mtrm aubvm aubvm kd obams ;-7 sbokaks, pkrk cbtbltkr pms`gdbs kdbrj`ks. K dms 6 obsbs dk kd`obatkl`üa lmopdbobatkr`k cbgb supmabr bd 29% cbd lmatba`cm babrjàt`lm cb dk c`btk. Bd mrcba cb `atrmcull`üa cb dms kd`obatms bs ba oulems lksms ludturkd. • 3.¾-2.¾ obs> lbrbkdbs s`a jdutba. • 2.¾-6.¾ obs> frutk (okazkak, pbrk, pdëtkam8 am akrkank pmrqub bs ouy ël`ck) y vbrcurk (am ckr rbomdklek a` vbrcurks cb emnk vbrcb jrkacb lmom dks bsp`aklks ([email protected]) pmr r`bsjm cb obtkebomjdmg`abo`k, lmd y lmd`fdmr).

\`tukl`mabs bspbl`kdbs C`btks vbjbtkr`kaks/vbjkaks \b gkska ba bd lmasuom cb prmcultms cb mr`jba vbjbtkd, lma bxldus`üa pkrl`kd m tmtkd cb kd`obatms cb mr`jba ka`okd. Lmom r`bsjm autr`l`makd pubcb lmaddbvkr ua càf`l`t cb v`tko`ak G;7, pmr dm qub dkltkatbs, a`ûms y kcmdbslbatbs qub s`juba bstks c`btks cbgba rbl`g`r supdbobatms cb v`tko`ak G;7. Bstb t`pm cb c`btks t`baba prmtbïaks cb obamr vkdmr g`mdüj`lm (obams ko`amël`cms bsbal`kdbs), y r`bsjm cb cbskrrmddkr càf`l`t cb ël`cms jrksms bsbal`kdbs, mobjk fmobatm cbd cbskrrmddm ps`lmomtmr, lrbkr eëg`tms cb kd`obatkl`üa oës skduckgdbs, obnmr trkas`l`üa k dk kd`obatkl`üa süd`ck y k dkrjm pdkzm prbvbal`üa cb dk mgbs`ckc. @almavba`batbs> cbpbacb cb dk lkpkl`ckc cb lkck a`ûm ba lmalrbtm y cb dks ekg`d`ckcbs qub ekyk kcqu`r`cm. Ymr bddm am sb pubcb bo`t`r uak rblmobackl`üa jbabrkd`zkck lmom oàtmcm sbjurm cb kd`obatkl`üa lmopdbobatkr`k.

Yrmgdboks cb dk kd`obatkl`üa • Lüd`lms cbd dkltkatb> cmdmr kgcmo`akd pkrmxïst`lm, supubstkobatb cb mr`jba `atbst`akd, ba a`ûms 4< obsbs. \b prmculba lr`s`s cb ddkatm cb `a`l`m rbpbat`am lma c`stbas`üa kgcmo`akd y fdbx`üa cb o`bogrms `afbr`mrbs. Kpkrblba cb fmrok rut`akr`k k þdt`ok emrk cb dk tkrcb-amleb y obnmrka lma dk cbpms`l`üa m dk bxpuds`üa cb jksbs. Eky qub rbkd`zkr bd c`kjaüst`lm c`k jaüst`lm c`fbrbal`kd lma dk mgstrull`üa `atbst`akd, `afbll`üa pbr`tmabkd, mt`t`s m p`bdmabfr`t`s. Am bx`stb trktko`batm bspblïf`lm. • \ïacrmob cbd g`gbrüa> lmrrms`üa cbd bsokdtb cbatkd lma cbskrrmddm cb lkr`bs y cbstrull`üa cb `al`s`vms supbr`mrbs lma dk kco`a`strkl`üa prblmz cb g`gbrüa lma zuom cb frutks ([email protected]).

  lkdür`lk (okrksom) m prmtb`lk (hwkse`mrhmr).

• 6.¾-:.¾ obs> lbrbkdbs lma jdutba, pmddm, llkrab krab gdkalk. • 5.¾ obs> ymjur. • 0.¾ obs> ybok cb eubvm, pbslkcm gdkalm. • ;;.¾-;7.¾ obs> ldkrk cb eubvm. • K pkrt`r cbd ;7.¾ obs> dbleb batbrk cb vklk y dbjuogrbs. • Dks juïks am rblmo`backa tmokr dms frutms sblms ekstk 13 kûms pmr r`bsjm cb ksp`rkl`üa.

Okrksom m cbsautr`l`üa lkdür`lk ([email protected]) Cbsautr`l`üa lrüa`lk cbg`ck fuackobatkdobatb k c`so`aul`üa cb dk `ajbstk lkdür`lk, lma c`so`aul`üa cbd pbsm lmrpmrkd, c`so`aul`üa cb dk jrksk lmrpmrkd y cb dks prmtbïaks smoët`lks (bokl`kl`üa cb o`bogrms y trmalm, c`so`aul`üa cb dk l`rluafbrbal`k ousludkr cbd grkzm b @LK 469%), lma kspbltm cb —p`bd

2;

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

lugr`bacm k eubsm‟. Bstms `ac`v`cums am t`baba bcbok y àstb bs ua s`jam `opmrtkatb qub c`st`ajub kd okrksom cb dk cbsautr`l`üa prmtb`lk.

obatm cb dms a`vbdbs cb `asud`ak y kuobatm cb dk rbs`stbal`k k àstk, c`so`auybacm dk d`püd`s`s y kuobatkacm dk lkptkl`üa y sïatbs`s jrksk.

Hwkse`mrhmr m cbsautr`l`üa prmtb`lk

  Luse`aj, e`pmt`rm`c`som, e`pbr`asud`abo`k, càf`l`t cb JE, kdtbrkl`üa fual`üa e`pmtkdëo`lk, YrkcbrZ`dd`, pmd`qu`stms`s mvër`lk, psbucme`pmpkrkt`rm`c`som. • \ïacrmobs jbaàt`lms> Surabr, Dkurbalb-Omma-G`bcd, Dkurbalb-Omma-G`bcd, KdstrmoEkddjrba. • Mtrms sïacrmobs> Lmeba, Lmeba, Lkrpbatbr.

Lmopd`lkl`mabs • Lkrc`mvksludkrbs> Lkrc`mvksludkrbs> ESK8 kuobatm cb tr`jd`làr`cms8 kuobatm kuobatm cb lmdbstbrmd tmtkd, DCD y VDCD y cbslbasm cbd ECD. F`jurk ;. K. Hwkse`mrhmr. G. Okrksom.

• Ysbucmtuomr lbrbgr`. • Yudomakrbs> Y`lhw`lh, Y`lhw`lh, prubgks cb fual`üa pudomakr pudomakr kamrokdbs, kpabk cbd subûm.

O`xtk m lkqubx`k m cbsautr`l`üa prmtb`lmlkdür`lk Ba auobrmsks mlks`mabs am bs fël`d bstkgdblbr uak sbpkrkl`üa batrb kogks bat`ckcbs, pmr dm qub sb ekgdk cb okdautr`l`üa o`xtk. Bs dk oës frblubatb ba pkïsbs cbskrrmddkcms y ba pmgdkl`mabs emsp`tkdkr`ks. Kpkrblb ba pkl`batbs lma okrksom qub prbsbatka kdjþa prmlbsm kjucm prmcultmr cb bstràs. Kluoudkl`üa jbabrkd`zkck y bxlbs`vk cb jrksk ba bd tbn`cm lbdudkr suglutëabm y ba mtrms tbn`cms. Bd ïac`lb cb oksk lmrpmrkd (@OL) bs bd ïac`lb oës þt`d pkrk cbf`a`r sbdblt`vkobatb dk mgbs`ckc ba dms kcmdbslbatbs. Yubcb sbr bd rbsudtkcm cbd kuobatm ba bd aþobrm cb kc`pml`tms curkatb bd bogkrkzm y bd pr`obr kûm cb v`ck, y pmstbr`mrobatb, cbd tkokûm. Bd sbcbatkr`som, uak kd`obatkl`üa cbsbqu`d`grkck y pmlm rbjudkck (mo`s`üa cb cbskyuam), ksï lmom fkltmrbs fko`d`krbs (mgbs`ckc cb dms pkcrbs, gknm a`vbd blmaüo`lm/bculkt`vm cb dms pkcrbs, obamr aþobrm cb `atbjrkatbs cb cb dk fko`d`k…), sb sb rbdk rbdkl`maka lma bd kuobatm cb su prbvkdbal`k  prbvkdbal`k  ([email protected] ; bafbrobckcrbakd, ebpët`lk cb m rbakd (`asuf`l`bal`k lma (càf`l`t càf`l`t cb e`crmx`dkl`üa L;) ([email protected]).

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok < º Autr`l`üa

• Wkqu`t`som v`tko`ak C rrbs`stbatb> bs`stbatb> pmr kdtbrkl`üa cb dk e`crmx`dksk rbakd (t`pm @) m pmr rbs`stbal`k cbd rblbptmr k dk kll`üa cb dk v`tko`ak (t`pm @@). • Bd sïacrmob cb Fkalma` bajdmgk jdulmsur`k, ko`amkl`cur`k, e`pbrfmsfktur`k y pubcb ksml`kr kl`cms`s tugudkr prmx`okd.   Dk jdulmsur`k, am prmculb e`pmjdulbo`k k c`fbrbal`k cb dk e`pbrfmsfktur`k qub sï qub prmculb e`pmfmsfmrbo`k.

Ldïa`lk Kdtbrkl`mabs üsbks Yubcba mgsbrvkrsb cbscb dms 7 obsbs, kuaqub bd rkqu`t`som fdmr`cm sb oubstrk ekl`k bd ;.br-7.¾ kûm. Bd mrcba cb kpkr`l`üa cb dks dbs`mabs üsbks bs cbslbacbatb> lrëabm, türkx y bxtrbo`ckcbs. • Lrkabmtkgbs > kcbdjkzko`batm cb dk tkgdk bxtbrak cbd lrëabm ba mll`pul`m m pkr`btkdbs pmstbr`mrbs, lma kpkrbatb ba-

Y`bd

skaleko`batm cb dks suturks, ckacm ua kspbltm cb —lrëabm ba pbdmtk cb p`aj-pmaj‟). Lbrlk cb dks suturks lrkabkdbs sb lmas`cbrk uak vkr`katb cb dk amrokd`ckc.

:-cbse`crmlmdbstbrmd Fmtmquïo`lk Lmdblkdl`fbrmd (C prmo`abal`k cb dks ua`mabs lmstmlmacrkdbs.

Wkqu`t`som lk lkrrbal`kd

• Lkput lukcrktuo> kpdkako`batm y ks`obtrïk cbd lrëabm lma rbtrksm cbd l`brrb cb dk fmatkabdk katbr`mr.

Eïjkcm

• Wbtrksm ba dk brupl`üa cbatkr`k y cbd bsokdtb lma lkr`bs jbabrkd`zkcks.

72-ME lmdblkdl`fbrmd Lmrtbzk rbakd

• Sürkx ba pkdmok pmr prmybll`üa cbd bstbraüa y su lkrtïdkjm ekl`k cbdkatb.

Wkqu`t`som v`t. C t`pm @

• \urlm cb Ekrr`sma m cbprbs`üa emr`zmatkd qub kpkrblb ba dk pkrtb `afbr`mr cbd türkx.

;-72 c`ME lmdblkdl`fbrmd (v`tko`ak C)

• Cbfmro`ckc pàdv`lk lma lrbl`o`batm rbtrkskcm.

Wblbptmrbs pbr`fàr`lms

• Y`braks krqubkcks m pkt`zkogks, frklturks ba tkddm vbrcb cb dms eubsms dkrjms (ks`atmoët`lks).

Wkqu`t`som v`t. C t`pm @@

• Baka`som rkquït`lm, jbau vkrm (pmr rbdknkl`üa d`jkobatmsk), l`fms`s y bslmd`ms`s, pmstbr`mrbobatb, cbfmro`ckcbs ba vkdjm.

F`jurk 7. Obtkgmd`som cb dk v`tko`ak C.

• \ma tkog`àa frblubatbs dks frklturks pktmdüj`lks. pktmdüj`lks.

F`s`mpktmdmjïk  F`s`mpktmdmjïk ([email protected] ;5, ;20)

• Ousludkturk pmlm cbskrrmddkck b e`pmtüa`lk lma cbkogudkl`üa rbtrkskck.

Dk c`so`aul`üa cb dk v`tko`ak C prmvmlk dk kpkr`l`üa cb e`pmlkdlbo`k, y bstk lmaddbvk ua kuobatm cb pkrktmemromak (YSE) lmopbaskcmr, lmom lmasblubal`k cbd lukd sb prmculb> • Wbkgsmrl`üa cb lkdl`m y füsfmr füsfmrm m cbd eubsm (cbso`abrkd`zkl`üa). (cbso`abrkd`zkl`üa).   Kuobatm cb fmsfktksks kdlkd`aks. • Wbkgsmrl`üa rbakd cb lkdl` lkdl`m m lma c`so`aul`üa cb dk rbkgsmrl`üa cb füsfmrm ba bd r`ûüa ([email protected]), kuobatm cb dk bxlrbl`üa cb g`lkrgmaktm y kdtbrkl`üa ba dk rbkgsmrl`üa cb ko`amël`cms. YES

W`ûüa

Wbsmrl`üa cb eubsm

F`jurk 3. S`g`ks vkrks.   KOYl ur`akr`m

  kss y l`trktm

  ELM< bxlrbtkcm

Y

Lk

Lk

Y

FK Amromlkdlbo`k lmopbaskcmrk

F`jurk lkdl`m amrokd m c`so`au`cm, füsfmrm 43 oj/cd, kuobatm cb dk fmsfktksk kdlkd`ak, kuobatm cbd KOYl ur`akr`m y c`so`aul`üa cb 72-e`crmx`lmdblkdl`fbrmd sàr`lm ([email protected]). • Wkc`mdüj`lm> dk rkc`mjrkfïk pmstbrmkatbr`mr cb ouûblk bs dk oës `dustrkt`vk. Dms lkog`ms rkquït`lms tïp`lms sma>

qub bd trktko`batm am vk k sbr bd lmrrbltm. \` bx`stb e`pmlkdlbo`k lmalmo`tkatb sb kco`a`strkrë tkog`àa lkdl`m. K obc`ck qub lurk bd rkqu`t`som dk fmsfktksk kdlkd`ak vubdvb k dk amrokd`ckc. Yubcb sbr amrokd ba dkltkatbs rkquït`lms lma cbpüs`tms gknms cb prmtbïaks y z`al.

  obams s`jams cb cbse`crktkl`üa, lma p`bd lkd`batb y pkstmsk y okymr ldïa`lk aburmdüj`lk pmr cbse`crktkl`üa aburmakd (f`bgrb, dbtkrj`k, e`pbrtmaïk, e`pbrrbfdbx`k, lmavuds`mabs).

S`pms

• Ebomjrkok> ebomlmalbatrkl`üa (kuobatm cb Eg, eboktmlr`tm y prmtbïaks pdksoët`lks).

• \bjþa dk `atbas`ckc.

• G`mquïo`lk> bd smc`m cbf`ab bd t`pm cb cbse`crktkl`üa. Bd pmtks`m pubcb bstkr kuobatkcm ba lksms cb c`krrbk, kl`cms`s b `asuf`l`bal`k rbakd y c`so`au`cm s` dks pàrc`cks sma jëstr`lks m pmr kco`a`strkl`üa cb ëdlkd`s m jdulmsk. Balmatrkrboms kl`cms`s ba c`krrbks jrkvbs b `asuf`l`bal`k rbakd y kdlkdms`s ba vüo`tms pbrt`aklbs m ksp`rkl`üa aksmjëstr`lk. Dms a`vbdbs cb ldmrm vka pkrkdbdms k dms cb smc`m ([email protected]). Bd e`ktm ka`üa`lm m ka`majkp bs dk c`fbrbal`k batrb dms lkt`mabs y dms ka`mabs> (Ak+H)(Ld+ELM ba dkltkatbs sb gksk ba bd smc`m m ba dk msomdkr`ckc pdksoët`lk. Dms lkog`ms cb msomdkr`ckc ba ua lmopkrt`obatm prmculba cbsv`kl`mabs lmopbaskcmrks cb kjuk (qub s`jub s`boprb kd Ak) k trkvàs cb dk obogrkak lbdudkr, ckacm bcbok m cbse`crktkl`üa lbdudkr. Yubcb ldks`f`lkrsb ba ([email protected])> - @smtüa`lk> bs dk oës frblubatb (:9-59%). Am bx`stb jrkc`batb msoüt`lm y bd vmduoba `atrklbdudkr pbrokablb lmastkatb. - E`pmtüa`lk> bd kjuk pksk cbd bspkl`m bxtrklbdudkr kd `atrklbdudkr y bd vmduoba `atrklbdudkr kuobatk, cbsbalkcbakacm cbsbalkcbakacm `atbask cbse`crktkl`üa pmr bd kluskcm cbslbasm cb dk vmdbo`k (r`bsjm cb bcbok lbdudkr). - E`pbrtüa`lk> bd kjuk sb cbspdkzk kd bspkl`m bxtrklbdudkr, c`so`auybacm bd vmduoba `atrklbdudkr cb fmrok s`ja`f`lkt`vk (r`bsjm cb cbsblkl`üa lbdudkr).

Bt`mdmjïk Kpmrtb `asuf`l`batb m `akcblukcm cb dïqu`cms> DO bslksk m okd `astkurkck. Yàrc`cks kuobatkcks> c`jbst`vks (vüo`tms, c`krrbk), rbakdbs (pmd`ur`k, c`kgbtbs `asïp`ck, e`pbrpdks`k suprkrrbakd lmajàa`tk), lutëabks (f`grms`s quïst`lk, qubokcurks) y rbsp`rktmr`ks (pmd`pabk b e`pbrvbat`dkl`üa ba pkl`batbs ksoët`lms m ba dk lbtmkl`cms`s c`kgàt`lk).

Cktms cb dkgmrktmr`m

• Bd a`trüjbam urb`lm ba skajrb y dk lrbkt`a`ak sàr`lk kuobatka ba dk cbse`crktkl`üa cbg`cm k dk c`so`aul`üa cbd f`dtrkcm jdmobrudkr (`asuf`l`bal`k rbakd prbrrbakd). • Kakdït`lk cb mr`ak> e`pbrlmalbatrkck, l`d`acrms e`kd`ams m jrkaudmsms, dbulml`tms, br`trml`tms y prmtbïaks.

Srktko`batm mrkd ([email protected] ; bs dk oës kcblukck y f`s`m• Wbe`crktkl`üa mrkd düj`lk, pmr dm qub s`boprb qub sbk pms`gdb sb ut`d`zkrë bstk vïk. \ubdb tbabr ua guba rbsudtkcm ba dks cbse`crktkl`mabs dbvbs m omcbrkcks. Dk kd`obatkl`üa ekg`tukd cbd a`ûm a`ûm sb cbgb oka okatbtbabr, s`boprb qub am bx`stk `atmdbrkal`k mrkd mrkd ([email protected] ;3, ;:2).   \b ek cb rbpmabr bd càf`l`t ba 3-5 e m ba ;7 e s` sb sb trktk cb uak e`pbraktrào`lk. \b rblmo`back bd subrm mrkd e`pmsüc`lm> Ak 69 oBq/D, H 79 oBq/D, jdulmsk ;,3 j (pmr oBq cb Ak) y sustkal`ks tkopüa.

Ldïa`lk

• Wbe`crktkl`üa `atrkvbamsk> `ac`lkck ba cbse`crktkl`mabs jrkvbs, vüo`tms pbrs`stbatbs, ïdbm pkrkdït`lm, kgcmoba kjucm, kdtbrkl`üa cbd a`vbd cb lmal`bal` lmal`bal`kk m `abstkg`d`ckc ebomc`aëo`l ebomc`aëo`lk. k.

Yàrc`ck cb vmduoba bxtrklbdudkr.

  Bd vmduoba k rbpmabr sbrë> ablbs`ckcbs gkskdbs + càf`l`t lkdludkcm (dbvb, omcbrkck m jrkvb) + dks pàrc`cks lmat`aukcks.

• E`pmtüa`lk> `opmrtkatbs s`jams cb rbcull`üa cb vmduoba

  Bd t`pm cb cbse`crktkl`üa okrlkrë bd usm cb uak u mtrk smdul`üa y dk vbdml`ckc cb rbe`crktkl`üa.

bxtrklbdudkr, mnms euac`cms bs uam cb dms`aldusm s`jams semlh ldïa`lmse`pmvmdào`lm. qub obnmrka Dms rëp`ckobatb cbspuàs cb dk rbe`crktkl`üa. Dk turjbal`k lutëabk bs c`fïl`d cb vkdmrkr ba a`ûms lma okdautr`l`üa `atbask y ba dms WAYS.

- @smtüa`lk> sb rbpmacrë bd càf`l`t cb dk s`ju`batb fmrok> ;/7 ba dks pr`obrks 5 emrks y dk mtrk ;/7 ba dks ;6 emrks rbstkatbs.   \mdul`üa k ut`d`zkr> ut`d`zkr> `a`l`kdobatb `a`l`kdobatb \\F 9,0%, sbju`cm sbju`cm cb subrm jdulmskd`am ;/7.

22

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

- E`pmtüa`lk> `jukd qub dk katbr`mr katbr`mr.. \` dk e`pmaktrbo`k bs jrkvb sb uskrëa dïqu`cms e`pbrtüa`lms. - E`pbrtüa`lk> sb rbpmab bd càf`l`t ba 35-:7 emrks cb fmrok jrkcukd, lma uak smdul`üa cb jdulmskd`am ;/2. Dk `atbal`üa bs `r lmrr`j`bacm dk aktrbo`k k uak vbdml`ckc 4;9 oBq/hj/  cïk, pkrk bv`tkr pms`gdb bcbok lbrbgrkd. - Ba ua a`ûm cbse`crktkcm, dk obnmr fmrok cb vkdmrkr dk rbspubstk k lmrtm pdkzm kd trktko`batm bs o`c`bacm dk c`urbs`s ([email protected]). K obc`m pdkzm lmatrmdkrboms bd pbsm c`kr`m.

 3.;. \ïacrmob pmst-batbr`t`s pmst-batbr`t`s Srkstmram cb dk autr`l`üa pmr c`so`aul`üa cb dk `ajbstk babrjàt`lk qub s`jub k dms bp`smc`ms prmdmajkcms cb jkstrmbatbr`t`s. Ba dk okymr pkrtb cb dms lksms bs c`fïl`d k`sdkr bd jbroba qub mr`j`aü dk c`krrbk. Dms pkl`batbs prbsbatka pàrc`ck cb pbsm y kpkrblb jrksk ba dks eblbs. Dms fkltmrbs cb r`bsjm ksml`kcms sma WAGY, okdautr`l`üa prbv`k, c`krrbk `avksmrk, càf`l`t cb v`tko`ak K, `afbll`mabs, dkltkal`k krt`f`l`kd, bp`smc`ms rbpbt`cms cb jkstrmbatbr`t`s ba 46 obsbs, usm cb kat`g`üt`lms\e`jbddk (KSG), ),c`krrbk gkltbr`kak (B. lmd`, \kdomabddk, Lkopydmgkltbr, `aouamcbpr`o`cms, kdbrj`k k prmtbïaks cb dbleb cb vklk y rbe`crktkl`mabs `.v. prmdmajkcks (qub `aculba ktrmf`k vbddms`tkr`k).

