Mantenimiento Preventivo y Correctivo para Los Computadores de Mesa

July 6, 2022 | Author: Anonymous | Category: N/A
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[email protected]@AHUI [_A^[email protected]^I P [email protected]^I [B_B CIL[QUBEI_AS EA LASB

Lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi pbrb cilputbeiras ea lasb

^bfar`b Ofbhci Sarrbhi Mairma Bfajbheri Bfs`hb Har`tg M`ssaffb Oaftrâh Ru`htari Syfv`b Bfajbherb Jb`las Muarrari

Sarv`c`i Hbc`ihbf ea Bprahe`zbja (SAHB)

Uàch`ci ah s`stalbs

Oucbrblbhmb

?;?;

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_asulah

Af iojat`vi ea asta priyacti as racip`fbr `hnirlbc`óh siora af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea fis cilputbeiras ea lasb. Astb `hvast`mbc`óh sa rabf`zb b cbusb eaf eascihic`l`ahti ax`stahta ahtra fis astue`bhtas ea aeucbc`óh lae`b, aeucbc`óh supar`ir y beuftis `htarasbeis ah astb talât`cb. Fb astructurb eaf eiculahti astâ cihnirlbeb pir cubtri atbpbs, fb pfbh`n`cb pfbh`n`cbc`óh, c`óh, fb ajacuc`óh, af samu`l`ahti y af c`arra eaf priyacti, s`mu`ahei uhb latieifimìb ea @hvast`mbc`óh-Bcc`óh (@-B) cih af pripós`ti ea rabf`zbr fb cihstrucc`óh ea fb garrbl`ahtb [email protected] sic`bf`zbhei fa axpar`ahc`b ah uhb pâm`hb wao.  [bfborbs cfbva: Lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi, @hvast`mbc`óh-Bcc`óh (@-B), garrbl`ahtb [email protected] 

 

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Bostrbct

Uga b`l in tg`s prijact `s ti cilp`fa `hnirlbt`ih ih pravaht`va bhe cirract`va lb`htahbhca in easdtip cilputars. Ug`s rasabrcg `s cbrr`ae iut oacbusa in tga fbcd in dhiwfaema blihm g`mg scgiif stueahts, g`mgar aeucbt`ih bhe beufts `htarastae `h tg`s tip`c. Uga structura in tga eiculaht `s lbea up in niur stbmas, pfbhh`hm, axacut`ih, lih`tir`hm bhe cfis`hm in tga prijact, niffiw`hm bh Bct`ih-_asabrcg (B_) latgieifimy `h irear ti cbrry iut tga cihstruct`ih in tga @CU tiif oy sic`bf`z`hm tga axpar`ahca `h b ]ao pbma. Daywires: [ravaht`va bhe cirract`va lb`htahbhca, _asabrcg-Bct`ih (_-B), @CU tiif.

 

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@htrieucc`óh

Af trbobji ea priyacti ea atbpb prieuct`vb as af prieucti eaf pricasi ea `hvast`mbc`óh easbrriffbei ah fb `hst`tuc`óh aeucbt`vb [`fiti S`lóh Oifìvbr mrbei ihca, pbrb fb aeucbc`óh ahtirhi b fb priofalât`cb av`eahc`beb bf eascihic`l`ahti eaf lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi pravaht` vi y cirract`vi ea cilputbeiras ea lasb. Ah asta ireah ea `eabs, af iojat`vi ea asta trbobji m`ró ah tirhi b fb rabf`zbc`óh ea uhb pâm`hb wao qua or`hea `hnirlbc`óh bcarcb eaf lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea cilputbeiras ea lasb, cih af pripós`ti ea qua fbs parsihbs sa ahcuahtrah cbpbc`tbebs pbrb pihar ah prâct`cb fi bprahe`ei siora af lbhtah`l`ahti lbhtah`l` ahti ea sus aqu`pis. [ir úft`li, piealis lahc`ihbr qua af eiculahti astâ nirlbei pir cubtri nbsas, fb pfbh`n`cbc`óh, fb ajacuc`óh, af samu`l`ahti y af c`arra eaf priyacti. 

 

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[fbhtabl`ahti y Nirlufbc`óh Eaf [riofalb Bhâf`s`s P Nirlufbc`óh Eaf [riofalb

Af cilputbeir as uhb garrbl`ahtb `hnirlât`cb, tachifóm`cb cbpbz ea rac`o`r, bflbcahbr y pricasbr `hnirlbc`óh ea nirlb út`f, pir fi qua giy ah eìb sa gb cihvart`ei ah uh e`spis`t`vi `he`spahsbofa ah fb v`eb ea tiebs fbs parsihbs, gbc`ahei àhnbs`s ah huastrb s`tubc`óh bctubf, puasti qua fi usblis pbrb rabf`zbr easea bct`v`ebeas cilpfajbs y sahc`ffbs cili af e`saòi, easbrriffi ea sintwbra, s`lufbc`ihas, fb `htarbcc`óh cih itrbs parsihbs, var uhb pafìcufb i s`lpfalahta jumbr uh v`eaijuami4 as pir asi qua cili cubfqu`ar e`spis`t`vi i garrbl`ahtb raqu`ara ea uh raspact`vi lbhtah`l`ahti y cu`ebei pbrb pravah`r pis`ofas nbffbs, cirram`r itrbs yb ax`stahtas i ah su eanacti pbrb ipt`l`zbr su nuhc`ihbl`ahti. Ebei fi bhtar`ir, as ea sulb `lpirtbhc`b qua fbs parsihbs tahmbh cihc`ahc`b y cihic`l`ahti bcarcb eaf lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi pbrb sus aqu`pis, lâs aspacìn`cblahta, pbrb su cilputbeir ea ascr`tir`i, bsì cili tblo`àh e`varsis t`ps i cihsajis qua cihtr`ouyah cih fb axtahs`óh ea fis bòis ea v`eb út`f ea asta. [ir fi tbhti, sa cihs`earb ea cbrâctar asahc`bf or`hebr `hnirlbc`óh siora asta talb, y alpazbr uhb cufturb siora fis cirraspihe`ahtas lbhtah`l`ahtis ea fis aqu`pis.

 

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Just`n`cbc`óh

As út`f `hvast`mbr asta priofalb pirqua fbs cilputbeirbs sih uhb garrbl`ahtb nuheblahtbf pbrb af easbrriffi ea cubfqu`ar trbobji y ah huastri cbsi eaf bprahe`zbja, pir tbf rbzóh su lbhtah`l`ahti as uhb ea fbs cbusbs pr`lire`bfas pbrb iotahar uh nuhc`ihbl`ahti anact`vi. Cili rasuftbei prâct`ci ea fb `hvast`mbc`óh siora fis cu`ebeis eaf cilputbeir ea ascr`tir`i, fbs parsihbs astbrâh cbpbc`tbebs pbrb fb cihsarvbc`óh ea aqu`pis y rabf`zbr uh lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi pbrb fb ipt`l`zbc`óh ea sus cilputbeiras. Sa ouscb maharbr cihic`l`ahtis ah jóvahas y beuftis qua astàh `htarasbebs ah bprahear b rabf`zbrfa uh lbhtah`l`ahti b su cilputbeirb ea lasb cili, pir ajalpfi: quà pbsis eaoah samu`r i qua pracbuc`ihas sa eaoah tahar bf rabf`zbrfa uh lbhtah`l`ahti b fb cilputbeirb. Eaf l`sli liei, su `lpbcti nbviracarâ fb acihilìb ea cbeb `he`v`eui, yb qua bf rabf`zbrsa uh lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi cihstbhta av`tbrâ pis`ofas ebòis ah af aqu`pi, pir cihs`mu`ahta, sa fa mbrbht`zbrâ uh v`eb út`f y lâs fbrmb.

 

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Iojat`vi Maharbf P Iojat`vis Aspacìn`cis.

Iojat`vi maharbf

Easbrriffbr uhb pâm`hb cih fis fahmubjas ea: lbrcbei (GULF), e`saòi mrân`ci (CSS) y ea primrblbc`óh (JbvbScr`pt), qua parl`ta `hnirlbc`óh y cbpbc`tbc`óh siora af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi b fbs cilputbeirbs ea lasb.  Iojat`vi as as pacìn`ci 2

E`saòbr uhb pâm`hb wao cih fis fahmubjas ea: lbrcbei (GULF), e`saòi mrân`ci (CSS) y ea primrblbc`óh (JbvbScr`pt). Iojat`vi as as pacìn`ci ?