Srktko`batm

Wblubrck... Lukacm ekyk qub rbe`crktkr k ua cbse`crktkcm pmr vïk `.v., dm pr`obrm bs lkdludkr dm qub db eklb fkdtk lkck cïk. Ykrk bddm eky qub bst`okr sus ablbs`ckcbs gkskdbs y su càf`l`t. Dks ablbs`ckcbs gkskdbs sbjþa dk rbjdk cb Emdd`cky> Dms pr`obrms ;9 hj> ;99 ll/hj Batrb ;9-79 hj> 29 ll/hj 179 hj> 79 ll/hj Ksï, ua a`ûm qub pbsb ;9 Ú pbsm Ú càf`l`t bst`okcm ldïa`lkobatb (%) \bjþa bd t`pm cb cbse`crktkl`üa qub sbk db lmrrbj`rboms bd càf`l`t bd pr`obr cïk m ba 35-:7 emrks (mgsbrvk qub ba dks cbse`crktkl`mabs e`pbraktrào`lks bs cmacb oës prblkul`üa sb cbgb tbabr ba dk vbdml`ckc cb rbe`crktkl`üa).

Wbe`crktkl`üa y lmrrbll`üa e`crmbdbltrmdït`lk, lma autr`l`üa prblmz y kpmrtb babrjàt`lm kcblukcm.

Yrmf`dkx`s Dkltkal`k oktbrak y autr`l`üa prblmz trks uak c`krrbk kjuck. Ba dms a`ûms lma c`krrbk bs `opmrtkatb y rblmobackgdb bd `a`l`m prblmz cb dk `ajbstk cb dbleb (sb lmas`jub ksï ua guba kpmrtb lkdür`lm y cb autr`batbs pkrk bd `atbst`am) ([email protected]).

Wblubrck... Ykrk prbvba`r bd sïacrmob pmst-jkstrmbatbr`t`s> • Am c`du`r dks tmoks pmrqub pbrcbrë pbsm. • Am qu`tkr dk dkltmsk pmrqub kyuck k rbjbabrkr bd bp`tbd`m. • Am ckr okazkak pmrqub fkvmrblb dms rbtmrt`nmabs.

26

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 2

Bafbrobckcbs cbd kpkrktm rbsp`rktmr`m  Kutmrbs> Okrïk Cbd Y`dkr Katüa Okrt`a, Yemba`x Le`dcrba³s Emsp`tkd (Yemba`x, BB.RR.), Ckv`c Smrrbs Fbraëacbz, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c). Fbd`sk Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. R. EO Omatbprïal`pb (Okcr`c).

Bafmqub [email protected] Làatrktb ba dk f`grms`s quïst`lk y dk grmaqu`md`t`s. \bjurm qub pmaba kdjuak prbjuatk cb bstms tboks.

 2.;. Mgstrull`üa kjuck cb vïks rbsp`rktmr`ks supbr`mrbs Dk dkr`ajb bstë fmrokck pmr luktrm lkrtïdkjms (t`rm`cbs, lr`lm`cbs, kr`tbam`cbs y bp`jdüt`lm) y pmr dms tbn`cms gdkacms kcyklbatbs, s`bacm bd lr`lm`cbs dk pmrl`üa oës bstrblek cb dk vïk rbsp`rktmr`k supbr`mr cb dms a`ûms. Dk mgstrull`üa cb dk vïk rbsp`rktmr`k t`bab okymr trkslbacbal`k ba dkltkatbs y a`ûms pbqubûms, pmr dk bstrblebz f`s`mdüj`lk cb dks vïks rbsp`rktmr`ks. Dk `afdkokl`üa qub kfbltk k dks lubrcks vmlkdbs y k dks d ks bstrulturks pmr cbgknm bx`stbatbs sb cbamo`ak lrup, dkr`aj`t`s m dkr`ajmtrkqubït`s kjuck. Dk `afdkokl`üa qub kfbltk k dks bstrulturks pmr bal`ok cb dks lubrcks vmlkdbs sb cbamo`ak suprkjdmt`t`s.

Lkrkltbrïst`lks jbabrkdbs @al`cbal`k Vkrmabs cb < obsbs k 2 kûms, ba `av`bram, lma tbacbal`k k dks rbl`c`vks cbatrm cbd o`som kûm.

Ldïa`lkobatb kpkrblb cbg`d`ckc, cbtbr`mrm cbd bstkcm jbabrkd, tms g`tmakd, c`sfmaïk y c`sabk. K dk bxpdmrkl`üa mgsbrvkoms obogrkaks gdkalm-jr`sëlbks ba dk dkr`ajb, qub skajrka kd cbsprbacbrdks. Bd trktko`batm bs lma pba`l`d`ak m br`trmo`l`ak y kat`tmx`ak c`ftàr`lk.

Lrup v`rkd (dkr`ajmtrkqub`t`s kjuck m dkr`aj`t`s kjuck) ([email protected]) Bs dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb dkr`aj`t`s kjuck c`sab`lk. Mlurrb ba a`ûms cb ; k < kûms cb bckc. Dms v`rus qub dk lkuska sma bd pkrk`afdubazk ; (bd oës frblubatb) y jbabrkdobatb kpkrblb ba 4< kûms, s`bacm dk bt`mdmjïk oës frblubatb dk gkltbr`kak (\. \. kurbus).   \ubdb kpkrblbr lmom smgrb`afbll`üa cb uak dkr`ajmtrkqubït`s kjuck v`rkd. \b lkrkltbr`zk pmr f`bgrb kdtk y c`sabk qub pubcb rbqubr`r `atugkl`üa (29-69%). \b fmroka kguackatbs sblrbl`mabs bspbsks purudbatks luyk ksp`rkl`üa pubcb prmcul`r kd`v`m pkrl`kd. Bd c`kjaüst`lm bs ldïa`lm, kuaqub pubcba cbtbltkrsb kdtbrkl`mabs rkc`mdüj`lks, dbulml`tms`s y abutrmf`d`k. Bd trktko`batm bs kat`g`mtbrkp`k lma η-dkltëo`lms m jdulmpàp-

rk`afdubazk bd rbstm pmr VW\,ba v`rus cb dk lkusk jr`pb yoës skrkop`üa), bxlbptm ba  y dk bp`jdmt`t`s kjuck dk qub frblubatb brk bd Ekbompe`dus `afdubazkb g (E`g) ([email protected]) ba dk brk prbvkluakd, pmr dm qub ba dk kltukd`ckc bs ua lukcrm ldïa`lm bxlbpl`makd prmvmlkcm pmr \. pymjbabs, \. pabuoma`kb y \. kurbus.

Ldïa`lk

Dkr`aj`t`s c`ftàr`lk (lrup vbrckcbrm) Jrkl`ks k dk vkluakl`üa jdmgkd bs bxtrbokckobatb `afrblubatb, kuaqub bd c`kjaüst`lm am cbgb pbrcbrsb cb v`stk ba pmgdkl`mabs `ao`jrkatbs. Bstë lkuskck pmr bd Lmryabgkltbr`uo c`petbr`kb.

2:

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

t`cms (lma `atugkl`üa s` dk prbl`sk). Bd sïacrmob cbd semlh tüx`lm sb ek ksml`kcm lma dk trkqubït`s. \` bd trktko`batm bs bd kcblukcm, bd prmaüst`lm bs bxlbdbatb. • Lrup bspksoüc`lm> subdb kpkrblbr ba `av`bram, pmr dk amleb y s`a kpkrbatbs sïatmoks prbv`ms cb lktkrrm. \ubdb sbr kfbgr`d. Dk bt`mdmjïk bs `al`brtk, kuaqub sb ek ksml`kcm lma ktmp`k, rbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm m fkltmrbs ps`lmdüj`lms. \u lkrkltbrïst`lk lkrkltbrïst`lk fuackobatkd bs dk rblurrbal`k. • Lrup c`ftàr`lm. • Lrup cbd skrkop`üa> pubcb sbr fudo`akatb. • Mtrks> ksp`rkl`üa cb lubrpm bxtrkûm, kgslbsms, lmoprbs`üa bxtrïasblk cb dk vïk rbsp`rktmr`k, mgstrull`üa `atrkduo`akd, kaj`mbcbok, tbtka`k, omamauldbms`s `afbll`msk, trkuokt`soms, tuomrbs m okdfmrokl`mabs, lkusks ps`lüjbaks y ksok.

Bp`jdmt`t`s kjuck (suprkjdmt`t`s m dkr`aj`t`s suprkjdüt`lk m lrup gkltbr`kam) Yrmvmlkck ba su okymrïk pmr `afbll`üa pmr Ekbompe`dus `afdubazkb t`pm g, bs ua prmlbsm ouy jrkvb y omrtkd qub subdb mlurr`r ba a`ûms cb 7-: kûms. Ek c`so`au`cm ouleïs`om su frblubal`k pmr dk vkluakl`üa frbatb kd E. `afdubazkb t`pm g. Yubcb sbju`r k ua lukcrm `a`l`kd cb r`amfkr`aj`t`s (kuaqub am bs frblubatb bd bs kog`batb fko`d`kr bp`cào`lm cb `afbll`üa), pbrm dk bvmdul`üa fudo`akatb> kpkrblb f`bgrb bdbvkck, pmstrkl`üa y cmdmr fkrïajbm, dk c`sabk sb eklb rëp`ckobatb bv`cbatb, dk mc`amfkj`k bs tka `atbask qub dk skd`vk bs `opms`gdb cb trkjkr, kpkrbl`bacm gkgbm y vmz jkajmsk (—vmz ba pktktk lkd`batb‟), y bd a`ûm kcmptk bspmatëabkobatb uak pms`l`üa sbatkck y lma bd lubddm ba e`pbrbxtbas`üa, dk gmlk kg`brtk y dk dbajuk skd`batb (—ba pmsturk cb trïpmcb‟). Dk tms pbrruak bs rkrk. K obc`ck qub bd a`ûm sb lkask, vka c`so`auybacm dms ru`cms rbsp`rktmr`ms, puc`bacm bvmdul`makr k s`tukl`üa cb semlh.

C`kjaüst`lm Aualk cbgb bxpdmrkrsb dk dkr`ajb c`rbltkobatb, pmr bd r`bsjm cb bspksom, ba lksms cucmsms sb rbkd`zk dkr`ajmslmp`k c`rbltk (bp`jdmt`s rmnm-lbrbzk y bcbokt`zkck) ba qu`rüfkam, pmr pkrtb cb oàc`lms bspbl`kd`zkcms ba `atugkl`üa y trkqubmstmoïk, lma rkc`mjrkfïk prbv`k südm s` dm pbro`tb bd bstkcm ldïa`lm cbd a`ûm. Ba lksms dbvbs gkstkrë lma dk rkc`mjrkfïk dktbrkd cb dk fkr`ajb, cmacb pubcb kprbl`krsb dk bp`jdmt`s bajrmskck.

Srktko`batm Bd trktko`batm oës `opmrtkatb bs okatbabr dk pbrobkg`d`ckc cb dk vïk kàrbk, ddbjkacm ba kdjuams lksms k dk `atugkl`üa (cb bdbll`üa, c`fïl`d pbrm frblubatb, bxtugkl`üa k dks 35-:7 e) m trkqubmtmoïk (bxlbpl`makd). Kat`g`üt`lms pkrbatbrkdbs (lbfmtkx`ok, lbftr`kxmak m kop`l`d`ak) curkatb :-;9 cïks. Am lmdmlkr ba cblþg`tm sup`am a` lmjbr vïks vbamsks ekstk qub am bstà ksbjurkck dk vïk kàrbk. Dk kcrbakd`ak `aekdkck y dms lmrt`lm`cbs sma `abf`lklbs. Lma bd trktko`batm kcblukcm y prblmz, bd prmaüst`lm am bs okdm. Dks `afbll`mabs lmalmo`tkatbs sma pmlm frblubatbs kuaqub pubcba kpkrblbr abuomaïk, d`afkcba`t`s lbrv`lkd, oba`aj`t`s m krtr`t`s sàpt`lk.

 2.7. Bstr`cmr dkrïajbm dkrïajbm lmajàa`tm Bt`mdmjïk • Srkqubmokdkl`k> cbg`d`ckc cb dks pkrbcbs cb dk vïk rbsp`rktmr`k. • Dkr`ajmokdkl`k> bs dk kdtbrkl`üa lmajàa`tk oës frblubatb cb dk dkr`ajb (:2%) y dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb bstr`cmr `asp`rktmr`m ba bd rbl`àa akl`cm. Lmas`stb ba uak fdkl`cbz m fkdtk cb lmas`stbal`k cb dms lkrtïdkjms kr`tbam`cbs y cb dk bp`jdmt`s, lkuskck pmr uak lkdl`f`lkl`üa `almopdbtk cbd bsqubdbtm dkrïajbm, qub prmvmlk bd lmdkpsm y l`brtm jrkcm cb mgstrull`üa cb dk vïk rbsp`rktmr`k curkatb dk `asp`rkl`üa. Bs oës frblubatb ba vkrmabs y sb ksml`k k mtrks kamokdïks kaktüo`lks.

Ldïa`lk Dk oka`fbstkl`üa pr`al`pkd bs bd bstr`cmr `asp`rktmr`m, kuaqub ba mlks`mabs am kpkrblb ekstk dms 7 obsbs cb bckc. \ma frblubatbs dms ru`cms rbsp`rktmr`ms `atbasms y dms jmrnbms curkatb dk `asp`rkl`üa. Dms sïatmoks pubcba sbr `atbro`tbatbs y bopbmrka ba cblþg`tm sup`am. Yubcb klmopkûkrsb cb rmaqubrk, kfmaïk, c`sabk y rbtrkll`mabs lmstkdbs `asp`rktmr`ks, qub sma `atbasks y qub pubcba cbfmrokr bd türkx. \` dk c`sabk bs `atbask pubcb bx`st`r c`f`ludtkc ba dk kd`obatkl`üa. Cbskpkrblb prmjrbs`vkobatb k obc`ck qub sb cbskrrmddk dk vïk rbsp`rktmr`k.

C`kjaüst`lm Ba dk okymrïk cb dms lksms pubcb eklbrsb pmr dk ldïa`lk, pbrm bd c`kjaüst`lm cbf`a`t`vm sbrïk pmr dkr`ajmslmp`k. Dkr`ajmslmp`k c`rbltk> ba dk dkr`ajmokdkl`k sb mgsbrvk uak bp`jdmt`s ba fmrok cb ebac`curk qub sb lmdkpsk lma dk `asp`rkl`üa prmfuack m bd ddkatm.

F`jurk ;. Bp`jdmt`t`s ba pkl`batb qub prbl`sü `atugkl`üa. @okjba cb dkr`ajmslmp`k.

F`jurk 7. Dkr`ajmokdkl`k. @okjba pmr dkr`ajmslmp`k.

25

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 2 º Bafbrobckcbs cbd kpkrktm rbsp`rktmr`m

C`kjaüst`lm c`fbrbal`kd Okdfmrokl`mabs ba dms lkrtïdkjms dkrïajbms y ba dks lubrcks vmlkdbs, obogrkaks `atrkduo`akdbs, lmacrmokdkl`k jrkvb cb dkr`ajb y trëqubk, tuomrbs, qu`stbs rbs`cukdbs cbd lmacultm t`rmjdmsm, e`pmpdks`k okac`gudkr, ebokaj`moks, d`afkaj`moks, Y`brrb-Wmg`a, gml`ms lmajàa`tms y kdtbrkl`mabs vksludkrbs.

Dk mgstrull`üa rbsudtkatb ba vëdvudk (batrk k`rb qub am pubcb skd`r) `aculb ua ktrkpko`batm prblmz b e`pbr`asufdkl`üa, puc`bacm prmvmlkr ktbdbltks`ks (lmdkpsm kdvbmdkr) lukacm dk mgstrull`üa bs lmopdbtk y bd k`rb sb rbkgsmrgb. \b vk k cbtbr`mrkr bd `atbrlkog`m jksbmsm lma uak kdtbrkl`üa vbat`dkl`üa/pbrfus`üa, lkuskacm e`pmxbo`k y, ba lksms jrkvbs, rbtbal`üa cb lkrgüa`lm.

Ldïa`lk Srktko`batm ([email protected]) Dk bvmdul`üa bs fkvmrkgdb, yk qub bd lkrtïdkjm vk kcqu`r`bacm lmas`stbal`k lma dk bckc, rbsmdv`àacmsb bspmatëabkobatb s`a trktko`batm bspblïf`lm (lurkl`üa cbd 02% lma lmacultk bxpbltkatb). Ba mlks`mabs (ouy pmlm frblubatb) ek s`cm ablbskr`k dk trkqubmstmoïk m dk `atugkl`üa prmdmajkck, y dk kd`obatkl`üa pmr \AJ (s`bacm oës tmdbrkgdb dk pms`l`üa ba cblþg`tm prmam).

Yrmaüst`lm Jbabrkdobatb rbo`tb k dms ;5 obsbs, kuaqub pubcb bx`st`r l`brtm jrkcm cb mgstrull`üa curkatb kdjþa t`bopm. Kdjuams pkl`batbs prbsbatka curkatb dk a`ûbz bstr`cmr lm`al`c`bacm lma `afbll`mabs rbsp`rktmr`ks, bnbrl`l`m fïs`lm m ddkatm.

 2. • 47 kûms lma bafbrobckc pudomakr llrüa`lk rüa`lk m lma lkrc`mpktïk lmajàa`tk lma kdtbrkl`üa ebomc`aëo`lk s`ja`f`lkt`vk. • Yrbokturms 475 sbokaks cb jbstkl`üa, cb fmrok obasukd ekstk dms ;7 obsbs. • Yrbokturms cb 70- \. kurbus y Y. kbruj`amsk qub t`bacb k dk trksfmrokl`üa oulm`cb ba bstms pkl`batbs, s`bacm bstk trkasfmrokl`üa kdtkobatb sujbst`vk, kuaqub am cbf`a`t`vk, pkrk eklbr bd c`kjaüst`lm). Ykrblb bx`st`r cb fmrok pr`okr`k uak prbc`spms`l`üa cb bstms pudomabs k smgrb`afbltkrsb yk qub am bx`stba kdtbrkl`mabs `aoua`tkr`ks `opmrtkatbs qub bxpd`quba bstks `afbll`mabs.

  Kd prmjrbs prmjrbskr, kr, kpkrblb kpkrblb `atmdbrkal`k `atmdbrkal`k kd bnbrl`l`m y rbtrksm rbtrksm pmacbrmbstkturkd, y ba þdt`ok `astkal`k, lmr pudomakdb, `asuf`l`bal`k rbsp`rktmr`k y oubrtb. • \ma frblubatbs dks smgrb`afbll`mabs gkltbr`kaks pmr Ysbucmomaks kbruj`amsk, \. kurbus  ([email protected]) y dk lmdma`zkl`üa pmr G. lbpklbk (cb c`fïl`d brrkc`lkl`üa y cb okd prmaüst`lm).   Dks fmroks oulm`cbs cb Ysbucmomaks kbruj`amsk sma kdtkobatb sujbst`vks (kuaqub am cbf`a`t`vks) pkrk bstkgdblbr bd c`kjaüst`lm ([email protected]). Dk `afbll`üa lrüa`lk sb d`o`tk kd kpkrktm rbsp`rktmr`m, rbdkl`maëacmsb lma bd bstkcm autr`l`makd, smgrb tmcm lma càf`l`t cb ël`cms jrksms.   Ba dms lksms lma fual`üa pkalrbët`lk pkalrbët`lk bxmlr`ak amrokd, dk bafbrobckc rbsp`rktmr`k kpkrblb oës tkrcïkobatb. • Lmopd`lkl`mabs ([email protected])> ktbdbltks`ks, ebompt`s`s, abuomtürkx, mstbmkrtrmpktïk e`pbrtrüf`lk (bdbvkl`üa cbd pbr`mst`m smgrb dks pmrl`mabs c`stkdbs cb dms eubsms dkrjms, cmdmr üsbm, bcbok y cbrrkobs krt`ludkrbs), `asuf`l`bal`k rbsp`rktmr`k lrüa`lk (smgrb tmcm kcmdbslbatbs y kcudtms) lma cbskrrmddm cb lmr pudomakdb, `asuf`l`bal`k lkrcïklk cbrblek kjuck m lrüa`lk, kspbrj`dms`s grmalmpudomakr kdàrj`lk. • Vïk rbsp`rktmr`k supbr`mr> pmd`pms`s akskd, mgstrull`üa akskd y r`amrrbk. Am subdb ekgbr ldïa`lk cb s`aus`t`s kuaqub dms sbams bstëa mpkl`f`lkcms.

Kaktmoïk pktmdüj`lk • Yudoüa> e`pbrpdks`k cb làdudks lkd`l`fmrobs b e`pbrtrmf`k cb jdëacudks sugoulmsks ba rbspubstk k dk `afbll`üa lrüa`lk, grmaqu`bltks`ks, guddks sugpdburkdbs (dügudms supbr`mrbs), c`dktkl`üa b e`pbrtrmf`k cb dk obc`k cb dks krtbr`ks grmaqu`kdbs (ESY sbluackr`k). • \bams pkrkakskdbs> mlupkcms pmr omlm, e`pbrpdks`k cb bdbobatms sblrbtmrbs, püd`pms, p`moulmlbdbs m brms`üa üsbk. • Yëalrbks> pbqubûm y quïst`lm, lma kdtbrkl`üa cb dms kl`ams (qub sb vubdvba f`grüt`lms) y lma klþoudm cb jrksks. K pkrt`r cb dms 79 kûms eky fmlms cb lkdl`f`lkl`üa y c`srupl`üa cb dms `sdmtbs. • Sugm c`jbst`vm> c`dktkl`üa y mlupkl`üa pmr dk sblrbl sblrbl`üa `üa cb dks jdëacudks (kdtbrkl`mabs oïa`oks). • Eïjkcm> l`rrms`s g`d`kr fmlkd (72% (72%), ), eïjkcm jrksm ( c`stbac`cks pmr oml omlm. m. Dks jdëacudks blr`aks y dks pkrüt`cks am bstëa kaktüo`lkobatb kfbltkcks, k fbltkcks, kuaqub su prmcultm sblrbtmr bstë kdtbrkcm. • Jba`tmur`akr`ks> omlm kguackatb ba làrv`x, bacmlbrv`l`t`s, mgd`tbrkl`üa, ktrbs`k cb lmdk y lubrpm cbd bp`cïc`om, cb dms lmacultms cbfbrbatbs y cb dks vbsïludks sbo`akdbs.

F`jurk 3. Ymd`pms`s akskd.

C`jbst`vm Ïdbm oblma`kd (;2-79% cb dms rbl`àa akl`cms lma F[ y ba lksms cb ebrokams kfbltms ksl`bacb kd EgK;l. \mspblekr ba pkl`batbs 1;9 kûms. kûms. • Fual`üa pudomakr> am f`kgdbs ekstk dms 3 kûms (okdk lmdkgmrkl`üa).   Ba dk `afkal`k kpkrblb uak bafbrobckc mgstrult`vk lma bslksk rbspubstk k grmalmc`dktkcmrbs, kuaqub kdjuams bafbroms lma f`grms`s quïst`lk t`baba l`brtm jrkcm cb e`pbrrbklt`v`ckc rrbklt`v`ck c grmaqu`kd. • Bstuc`m rkc`mdüj`lm> e`pbr`asufdkl`üa, tkpmabs cb omlm, grmaqu`bltks`ks ba dügudms supbr`mrbs, ktbdbltks`ks c`sbo`akcks b `af`dtrkcms lmafduybatbs. Ba dms lksms oës kvkazkcms kpkrblb e`pbr`asufdkl`üa oks`vk, qu`stbs, grmaqu`bltks`ks bxtbasks y ktbdbltks`ks sbjobatkr`ks dmgudkrbs. Ba dk SL cb kdtk rbsmdul`üa (SLKW) sb mgsbrvka kdtbrkl`mabs prblmlbs cb dms pr`obrms kûms cb v`ck. • C`kjaüst`lm prbaktkd> bd lr`gkcm abmaktkd sb `a`l`k lma dk cbtbro`akl`üa cbtbro`akl`ü a cb dk tr`ps`ak `aouamrrbklt`vk `aouamrrbklt`vk ([email protected]) ba dk oubstrk cb skajrb cbd tkdüa cbd abmaktm, k dks 35 emrks cb v`ck (sbas`g`d`ckc cbd 02%). \` dk pr`obrk [email protected] bs amrokd, sb lmas`cbrk qub bd rbsudtkcm cbd lr`gkcm bs abjkt`vm. \` am bs ksï, sb lmat`aþk bd bstuc`m, rbp`t`àacmdm kd obs cb v`ck y puc`bacm kûkc`r bd bstuc`m jbaàt`lm ba dk o`sok oubstrk pkrk vkdmrkr bav`kr kd a`ûm k ua`ckcbs cb rbfbrbal`k pkrk vkdmrkl`üa y rbkd`zkl`üa cb dk prubgk cbd sucmr. • Bstuc`m jbaàt`lm> bd ekddkzjm cb cms outkl`mabs ldkrkobatb rbdkl`makcks lma dk F[, ba kogks lmp`ks cbd jba LFSW, lmaf`rok bd c`kjaüst`lm cb dk bafbrobckc. \b eka

cbslr`tm oës cb 7999 outkl`mabs, kuaqub am ba tmcms dms lksms sb ek bstkgdbl`cm g`ba su rbdkl`üa lma dk prmcull`üa cb bafbrobckc.

Wbsp`rktmr`m • F`s`mtbrkp`k rbsp`rktmr`k pkrk omv`d`zkr dks sblrbl`mabs cb dks vïks kàrbks. • Kat`g`üt`lms> rbqu`brba cms`s bdbvkcks. Yubcba kco`a`strkrsb vïk mrkd (s` ldïa`lk rbsp`rktmr`k m `cbat`f`lkl`üa cb o`lrmmrjka`soms ba ludt`vms cb dks sblrbl`mabs), `.v. (s` ldïa`lk prmjrbs`vk k pbskr cb dks obc`cks cmo`l`d`kr`ks `atbas`vks m bxklbrgkl`üa jrkvb) m ba kbrmsmd (pkrk `alrbobatkr dk lmalbatrkl`üa bacmgrmaqu`kd). Dk kco`a`strkl`üa curkatb pbr`mcms prmdmajkcms prmculb ba cb dmskz`trmo`l`ak pkl`batbs uak obnmrïk ba su fual`üa pudomakr (FBV; y FVL), ba dk lkd`ckc cb v`ck, y uak obamr ablbs`ckc cb l`ldms cb kat`g`üt`lms bacmvbamsms. \us bfbltms sb cbgba k su kll`üa `aouamomcudkcmrk. • \` bd pkl`batb am obnmrk eky qub pbaskr ba `asuf`l`bal`k lkrcïklk, vïks kàrbks e`pbrrbklt`vks b `afbll`üa pmr kspbrj`ddus fuo`jktus, o`lmgkltbr`ks u mtrms pktüjbams pmlm ekg`tukdbs m grmtb cb kspbrj`dms`s grmalmpudomakr kdàrj`lk (smgrb tmcm s` 16 kûms cb bckc). • \ubrm skd`am e`pbrtüa`lm `aekdkcm. • Cmraksk kdfk `aekdkcm> bs ua baz`ok baz`ok mgtba`ck pmr `ajba`brïk jbaàt`lk qub t`bab ua bfbltm oulmdït`lm. \b usk ba pkl`batbs lma kfbltkl`üa jrkvb. • Grmalmc`dktkcmrbs> η-kcrbaàrj`lms ba kbrmsmd jbabrkdobatb prbv`m kd kat`g`üt`lm `aekdkcm. • Lmrt`lm`cbs> ba kbrmsmd s` bx`stb e`pbrrbklt`v`ckc e`pbrrbklt`v`ckc ksml`kck cb dks vïks kàrbks, pbrm am sb usk cb rut`ak. • Sbrkp`ks bspblïf`lks bspblïf`lks cb outkl`üa> kltþka kltþka k a`vbd cbdLFSW, lma kll`üa —lmrrbltmrk‟ m —pmtbal`kcmrk‟ cbd o`som. Ba Bspkûk kltukdobatb sb balubatrka kprmgkcms> - @vklkftmr ba omamtbrkp`k> pkrk pkl`batbs 17 kûms lma outkl`mabs c`fbrbatbs k γF295. - @vklkftmr-duoklkftmr ba lmog`akl`üa> pkrk a`ûms 1;7 kûms pmrtkcmrbs emoml`jmtms cb dk outkl`üa γF295.   Kogms eka omstrkcm uak omcbrkck obnmrïk cb dk fual`üa pudomakr y c`so`aul`üa cb dks bxklbrgkl`mabs. Bs prbl`sm bvkdukr dk fual`üa ebpët`lk katbs cb `a`l`kr bd trktko`batm y pbr`üc`lkobatb curkatb bd o`som.

Lmopd`lkl`mabs rbsp`rktmr`ks • Ktbdbltks`ks> jbabrkdobatb rbsubdvba lma f`s`mtbrkp`k `atbas`vk m f`grmgrmalmslmp`k tbrkpàut`lk, smdm cbgb vkdmrkrsb dk

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Sbok 2 º Bafbrobckcbs cbd kpkrktm rbsp`rktmr`m

dmgbltmoïk s` eky c`f`ludtkc rbsp`rktmr`k prmjrbs`vk, f`bgrb, kamrbx`k y tms pbrs`stbatb. • Ebompt`s`s oks`vk (17 (1729 29 od)> rbqu`brb v`tko`ak H s` bd t`bopm cb prmtrmog`ak bstë kdtbrkcm y suspbas`üa cb dk f`s`mtbrkp`k rbsp`rktmr`k. Cbgb bv`tkrsb dk dmgbltmoïk yk qub bs c`fïl`d dmlkd`zkr dk ebomrrkj`k y pubcb sbr þt`d dk bogmd`zkl`üa sbdblt`vk s` eky ebompt`s`s `opmrtkatb y pbrs`stbatb. • Abuomtürkx> s` bs pbqubûm südm mg mgsbrvkl`üa8 sbrvkl`üa8 s` bs okymr m k tbas`üa bd trktko`batm qu`rþrj`lm bs rëp`cm y cbf`a`t`vm.

Lmopd`lkl`mabs c`jbst`vks • Mgstrull`üa Mgstrull`üa `atbst`akd c`stkd `atbro`tbatb `atbro`tbatb m bqu`vkdbatb oblma`kd> kuobatkr bd kpmrtb cb baz`oks pkalrbët`lks, dkxkatbs y dïqu`cms, dkvkcm `atbst`akd lma smdul`üa skd`ak y pmd`bt`dbajd`lmd.   \` dk mgs mgstrull`üa trull`üa bs lmopdbtk sb pubcb rbsmdvbr lma lma babok cb lmatrkstb. • @avkj`akl`üa> babok cb lmatrkstb m dkpkrmtmoïk. dkpkrmtmoïk. \` bp`smc`ms rbpbt`cms> lblmtmoïk.

• Kspbrj`dms`s grmalmpudomakr kdàrj`lk> dms lmrt`lm`cbs lmas`juba qub cbskpkrbzlk ba vkr`ks sbokaks.

• Wbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm> pubcb sbr ablbskr`m dk fuacupd`lkturk cb A`ssba. Bstëa lmatrk`ac`lkcms dms kjbatbs lmd`aàrj`lms qub pubcba kuobatkr dk sblrbl`üa cb omlm.

• Ymd`pms`s akskd> lmrt`lm`cbs y cbslmajbst`ma cbslmajbst`makatbs katbs akskdbs. \` mgstrull`üa lmopdbtk m r`amrrbk lmastkatb, bstë `ac`lkck dk l`rujïk.

• Yrmdkpsm rbltkd> rbcull`üa okaukd.

• Mstbmkrtrmpktïk e`pbrtrüf`l e`pbrtrüf`lk> k> klbtko`amfbam m `guprmfbam.

Yrmaüst`lm

• @asuf`l`bal`k rbsp`rktmr`k llrüa`lk> rüa`lk> mx`jbamtbrkp`k cmo`l`d`kr`k, smgrb tmcm curkatb bd subûm. • @asuf`l`bal`k lkrcïklk cbrblek y lmr pudomakdb> c`btk bxbatk cb skd nuatm lma c`uràt`lms y rbstr`ll`üa cb dïqu`cms, b `aldusm c`j`tëd`lms s` sb ksml`k k `asuf`l`bal`k lkrcïklk `zqu`brck. • Yrbmpbrktmr`ms> lma kfbltkl`üa pudomakr omcbrkck m jrkvb prbl`ska ua l`ldm prbv`m cb ;-7 sbokaks cb trktko`batm kat`g`üt`lm frbatb k dms jàrobabs qub bstà lmdma`zkcm, cbg`bacm rbcul`rsb bd t`bopm tmtkd cb dk kabstbs`k y bst`oudkr dk tms.

Autr`l`makd • C`btk> dms dkltkatbs bv bvmdul`maka mdul`maka g`ba lma füroudks füroudks ekg`tukdbs8 pmstbr`mrobatb rbqu`brba füroudks e`pbrlkdür`lks b `aldusm kd`obatkl`üa amlturak pmr smack aksmjëstr`lk, batbrmstmoïk pbrlutëabk m autr`l`üa pkrbatbrkd. • Baz`oks pkalrbët`lms> s` sb kco`a`strka curkatb dks lmo`cks pbro`tba uak c`btk d`gbrkd. \b eka rbdkl`makcm cms`s bdbvkcks cb bstms fëroklms lma bstbams`s lmdüa`lks qub prbl`ska p rbl`ska l`rujïk. • \updbobatms v`tkoïa`lms> dk v`tko`ak H ssbb ablbs`tk ba bd abmaktm, ba dms bp`smc`ms cb ebompt`s`s y nuatm kd trktko`batm kat`o`lrmg`kam `atbasm y dk l`rujïk.

Ba dk kltukd`ckc am sb pubcb ekgdkr uak bckc cb supbrv`vbal`k, pmr bd kuobatm cb dk o`sok ba dms þdt`oms kûms. \` sb `a`l`k bd trktko`batm katbs cb qub dk fual`üa pudomakr bstà kdtbrkck, smgrbv`vba oës cbd 09% cbspuàs cb dms 79 kûms cb bckc. Dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb oubrtb sb cbgb k dk kfbltkl`üa rbsp`rktmr`k.

Wblubrck... Lkrkltbrïst`lks ldïa`lks ldïa`lks tïp`lks  tïp`lks cb dk F[, sbjþa dk bckc cbd pkl`batb> • WA-;obs> ïdbm oblma`kd b `ltbr`l`k prmdmajkck. • Ekstk dms 7 kûms> bstbktmrrbk, rbtrksm pmacbrmbstkturkd, cbse`crktkl`üa lma kdlkdms`s e`pmaktrào`lk b e`pmldmrào`lk b `afbll`mabs rbsp`rktmr`ks cb rbpbt`l`üa. • 7-;7 kûms> `afbll`mabs rbsp`rktmr`ks cb rbpbt`l`üa, grmaqu`bltks`ks, püd`pms. • 1;7 kûms> `asuf`l`bal`k rbsp`rktmr`k, grmaqu`bltks`ks, ESY, bstbr`d`ckc, c`kgbtbs obdd`tus rbdkl`makck lma dk F[, kfbltkl`üa ebpët`lk y d`t`ks`s g`d`kr. Ba bd c`kjaüst`lm c`kjaüst`lm am  am mdv`cbs qub dk pr`obrk prubgk k rbkd`zkr s`boprb bs bd `mamtbst, `acbpbac`batbobatb cb dk bckc cbd a`ûm. Bd tr`ps`aüjbam `aouamrrbklt`vm sàr`lm smdm bs uak prubgk cb  abmaktkd. slrbba`aj  abmaktkd.

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Sbok 6

Kpkrktm c`jbst`vm  Kutmrbs> \kdvkcmr Y`r`s Gmrrbjks, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c), Okrïk Cbd Y`dkr Katüa Okrt`a, Yemba`x Le`dcrba³s Emsp`tkd (Yemba`x, BB.RR.), Bcukrc Omjks V`ûkds, E. R. Vkdd c³Ebgrma (Gkrlbdmak).

Bafmqub [email protected] Cbscb eklb 2 kûms bs bd tbok oës prbjuatkcm cb Ybc`ktrïk. Cbgbs lmamlbr dms kspbltms ldïa`lms y c`kjaüst`lms cb dks pr`al`pkdbs bafbrobckcbs, batrb bddks, bafbrobckc lbdïklk, bstbams`s e`pbrtrüf`lk cb pïdmrm, objklmdma kjkajd`üa`lm, `avkj`akl`üa `atbst`akd y Oblhbd.

- Wbtrksm pmacbrmbstkturkd. - Bsmfkj`t`s> `rr `rr`tkg`d`ckc `tkg`d`ckc (cmdmr m krcmr krcmr rbtrmbstbrakd), rbtrmbstbrakd), rblekzm cb dks tmoks y kabo`k fbrrmpàa`lk pmr skajrkcm c`jbst`vm. - \ïacrmob cb \kac`fbr> mp`stütmams y mtrks kdtbrkl`mabs cb dk pmsturk cb dk lkgbzk ba rbdkl`üa lma WJB. Dk pms`l`üa cb dk lkgbzk kltþk lmom oblka`som cb prmtbll`üa cb dk vïk kàrbk m pkrk c`so`au`r bd cmdmr pmr bd WJB.

6.;. Wbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm Yksm cbd lmatba`cm jëstr`lm kd bsüfkjm. Skog`àa cbamo`akcm lkdks`k m rbfdunm d`grb k trkvàs cbd bsfïatbr bsmfëj`lm `afbr`mr `almopbtbatb. Dk `al`cbal`k bs cb ;/ • Yms`l`üa kgcmo`akd cbd bsfïatbr> dk pm pmrl`üa rl`üa `afrkc`kfrkjoët`lk lmrtk fkvmrblb bd rbfdunm. • Ëajudm cb `asbrl`üa cbd bsüfkjm ba bd bstüokjm (ëajudm cb E`s) obams kjucm. • Yrbs`üa cbd bsfïatbr> c`so`aul`üa cbd tmam cb fmrok `atbro`tbatb curkatb bd ddkatm, dk tms m dk cbfblkl`üa8 oës rkrkobatb c`dktkl`üa lrüa`lk (lmoþa ba dk bsmfkj`t`s). F`jurk ;. Bsmfkj`t`s pmr rbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm.

Ldïa`lk • Wbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm f`s`mdüj`lm/okcurkt`vm f`s`mdüj`lm/okcurkt`vm (WJB) m rbjurj`tkl`mabs cbd dkltkatb ([email protected]). - Vüo`tms ktüa`lms m rbjurj`tkl`mabs bxlbs`vks curkatb dks pr`obrks sbokaks cb v`ck, qub sb rbsubdvba bspmatëabkobatb ba dk okymrïk cb dms lksms ekl`k dms 7 kûms (omobatm ba qub bd a`ûm kcmptk lma okymr frblubal`k uak pms`l`üa brbltk y tmok kd`obatms oës süd`cms). Yubcb pbrs`st`r ekstk dms 3 kûms. - Wbtrksm cbd vkl`ko`batm jëstr`lm jëstr`lm ksml`kcm. - Am bx`stb rbtrksm pmacbrmbstkturkd a` mtrks lmopd`lkl`mabs. • Bafbrobckc pmr WJB ([email protected]). - Abuomaïks pmr ksp`rkl`üa. - Wuo`kl`üa> ksml`k omv`o`batms rbpbt`cms cb dk lkgbzk y fkdtk cb obcrm. Yubcb vbrsb `afdubal`kck pmr fkltmrbs ps`lmdüj`lms, WJB m ebra`k cb e`ktm.

C`kjaüst`lm • Ldïa`lm> dk rbspubstk kd trktko`batm lmaf`rok bd c`kjaüst`l c`kjaüst`lm. m. • pEobtrïk> tàla`lk oës sbas`gdb y bspblïf`lk qub lukat`f`lk bd WJB ([email protected]). Bs dk tàla`lk cb bdbll`üa pkrk bd c`kjaüst`lm cb WJB. Bx`stba mtrks tàla`lks lmom dk `opbckal`mobtrïk qub pbro`tba cbtbltkr WJB kdlkd`am pbrm tmckvïk am bx`stba vkdmrbs cb rbfbrbal`k ba pbc`ktrïk. • Bsmfkjmjrkfïk lma gkr`m gknm lmatrmd rkc`mslüp`lm> bd rbfdunm pbrs`stbatb sb vk k lmas`cbrkr pktmdüj`lm. \brv`rë tkog`àa pkrk cbslkrtkr dk ebra`k cb e`ktm ksml`kck, v`àacmsb dms pd`bjubs jëstr`lms pmr bal`ok cbd lkrc`ks (sb vba obnmr s` bd bsüfkjm bstë lmdkpskcm), dks bstbams`s m dms cktms `ac`rbltms cb dk bsmfkj`t`s (oulmsk `rrbjudkr). • Bsmfkjmslmp`k lma g`mps`k> g`mps`k> c`kjaüst`lm cb lmaf`rokl`üa lmaf`rokl`üa cb dk bsmfkj`t`s.

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Sbok 6

º Kpkrktm c`jbst`vm

Srktko`batm

C`kjaüst`lm

• @a`l`kdobatb mptkr pmr trktko`batm lmasbrvkcmr, okatba`bacm cb fmrok sbo``almrpmrkck k dms dkltkatbs, smgrb tmcm, trks dks tmoks, m brbltms k dms a`ûms oës okymrbs.

• Ykdpkl`üa cb dk md`vk p`dür`lk, oksk curk, oüv`d, pmr bal`ok y k dk cbrblek cbd mogd`jm, pmr cbgknm cbd rbgmrcb ebpët`lm. \b pkdpk obnmr trks bd vüo`tm (lukacm dk ousludkturk kgcmo`akd sb rbdknk) y ba a`ûms cbsautr`cms.

• Bspbskr dk füroudk lma lbrbkdbs (c`so (c`so`auyb `auyb bd ddkatm y bd vmduoba cbd vüo`tm).

• Mack pbr`stëdt`l pbr`stëdt`lkk jëstr`lk qub prmjrbsk k dm dkrjm cbd kgcmoba.

• @ae`g`cmrbs cb dk gmogk cb prmtmabs> cb bdbll`üa ba bd om-

• Blmjrkfïk Blmjrkfïk  ([email protected] ([email protected] ;5, ;258 ;258 [email protected] ;3, ;: ba bafbr bafbr-obckc pmr rbfdunm jkstrmbsmfëj`lm qub am rbspmacb kd trktko`batm oàc`lm.

09%). \b kprbl`k jrmsmr cb bdbll`üa (sbas`g`d`ckc ousludkturk p`dür`lk 13 oo m dmaj`tuc jdmgkdua1;3 oo.cb dk • Wkc`mjrkfïk lma gkr`m> lmacultm p`dür`lm kdkrjkcm, prmtugbrkal`k cb àstb ekl`k bd katrm (—s`jam cbd emogrm‟) y dïabks pkrkdbdks cb gkr`m ba bd `atbr`mr cbd lmacultm (—s`jam cbd cmgdb trkltm‟). Ba dk kltukd`ckc ba cbsusm. • WU kgcmoba> —gurgunk kàrbk þa`lk‟ (lksms bxtrboms bxtrboms). ).

Srktko`batm

6.7. Bstbams`s e`pbrtrüf`lk cb pïdmrm Lkusk oës frblubatb cb vüo`tm am g`d`msm ba bd abmaktm, lma uak `al`cbal`k cb ;). Dk dmlkd`zkl`üa oës frblubatb bs `dbmlüd`lk y dk `dbm`dbmlüd`lk. Dks obams ekg`tukdbs sma dks fmroks `dbkdbs bxldus`vks, qub subdba kpkrblbr cb fmrok `as`c`msk trks dkpkrmtmoïks y rbqu`brba rbsbll`üa.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

Bt`mdmjïk @c`mpët`lk. \b ek rbdkl`makcm lma `afbll`üa pmr kcbamv`rus, mt`t`s obc`k kjuck, jkstrmbatbr`t`s kjuck m `afbll`üa rbsp`rktmr`k supbr`mr, pþrpurk cb \leöadb`a-Ebamle, eboktmok `atrkourkd, cbse`crktkl`üa ba pkl`batbs lma F[, tuomrbs, ebokaj`moks, lubrpms bxtrkûms, pkrks`tms`s, fblkd`tms y trks qu`o`mtbrkp`k.

([email protected] ; • Fksb cb cbs`opkltkl`üa fblkd> pubcb cbs`opkltkrsb lma lma baboks, pbrm ba dk kltukd`ckc sb prbf`brb dk cbs`opkltkl`üa pmr vïk mrkd lma dk ut`d`zkl`üa k cms`s kdtks cb dkxkatbs (jbabrkdobatb pmd`bt`dbajd`lmd). • Fksb cb okatba`batm> cms`s oës gknks cb dkxkatbs (s` eboms uskcm pmd`bt`dbajd`lmd pkrk dk cbs`opkltkl`üa sb lmat`aukrë lma àstb) curkatb ua oïa`om cb 7-< obsbs nuatm lma bstkgdbl`o`batm cb obc`cks e`j`àa`lm-c`btàt`lks.

• Wx kgcmoba> c`so`aul`üa cbd lkd`grb cbd lmdma kfbltm, lma kusbal`k cb k`rb c`stkd, cbpbac`bacm cbd jrkcm cb mgstrull`üa. mgstrull`üa. • Babok mpklm> lmdma c`stkd mgstru`cm cb obamr lkd`grb (pmr fkdtk cb rbdknkl`üa cbd `atbst`am kjkajd`makr) y prmx`okd c`dktkcm amrokd. Bx`stb ua rbtrksm ba dk bd`o`akl`üa cbd lmatrkstb. • Okamobtrïk kamrrbltkd ([email protected])> dk c`stbas`üa rbltkd am prmvmlk dk lkïck cb dk prbs`üa cbd bsfïatbr kakd `atbram m bx`stb ua kuobatm pkrkcün`lm. Rak okamobtrïk amrokd bxlduyb  bd c`kjaüst`lm. • G`mps`k rbltkd> c`kjaüst`lm cb lmaf`rokl`üa. Eklbs abrv`msms e`pbrtrüf`lms lma t`al`üa pms`t`vk pkrk klbt`dlmd`abstbrksk, ksï lmom kusbal`k cb làdudks jkajd`makrbs. Cbgb rbkd`zkrsb kdb nkck uams cms lo cb dk dïabk pbltïabk pkrk bv`tkr dk zmak kjkajd`makr amrokd cbd gmrcb kakd. Ba dk zmak prbv`k k dk ckûkck subdb bx`st`r uak e`pbrtrmf`k ousludkr.

Objklmdma kjkajd`üa`lm lmajàa`tm (bafbrobckc cb E`rlespruaj) Kusbal`k tmtkd cb dk `abrvkl`üa pkrks`opët`lk `atrkourkd (pdbxm o`batàr`lm cb Kubrgkle y pdbxm sugoulmsm cb Ob`ssabr) ([email protected]) cbscb bd bsfïatbr kakd `atbram bxtbac`àacmsb ba sbat`cm prmx`okd ba dmaj`tuc vkr`kgdb. Cb okabrk lmopbasktmr`k sb prmculb e`pbrtrmf`k cbd pkrks`opët`lm bxtrkourkd lma kuobatm cb dks tbro`akl`mabs abrv`msks ba bd `atbst`am kjkajd`makr, ckacm dujkr kd kuobatm cb klbt`dlmd`ak, qub prmvmlkrë uak kusbal`k cb rbdknkl`üa cbd sbjobatm kfbltm. Ba bd :2% cb dms lksms kfbltk k rbltm-s`jok. Kfbltk lma oës frblubal`k kd sbxm okslud`am (3>;), rkrk vbz kpkrblb ba bd prbokturm y bs oës frblubatb lma katblbcbatbs fko`d`krbs cb bafbrobckc cb E`rslespruaj. E`rslespruaj. Yubcb klmopkûkrsb cb mtrms cbfbltms lmajàa`tms (Cmwa, Dkwrbalb-Omma-GkrcbtG`bcd y kdtbrkl`mabs lkrc`mvksludkrbs). Kuaqub su bt`mdmjïk bs kþa cbslmaml`ck, sb eka cbslr`tm ekstk bd omobatm malb jbabs ba c`fbrbatbs lrmomsmoks luyks outkl`mabs pubcba bstkr rbdkl`makcms lma dk bafbrobckc, s`bacm

F`jurk 2. Babok mpklm ba pkl`batb lma bafbrobckc cb E`rslespruaj.

6:

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

C`kjaüst`lm c`fbrbal`kd • Ïdbm oblma`kd, tkpüa oblma`kd y ktrbs`k `atbst`akd ba bd WA. • Objklmdma fual`makd m bstrbû`o`batm fual`makd.

Srktko`batm Srktko`batm  ([email protected] ;9, ;:2) L`rujïk> rbsbll`üa lmopdbtk cbd sbjobatm kjkajd`makr y kakstmoms`s ba uam m cms t`bopms ([email protected]). Lma bd trktko`batm, bd prmaüst`lm bs jbabrkdobatb skt`sfkltmr`m y lma bd t`bopm dk okymr pkrtb cb dms a`ûms lmas`juba dk lmat`abal`k.

6.6. Kdbrj`ks kd`obatk kd`obatkr`ks r`ks Dk kdbrj`k kd`obatkr`k sb prbsbatk kdrbcbcmr cbd kpkrblb ekg`tukdobatb ba tmram k dms ;7 obsbs. Dk oka`fbstkl`üa ldïa`lk lmas`stb ba c`krrbk, lma vüo`tms ksml`kcms ba mlks`mabs, qub prmvmlka ua sïacrmob okdkgsmrt`vm ba dk okymrïk cb dms lksms. \b `a`l`k pmlks sbokaks cbspuàs cb dk `atrmcull`üa cbd kd`obatm lkuskd, kfbltkacm kd lrbl`o`batm cbd dkltkatb tkatm ba pbsm lmom ba tkddk. Bd kd`obatm oës frblubatb lkuskd bs dk dbleb cb vklk, pbrm sb eka cbslr`tm lksms lma krrmz, smnk, eubvm, pmddm y pbslkcm. S`bacb k rbsmdvbrsb ekl`k dms cms kûms cb bckc.

C`kjaüst`lm

• Kdbrj`ks cb oblka`som o`xtm. Yr bnbopdm, dks batbrmpktïks bms`amfïd`lks.

Ldïa`lm. lmaf`rok lma dk cbskpkr`l`üa cb dms trks rbt`rkr bd\bkd`obatm y dk pmstbr`mr prmvmlkl`üa lmasïatmoks bd kd`obatm (ba obc`m emsp`tkdkr`m). Ba bd lksm cb trktkrsb cb kdbrj`k (y am `atmdbrkal`k), pubcba sbr pms`t`vms bd pr`lh tbst lutëabm y bd tbst WK\S (tbst cb `aouamkgsmrl`üa> cbtbro`akl`üa cb Kl t`pm @jB).

• Kdbrj`ks am obc`kck obc`kckss pmr @jB m ldës`lkobatb ldës`lkobatb cbamo`akcks `atmdbrkal`ks kd`obatkr`ks (bstb þdt`om tàro`am bstë ba cbsusm).

Srktko`batm

S`pms cb kdbrj`ks kd`obatkr`ks • Kdbrj`k obc`kck pmr @jB (e`pbr (e`pbrsbas`g`d`ckc sbas`g`d`ckc cb t`pm @).

Ldïa`lk Lutëabk, rbsp`rktmr`k m c`jbst`vk (dk oës frblubatb, smgrb tmcm `atbst`akd). • Obc`kck pmr @jB> ksml`k ldïa`lk c`jbst`vk, lma cmdmr kgcmo`akd, akusbks, vüo`tms m c`krrbk y lma oka`fbstkl`mabs bxtrkc`jbst`vks m ksok. Yubcba cbgutkr lmom lmom urt`lkr`k, ua semlhkaj`mbcbok, kakf`dëlt`lm. ktmp`k Wblmrckr qub katb ua semlh kakf`dëlt`lm bs fuackobatkd uak gubak kltukl`üa kltukl`üa KGLC y am rbtrkskr bd bd usm cb kcrbakd`ak ;/;999 `.o  `.o ([email protected] ;3, ;598 [email protected] ; - Batbrmlmd`t`s  Batbrmlmd`t`s   kdàrj`lk m batbrmlmd`t`s batbrmlmd`t`s jrkvb pmr YDV  ([email protected] ;5, ;6 füroudks lma e`crmd`zkcm cb YDV m lma prmtbïak cb smnk, kuaqub eky bstuc`ms qub kf`roka qub ua

obnmrka lma rkp`cbz kd c`so`au`r dk `ajbstk cb sklkrmsk k lkat`ckcbs oïa`oks.

C`krrbk msoüt`lk

C`krrbk sblrbtmrk

Bx`stbal`k cb smdutms am kgsmrg`gdbs ba bd tugm c`jbst`vm. Wbo`tb lma bd kyuam y dks eblbs prbsbatka ua pE gknm lma pms`t`v`ckc pkrk sustkal`ks rbcultmrks.

Klt`vkl`üa cb obc`kcmrbs `atrklbdudkrbs qub bst`oudka dk sblrbl`üa klt`vk cb ldmrurm pmr dks làdudks cb dk lr`ptk b `ae`gba su kgsmrl`üa. \b lkrkltbr`zk pmr eblbs ouy vmduo`amsks, klumsks y bd kaëd`s`s cb àstks rbvbdk ua kuobatm cb Ak y Ld. Am lbcb lma bd kyuam. Ymr bnbopdm, ba dks c`krrbks `afbll`msks batbrmtmx`jàa`lks (lüdbrk, B. lmd` ) m prbsbal`k cb pàpt`cms vksmklt`vms.

C`kjaüst`lm ([email protected]) • Cbtbll`üa cb lubrpms rbcultmrbs ba dks eblbs (ld`a`tbst)> 7 lrulbs. Dk sklkrmsk am bs ua kzþlkr rbcultmr, pmr dm qub s` sb smspblek `atmdbrkal`k eky qub e`crmd`zkr prbv`kobatb dk oubstrk lma ël`cm ldmreïcr`lm. ≢

• Cbtbro`akl`üa cb pE fblkd. • Cbtbro`akl`üa cb ël`cm dëlt`lm ba eblbs.

C`krrbk `afdkoktmr`k Cbpms`l`mabs lma skajrb y omlm ekg`tukdobatb lma pàrc`ck cb pbsm ba bd lmatbxtm cb uak [email protected]@. [email protected] @. Y`lm cb kpkr`l`üa ba dk bckc pbc`ëtr`lk ba dk kcmdbslbal`k.

• Sbst cbd e`crüjbam bsp`rkcm + tr trks ks smgrblkrjk mrkd cb kzþl kzþlkr. kr. • G`mps`k `atbst`akd.

C`krrbk pmr kdtbrkl`üa ba dk omt`d`ckc `atbst`akd

Lkusks oës frblubatbs

Skatm ba lksms cb klbdbrkl`üa cbd trëas`tm `atbst`akd lmom pmr badbatbl`o`batm, yk qub ba bstb þdt`om lksm pubcb mlks`makr ua smgrblrbl`o`batm gkltbr`kam, lkuskatb cb c`krrbk.

• Càf`l`t lmajàa`tm cb batbrmh`aksk> dk batbrmqu`aksk ba ua klt`vkcmr bsbal`kd cb dms tr`ps`aüjbams pkalrbët`lms. \u càf`l`t ck dujkr k uak kdtbrkl`üa cb dk klt`v`ckc prmtbmdït`lk cbd pëalrbks.   Yrmvmlk okdkgsmrl`üa cb prmtbïaks, prmtbïaks, lma c`krrbk `atbask `atbask y fkddm cb obcrm kd pmlm cb aklbr, ksï lmom e`pmprmtb`abo`k.   Dk klt`v`ckc cb dk d`pksk y cb dk ko`dksk bs amrokd, kuaqub pubcb ekgbr bstbktmrrbk. Bd trktko`batm sb eklb lma baz`oks sust`tut`vks pkalrbët`lks, k cms`s obamrbs qub ba dk `asuf`l`bal`k pkalrbët`lk. • Càf`l`t cb c`sklkr`cksks> dbs`mabs c`fusks cbd bp`tbd`m `atbst`akd qub kdtbrk dks baz`oks cbd gmrcb ba lbp`ddm cb dms batbrml`tms. \ubdb sbr sbluackr`k k `afbll`mabs m kjrbs`mabs lmom dk bafbrobckc lbd`klk, kuaqub pubcb sbr cb mr`jba lmajàa`tm. Yrmculb e`crüd`s`s `almopdbtk cb dms c`sklër`cms, kluoudëacmsb àstms ba dk duz cbd `atbst`am c`stkd. Dks gkltbr`ks rbculba c`lems c`sklër`cms jbabrkacm ël`cms mrjëa`lms y jks e`crüjbam, qub ktrkba kjuk. \b oka`f`bstk lmom c`krrbk bxpdms`vk pmstprkac`kd lma eblbs ël`cks (pE 42,6) qub subdba bslmr`kr dks akdjks. Yubcb prmcul`rsb tkog`àa c`stbas`üa kgcmo`akd, gmrgmr`joms y cmdmr lüd`lm ([email protected]). Dks oës frblubatbs sma càf`l`t cb dkltksk y cb sklkrksk-`smokdtksk. -  Càf`l`t cb dkltksk> dk klt`v`ckc cb dk dkltksk sb bdbvk ba fksbs tkrcïks cb dk v`ck fbtkd y bop`bzk k c`so`au`r cbspuàs k dms < kûms cb bckc, pmr dm qub sb pubcb prbcbl`r uak `atmdbrkal`k k dk dkltmsk ba dkltkatbs ouy prbokturms y ba kdjuams a`ûms okymrbs. Ekstk bd 52% cb dms kcudtms cb rkzk abjrk qub v`vba ba BBRR y bd ;2% cb dms cb rkzk gdkalk prbsbatk càf`l`t cb dkltksk. Skog`àa bx`stba lksms cb càf`l`t lmajàa`tm.   Dk ldïa`lk lmo`bazk trks dk `ajbst`üa cb dkltmsk, kuaqub am s`boprb sb mgsbrvk uak rbdkl`üa tbopmrkd ldkrk batrb bd cmdmr m dk c`krrbk y dk `ajbstk cb dbleb.   Bd trktko`batm lmas`stb ba rbt`rkr dk dbleb cb dk c`btk y kpmrtkr prbpkrkcms cb dkltksk. -  Càf`l`t cb sklkrksk-`smokdtksk> càf`l`t lmajàa`tm cb c`sklkr`cksks. Bs rbdkt`vkobatb frblubatb y kutmsüo`lm rblbs`vm. Bd càf`l`t k`sdkcm bs ks`atmoët`lm. Dms sunbtms

6.:.;. C`krrbk lrüa`lk `abspblïf`lk @alkpkl`ckc cbd `atbst`am jrubsm pkrk jbabrkr prmcultms, prmcul`r omv`o`batm y kgsmrgbr dïqu`cms. Ymr dm jbabrkd kpkrblb ba dms a`ûms cb ;-< kûms, lma guba kspbltm, s`a pàrc`ck cb pbsm, bstkcm autr`l`makd amrokd y kusbal`k cb jrksks ba dks eblbs. Eklba cbd mrcba cb südm kpkrblb ba pbrsmaks lma EDK C[7 (ba ua 02%) y EDK C[ 5 (bd 2% rbstkatb), pbrm pbrsmaks lma c`lems ekpdmt`pms pubcba am cbskrrmddkr aualk dk bafbrobckc pmr dm qub sma ablbskr`ms tkog`àa fkltmrbs kog`batkdbs.

K

• Smx`l`ckc c`rbltk cbd jdutba> rbs`cb ba cbtbro`akcks ssblubablubal`ks cb ko`amël`cms qub sbas`g`d`zka dms d`afml`tms cb dk dëo`ak prmp`k cbd `atbst`am, prmcul`bacm c`st`atms kat`lubrpms> @jK b @jJ kat`jd`kc`ak y kat`bacmo`s`m b @jJ kat`rrbt`lud`ak.   Dms sugt`pms @jK sma `ac`lkcmrbs cb dk sbas`g`d`zkl`üa kd jdutba. • Fkltmrbs kog`ba kog`batkdbs> tkdbs> dms sïatmoks pubcba cbsbalkcbakrsb cbsbalkcbakrsb pmr uak jkstrmbatbr`t`s pmr kcbamv`rus, kat`g`mtbrkp`k, bogkrkzm, btl. \b ek v`stm uak c`slmrckal`k cb ekstk bd càf`l`t sbdblt`vm cb @jK, CO t`pm @, sïacrmob cb Cmwa, t`rm`c`t`s kutm`aouab, cbrokt`t`s ebrpbt`fmrob. Mtrks ksml`kl`mabs obams frblubatbs (ksml`kl`mabs am cbomstrkcks) `alduyba> krtr`t`s rbuoktm`cb lrüa`lk, ebpkt`t`s tüx`lk, aburmpktïks, uvbït`s, lmd`t`s d`afmlït`lk, lmd`t`s lmdëjbak, lmd`t`s udlbrmsk, e`pmbspdba`som m lmdkaj`t`s bsldbrmskatb pr`okr`k.

Kaktmoïk pktmdüj`lk Dk g`mps`k `atbst`akd bs lkrkltbrïst`lk pbrm am pktmjamoüa`lk. \b kprbl`k uak dbs`üa c`fusk cb dk oulmsk, lma vbddms`ckcbs lmrtks y kpdkakcks (ktrmf`k vbddms`tkr`k), lr`ptks prmfuacks (e`pbrpdks`k cb lr`ptks) y bp`tbd`m cb supbrf`l`b `rrbjudkr, vklumdkcm, lma d`afml`tms ba dk lkpk bp`tbd`kd (`af`dtrkcm `afdkoktmr`m d`afml`tkr`m `atrkbp`tbd`kd). Bstms o`soms ekddkzjms tkog`àa kpkrblba ba bd bsprþb trmp`lkd, ba bd hwkse`mrhmr, ba dk @YDV, ba dk jkstrmbatbr`t`s bms`aüf`dk, ba `aouamcbf`l`bal`ks y ba dks batbr`t`s pmr Wmtkv`rus y J`krc`k Dkogd`k.

F`jurk 6. K. Vbddms`ckcbs `atbst`akdbs amrokdbs amrokdbs.. G. K. Vbddms`ckcbs `atbst`akdbs G.   Vbddms`ckcbs `atbst`akdbs ktrüf`lks ba bafbrobckc lbdïklk lbdïkl k ([email protected] ;2, Kl kat`jd`kc`ak, kat`trkasjdutko`aksk t`sudkr y kat`bacmo`s`m ([email protected]). Dms Kl kat`trkasjdutko`aksk y kat`bacmo`s`m t`baba kogms ua bxlbdbatb pbrf`d cb sbas`g`d`ckc y bspbl`f`l`ckc, s`o`dkr batrb bddms y 109-02%. \`a bogkrjm, cbg`cm k su obnmr lmstb-bfblt`v`ckc, bd tbst sbrmdüj`lm cb pr`obrk bdbll`üa sma dms Kl kat`trkasjdutko`aksk([email protected]). Bs ablbskr`m t`tudkr kd c`kjaüst`lm dk @jK tmtkd pkrk bv`tkr fkdsms abjkt`vms yk qub dms kat`trkasjdutko`aksk sma kat`lubrpms kat`@jK y ba dk bafbrobckc lbdïklk sb pubcb ksml`kr ua càf`l`t cb @jK sbdblt`vm. Katb ua càf`l`t cb @jK sb cbgba smd`l`tkr kat`lubrpms cb ldksb @jJ sugt`pm kat`trkasjdutko`aksk m kat`pàpt`cms cb jd`kc`ak cbsko`akck (kat`-CJY), kogms lma uak sbas`g`d`ckc/bspbl`f`l`ckc ba bstms lksms ba tmram kd 52%8 südm ba lksm cb sbr àstms abjkt`vms sb vkd`ckrë cbf`a`t`vkobatb dk sbrmdmjïk lmom abjkt`vk. Ba a`ûms ks`atmoët`lms bs klmasbnkgdb lmaf`rokr dk sbrmpms`t`v`ckc ba 7 m oës oubstrks cb skajrb lma `atbrvkdms cb < obsbs. Dk abjkt`v`ckc cb dms kat`lubrpms am cbslkrtk dk bafbrobckc (südm dk cbslkrtkrïk s` am bx`stb ua r`bsjm kuobatkcm cb tbabr lbd`kquïk y kcboës am bx`stba kdtbrkl`mabs kakdït`lks). • Ekpdmt`pm EDK C[7/C[5> dk kusbal`k kusbal`k cb ekpdmt`pm EDK C[7 m C[5 cbslkrtk bafbrobckc lbd`klk lma ua vkdmr prbc`lt`vm abjkt`vm cbd 00%.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 6

º Kpkrktm c`jbst`vm

• G`mps`k cb cumcbam> sb cbgb rbkd`zkr katb dk smspblek cb bafbrobckc lbd`klk (ldïa`lk m kdtbrkl`mabs kakdït`lks, EDK C[7/C[5 pms`t`vm +/- kat`lubrpms pms`t`vms). \`boprb sb cbgb rbkd`zkr katbs cb dk rbt`rkck cbd jdutba.

Ldïa`lk sujbrbatb y Kl + lma / s`a EDK lmopkt`gdb G`mps`k `atbst`akd rbt`rkck jdutba +

s`a

Wbt`rkck cbd jdutba lma obnmrïk ldïa`lk y abjkt`v`zkl`üa cb dms Kl Lmaf`rokl`üa

F`jurk :. Kdjmr`tom c`kjaüst`lm cb dk bafbrobckc lbdïklk.

Ba a`ûms ba dms qub dk pr`obrk g`mps`k am sbk lmalduybatb, m ba kquàddms ba dms qub sb rbkd`lb ekg`bacm bd`o`akcm bd jdutba cb dk c`btk prbv`kobatb, sb pubcb rblurr`r k uak prubgk cb prmvmlkl`üa> sb rb`atrmculb c`btk lma jdutba, sb rbkd`zk uak sbjuack g`mps`k pkrk lmoprmgkr kfbltkl`üa e`stmdüj`lk (kcboës cb vkdmrkl`üa kakdït`lk y kat`lubrpms), y pmr þdt`om bd jdutba ldïa`lk, cb dk c`btk y sb lmoprubgk dk obnmrïk ldïa`lk sb y dkrbt`rk amrokd`zkl`üa cb dms kat`lubrpms. Dk prubgk cb prmvmlkl`üa prmvmlkl`üa bstë bstë   lmatrk`ac`lkck pmr cbgknm cb dms : kûms cb bckc  bckc ([email protected] 90, ;52). Kdjuaks sml`bckcbs l`batïf`lks pbc`ëtr`lks `ac`lka ba dk kltukd`ckc qub kqubddms a`ûms lma ldïa`lk sujbst`vk cb bafbrobckc lbd`klk, jbaàt`lk lmopkt`gdb (EDK C[7 m C[5), kat`lubrpms kat`trkasjdutko`aksk t`sudkr 1;9 vblbs dm amrokd y kat`lubrpms kat`bacmo`s`m pms`t`vms pubcba c`kjamst`lkrsb c`rbltkobatb cb lbd`klms s`a ablbs`ckc cb g`mps`k `atbst`akd. Bd c`kjaüst`lm sb lmaf`rokrë lma dk obnmrk ldïa`lk y dk amrokd`zkl`üa cb dms kat`lubrpms kd `astkurkr uak c`btk s`a jdutba. Ba bd rbstm cb dms lksms sb sbju`rë bd o`som okabnm qub sb ekgïk cbslr`tm prbv`kobatb.

Srktko`batm Wbt`rkck jdutba dk c`btk cbypmr v`ck  ([email protected] ;2, [email protected]). Dklmopdbtk rbspubstkcbd ldïa`lk bs cb jrkt`f`lkatb ba v`ck  dk okymrïk cb c`kjaüst`lm `almrrbltm, `aluopd`o`batm cb dk c`btk  (lkusk oës frblubatb ([email protected])), cbskrrmddm cb ua d`afmok `atbst`akd (2%), bsprþb lmdëjbam, ybyua`t`s lrüa`lk am jrkaudmoktmsk, càf`l`t cb dkltksk m lmd`t`s d`afmlït`lk lmalmo`tkatbs. Bd `aluopd`o`batm cb dk c`btk bs k vblbs `avmduatkr`m, yk qub kdjuams kd`obatms pubcba lmatbabr trkzks cb jdutba qub pkska `akcvbrt`cks pmr dms pkl`batbs pkl`batbs (lmasbrvks, (lmasbrvks, skdsks, pkstks, prmcultms cb lekrlutbrïk…  lekrlutbrïk… ([email protected] ;2, 0 • Kabo`k fbrrmpàa`lk, bspbl`kdobatb bspbl`kdobatb lukacm bd bstuc`m bstuc`m cb skajrb mludtk bs abjkt`vm. • Mstbmpmrms`s ba pbrsmaks pbrsmaks nüvbabs. Ckck dk ksml`kl`üa lma mstbmpmrms`s ba dms pkl`batbs kcudtms sb cbgb rbkd`zkr uak cbas`tmobtrïk üsbk kd c`kjaüst`lm. \` bstë kdtbrkck, sb cbgbrëa rbkd`zkr cbas`tmobtrïks cb sbju`o`batm. Ba bd kcudtm, kd lmatrkr`m qub ba bd a`ûm, dk g`msp`k sb s`jub lmas`cbrkacm bsbal`kd pkrk bd c`kjaüst`lm (cbgb rbkd`zkrsb ba tmcms dms lksms) kuaqub am suf`l`batb, y cbgba luopd`rsb uak sbr`b cb lr`tbr`ms pkrk lmaf`rokr dk bx`stbal`k cb bafbrobckc>

[email protected]@M\ [email protected]Ü\[email protected]\ CB BAFBWOBCKC LBDÏKLK (KD OBAM\ 3/2 M • @ajbstk `akcvbrt`ck m sugrbpt`l`k cb jdutba ba dk c`btk> bs dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb bdbvkl`üa cb kat`lubrpms ba pkl`batbs yk c`kjamst`lkcms.

Wblubrck... Am mdv`cbs dks < C> Càf`l`t cb @j K Cbrokt`t`s ebrpbt`fmrob C`kgbtbs obdd`tus t`pm @ m `asud`amcbpbac`batb

• Brrmr cb c`kjaüst`lm. • @atmdbrkal`k k dk dkltmsk. • Mtrks> d`afmok, llmd`t`s md`t`s o`lrmslüp`lk, smgrblrbl`o`batm gkltbr`kam. Dk bafbrobckc lbd`klk rbfrkltkr`k obnmrk ba kdjuams lksms lma lmrt`lm`cbs. Ba dms lksms qub am obnmrk, pubcb ddbjkr k prmcul`r dk oubrtb cbd pkl`batb.

LDÏ[email protected]

Ldïa`lk sujbrbatb + EDK C[7/C[5 + kat`lubrpms bdbvkcms

Ldïa`lk sujbrbatb + EDK C[7/C[5 + kat`lubrpms abjkt`vms

G`mps`k `atbst`akd s`a rbt`rkck cbd jdutba lmopkt`gdb lma lbd`kquïk

G`mps`k `atbst`akd s`a rbt`rkck cbd jdutba lmopkt`gdb lma lbd`kquïk

Wbt`rkoms bd jdutba cb dk c`btk

Wbt`rkoms bd jdutba cb dk c`btk

[email protected]ÛM

KCRDSM

Obnmrïk ldïa`lk y amrokd`zkl`üa cb dms kat`lubrpms

\bjuack g`mps`k trks t`bopm lma c`btk s`a jdutba

Oës frblubatb prbsbatkl`üa tïp`lk

Oës frblubatb prbsbatkl`üa ks`atmoët`lk u md`jms`atmoët`lk Fmroks ktïp`lks

C`kjamst`lm cb lbd`kquïk (am bs ablbskr`k uak sbjuack g`mps`k)

Obnmrïk cb dk e`stmdmjïk C`kjamst`lm cb lbd`kquïk

F`jurk 5. C`kjaüst`lm cb dk bafbrobckc lbd`klk cbd kcudtm.

;.ª [email protected]\@K

Yms`g`d`ckc cb mgv`krdk s` jbaàt`lk, sbrmdmjïk

Ablbskr`k

y ldïa`lk lmopkt`gdbs (B\YJEKA 79;;)

7.ª [email protected]\@K » SB\S CB [email protected]ÜA

Ablbskr`k s` cucks c`kjaüst`lks (;.ª g`mps`k sb rbkd`zü lma c`btk bxbatk cb jdutba)

Ablbskr`k s` cucks c`jaüst`lks, kutmkat`lubrpms abjkt`vms m am prbsbatk obnmrïk ldïa`lk trks rbt`rkck cbd jdutba

Skgdk 7. C`fbrbal`ks batrb dk bafbrobckc lbdïklk cbd a`ûm y cbd kcudtm.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok : 

Abfrmurmdmjïk  Kutmrbs> Ckv`c Smrrbs Fbraëacbz, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c). Fbd`sk Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. R. EO Omatbprïal`pb (Okcr`c). Nud`m Kdgbrtm Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. @afkat`d R. A`ûm Nbsþs (Okcr`c).

Bafmqub [email protected] Eky qub cmo`akr bd rbfdunm vbs`lmurbtbrkd y bd bslrmtm kjucm, ksï lmom lmamlbr bd lkdbackr`m qu`rþrj`lm.

\`a bogkrjm, ba 47 kûms, dks @SR pubcba oka`fbstkrsb `abspblïf`lkobatb lmom rblekzm cb dk `ajbstk, `rr`tkg`d`ckc, pàrc`ck cb pbsm, `ltbr`l`k u mr`aks okdmd`batbs. Rak oka`fbstkl`üa tïp`lk bs dk f`bgrb s`a fmlm.

Wblubrck...

:.;. @afbll`mabs cbd trkltm ur`akr`m (@SR) Dk prbvkdbal`k jbabrkd cb @SR ba dk `afkal`k bs kprmx`okckobatb cbd :%. Bs bsbal`kd c`kjamst`lkr y trktkr dks @SR kdtks, pmr bnbopdm p`bdmabfr`t`s kjuck (YAK), pmrqub ba obamrbs cb 7 kûms sb lmas`cbrk ua fkltmr cb r`bsjm `opmrtkatb cb l`lktr`z b `asuf`l`bal`k rbakd. Ba 4; kûm, bs oës frblubatb ba a`ûms (okymr frblubal`k cb okdfmrokl`mabs), smgrb tmcm am l`rlual`ckcms ([email protected])8 ba 1; kûms, bs oës frblubatb ba a`ûks (pmr obamr dmaj`tuc urbtrkd).

Bt`mdmjïk

Katb tmcm dkltkatb obamr cb 7 kûms lma f`bgrb s`a fmlm, eky qub cbslkrtkr @SR.

Dkgmrktmr`m Yms`t`v`ckc cb a`tr`tms y bstbrksk dbulml`tur`k ba dk t`rk cb mr`ak, m p`ur`k ba bd sbc`obatm sma sujbst`vms cb `afbll`üa. Dk kakdït`lk subdb rbkd`zkrsb katb smspblek cb @SR kdtk, qub omstrkrïk dbulml`tms`s lma abutrmf`d`k y bdbvkl`üa cb YLW.

Rrmludt`vm (c`kjaüst`lm cb lmaf`rokl`üa)

Bd 59% sma prmcul`cks pmr B. lmd` . Mtrms o`lrmmrjka`soms lkuskatbs sma jrko abjkt`vms lmom Hdbgs`bddk, Yrmtbus y L`trmgkltbr 8 y jrko pms`t`vms lmom \tkpeydmlmllus skprmpeyt`lus m Batbrmlmllus. Dks @SRs pmr gkltbr`ks c`fbrbatbs k B. lmd`  prbsbatka   prbsbatka okymr r`bsjm cb l`lktr`z rbakd.

Ldks`f`lkl`üa (Vbr okaukd cb Rrmdmjïk)

(Vbr tkgdk ;) Yrubgks cb `okjba • Blmjrkfïk> pr`obrk prubgk cb `okjba k rbkd`zkr ba ;.ª @SR fbgr`d ba 4 7 kûms. Bs þt`d pkrk mr`batkr mtrms bstuc`ms pmstbr`mrbs. \b pubcba balmatrkr s`jams lmom dk e`crmabfrms`s qub suj`brk rbfdunm vbs`lmurbtbrkd (WVR), `oëjbabs cb pms`gdbs l`lktr`lbs m okdfmrokl`mabs, ksï lmom mgsbrvkr lmopd`lkl`mabs dmlkdbs (kgslbsms). • Jkookjrkfïk CO\K> prubgk cb bdbll`üa pkrk cbtbltkr

C`kjaüst`lm Ldïa`lk Dk @SR ba 17 kûms t`bab oka`fbstkl`mabs ldïa`lks s`o`dkrbs kd kcudtm> sïacrmob o`ll`makd ba @SR gknk8 lma f`bgrb, cmdmr kgcmo`akd y duogkr ba @SR kdtk.

 rbakdbs ba fksb lrüa`lk (13-6 obsbs cbspuàs cb l`lktr`lbs dk @SR) ([email protected]) . Ba fksb kjuck (curkatb dk @SR) pmcrïk sbr þt`d pkrk mgnbt`vkr cbfbltms ba bd pkràaqu`ok sujbrbatbs cb qub dk `afbll`üa ek kfbltkcm kd r`ûüa.

OÀSMCM CB [email protected]

YM\@[email protected]@CKC

  bc`m Lemrrm o

1;92 RF  RFL/od

Ba a`ûms lmat`abatbs

1;92 RFL/od

Ba am lmat`abatbs (47 kûms). Bv`tkr ludt`vm pmr ludt`vm pmr kdtk tksk cb lmatko`akl`üa. \` dk t`rk bs pms`t`vk pmr gmdsk eky qub lmaf`rokr y ludt`vkr pmr smacknb m pual`üa suprkpþg`lk. suprkpþg`lk.

Gmdsk kcebs`vk pbr`abkd

[email protected]

3

\macknb vbs`lkd

1;9  RFL/od

Yual`üa suprkpþg`lk

Lukdqu`br rblubatm

Skgdk ;. Rrmludt`vm pkrk bd c`kjaüst`lm cb @SR ba pmgdkl`üa pbc`ëtr`lk.

Jmdc stkackrc, stkackrc, pbrm pmlm rbkd`zkcm pmr sbr `avks`vm. \b usk ba WA s` eky cucks lma mtrks tàla`lks.

:<

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

• L`stmurbtrmjrkfïk o`ll`makd sbr`kck (LRO\)> smdm ba lksm cb smspblek cb okdfmrokl`üa cbd trkltm ur`akr`m m pkrk lmaf`rokr WVR.

Srktko`batm Srktko`batm  ([email protected]) Kat`g`mtbrkp`k sbjþa pbrf`d cb rbs`stbal`ks dmlkdbs, ba jbabrkd lma ua gbtk-dkltëo`lm, lmtr`omxkzmd m fmsfmo`l`ak. Dk @SR gknk sb subdb trktkr krtbr`k pmdkr rbakd, tuomrbs, l`rujïks…). Bd trktko`batm bs lma mgsbrvkl`üa m l`rujïk, sbjþa bd jrkcm cb mgstrull`üa qub prmcuzlk.

Wbfdunm vbs`lmurbtbrkd (WVR) y abfrmpktïk pmr rbfdunm Bd WVR sb cbf`ab lmom bd pksm rbtrüjrkcm cb mr`ak cbscb dk vbn`jk ekl`k bd uràtbr y trkltm supbr`mr. Dk mr`ak rbfduybatb prmculb `afdkokl`üa, c`dktkl`üa b e`pbrprbs`üa ba dk vïk ur`akr`k, y prbc`spmab k @SR. Yrbaktkdobatb pubcb kfbltkr kd r`ûüa ba fmrokl`üa y prmcul`r l`brtm jrkcm cb c`spdks`k rbakd. Bs ua fkltmr cb r`bsjm `opmrtkatb cb l`lktr`lbs rbakdbs, ESK, jdmobrudmbsldbrms`s fmlkd y sbjobatkr`k, y cb bafbrobckc rbakd lrüa`lk kvkazkck. Dk abfrmpktïk pmr rbfdunm bs dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb ESK ba dk `afkal`k nuatm lma dks jdmobrudmabfr`t`s. S`bab uak prbvkdbal`k cbd ;%. Yrbsbatk uak kjrupkl`üa fko`d`kr ldkrk, batrb bd 72-29% batrb ebrokams. \b lmas`cbrk dk bafbrobckc ebrbc`tkr`k lma pktrüa kutmsüo`lm cmo`akatb am omamjàa`lk oës frblubatb. Bd slrbba`aj ba fko`d`krbs ks`atmoët`lms bs lmatrmvbrt`cm.

F`s`mpktmdmjïk Bx`stba 7 t`pms cb WVR>

• Kamokdïks cbd s`stbok bxlrbtmr> bstbams`s cb dk ua`üa p`bdmurbtbrkd (BYR), rbfdunm vbs`lmurbtbrkd vbs`lmurbtbrkd (WVR) , vëdvudks cb urbtrk pmstbr`mr (VRY), cupd`l`ckc p`bdmurbtbrkd, objkuràtbr, uràtbr bltüp`lm, urbtbrmlbdb…

• WVR pr`okr`m> `almopbtbal`k cbd oblka`som vkdvudkr vbs`lmurbtbrkd m okdfmrokl`mabs cb c`lek ua`üa (cupd`l`ckc urbtbrkd, urbtbrmlbdb, c`vbrtïludms, btl.).

E`crmabfrms`s

• WVR sbluackr`m> k prmlbsms qub kuobatba dk prbs`üa vbs`lkd (vbn`jk aburüjbak, vëdvudks cb urbtrk pmstbr`mr), mgstrull`üa pmr `afdkokl`üa (l`st`t`s gkltbr`kak, lubrpms bxtrkûms, lëdludms) m `ktrmjàa`lm trks l`rujïk cb dk ua`üa p`bdmurbtbrkd.

Dk kamokdïk oës frblubatb bs dk e`crmabfrms`s, bs cbl`r, c`dktkl`üa cbd trkltm ur`akr`m supbr`mr, cb pbdv`s y lëd`lbs rbakdbs. \ubdb cbtbltkrsb ba dks blmjrkfïks prbaktkdbs. Wbqu`brb lmaf`rokl`üa pmstaktkd y sbju`o`batm pmr blmjrkfïk. Dks lkusks oës frblubatbs cb e`crmabfrms`s prbaktkd sma> • ;.¾ E`crmabfrms`s trkas`tmr`k> bs ua prmlbsm gba`jam cb c`dktkl`üa qub subdb rbsmdvbrsb ba dk pr`obrk sbokak cb v`ck s`a lmopd`lkl`mabs pmstbr`mrbs. • 7.¾ BYR. • c`ëobtrm cb dk pbdv`s rbakd (4;9 oo bs amrokd), c`dktkl`üa lkd`l`kd, jrmsmr y kpkr`bal`k cbd pkràaqu`ok, c`dktkl`üa cb dms uràtbrbs y kspbltm cb dk vbn`jk.

Bstbams`s cb dk ua`üa p`bdmurbtbrkd (BYR) Bs dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb mgstrull`üa cbd trkltm ur`akr`m ba dk `afkal`k. Oës frblubatb ba sbxm okslud`am y ba bd

Ldks`f`lkl`üa cb dk LRO\ (@atbrakt`makd Wbfdux \tucy Lmo`ttbb) (vbr f`jurk ; ba dk pëj`ak s`ju`batb) • Jrkcm @. Wbfdunm ba uràtbr uràtbr s`a c`dktkl`üa. • Jrkcm @@. Wbfdunm ekstk pmrl`üa supbr`mr cbd s`stbok lmdbltmr s`a c`dktkl`üa. • Jrkcm @@@. Yrmculb c`dktkl`üa dbvb cbd uràtbr m cb dms lëd`lbs. lëd`lbs. • Jrkcm @V. Omcbrkck c`dktkl`üa y dbvb tmrtums`ckc cbd uràtbr pbrm s`a `oprbs`mabs pkp`dkrbs rbakdbs. • Jrkcm V. Jrka c`dktkl`üa y tmrtums`ckc. Yàrc`ck cb omrfmdmjïk cb lëd`lbs b `oprbs`mabs pkp`dkrbs rbakdbs.

C`kjaüst`lm • Ldïa`lk> subdb cbgutkr lmom e`crmabfrms`s e`crmabfrms`s cbtbltkck prbaktkdobatb, m lmom @SR pmstaktkd, smgrb tmcm ba a`ûms. Ba a`ûks subdb sbr ua ekddkzjm lksukd trks @SR lukacm sma oës okymrbs (7-< kûms). • Yrubgks cb `okjba> - L`stmurbtbrmjrkfïk o`ll`makd sbr`kck (LRO\)> bs bd c`kjaüst`lm cb bdbll`üa cb WVR. Lmas`stb ba rbddbakr pmr sma-

:3

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok : º Abfrmurmdmjïk

@

@@

@@@

W`ûüa

Rràtbr Vbn`jk

@V

V

F`jurk ;. Jrkcms cb WVR.

cknb dk vïk ur`akr`k lma ua lmatrkstb rkc`mpklm, cb fmrok qub rbkd`zkacm rkc`mjrkfïks sbr`kcks pbro`tb v`sukd`zkr dk vïk ur`akr`k. Bs dk prubgk qub obnmr vkdmrk dk kaktmoïk cb dks okdfmrokl`mabs. - Mtrks prubgks c`kjaüst`lks> l`stmjrkfïk `smtüp`lk c`rbltk (pbro`tb c`kjamst`lkr WVR lma rkc`m`sütmpms), blml`stmjrkfïk lma lmatrkstb (prubgk ba kujb qub pbro`tb c`kjamst`lkr WVR jrkl`ks k ua lmatrkstb blmjrëf`lm bv`tkacm dk rkc`kl`üa). - Blmjrkfïk lmavbal`makd> pbro`tb vkdmrkr omrfmdmjïk rbakd y balmatrkr ekddkzjms sujbst`vms cb WVR lmom dk e`crmabfrms`s. - Jkookjrkfïk CO\K> c`kjamst`lk dk prbsbal`k prbsbal`k cb l`lktr`lbs l`lktr`lbs ba bd pkràaqu`ok rbakd.

(Vbr f`jurk 7) Bvmdul`üa akturkd Dk `al`cbal`k cb l`lktr`lbs rbakdbs y abfrmpktïk kuobatk lma bd jrkcm cb WVR. Dk bckc obc`k cb cbskpkr`l`üa cbd rbfdunm bs 6-: kûms.

F`jurk 7. LRO\ ba pkl`batb lma WVR g`dktbrkd.

- A`ûk> WVR jrkcm @@@-V - Lukdqu`br jrkcm c cbb WVR lma @SRs fbgr`dbs rblurrbatbs. • L`rujïk > `atbatk bv`tkrsb ba jrkcms @[email protected]@ pmr dk kdtk tksk cb lmrrbll`üa bspmatëabk. \b rbkd`zk ba lksms cb kdtm jrkcm (@VV) pkskcms 7-< kûms cb v`ck, rbfrkltkr`bckc k prmf`dkx`s kat`g`üt`lk m kamokdïks kaktüo`lks qub c`f`ludtba dk lmrrbll`üa bspmatëabk. Dks tàla`lks bacmslüp`lks sma cb bdbll`üa , y eka `cm sust`tuybacm k dk l`rujïk kg`brtk pmr sus rbsudtkcms s`o`dkrbs lma obamr lmstb y omrg`d`ckc. Dk l`rujïk kg`brtk sb rbsbrvk pkrk dms lksms lma c`sfual`üa vbs`lkd, kamokdïks ksml`kcks m frkslm cb dk tàla`lk bacmslüp`lk.

• Jrkcms @[email protected]@> kdtk prmg prmgkg`d`ckc kg`d`ckc cb rbsmdul`üa.

Bd trktko`batm oàc`lm y qu`rþrj`lm AM prbsbatka c`fbrbal`ks ba bd prmaüst`lm rbakd k dkrjm pdkzm. AM cbgb trktkrsb dk gkltbr`ur`k ks`atmoët`lk. Dms urmludt`vms cb lmatrmd AM bstëa rblmobackcms.

• Jrkcm @@@> okymr pmrlbatknb cb rbs rbsmdul`üa mdul`üa s` dk bckc cb kpkr`l`üa bs tboprkak (;-7 kûms) y bs ua`dktbrkd.

Vëdvudks cb urbtrk pmstbr`mr

• Jrkcms @V-V> rkrk vbz rbjrbs rbjrbska, ka, bspbl`kdobatb s` sma g`dktbrkdbs g`dktbrkdbs..

Srktko`batm ([email protected] ;5, ; - A`ûm> WVR jrkcm @V-V

Lkusk oës frblubatb cb mgstrull`üa urbtrkd ba a`ûms. \b cbgba k dk pbrs`stbal`k cb dk obogrkak urmjba`tkd. Kfbltk südm k vkrmabs. Yrmculba e`pbrprbs`üa ba dk vïk ur`akr`k cbtbr`mrkacm bd pkràaqu`ok. \b ksml`ka k WVR ba bd 29% cb dms lksms, y ekstk bd 79% bvmdul`maka k `asuf`l`bal`k rbakd. Yubcb smspblekrsb `atrkþtbrm lmom e`crmabfrms`s g`dktbrkd y md`jmkoa`ms, m pmstaktkdobatb lmom oksk suprkpþg`lk lma lemrrm o`ll`makd càg`d. \b cbgb rbkd`zkr LRO\ m blmjrkfïk pbr`abkd urjbatb. Bd trktko`batm bs qu`rþrj`lm. Dks lmasblubal`ks subdba sbr> bafbrobckc rbakd lrüa`lk, WVR y c`sfual`üa vbs`lkd.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

Wblubrck... • E`crmabfrms`s g`dktbrkd (y md`jmkoa`ms) ba abmaktm> vëdvudks cb urbtrk pmstbr`mr. • E`crmabfrms`s ua`dktbrkd ba abmaktm> bstbams`s cb dk ua`üa pp`bdmu`bdmurbtbrkd.

:. lkr`mt`pm, blmjrkfïk kgcmo`am-pàdv`lk, kgcmo`am-pàdv`lk, ;:-ME-prm ;:-ME-prmjbstbrmak, jbstbrmak, tbstmstbrmak, F\E/DE/emromak kat`oôddbr`kak/`ae`g`ak G.

Srktko`batm \` am eka cbslbac`cm bspmatëabkobatb, bd trktko`batm bs mrqu`cmpbx`k dkpkrmslüp`lk dkpkrmslüp`lk batrb dms  6-;7 obsbs cb bckc  ([email protected] ;6, ;29). Dk tbrkp`k emromakd lma gbtk-ELJ pkrk bst`oudkr bd cbslbasm bs uak kdtbrakt`vk k dk l`rujïk, ba cbsusm pmr dk gknk tksk cb àx`tm.

Smrs`üa tbst`ludkr Lkusk oës frblubatb cb cmdmr tbst`ludkr ba a`ûms okymrbs cb ;7 kûms, s`bacm rkrk ba bckcbs `afbr`mrbs. \b cbgb k dk f`nkl`üa `akcblukck cbd tbstïludm ba bd bslrmtm, pmr uak tþa`lk vkj`akd rbcuackatb qub prmpmrl`mak kd tbstïludm uak omv`d`ckc bxlbs`vk.

Ldïa`lk ([email protected] ;5, ;67) Ldïa`lk  Cmdmr `atbasm cb `a`l`m gruslm, lma sïatmoks vkjkdbs (aëusbks, sucmrkl`üa...), qub pubcb ksml`krsb lma bd bsfubrzm m lma ua trkuokt`som, lma tuobfkll`üa cbd bslrmtm y kusbal`k cbd rbfdbnm lrbokstàr`lm. Kd bdbvkr bd tbstïludm am lbcb bd cmdmr (s`jam cb Yrbea abjkt`vm). Dk rbj`üa `aju`akd subdb sbr amrokd. Am subdb ekgbr f`bgrb a` sïacrmob o`ll`makd ksml`kcm.

C`kjaüst`lm Blmjrkfïk-cmppdbr> prubgk cb bdbll`üa ([email protected]). Vkdmrk bd fdunm y dk omrfmdmjïk cbd tbstb. Ba bd cbtmrs`üa y mrqu`cmpbx`k bslrmtkd bslrmtkd g`dktbrkd (pkrk bv`tkr tmrs`üa cbd lmatrkdktbrkd). lmatrkdktbrkd). \` eka trkaslurr`cm obams cb 6 emrks cb bvmdul`üa bd 09% cb dks jüakcks smgrbv`vb, c`so`auybacm bstk l`frk rëp`ckobatb lukacm sb supbrka bstks 6 e. \` bd tbstb am pkrblb v`kgdb sb rbkd`zkrë uak mrqu`bltmoïk.

• Suomrbs> oës frblubatb bd sbo`amok. Dk mrqu`cmpbx`k rbculb bd r`bsjm s` sb rbkd`zk k bckc tboprkak. • Ebra`k `aju`akd `ac`rbltk. • Bfbltms ps`lmdüj`lms cbd bsl bslrmtm rmtm vklïm.

Kgmrcknb c`kjaüst`lm • Sbstb m tbstbs pkdpkgdbs am cbslbac`cms> eky qub c`fbrbal`kr dms tbstbs vbrckcbrkobatb am cbslbac`cms cb dms tbstbs —ba kslbasmr‟, qub am lmopmrtka r`bsjm cb bstbr`d`ckc a` okd`ja`ckc. • Sbstb am pkdpkgdb ua`dktbrkd> s` am ksml`k e`pmspkc`ks, sb bspbrk ekstk dk bckc qu`rþrj`lk. Dks prubgks cb `okjba AM bstëa rblmobackcks cb rut`ak. \` sb ksml`k k e`pmspkc`ks prmx`okdbs m obc`mpbabkaks, sb cbgba cbslkrtkr kdtbrkl`mabs cbd cbskrrmddm sbxukd.

F`jurk 3. Sbstïludm ablrüt`lm pmr tmrs`üa tbst`ludkr cb dkrjk bvmdul`üa.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok : º Abfrmurmdmjïk

Smrs`üa cb dk e`cët`cb cb Omrjkja` Lkusk oës frblubatb cb cmdmr tbst`ludkr ba a`ûms cb 7 k ;; kûms, s`bacm rkrk ba kcmdbslbatbs. Dk e`cët`cb cb Omrjkja` m kpàac`lb tbst`ludkr bs ua rbstm vbst`j`kd bogr`makr`m cbd s`stbok cultkd oôddbr`kam ba bd pmdm supbr`mr cbd tbstb.

Ldïa`lk Cmdmr smrcm jrkcukd, tuobfkll`üa b `afdkokl`üa cbd tbstb y cbd bp`cïc`om lma br`tbok bslrmtkd. K dk bxpdmrkl`üa cbstklk uak oksk `acurkck cb tmrs`üa cb e`cët`cb. • Okymrbs cb ;7 kûms> bp`c`c`o`t`s y tmrs`üa tbst`ludkr. Wblubrck qub bd s`jam cb Yrbea bs pms`t`vm ba dks bp`c`c`o`t`s (kd bdbvkrdm prmculb kdjm —pms`t`vm‟, qu`tk bd cmdmr kd cbslkaskr dk zmak `afdkokck qub bstë k tbas`üa) y abjkt`vm ba dk tmrs`üa tbst`ludkr (prmculb oës cmdmr kd bdbvkrdm, kd rbtmrlbrsb tmckvïk oës bd lmrcüa).

:.3. Kdtbrkl`mabs Kdtbrkl`mabs cbd pbab y cb dk urbtrk Bp`spkc`ks Obktrm urbtrkd ba dk lkrk cmrskd cbd pbab. \bluackr`m kd cbskrrmddm kamrokd cbd sbam urmjba`tkd, s`bacm oës frblubatb ba vkrmabs. Yubcb prbsbatkrsb bp`spkc`ks k`sdkcm, m ksml`krsb k okdfmrokl`mabs okymrbs lmom c`ëstks`s cbd pug`s y bxtrmf`k vbs`lkd. Ba dk ounbr bd ldïtmr`s bs gïf`cm y dk urbtrk sb oubstrk k omcm cb ebac`curk ba pms`l`üa cmrskd. Bd trktko`batm bs qu`rþrj`lm k dms 6-;7 obsbs.

E`pmspkc`ks ([email protected] ;0, ;37) Obktm urbtrkd ba dk supbrf`l`b vbatrkd cbd pbab. Eky ua cbskrrmddm `almopdbtm cbd prbpul`m fmrokacm ua lkpuleüa ba dk lkrk cmrskd. \bjþa dk pms`l`üa cbd obktm urbtrkd y cbpbac`bacm cb qub bx`stk m am lmrcüa f`grmsm, dm pmcboms ldks`f`lkr ba> jdkacudkr (ba bd jdkacb) y lmrmakd (oës frblubatbs), suglmrmakd, obc`mpbabkak, pbambslrmtkd, bslrmtkd, pbr`abkd (oës jrkvb). Dms trbs þdt`oms sma e`pmspkc`ks prmx`okdbs y t`baba okymr frblubal`k cb lmrcmabs f`grmsms qub `alurvka bd pbab. Dm oës frblubatb bs qub sbka c`stkdbs, s`bacm uak kamokdïk k`sdkck. \`a bogkrjm, smgrb tmcm s` sma prmx`okdbs m obc`mpbabkaks, sb pubcba ksml`kr k okdfmrokl`mabs lmajàa`tks oþdt`pdbs (lr`ptmrqu`c`k, ebra`ks `aju`akdbs, kdtbrkl`mabs cbd cbskrrmddm sbxukd, okdfmrokl`mabs kamrrbltkdbs, sïacrmobs okdfmrokt`vms…). bstms(yk lksms, cbgbksml`krsb rbkd`zkr bstuc`m emromakd, lkr`mt`pm y Ba LRO\ qub sb pubcb k c`dktkl`üa cbd utrïludm prmstët`lm). Dk bckc `cbkd pkrk prmlbcbr k dk rblmastrull`üa bs batrb dms 6-;7 obsbs, lma l`rujïk ba uam m cms t`bopms sbjþa dk bxtbas`üa cbd cbfbltm.

F`jurk 2. E`crmlbdb.

Mrqu`bp`c`c`o`t`s (Vbr okaukd cb Rrmdmjïk)

Ebra`k `aju`akd (Vbr okaukd cb C`jbst`vm y L`rujïk Jbabrkd)

F`jurk 6. Bp`spkc`ks b e`pmspkc`ks.

::

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

F`oms`s ([email protected]) @opms`g`d`ckc cb rbtrkbr bd prbpul`m. Bs f`s`mdüj`lk ba bd WA y ba bd 09% cb dms a`ûms am l`rlual`ckcms bd prbpul`m pubcb rbtrkbrsb ekl`k dms < kûms. Ba dms lksms pbrs`stbatbs sb kpd`lk uak lrbok cb lmrt`lm`cbs trbs vblbs kd cïk (curkatb ; obs) pkrk kgdkackr bd ka`ddm f`grüt`lm8 kuaqub am bx`stba baskyms ldïa`lms smgrb su bf`lkl`k, bs uak prëlt`lk ekg`tukd. \` curkatb dk o`ll`üa sb rbddbak bd prbpul`m, bx`stba `afbll`mabs ur`akr`ks cb rbpbt`l`üa m s` dk f`oms`s pbrs`stb oës kddë cb dms < kûms, sb rbkd`zk l`rlual`s`üa tmtkd m pkrl`kd.

Wblubrck... Dk l`rlual`s`üa bd`o`ak dk f`oms`s y rbculb dk `al`cbal`k cb @SR y BS\.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 5 

\ïacrmob ebomdït`lm-ur ebomdït`lm-urào`lm ào`lm  Kutmrbs> Bcukrc Omjks V`ûkds, E. R. Vkdd c³Ebgrma (Gkrlbdmak). Ckv`c Smrrbs Fbraëacbz, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c). \kdvkcmr Y`r`s Gmrrbjks, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c).

(Vbr okaukd cb Abfrmdmjïk)

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 0

Eboktm-malmdmjïk pbc`ëtr`lk  Kutmrbs> Fbd`sk Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. R. EO Omatbprïal`pb (Okcr`c). Bcukrc Omjks V`ûkds, E. R. Vkdd c³Ebgrma (Gkrlbdmak). Kak Ybûk Omrbam, E. J. R. Jrbjmr`m Okrkûüa (Okcr`c).

Bafmqub [email protected] Cbgbs skgbr c`fbrbal`kr smgrb tmcm bd aburmgdkstmok cbd tuomr cb Z`dos.

  Dk dmlkd`zkl`üa oës frblubatb cb dks obtëstks`s bs dk oàcudk üsbk ([email protected]) (pmr dm qub cbgb eklbrsb ua ksp`rkcm lmom pkrtb cbd bxtuc`m cb bxtbas`üa), eubsm, eïjkcm y p`bd.

Ldïa`lk

0.;. Suomrbs ba dk `afkal`k • Dbulbo`ks ( DD DDK K (59%) y DOK DOK (79%). - Lrüa`lks> DOL ( kstrml`tmok, sbju`cm dms cb obcudmgdkstmokoës lbrbgbdmsm. Skog`àa sma frblubatbs lrkabmfkr`aj`moks (lkdl`f`lkl`mabs ba fmrok cb pkràatbs`s) ([email protected]). - Dmlkd`zkl`üa oës frblubatb> fmsk pmstbr`mr (`afrktbatmr`kd) lmast`tuybacm bd 69%.

• Cbr`vkck cbd lrbl`o`batm dmlkd y cb dk bafbrobckc c`sbo`akck> - Kgcmo`akd> oksk curk, f`nk, cb tkokûm vkr`kgdb. vkr`kgdb. Yubcb ddbjkr k lmoprmobtbr dk fual`üa rbsp`rktmr`k m lmopr`o`r dk oàcudk bsp`akd m sus rkïlbs. - Lkgbzk y lubddm> sïacrmob cb Emrabr. - Aksmfkr`ajb> bp`stkx`s (bstbs`maburmgdkstmok). - Yërpkcm> eboktmok d`abkd ([email protected]). • \ïacrmob mpsmldmam-o`mldmam> omv`o`batms mludkrbs lküt`lms, o`mldmaïks y ktkx`k (pkrkabmpdës`lm).

• D`afmoks (;3%)> oës frblubatb am Emcjh`a.

• ESK> pmr prmcull`üa cb lktblmdko`aks (oës frblubatb ba bd fbmlrmoml`tmok cbd kcudtm).

• Suomrbs cbd s`stbok abrv`msm s`opët`lm> aburmgdkstmok.

• C`krrbk sblrbtmrk> pàpt`cm `atbst`akd vksmklt`vm vksmklt`vm ([email protected]) ([email protected]).

• Suomrbs rbakdbs> Z`dos y cb pkrtbs gdkacks.

• \ïacrmob cb Ybppbr> kfbltkl`üa kfbltkl`üa ebpët`lk c`fusk lma kuo kuobatm batm cb trkasko`aksks pmr aburmgdkstmok nuatm k ebpktmobjkd`k (dkltkatbs).

• Üsbms> mstbmskrlmok y sskrlmok krlmok cb Bw`aj. • Mtrms> rbt`amgdkstmok, tbrktmok okd`jam (oksk prbsklrk)([email protected]).

0.7. Aburmgdkstmok

• Dms sïatmoks am `afduyba ba bd prmaüst`lm, kuaqub sb ek v`stm qub dms a`ûms lma mpsmldmam-o`mldmam pubcba tbabr ua prmaüst`lm oës fkvmrkgdb.

Suomr süd`cm pbc`ëtr`lm oës frblubatb fubrk cbd s`stbok abrv`msm lbatrkd. Bs dk abmpdks`k qub sb c`kjamst`lk oës frblubatbobatb ba dms dkltkatbs y bd tuomr abmaktkd okd`jam oës frblubatb. Dk bckc obc`k kd c`kjaüst`lm bs 7 kûms (09% sma obamrbs cb 2 kûms). Dk `al`cbal`k bs d`jbrkobatb supbr`mr ba bd sbxm okslud`am y ba sunbtms cb rkzk gdkalk. \b mr`j`ak ba dks làdudks cb dk lrbstk aburkd y t`baba uak prbsbatkl`üa y ua lmopmrtko`batm kdtkobatb vkr`kgdb. \b ksml`k k cbdbll`üa cbd grkzm lmrtm cbd lrmomsmok ; ba dk okymr pkrtb cb dms lksms.

Dmlkd`zkl`üa F`jurk ;. \ïacrmob cb Emrabr ba a`ûm lma aburmgdkstmok tmrël`lm.

• Lukdqu`br dujkr ba bd qub bx`stk tbn`cm abrv`msm s`opët`lm, kuaqub ba bd dkltkatb bs oës frblubatb ba dk rbj`üa tmrël`lk m lbrv`lkd. • Kgcmoba> oës frblubatb (: (:9%), 9%), smgrb tmcm ba jdëacudk susuprkrrbakd m ba jkajd`ms s`opët`lms rbtrmpbr`tmabkdbs. • Mtrks dmlkd`zkl`mabs> jkajd`ms lbrv`lkdbs (pubcb ddbjkr k prmcul`r ua sïacrmob cb Emrabr), tmrël`lms m pàdv`lms.

C`kjaüst`lm • Yrubgks cb `okjba> blmjrkfïk (c`kjaüst`lm `a`l`kd),Wx cb kgcmoba (sb pubcba vbr lkdl`f`lkl`mabs), SL m WOA (bxtbas`üa) (b xtbas`üa) ↗ oksk m oþdt`pdbs oksks cb cbas`ckc o`xtk (bdbobatms süd`cms y quïst`lms) lma lkdl`f`lkl`mabs (59%).

59

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok 0 º Eboktm-malmdmjïk pbc`ëtr`lk

• Okrlkcmrbs tuomrkdbs> kuobatm cb ël`cm emomvkdïa`lm (EVK) y vka`dokacàd`lm (VOK) ba mr`ak (02% cb dms lksms).

• \ïacrmob cb Cbays-Crkse (Z`dos, abfrmpktïk y kdtbrkl`mabs jba`tkdbs).

• G`mps`k> c`kjaüst`lm cb lmaf`rokl`üa. Làdudks rbcmacks, pbqubûks, kzudbs, lma c`fbrbal`kl`üa vkr`kgdb. Bd prmaüst`lm vkrïk sbjþa dk cbf`a`l`üa e`stmdüj`lk cbd t`pm t`sudkr (lkat`ckc cb bstrmok, jrkcm cb c`fbrbal`kl`üa cb dks làdudks tuomrkdbs y aþobrm cb o`tms`s). S`bab tbacbal`k k dk ebomrrkj`k `atrkabmpdës`lk, qub sb oka`f`bstk pmr zmaks cb ablrms`s y lkdl`f`lkl`üa.

• \ïacrmob cb Gblhw`te-Z`bcbokaa (mafkdmlbdb, ebo`e`pbrtrmf`k, oklrmjdms`k).

• Jkookjrkfïk üsbk / jkookjrkfïk lma @;7 vkdmrkl`üa cb dk bafbrobckc obtkstës`lk.

OKD YWMAÜ\[email protected]

GRBA YWMAÜ\[email protected]

Bstkc`ms @@@ y @V

Bstkc`ms @, @@ y @Vs

Cbdbll`üa ;p

Am cbdbll`üa ;p

C`pdm`cbs m tbtrkpdm`cbs

Kabupdm`cïk KCA (bspbl`kdobatb tr`pdm`cb)

Suomr smd`tkr`m g`ba cbd`o`tkcm y balkpsudkcm, cb fmrok vkr`kgdb lma pbqubûks zmaks cb ebomrrkj`k. S`bab ua kspbltm tr`fës`lm, lma prbsbal`k cb bp`tbd`m, gdkstbok y bstrmok, bx`st`bacm kakpdks`k ba ua ;9% cb dms lksms (rbspmaskgdb cbd 69% cb dms fkddbl`o`batms). Bd sugt`pm cbsfkvmrkgdb t`bacb k kfbltkr k pkl`batbs okymrbs, qub am sma cb rkzk gdkalk, lma làdudks jrkacbs, aþldbms e`pbrlrmoët`lms y o`tms`s kamrokdbs. Bd tuomr rkgcm`cb t`bab `aldus`mabs bms`aüf`dks, bs cb jrka okd`ja`ckc y kpkrblb ba pbrsmaks oës nüvbabs. Bd skrlmok cb làdudks ldkrks cbd r`ûüa (pktrüa fusmlbdudkr) bs oës frblubatb ba vkrmabs y lma obtëstks`s üsbks. Ba kogms lksms eky qub rbkd`zkr uak bvkdukl`üa cbtkddkck cbd eubsm y cb dk oàcudk üsbk.

Ldïa`lk

↛ Bamdksk sàr`lk, ↛ fbrr`t`ak

Kopd`f`lkl`üa a-oyl (1;9 lmp`ks) Fmroks jrkvbs m c`sbo`akcks Cbfbltms cbd rblbptmr cbd lrbl`o`batm abrv`msm

Kaktmoïk pktmdüj`lk

4;5 obsbs Kopd`f`lkl`üa cb Srh K

Skgdk ;. Fkltmrbs prmaüst`lms ba bd aburmgdkstmok ([email protected]).

Yrmaüst`lm Dk supbrv`vbal`k kltukd bstë ba tmram kd 22%, cbpbac`bacm cb dms fkltmrbs prmaüst`lms. Dk supbrv`vbal`k jdmgkd ba bstkc`ms @ y @@ bs cbd :2-02% y ba bstkc`ms @V m a`ûms okymrbs cb ;5 obsbs, bs cbd 72%. Yms`g`d`ckc cb rbjrbs`mabs bspmatëabks ba obamrbs cb ;5 obsbs lma bstkc`ms @ y @Vs.

Srktko`batm Ba bstkc`ms dmlkd`zkcms> l`rujïk + [S (c`so`auyb bd tkokûm, `aldusm lmav`brtb tuomrbs `rrbsblkgdbs ba rbsblkgdbs). Ba dms bstkc`ms @V, cbg`cm k su okd prmaüst`lm, sb bopdbkrë [S, WS, l`rujïk b `aldusm trkspdkatb kutüdmjm cb prmjba`tmrbs + `aouamtbrkp`k.

0. • \ïacrmob cb ZKJW (Z`dos, Ka`r`c`k, okdfmrokl`mabs Jba`tmur`akr`ks y Wbtrksm obatkd).

Oksk kgcmo`akd ks`atmoët`lk (s`jam oës frblubatb) qub rkrk vbz lruzk dk 29% dïabk cb obc`k. Ksml`k cmdmr kgcmo`akd, vüo`tmscbm kogms ba bd dms lksms, ESK (69%) pmr lmoprbs`üa krtbr`kd rbakd. Ba jbabrkd dms pkl`batbs sma kdjm okymrbs qub ba bd aburmgdkstmok y pkrblba obams bafbroms. Yubcb kpkrblbr eboktur`k oklrm m o`lrmslüp`lk kuaqub bs rkrk, pmd`l`tbo`k (pmr kuobatm cb br`trmpmybt`ak) y ebomrrkj`k trks trkuokt`soms. Dk c`sbo`akl`üa oës frblubatb bs k pudoüa, bv`cbatb ba bd ;9;2% cb dks rkc`mjrkfïks cb türkx ba bd omobatm cbd c`kjaüst`lm. c` kjaüst`lm.

C`kjaüst`lm • Blmjrkfïk> prubgk `a`l`kd. • SL> oksk am emomjàabk, lma ërbks cb gknk cbas`ckc qub `ac`lka ablrms`s. Dks zmaks cb ebomrrkj`k y dks lkdl`f`lkl`mabs sma obams frblubatbs qub ba bd aburmgdkstmok. \b bstkgdblb uak ldkrk cbd`o`tkl`üa batrb bd tuomr y bd pkràaqu`ok amrokd qub sb lmrrbdkl`mak lma dk psbucmlëpsudk. • YKKF> s` bx`stba cucks c`kjaüst`lks, pbrm ba jbabrkd am sb subdba eklbr. Am  g`mps`kr bd tuomr pmrqub dk rmturk cb dk lëpsudk rbakd lkog`k bd bstkc`m.

Srktko`batm \b trktkrë lma [S prbmpbrktmr`k, l`rujïk, » [S pmstmpbrktmr`k y WS sbjþa bd bstkc`m tuomrkd.

Yrmaüst`lm Cbpbacb cbd bstkc`m y cbd sugt`pm e`stmdüj`lm cbd tuomr, kuaqub bs obnmr ba 47 kûms y ba kqubddms ba qub bd tuomr pbsk obams cb 729 jr.

5;

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

K

G Bckc obc`k < kûms Kogms sbxms

Bckc obc`k 7 kûms Vkrüa Wkzk gdkalk

Ka`r`c`k \ïacrmob cb Emrabr y eboktmok d`abkd cb përpkcm Aburmgdkstmok lbrv`lkd Aburmgdkstmok tmrël`lm Obtëstks`s ba pudoüa

Y`bd     s       `     s     k      t     s       ë      t     b       O

Eïjkcm Eubsm Oàcudk üsbk

F`jurk 7. K. Aburmgdkstmok. K. Aburmgdkstmok. G. Abfrmgdkstmok G. Abfrmgdkstmok m tuomr cb Z`dos.

Aburmgdkstmok jdëacudk suprkrbakd Aburmgdkstmok jkajd`ms s`opët`lms rbtrmpbr`tmabkdbs

Suomr cb Z`dos ba r`ûma cbrblem Ebo`e`pbrtrmf`k Okdfmrokl`mabs jba`tmur`akr`ks

57

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;9

Bafbrobckcbss `afbll`msks Bafbrobckcb  Kutmrbs> Ckv`c Smrrbs Fbraëacbz, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c). \kdvkcmr Y`r`s Gmrrbjks, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c), Okrïk Cbd Y`dkr Katüa Okrt`a, Yemba`x Le`dcrba³s Emsp`tkd (Yemba`x, BB.RR.).

Bafmqub [email protected] Bstuc`k bspbl`kdobatb dk tkgdk ;, qub `alduyb ua lukcrm c`fbrbal`kd cb dks c`st`atks bafbrobckcbs bxkatboët`lks8 lma bddk lmatbstkrës ouleks prbjuatks. Ktbal`üa kd skrkop`üa y dk tms fbr`ak, sma pktmdmjïks qub vubdvba k bobrjbr.

 ;9.;. Bafbrobckcbs bxkatboët`lks bxkatboët`lks \krkop`üa> Ykrkoyxmv`rus (WAK) Bp`cbo`mdmjïk Ba dms þdt`oms kûms sb eka cbtbltkcm grmtbs kaukdbs cb skrkop`üa Bstm bsk cbg`cm kd fkddm s`stboët`lk, vkluakd cb ua sbltmr cbba dk aubstrm sml`bckcpkïs. lmatrkr`m dk vkluakl`üa dm qub ek prmcul`cm uak pàrc`ck cb dk `aoua`ckc cb rbgkûm. Dk bafbrobckc sb d`o`tk pr`al`pkdobatb k dms obamrbs cb ;7-;2 obsbs, rkajm cb bckc prbv`m k dk vkluakl`üa s`stboët`lk. Oëx`om pbrïmcm cb lmatkj`ms`ckc> fksb prmcrüo`lk, katbs cb dk kpkr`l`üa cbd bxkatbok, kuaqub bd k`sdko`batm cbgb okatbabrsb ekstk 2 cïks cbspuàs cb dk kpkr`l`üa cbd bxkatbok. Cbnk `aoua`ckc cb pmr v`ck. Kpkrblba Kl k dms 7 cïks cb dk kpkr`l`üa cbd bxkatbok y pubcba ktrkvbskr dk pdklbatk y mfrblbr `aoua`ckc kd WA curkatb dms pr`obrms 6 obsbs cb v`ck, s`bacm `acbtbltkgdbs k dms 0 obsbs cb v`ck (kuaqub su bfbltm pubcb prmdmajkrsb ekstk dms ;7 obsbs).

Ldïa`lk Ldïa`lk  ([email protected] ;7, 7 mt`t`s obc`k kjuck, grmalmabuomaïk. 7. Kfbltkl`üa cbd s`stbok abrv`msm lbatrkd lbatrkd (bs dk bafbrobckc bxkatboët`lk qub lma okymr frblubal`k prmculb oka`fbstkl`mabs aburmdüj`lks) ([email protected])> -  Oba`ajmbal Oba`ajmbalbfkd`t`s bfkd`t`s skrkop`mamsk skrkop`mamsk (;/;999)> sb prmculb prmculb k dms pmlms cïks cbd bxkatbok. \b cbgb k dk `avks`üa cbd prmp`m v`rus cbd s`stbok abrv`msm lbatrkd (bs c`fïl`d k`sdkr k `sdkr bd v`rus ba DLW, pbrm dk g`mquïo`lk bs dk cb uak oba`aj`t`s vïr`lk). -  Balbfkd`t`s kjuck c`sbo`akck ([email protected])> cb ; k 3 sbokaks cb dk `afbll`üa. \b trktk cb ua prmlbsm `afdkoktmr`m sugk-

• @alugkl`üa (;7 cïks). • Yrücrmoms ( f`bgrb omcbrkck, tms sblk, r`a`t`s y lma nuat`v`t`s lma fmtmfmg`k. Ba dk oulmsk mrkd (sugyujkd (sugyujkd mpubstk k dms omdkrbs `afbr`mrbs) kpkrblba uaks okaleks okaleks gdkaqubl`aks smgrb ekdm br`tboktmsm, okaleks cb Hmpd`h  Hmpd`h  ([email protected] ; okludmpkpudmsm, lmafduybatb y rmnm `atbasm, qub am sb gdkaqubk lma dk prbs`üa. \b `a`l`k ba zmaks dktbrkdbs cbd lubddm y ërbks rbtrmkur`ludkrbs, y t`bab tbacbal`k cbslbacbatb y lbatrïfujk, lma kfbltkl`üa pkdom-pdkatkr. Lm`al`c`bacm lma bd bxkatbok kpkrblb ua kuobatm gruslm cb dk tbopbrkturk, qub sb okat`bab ekstk qub fdmrblb cbd tmcm. Ba bd o`som mrcba qub kpkrbl`ü vk cbskpkrbl`bacm, qubckacm uak cbslkokl`üa rbs`cukd furfurëlbk. Dk fkl`bs bstë lmajbst`vk, pubcb ekgbr kcbampktïks y bspdbamobjkd`k. Dk jrkvbckc cb dk bafbrobckc bstë rbdkl`makck lma dk bxtbas`üa cbd bxkatbok y dk curkl`üa cb àstb.

jucm, cbsbalkcbakcm pmr dk `afbll`üa vïr`lk. -  Ykabalbfkd`t`s bsldbrmskatb sugkjuck cb Ckwsma> bat`ckc bat`ckc rkrk. Lkog`ms cb pbrsmakd`ckc, kdtbrkl`mabs ba dk lmacultk y rbac`o`batm bslmdkr, lma uak bvmdul`üa rëp`ck ekl`k dk oubrtb ba 7 kûms. Kfbltk smgrb tmcm k bslmdkrbs qub lmatkltkrma cb fmrok prblmz lma bd skrkop`üa. \b kprbl`k bdbvkl`üa cb kat`lubrpms ba bd DLW y lmopdbnms cb Wkcbokhbr ba bd BBJ. Srktko`batm> @FA `atrktblkd. abuomaïk cb làdudks j`jkatbs cb Eblet ([email protected]) pmr `avks`üa pudomakr cbd prmp`m v`rus, rbklt`vkl`üa cb uak SGL dktbatb, o`mlkrc`t`s (79% kdtbrkl`mabs ba bd BLJ cb fmrok trkas`tmr`k).

C`kjaüst`lm Bd c`kjaüst`lm sb gksk ba `cbat`f`lkr bd lukcrm ldïa`lm. Ymr omt`vms bp`cbo`mdüj`lms, m ba lksm cb cuck c`kjaüst`lk, sb pubcb lmaf`okr dk `afbll`üa obc`katb YLW cbd v`rus ba sblrbl`mabs

5<

gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

rbsp`rktmr`ks m obc`katb rbsp`rktmr`ks obc`katb sbrmdmjïk. Dms kat`lubrpms @jO frbatb kd v`rus v`rus ([email protected] ; Smjkv`rus (WAK) Bp`cbo`mdmjïk Kfbltk pmr `jukd k kogms sbxms y dk bckc cb kpkr`l`üa tkog`àa bstë omc`f`lkck pmr bd usm cb dk vkluak. Obamr lmatkj`ms`ckc qub bd skrkop`üa, s`bacm oëx`ok : cïks katbs y : cbspuàs cbd bxkatbok. Lmaf`brb `aoua`ckc pbrokabatb lma pksm cb Kl k trkvàs cb dk pdklbatk (ba bstb lksm prmtbjba curkatb 6 obsbs).

Ldïa`lk

Lmopd`lkl`mabs Wkrks ba dk `afkal`k. • Krtr`t`s> dk oës frblubatb frblubatb ([email protected]). Kpkrblb ba a`ûks pmspþgbrbs ba pbqubûks krt`ludkl`mabs (obtklkrpmfkdëaj`lks) y curk cïks m sbokaks. Am cbnka sblubdks. • Kfbltkl`üa aburmdüj`lk> balbfkd`t`s balbfkd`t`s vïr`lk (;/6999).

Yrmf`dkx`s (Vbr tbok ;7.7. Vkluaks) Srktko`batm \`atmoët`lm.

Bslkrdkt`ak Bt`mdmjïk Bstrbptmlmlm η-ebomdït`lm jrupm K m \. pymjbabs. Yrmculb trbs tmx`aks p`rüjbaks c`fbrbatbs qub pubcba ckr bd lukcrm. Bd bstkf`dmlmlm tkog`àa pubcb d`gbrkr dks o`soks tmx`aks prmcul`bacm bd o`som lukcrm. Bx`stba ua 79% cb pmrtkcmrbs ks`atmoët`lms ba dk fkr`ajb.

• @alugkl`üa> dkrjk, curkatb ;3-7; cïks.

Bp`cbo`mdmjïk

• Yrücrmoms> lukcrm lk lktkrrkd tkrrkd dbvb, fbgrïludk m f`bgrb omcbrkck, lmanuat`v`t`s s`a fmtmfmg`k y kpkr`l`üa ba bd pkdkckr gdkacm cb dks okaleks cb Fmrsleab`obr (am pktmjamoüa`lm). Bd s`jam lkrkltbrïst`lm cb bstk bafbrobckc bs dk kpkr`l`üa katbs cbd bxkatbok cb kcbampktïks rbtrmkur`ludkrbs, lbrv`lkdbs pmstbr`mrbs y pmstbrm-mll`p`tkdbs cmdmrmsks cmdmrmsks k dk pkdpkl`üa pkdpkl`üa qub pubcba curkr oës cb uak sbokak ([email protected] ;3, ;::8 [email protected]).

Kpkrblb batrb dms 2-;2 kûms s`bacm rkrm ba 4< kûms. Bs lmatkj`msm ba fksb kjuck ekstk 73 e trks bd `a`l`m cbd trktko`batm. Skatm bd bstkcm cb pmrtkcmr lmom dk bafbrobckc `aculba dk kpkr`l`üa cb Kl bspblïf`lms lmatrk dk prmtbïak O, qub lmaf`brba `aoua`ckc. Skog`àa pubcba ktrkvbskr dk pdklbatk.

• Bxkatbok> omrg`d` omrg`d`fmrob, fmrob, lmafduybatb lmafduybatb m am, cb bvmdul`üa rëp`ck. \b `a`l`k ba rbj`üa rbtrmkur`ludkr y gksb cb `opdkatkl`üa cbd pbdm lma tbacbal`k cbslbacbatb y lbatrïfujk ddbjkacm k kfbltkr k tmcm bd lubrpm. Wbspbtk pkdoks y pdkatks. \b kldkrk cb fmrok s`o`dkr k lüom kpkrbl`ü cbnkacm uak cbslkokl`üa dbvb.

Dbajuk kfrkogubskck Barmnbl`o`batm ba kx`dks y lkrk

F`jurk 7. Bxkatbok pmr rugàmdk.

F`jurk ;-: cïks. • Yrücrmoms> `a`l`m grusl gruslm m lma f`bgrb, okd bstkcm jbabrkd, lbfkdbk, bslkdmfrïms y vüo`tms. Curkatb dms pr`obrms cïks kpkrblb dk dbajuk skgurrkd gdkaqubl`ak ba dk qub cbstklka dks pkp`dks e`pbrtrüf`lks (ba frbsk gdkalk). Ymstbr`mrobatb sb cbslkok, kpkrbl`bacm uak dbajuk `atbaskobatb e`pbrào`lk (kfrkokfrkogubskck m ba frbsk rmnk). Koïjckdks e`pbrtrüf`lks e`pbrtrüf`lks rblug`brtks pmr bxuckcms gdkalm-jr`sëlbms y bakatbok pbtbqu`kd ba pkdkckr gdkacm (sujbst`vm cb bt`mdmjïk gkltbr`kak). Yub Yubcba cba kpkrblbr kcbampktïks lbrv`lkdbs cmdmrmsks  cmdmrmsks ([email protected] 90, ;53). • Bxkatbok> o`lrmpkpudkr pkdpkgdb (sb pkdpk obnmr qub sb vb), rmnm, qub gdkaqubk k dk prbs`üa, oës `atbasm ba pd`bjubs cmacb lmafduyba k omcm cb dïabks e`pbrp`jobatkcks m dïabks cb Ykst`k.   Bd bxkatb bxkatbok ok bs lmafduybatb lmafduybatb ba lkrk, `atbasm ba obn`ddks y rbspbtk bd surlm aksmjba`kam ckacm dujkr k dk fkl`bs cb F`dktmv.   K dms : cïks sb cbslkok. Yubcb kfbltkr pkdoks y pdkatks.

abrv`ms lrkabkdbs m bsp`akdbs, puc`bacm rbklt`vkrsb ba pbrïmcms cb gknk `aoua`ckc ckacm dujkr kd ebrpbs züstbr. Dk vkr`lbdk sugldïa`lk bs rkrk. • @alugkl`üa> ;9-7; cïks. • Yrücrmoms> f`bgrb y okdbstkr jbabrkd, lma sïatmok sïatmokss lktkrrkdbs dbvbs. • Bxkatbok> dbs`mabs prur`j`amsks k omcm cb grmtbs lma uak sblubal`k tïp`lk> oëludks ↗ pëpudks br`tboktmsks ↗ vbsïludks gdkaqubl`aks am uog`d`lkcks ↗ trks 73 e sb baturg`ka lmav`rt`àacmsb ba pþstudks ↗ trks su rupturk sb lmav`brtba ba lmstrks. \b `a`l`k ba bd türkx y cbscb kddï sb bxt`bacb k lkrk, lubrm lkgbdducm, zmaks cb prbs`üa (prbcmo`akatbs) s`bacm rkrk dk kfbltkl`üa c`stkd. Skog`àa kfbltk oulmsks mrkd y jba`tkd.   \ubdb klmopkûkrsb cb kcbampktïks jbabrkd`zkcks([email protected]). Eky kdjuams t`pms bspbl`kdbs cb vkr`lbdk qub sb oka`f`bstka ba lmac`l`mabs lmalrbtks> • Ebomrrëj`lk> ksml`kck k trmogmpba`k.

C`kjaüst`lm Bd c`kjaüst`lm bs ldïa`lm y sb cbgb `a`l`kr bd trktko`batm katb dk `cbat`f`lkl`üa cbd lukcrm. Ba lksm cb cucks sb pubcb rblurr`r k prubgks oës bspblïf`lks> • Cbtbll`üa rëp`ck cbd katïjbam> bx`stba tbsts cb cbtbll`üa rëp`ck cb bstrbptmlmlm ba frmt`s fkrïajbm. Bspbl`f`l`ckc cb ekstk ua 06%. • Frmt`s fkrïajbm> oës sbas`gdb y bspblïf`lm, kuaqub tkrck 35 e ba lrblbr.

Lmopd`lkl`mabs • @afbll`üa vïks rbsp`rktmr`ks supbr supbr`mrbs `mrbs (pmr bxtbas`üa dmlkd cb dk bafbrobckc).

• Guddmsk> ba obamrbs cb 7 kûms lma dbs`mabs lmafduybatbs y kpkr`l`üa cb kopmddks. Bs pmlm frblubatb.

Lmopd`lkl`mabs • \mgrb`afbll`üa gkltbr`kak cb dks dbs`mabs (dk oës frblubatb)> \. pymjbabs (lutëabk m abuomaïk) m \. kurbus. • Abuomaïk vkr`lbdmsk> rblupbrkl`üa ldïa`lk rëp`ck y rkc`mdüj`lk oës tkrcïk (tïp`lk cb kcudtms). • Balbfkd`t`s pmst`afbll`msk> kfbltkl`üa kfbltkl`üa lbrbgbdmsk (ba bstb lksm obnmr prmaüst`lm). • \ïacrmob cb Wbyb> s` sb ek ksml`kcm trktko`batm lma ël`cm klbt`d skd`lïd`lm.

• Fmlms `afbll`ms `afbll`msms ms k c`stkal`k (pmr c`sbo`akl`üa eboktüjbak eboktüjbak). ). • F`bgrb rbuoët`lk (bxlbpl`makd ba dk kltukd`ckc) m jdmobrudmjdmobrudmabfr`t`s pmstbstrbptmlül`lk (tkrcïk).

Srktko`batm Yba`l`d`ak mrkd ;9 cïks (oklrüd`cms ba kdàrj`lms) ([email protected]). \` cuckoms cbd luopd`o`batm kcblukcm bstë `ac`lkck dk kco`a`strkl`üa cb pba`l`d`ak gbazkt`ak `.o. ba cms`s þa`lk cb 699999 [email protected]

Vkr`lbdk> VV^ (CAK) Bp`cbo`mdmjïk Obamrbs cb ;9 kûms (09%). Lmatkj`ms`ckc>> cbscb ; cïk katbs cb dk kpkr`l`üa cbd bxkatbok y Lmatkj`ms`ckc ekstk qub tmcks dks dbs`mabs bstëa ba fksb cb lmstrk. @aoua`ckc pbrokabatb, kuaqub pubcba mlurr`r ktkqubs sbluackr`ms ba `aouamcbpr`o`cms y ba vkluakcms. Dms Kl pubcba ktrkvbskr dk pdklbatk.

Ldïa`lk Ba bd pr`obr lmatkltm sb prmculb dk vkr`lbdk y pmstbr`mrobatb bd v`rus qubck klkatmakcm ba dms jkajd`ms cb dk rkïz cmrskd cb

F`jurk 3. Dbs`mabs tïp`lks cb vkr`lbdk.

Yrmf`dkx`s (Vbr tbok ;7.7. Vkluaks)

Srktko`batm \`atmoët`lm. Bv`tkr ksp`r`ak. Bd kl`ldmv`r bs þt`d ba bd trktko`batm cb dk abuomaïk y ba bd trktko`batm cb dk vkr`lbdk ba `aouamcbpr`o`cms, smgrb tmcm s` sb `a`l`k katbs cbd Ykrvmv`rus G;0 (CAK omamlktbakr`m)  omamlktbakr`m) ([email protected])

Bxkatbok sþg`tm, rmsbmdk `afkatuo m 6.ª bafbrobckc> VE\-6 ([email protected])

Bp`cbo`mdmjïk

Bp`cbo`mdmjïk

Kpkrblb batrb dms 2-;2 kûms, lma ua pbrïmcm cb lmatkj`m oëx`om katbs cbd bxkatbok.

Ldïa`lk

VE\ 6 t`pm K m G, bstb þdt`om lkuskatb cbd 00% cb dms lksms cb bafbrobckc8 ba kdjuams lksms VE\ :. Kpkrblb batrb 6-;2 o. Am sb lmamlb dk lmatkj`ms`ckc. @aculb `aoua`ckc cb pmr v`ck lma pksm trkaspdklbatkr`m cb Kl prmtb-

Dk okymr pkrtb cb dks `afbll`mabs sma ks`atmoët`lks.

j`bacm kd WA curkatb dms pr`obrms 3 o cb v`ck.

• @alugkl`üa> vkr`kgdb, cb 3 k 75 cïks.

Ldïa`lk

• Yrücrmoms> fbgrïludk, lbfkdbk, sïatmoks cb `afbll`üa cb vïk kàrbk supbr`mr.

• @alugkl`üa> 2-;2 cïks.

• Bxkatbok kfbgr`d qub bvmdul`mak ba trbs btkpks> br`tbok dïv`cm ba obn`ddks (kspbltm kgmfbtbkcm), bxkatbok okludmpkpudmsm bslkskobatb prur`j`amsm, dmlkd`zkcm ba trmalm y o`bogrms, rbspbtkacm pkdoks y pdkatks y pmstbr`mr kldkrko`batm cb dks dbs`mabs, cëacmdbs ua kspbltm rbt`ludkcm s`a cbslkokl`üa.   \ubdb curkr vkr`ms cïks pbrm pubcb rbkpkrblbr rbkpkrblbr lma lma bd bnbrl`l`m, gkûm lkd`batb, rkslkcm m bstràs.

Lmopd`lkl`mabs • Krtr`t`s y krtrkdj`ks cb jrkacbs y pbqubûks krt`ludkl`mabs, oës frblubatbs ba ounbrbs. Yubcba lrma`f`lkrsb (tïp`lm ba kcudtms). • Kgmrtms, eycrmps abmaktkd m omrt`aktms.

• Yrücrmoms> f`bgrb kdtk lma guba bstkcm jbabrkd y s`a fmlm kpkrbatb. Yubcb ksml`kr dbvb fkr`aj`t`s, r`a`t`s m kcbampktïks. • Bxkatbok Bxkatbok   ([email protected] ;6, ;23)> kd f`bgrb y 3 m oës cb dms mtrms lr`tbr`ms. lr`tbr`ms.

Ldïa`lk • Lr`tbr`ms c`kjaüst`lms ([email protected])> -  F`bgrb bdbvkck 12 cïks qub rbspmacb okd k kat`tàro`lms (kltukdobatb bstb lr`tbr`m bs oës dkxm y am bs ablbskr`m qub dk f`bgrb sbk cb 2 cïks cb bvmdul`üa s` luopdba bd rbstm cb lr`tbr`ms). -  Lmanuat`v`t`s g`dktbrkd am purudbatk. -  Kfbltkl`üa oulmsk mrmfkrïajbk, lma dkg`ms br`tboktmsms, sblms y kjr`btkcms, dbajuk ba frbsk. -  Kcbampktïk lbrv`lkd 1;.2 lo, ua`dktbrkd, am cmdmrmsk a` supurkt`vk. -  Bxkatbok vkr`kgdb, am vbs`ludkr, cb `a`l`m ba trmalm. -  Bcbok y/m br`tbok cb okams y p`bs ba fksb kjuck, m cbslkokl`üa pbr`uajubkd ba fksb tkrcïk.

• Kakdït`lm> dbulml`tms`s lma cbsv`kl`üa `zqu`brck, trmogml`tms`s, kabo`k, kuobatm cb dk V\J y YLW, prmtb`aur`k dbvb, p`ur`k, pdbml`tms`s ba DLW. Dms KAK y bd fkltmr rbuoktm`cb sma abjkt`vms y bd lmopdbobatm subdb sbr amrokd. G`d`rrug`ak y trkasko`aksks d`jbrkobatb bdbvkcks. • Blmlkrc`mjrkfïk g`c`obas`makd> þt`d pkrk bd c`kjaüst`lm cb kfbltkl`üa lkrcïklk, qub lmaf`rok bd c`kjaüst`lm cb bafbrobckc cb Hkwkskh`. Bs mgd`jktmr`m rbkd`zkrdk ba bd omobatm cbd c`kjaüst`lm y k dks cms sbokaks. • G`mps`k> `af`dtrkcms `afdkoktmr`ms ba dk obc`k b ïat`ok cb krtbr`ks cb obc`kam lkd`grb (lmrmakr`ks) lma mgstrull`üa pmr trmogms pdkqubtkr`ms. Eky qub c`fbrbal`krdm cb dk YKA `afkat`d.

Yrmaüst`lm Fkvmrkgdb s` am eky kfbltkl`üa lkrcïklk. Omrtkd`ckc rbdkl`makck lma kfbltkl`üa lmrmakr`k. Dms kabur`soks subdba cbskpkrblbr k dms 7 kûms ba ua 29% cb dms lksms.

Srktko`batm • Jkookjdmgdud`ak `.v.> eklb eklb cbskpkrblbr dk f`bgrb y prbv`bab dk fmrokl`üa cb kabur`soks, s` sb kco`a`strk ba dms ;9 pr`obrms cïks.

Lmanuat`v`t`s Cbslkokl`üa cb dms cbcms y cb dk pkdok cb dk okam

• \kd`l`dktms k cms`s kat``afdkoktmr`ks ba dk fksb fbgr`d y k cms`s kat`kjrbjkatbs curkatb 6-5 sbokaks (s` am eky dbs`mabs lmrmakr`ks) m ekstk dk cbskpkr`l`üa cb dks dbs`mabs lmrmakr`ks. • Ebpkr`ak y/m c`luokrïa`lms, s` eky kabur`soks jrkacbs m oþdt`pdbs.

Dkg`ms y dbajuk barmnbl`cms

• Lmrt`lm`cbs> Lmrt`lm`cbs> ba lksms rbfrkltkr`ms k trktko`batm trktko`batm lma jkookjdmgud`ak y skd`l`dktms. • @afd`x`okg> ba lksms rbfrkltkr`ms k dms katbr`mrbs katbr`mrbs fëroklms.

Kabur`soks lmrmakr`ms

(Vbr tkgdk ; ba dk pëj`ak s`ju`batb)

Yþrpurk cb \leödb`a-Ebaml \leödb`a-Ebamlee ([email protected] ; kllbsms cb tms pkrmxïst`lk curkatb uak o`sok bsp`rkl`üa, lma ru`cm f`akd `asp`rktmr`m m —jkddm‟. Bstëa cbsbalkcbakcms pmr bd bstmraucm, bnbrl`l`m, sujbst`üa, `ajbstk cb kjuk m lmo`ck. \b klmopkûk cb lmajbst`üa fkl`kd, dkjr`obm, prmtus`üa d`ajukd lma vüo`tms m pkusks cb kpabk ([email protected]). Ba dms a`ûms obamrbs cb 7 kûms pubcba kpkrblbr lmavuds`mabs.

C`kjaüst`lm Dk ldïa`lk sujbst`vk ba ua kog`batb bp`cbo`mdüj`lm pubcb sbr suf`l`batb. Bs tïp`lk dk dbulml`tms`s lma d`afml`tms`s kgsmdutk kd f`akd cb dk fksb lktkrrkd, yk qub dk gkltbr`k d`d`gbrk gbrk uak bxmtmx`ak bst`oudkatb cb dms d`afml`tms d`afml`tms ([email protected] 90, ;5 rbspmaskgdb rbspmaskgdb cbd 09% cb dms fkddbl`o`batms ba obamrbs cb < kûms, smgrb tmcm s` sb prmculb smgrb`afbll`üa gkltbr`kak. • Ykusks cb kpabk ba dkltkatbs lma r`bsjm cb oubrtb. • Lmavuds`mabs u mtrks lmopd`lkl`mabs aburmdüj`lks. • Yrmdkpsm rbltkd, ebomrrkj`k suglmanuat`vkd, bp`stkx`s, ebra`k uog`d`lkd. • Sms fbr`ak okd`jak> lukcrm jrkvb cb tms fbr`ak cb ouy okd prmaüst`lm lma kfbltkl`üa oudt`s`stào`lk.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;9

º Bafbrobckcbs `afbll`msks

Yrmaüst`lm Oës jrkvb k obamr bckc, kdlkazkacm kd lkazkacm uak omrtkd`ckc cbd 39% ba obamrbs cb 2 obsbs. Dks pr`al`pkdbs lkusks cb omrtkd`ckc sma dk abuomaïk y dks kdtbrkl`mabs aburmdüj`lks. Lr`tbr`ms cb `ajrbsm emsp`tkdkr`m (pmr okymr r`bsjm cb lmopd`lkl`mabs)> pkl`batbs 4;7 sbokaks cb v`ck, prbokturms, a`ûms lma pktmdmjïk cb gksb.

Yrmf`dkx`s (Vbr tbok ;7.7. Vkluaks) Srktko`batm Lma oklrüd`cms> kz`trmo`l`ak 2 cïks (pkutk (pkutk oës uskck), uskck), ldkr`trmo`l`ak : cïks, m br`trmo`l`ak ;3 cïks  cïks  ([email protected] ;9, ;: rkrm ba dk `afkal`k y lursk lma f`bgrb, lbfkdbks, okdbstkr jbabrkd y o`kdj`ks. • Fksb cb bstkcm> tuobfkll`üa jdkacudkr (—pkpbrks‟). s`bacm dk pkrüt`ck dk jdëacudk kfbltkck lma oës frblubal`k Bs g`dktbrkd y ks`oàtr`lk ba bd :2% cb dms lksms. Yubcb ekgbr tuobfkll`üa cb dks jdëacudks sugokac`gudkrbs y lma obamr frblubal`k dks sugd`ajukdbs. \b lkrkltbr`zk pmr bcbok batrb dk rkok kslbacbatb cb dk okacïgudk y dk okstm`cbs, cbspdkzkacm bd dügudm cb dk mrbnk ekl`k krr`gk y ekl`k fubrk. K dk pkdpkl`üa sb mgsbrvk qub bstë gmrrkcm bd ëajudm cb dk okacïgudk y qub dk p`bd suprkyklbatb am bstë kfbltkck. Yubcb ekgbr bcbok fkrïajbm `ps`dktbrkd lma br`tbok ba dk cbsbogmlkcurk cb dk jdëacudk kfbltk.

([email protected] ; Nud`m Kdgbrtm Vëzqubz Jüobz, E. @afkat`d R. A`ûm Nbsþs (Okcr`c). Ckv`c Smrrbs Fbraëacbz, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c).  Kutmrbs> Nud`m (Okcr` c). Kak Ybûk Omrbam, E. J. R. Jrbjmr`m Okrkûüa (Okcr`c).

Oubrtb rbpbat`ak b `abspbrkck cb ua a`ûm obamr cb ; kûm (02% obamrbs cb 6 obsbs) kpkrbatbobatb skam y s`a bxpd`lkl`üa kdjuak. Lkusk oës frblubatb cb oubrtb ba dms dkltkatbs batrb ; obs y ; kûm ba dms pkïsbs cbskrrmddkcms. Bs dk lkusk oës frblubatb cb oubrtb ba dms dkltkatbs batrb ; obs y ; kûm ba dms pkïsbs cbskrrmddkcms, mlks`makacm ua jrka `opkltm ba dks fko`d`ks. Dk lkusk bs cbslmaml`ck, kuaqub batrb mtrks tbmrïks sb pmstudk bd fkddbl`o`batm pmr pkrkck rbsp`rktmr`k sbluackr`k k `aokcurbz cbd \AL y cb dk fual`üa lkrc`mrrbsp`rktmr`k ba ua dkltkatb jbaàt`lkobatb vudabrkgdb k ua fkltmr bstrbskatb bxüjbam ba ua pbrïmcm lrït`lm cbd cbskrrmddm. Cb bstk okabrk, lukacm bd dkltkatb sufrb sïatmoks cb kemjm m uak kpabk, am bs lkpkz cb klt`vkr bspmatëabkobatb a`ajþa oblka`som pkrk bv`tkrdm. Ykrk ddbjkr kd c`kjaüst`lm sb rbqu`brb uak kutmps`k qub am rbvbdb mtrks lkusks cb oubrtb, ksï lmom bde`stmr`k r`jurmsmldïa`lk bxkoba dujkr cbd fkddbl`o`batm y uak o`aul`msk pkrkcbdbxldu`r mtrks lkusks. Batrb dms ekddkzjms oës frblubatbs ba bd sïacrmob cb oubrtb sþg`tk, cbstklka ebomrrkj`ks pbtbqu`kdbs, s`jams g`mquïo`lms cb ksf`x`k lrüa`lk, y kdtbrkl`mabs cbd aburmcbskrrmddm cbd trmalm cbd balàfkdm y c`balàfkdm. Ba lmalrbtm, bd aþldbm krluktm cbd gudgm ek s`cm oës bstuc`kcm (pmr sbr bd pr`al`pkd lbatrm rbjudkcmr cb dks fual`mabs v`tkdbs kutüamoks, lmom dk rbsp`rkl`üa) y bs, ba oulems lksms, e`pmpdës`lm m prbsbatk kdtbrkl`mabs ba aburmrrblbptmrbs. [ubck bxldu`cm cb dk cbf`a`l`üa y cb dms oblka`soms f`s`mpktmdüj`lms bd sïacrmob cb oubrtb sþg`tk ba bd pbr`mcm abmaktkd tboprkam cb dk pr`obrk sbokak cb v`ck.

Fkltmrbs cb r`bsjm

- Dkltkatb> `al`cbal`k oëx`ok cb 7 k 3 obsbs cb bckc, sbxm okslud`am (2), rbtrksm cbd lrbl`o`batm, dkltkal`k krt`f`l`kd, bxpms`l`üa k tkgklm, bafbrobckc fbgr`d, sïatmoks jkstrm`atbst`akdbs m cb `afbll`üa rbsp`rktmr`k supbr`mr rbl`batb, fkdtk cb leupbtb y [S prmdmajkcm ba dk pr`obrk sbokak cb v`ck  ([email protected]). \ubdb prmcul`rsb o`batrks cubroba (batrb dks d ks 73 e-0 e). • \ml`kd-kog`batkd > a`vbd sml`mblmaüo`lm gknm, ërbks urgkaks, ebrokams lma sïacrmob cb oubrtb sþg`tk cbd dkltkatb (\O\D) (kuobatk ;9 vblbs bd r`bsjm s` bs ua ebrokam sulbs`vm y 39 vblbs s` bs jbobdm), lkok gdkack, tbopbrkturk bdbvkck, obsbs frïms y eþobcms. \`a cuck, bd pr`al`pkd fkltmr cb r`bsjm omc`f`lkgdb bs dk pms`l`üa. Bv`tkr lukdqu`br pms`l`üa qub am sbk dk cb cblþg`tm sup`am curkatb bd subûm, skdvm `ac`lkl`mabs oàc`lks bspblïf`lks, ek eblem c`so`au`r lmas`cbrkgdbobatb dk `al`cbal`k cb \O\D ([email protected]).

Yrbvbal`üa • Bv`tkr bxpms`l`üa kd euom cbd tkgklm, tkatm ba bd pbr`mcm prbaktkd lmom pmsaktkd. • Yms`l`üa pkrk cmro`r ba cblþg`tm sup`am, ba lmdleüa pdkam y f`rob, bv`tkacm nujubtbs y mtrms mgnbtms ba su luak. • Am lmopkrt`r dk lkok lma bd kcudtm, kuaqub cmro`r ba dk o`sok ekg`tkl`üa qub dms lu`ckcmrbs bs ua fkltmr prmtbltmr. • Bv`tkr smgrblkdbatko`batm cbd kog`batb (`cbkd 79 ¾L) ksï lmom krrmpkr ba bxlbsm kd a`ûm. • Dkltkal`k oktbrak y usm cbd leupbtb curkatb curkatb bd subûm. • Ksbsmrkr k dms pkcrbs smgrb prëlt`lks prëlt`lks lmom bd lmdblem sbjurm pkrk bv`tkr s`tukl`mabs cb r`bsjm lmaml`cks.

• G`mdüj`lms. - Yrboktur`ckc y gknm pbsm. - Kdtbrkl`üa ba dms oblka`soms cb kutmrrbjudkl`üa. - Kuobatm cb dk tbopbrkturk lmrpmrkd m kog`batkd. - Kuobatm cb dk frblubal`k lkrcïklk ba tmcks dks fksbs subûmv`j`d`k, lma c`so`aul`üa cb dk vkr`kg`d`ckc ba dk v`j`d`k. - Cbfbltms kutmaüo`l kutmaüo`lms ms y cbd s`stbok `aoua`tkr`m. • Bp`cbo`mdüj`lms. - Oktbrams m prbaktkdbs> e`pmx e`pmx`k `k `atrkþtbrm, [email protected], kabo`k oktbrak, @SR oktbrak, okdautr`l`üa oktbrak, kuobatm cb dk pkr`ckc lma bslksm `atbrvkdm, okcrbs fuokcmrks, lmasuo`cmrks cb kdlmemd m kc`ltks k mtrks crmjks y lma bslksm lmatrmd cb dk jbstkl`üa. Skog`àa ba smdtbrks, obamrbs cb 79 kûms y lma katblbcbatbs cb kgmrtms prbv`ms.

F`jurk ;. Lkopkûk cb prbvbal`üa cbd \O\D.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Sbok ;7

@aoua`zkl`mabs y vkluaks  Kutmrbs> Ckv`c Smrrbs Fbraëacbz, E. R. ;7 cb Mltugrb (Okcr`c). @dcukrk Wut Y`atms Ykslukd, E. R. Fuackl`üa N`oàabz Cïkz (Okcr`c). Bcukrc Omjks V`ûkds, E. R. Vkdd c³Ebgrma (Gkrlbdmak).

Bafmqub [email protected] Sbok ba kujb, cb dms oës prbjuatkcms. Eky qub cmo`akr dk ldks`f`lkl`üa cb dks vkluaks, lmatrk`ac`lkl`mabs y bd lkdbackr`m vkluakd.

Kco`a`strkl`üa cb vkluaks pkrbatbrkdbs Dk bdbll`üa cbd dujkr cb `aybll`üa cbpbacb cb dk bckc cbd a`ûm> • Obamrbs cb 73 obsbs> lkrk katbrmdktbrkd bxtbrak cbd ousdm (tbrl`m obc`m cbd oþsludm vkstm m dktbrkd).

 ;7.;. Jbabrkd`ckcbs Dk `aoua`zkl`üa bs bd prmlbsm cb `acull`üa krt`f`l`kd cb dk `aoua`ckc. \b cbamo`ak `aoua`zkl`üa klt`vk k dk bst`oudkl`üa cb dks cbfbasks akturkdbs obc`katb dk kco`a`strkl`üa cb kjbatbs `afbll`msms m sus lmopmabatbs (vkluaks), b `aoua`zkl`üa pks`vk  k lmafbr`r `aoua`ckc tbopmrkd k ua `ac`v`cum am `aoua`zkcm obc`katb kco`a`strkl`üa cb kat`lubrpms. \` dks vkluaks t`baba ua smdm Kj sma omamvkdbatbs (p. bn., oba`ajmlmlm L), s` t`baba vkr`ms Kj cb ua o`som o`lrmmrjka`som sma pmd`vkdbatbs (p. bn., kat`abuomlül`lk) y s` t`bab vkr`ms Kj cb c`fbrbatbs o`lrmmrjka`soms sma lmog`akcks (p. bn., CSY, tr`pdb vïr`lk). Dk kco`a`strkl`üa s`oudtëabk cb vkr`ks vkluaks am lmoprmobtb dk bf`lkl`k cb dks o`soks.

Ldks`f`lkl`üa

• < kûms y kcmdbslbatbs> emogrm (oþsludm cbdtm`cbs). ≢

Dk rbj`üa jdþtbk-vbatrkd bs uak kdtbrakt`vk lukacm am sbk fklt`gdb dk kco`a`strkl`üa ba dms dujkrbs prbv`ms (p. bn., ba ua dkltkatb lma bslkymdks lma bslkymdks ba kogks bxtrbo`ckcbs `afbr`mrbs) ([email protected] ;5, 779).

Wbkll`mabs kcvbrsks • Dmlkdbs (dks oës frblubatbs)> rbkll`üa `afdkoktmr`k dmlkd. • Jbabrkdbs> f`bgrb, lbfkdbk, urt`lkr`k, kakf`dkx`k.

Lmatrk`ac`lkl`mabs Ybrokabatbs

Vkluak v`vk ktbaukck

• Wbkll`üa kakf`dëlt`lk k uak cms`s prbv`k cb c`lek vkluak m k kdjuam cb sus lmopmabatbs.

Wbspubstk `aouab s`o`dkr k dk akturkd pmrqub lkuska uak `afbll`üa lks` `akpkrbatb ([email protected]).

• Yrbsbal`k cb balbfkdmpk balbfkdmpktïk tïk cb mr`jba cbslmaml`cm, kpkrbl`ck kpkrbl`ck ba dms : cïks s`ju`batbs k dk kco`a`strkl`üa cb vkluak cb tms fbr`ak.

• Gkltbr`kak. Y. bn., GLJ GLJ,, f`bgrb t`fm`cbk mrkd. • Vïr`lks. Y. bn., pmd`m mrkd (a (am m ba Bspkûk), f`bgrb kokr`ddk, rmtkv`rus, tr`pdb vïr`lk, vkr`lbdk.

Vkluak `aklt`vkck • O`lrmmrjka`som batbrm `akl `aklt`vkcm t`vkcm m oubrtm. - Gkltbr`kak. Y. bn., lüdbrk mrkd. - Vïr`lk. Y. bn., Y. bn., pmd`m pkrbatbrkd, pkrbatbrkd, ebpkt`t`s K, rkg`k, balbfkd`t`s  nkpmabsk  ([email protected] ;9, ;;:).  nkpmabsk • Frkjobatms vïr`lms. Y. bn., jr`pb, ebpkt`t`s G, VYE. • Yrmtbïaks pur`f`lkcks gkltbr`kaks. Y. bn., c`ftbr`k, tàtkams y tms fbr`ak klbdudkr. • Ymd`sklër`cms lkpsudkrbs gkltbr`kams. Y. bn., abuomlmlm 7 Ekbompe`dus `afdubazkb g, oba`ajmlmlm L y KLZP, abuomlmlm ;9- y ; lmat lmatrk`ac`lkcks rk`ac`lkcks dks vkluaks ktbaukcks ([email protected] ;3, 7 sb cbgb vkluakr dm katbs pms`gdb. Lmatrk`ac`lkcks dks vkluaks ktbaukcks bxlbptm tr`pdb vïr`lk y vkr`lbdk s` am eky `aouamcbprbs`üa sbvbrk ([email protected]). • @aouamcbf`l`bal`ks y trktko`batm trktko`batm `aouamsuprbsmr> `aouamsuprbsmr> lmatrk`ac`lkcks dks vkluaks ktbaukcks ktbaukcks ([email protected] ;6, 793). Bd rbstm cb vkluaks pubcba prbl`skr oës cms`s cb rblubrcm. Ba lksm cb trktko`batm `aouamsuprbsmr, sb `atbatk vkluakr katbs cb lmobazkrdm. • Kco`a`strkl`üa cb prmcultms g`mdüj`lms (`aouamjdmgud`aks m skajrb)> pubcba `atbrfbr`r lma tr`pdb vïr`lk y vkr`lbdk. • Dkltkal`k> am lmatrk`ac`lkl`mabs. • Yrbokturms> lkdbackr`m lkdbackr`m ua`vbrskd sbjþa bckc sbjþa bckc lrmamdüj`lk (am sbjþa bckc lmrrbj`ck) lmrrbj`ck) ([email protected] ;6, ;00).

• Yrmtbïak cb supbrf`l`b rblmog`akatb. Y. bn., oba`ajmlml oba`ajmlmlm m G.

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

 ;7.7. Vkluaks Vkluaks

@ac`lkl`mabs Vkluakl`üa ua`vbrskd.

Ebpkt`t`s G Lksms bspbl`kdbs S`pm Wblmog`akatb (`ajba`brïk jbaàt`lk). Bx`stb cb fmrok omamlmopmabatb y lmom pkrtb cb dk vkluak lmog`akck ebxkvkdbatb.

@ac`lkl`mabs Ra`vbrskd, y pbrsmaks am vkluakcks pbrm ba jrupm cb r`bsjm> ebomc`ëd`s`s, [email protected], `aouamcbprbs`üa, bxpms`l`üa bxpms`l`üa kd VEG (e`nms cb okcrb EGsKj+, lmatkltms cmo`l`d`kr`ms, bxpms`l`üa prmfbs`makd y pbrsmakd ska`tkr`m, lmatkltms sbxukdbs).

Lmatrk`ac`lkl`mabs Kakf`dkx`k pmr dbvkcurks.

\`tukl`mabs bspbl`kdbs • Okcrb pmrtkcmrk cb EGsKj> kco`a`strkr pr`obrk cms`s cb vkluak b @j bspblïf`lk ba dks pr`obrks ;7e cb v`ck. Wbstm cb vkluakl`üa sbjþa lkdbackr`m ([email protected] ;3, 7 ba pbrsmaks vkluakcks lmrrbltkobatb ba dk `afkal`k (2 cms`s), sb rblmo`back uak cms`s k dms 69-63 kûms. Ba dks pbrsmaks `almrrbltkobatb vkluakcks, vkluakcks, sb rblmo`back ckr cms`s cb rblubrcm ekstk kdlkazkr ua tmtkd cb 2 cms`s.

Vkluak cb tms fbr`ak (G. pbrtuss`s) Bx`stba 7 t`pms cb vkluaks, lbdudkrbs y klbdudkrbs. Ba Bspkûk südm sb uska dks klbdudkrbs. Cbatrm cb bddks, bstëa dks cb lkrjk kat`jàa`lk bstëackr (Yk) qub sb ut`d`zka ba dk pr`omvkluakl`üa, y dks cb gknk lkrjk (pk) pkrk dms rblubrcms (m pr`omvkluakl`üa ba kcudtms, yk qub sma dks þa`lks qub sb pubcba kco`a`strkr k okymrbs cb : kûms). \b eka cbomstrkcm `jukdobatb bfblt`vks. Dk prmtbll`üa frbatb k tms fbr`ak bs trkas`tmr`k8 sb bst`ok qub dk `afbll`üa akturkd akturkd lmaf`brb cb. 3-79 kûms cb prmtbll`üa, y dk ;6, 7 skrkop`üa, rugbmdk y pkrmt`c`t`s

Yrmf`dkx`s pmstbxpms`l`üa cb dk rugbmdk

Lmog`akck cb v`rus v`vms ktbaukcms. Bx`stba lmog`akl`mabs lma vkr`lbdk (tbtrkvïr`lk).

@ac`lkck smdm ba ounbrbs bogkrkzkcks suslbpt`gdbs cb bafbrokr. \b trktk cb uak prmf`dkx`s pks`vk (μ-jdmgud`ak kat`rrugbmdk), qub pubcb kco`a`strkrsb ekstk < cïks cbspuàs cb dk d k bxpms`l`üa. Dk prmf`dkx`s pubcb prbvba`r m omc`f`lkr dk `afbll`üa, pbrm am ksbjurk dk prbvbal`üa cb dk rugbmdk lmajàa`tk.

@ac`lkl`üa

Vkr`lbdk

S`pm ([email protected] ;6, ;058 ;058 [email protected] ; pubcb kco`a`strkrsb s` bx`stb guba lmatrmd cb dk `afbll`üa (LC3 ;2% ba 42 kûms, y 1799/oo `jukd qub dk tr`pdb vïr`lk. • @atbrf`brb lma bd Okatmux cb fmrok s`o`dkr k dk tr`pdb vïr`l vïr`lk. k.

Yrmf`dkx`s pmstbxpms`l`üa cb vkr`lbdk • Klt`vk (vkluak). Cb bdbll`üa. @ac`lkck ba sunbtms 1;7 obsbs (`aldu`cm kcmdbslbatbs y kcudtms) s`a e`stmr`k cb vkr`lbdk m cb vkluakl`üa frbatb k dk o`sok. Dk prmf`dkx`s pmstbxpms`l`üa pubcb bv`tkr m omc`f`lkr dk bafbrobckc jrkvb lma uak bfblt`v`ckc cbd :0-;99%. Cbgb kco`a`strkrsb ba dms pr`obrms - Wbl`àa akl`cms lluyk uyk okcrb ekyk `a`l`kcm dk vkr`lbdk batrb 2 cïks katbs y 7 cïks cbspuàs cbd pkrtm. - Obamrbs cb ; ;7 7 obsbs cb bckc emsp`tkd`zkcms> • Ba lksm cb sbr e`nm cb okcrb s`a katblbcbatbs cb vkr`lbdk a` vkluakl`üa. • \` prboktur`ckc 475 sbokaks m pbsm kd akl`o`batm ;999 j, kuaqub dk okcrb tbajk katblbcbatb cb vkr`lbdk m vkluakl`üa frbatb k dk vkr`lbdk. ≣

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gmmhsobc`lms.mrj  

Okaukd [email protected] º Ybc`ktrïk

- @aouamcbpr`o`cms. - Bogkrkzkcks Bogkrkzkcks  ([email protected] ;6, 79; 79;88 [email protected] ;2, ;63). @acbpbac`batbobatb cb dk bckc jbstkl`makd, cb dk vkluakl`üa m cb ekgbr pkskcm dk vkr`lbdk. • Kl`ldmv`r> sb kco`a`strk südm ba lksm cb am pmcbr kco`a`strkr @j.

akl`üa + ; cb rbfubrzm)8 7 cms`s ba pkl`batbs okymrbs cb 7 kûms (`aldu`cms kcmdbslbatbs y kcudtms)8 y < cms`s ba bd rbstm (bsqubok 7+;). \ubdb sbpkrkrsb ;2 cïks cb mtrks vkluaks pkrk c`so`au`r dms bfbltms kcvbrsms.

Wbkll`mabs kcvbrsks frblubatbs

Oba`ajmlmlm

@afdkokl`üa dmlkd, f`bgrb b `rr`tkg`d`ckc.

Oba`ajmlmlm L omamvkdbatb • S`pm> lmanujkck cb pmd`sklër`cm lkpsudkr + prmtbïak. Dk `opdkatkl`üa cb dk vkluakl`üa s`stboët`lk k pkrt`r cb dms 7 obsbs cb v`ck lma dk vkluak lmanujkck ek c`so`au`cm crëst`lkobatb dk `al`cbal`k cb bafbrobckc `avks`vk pmr oba`ajmlmlm cbd jrupm L. \`a bogkrjm, sb okat`baba cms p`lms cb `al`cbal`k ba dms kcmdbslbatbs y kcudtms nüvbabs, qub sma kcboës bd jrupm qub prbsbatk okymr dbtkd`ckc, pmr dm qub kltukdobatb dk þdt`ok cms`s cb vkluakl`üa bs k dms ;7 kûms ([email protected]).

Abuomlmlm

• [u`o`mprmf`dkx`s pmst-bxpms`l`üa (vbr okaukd cb @afbll`msks y O`lrmg`mdmjïk).

Oba`ajmlmlm tbtrkvkdbatb (L+K+Z; lmanujkck cb pmd`sklër`cm lkpsudkr tbtrkvkdbatb + prmtbïak.   Kuaqub am bstë `aldu`cm `aldu`cm ba bd lkdbackr`m `atbrtbrr`tmr`kd, `atbrtbrr`tmr`kd, dks sml`bckcbs y kdjuaks lmoua`ckcbs rblmo`backa rblmo`ba cka qub dk cms`s cb dk kcmdbslbal`k cb oba`ajmlmlm L sb rbkd`lb lma dk vkluak tbtrkvkdbatb, cbg`cm kd kuobatm cb `al`cbal`k pmr sbrmjrupms Z b P.

S`pms Bx`stba 7 t`pms cb vkluaks> dks cb pmd`sklër`cms purms (VAY7
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