Crabr uhb pâm`hb wao cih fis fahmubjas ea: lbrcbei (GULF), e`saòi mrân`ci (CSS) y ea primrblbc`óh (JbvbScr`pt). Iojat`vi as as pacìn`ci 3

Easbrriffbr lbtar`bf e`eâct`ci y bct`v`ebeas, axpar`ahc`bs cih fb talât`cb ea lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi b cilputbeirbs ea lasb. Iojat`vi as as pacìn`ci 5

Avbfubr fis cihtah`eis ea fb pâm`hb wao ah af fahmubja ea primrblbc`óh ea GULF.

 

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Lbrci _anarahc`bf Bhtacaeahtas Ea @hvast`mbc`óh

 Bgihebr ah bhtaca bhtacaeahtas eahtas `hvast`mbt`vis siora fb nirlbc`óh aeucbt`v aeucbt`vb b ah af usi ea fbs tachifimìbs ea fb `hnirlbc`óh y fb ciluh`cbc`óh as `lparbt`vi ah af ajarc`c`i ea sustahtbr y nuheblahtbr ah af talb lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea cilputbeiras ea lasb. ‖Fb E`racc`óh ea Cólputi pbrb fb Eicahc`b or`heb b fb ciluh`ebe uh`vars`tbr`b y bf

púof`ci ah maharbf, cbpbc`tbc`óh, nirlbc`óh y bctubf`zbc`óh ah cólputi y tafaciluh`cbc`ihas“ (Just`hi [aòbn`af Sbf`hbs, ?;;;). Astue`bhtas ea fb uh`vars`ebe hbc`ihbf butóhilb ea Làx`ci `lpfalahtbrih pfbhas y primrblbs pbrb ipt`l`zbr fb suparbc`óh bcbeàl`cb ea su ciluh`ebe y sic`aebe eahtri eaf cblpi ea fb cilputbc`óh, pbrb affi, ut`f`zbrih astrbtam` astrbtam`bs bs cili cursis ah v`eai pir cbhbfas ea tafav`s`óh, bsasirìbs pir pbrta ea eicahtas vìb nbx, cirrais afactróh`cis, pâm`hbs wao, y bealâs vahtb ea pbquatas ea cursis ea cólputi. Cih obsa b fi bhtar`irlahta lahc`ihbei, piealis eac`r qua ah itris pbìsas eaf luhei, luhei , ah asta cbsi Làx`ci, t`ahah uh ouah lbhaji ah cubhti b fb `lpbrt`c`óh y ahsaòbhzb eaf lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea cilputbeiras ea lasb yb qua lae`bhta fbs cfbsas cfb sas ebebs fbs parsihbs iot`ahah uh cihic`l`ahti sun`c`ahta pbrb qua astbs sabh cbpbcas ea rabf`zbr e`cgb tbrab, y bsì fimrbh fb iotahc`óh ea luy ouahis rasuftbeis qua fas parl`ta fimrbr af iojat`vi ea qua cbeb vaz gbyb lahis eas eas`hnirlbc`óh `hnirlbc`óh cih raspacti bf talb. ‖…s`hi tblo`àh ah af easbrriffi ea bct`v`ebeas qua  bvbhcah ah su cihic`l`ahti tàch`ci

siora fis cilputbeiras, ea tbf nirlb qua fas parl`tb sifuc`ihbr pir s` l`slis bfmuhis ea fis priofalbs oâs`cis lâs nracuahtas qua sa prasahtbh…“  (Dra`soarmar, ?;22).

Jóvahas `hvast`mbeiras ea fb nbcuftbe ea `hmah`arìb afactróh`cb y ea tafaciluh`cbc`ihas ea fb uh`vars`ebe eaf cbucb easbrriffbrih uhb sar`a ea lbtar`bfas ea cihsuftb y prbct`cbs paebmóm`cbs paebmó m`cbs pbrb qua sa prasaht prasahta a uh bvbhca ah fis cihic`l`ahti cihic`l`ahtiss tàch`cis siora af talb ([email protected]), parl`t`ahei bsì, qua cbeb parsihb puaeb ebrfa pir sì l`slb uhb sifuc`óh sifuc` óh b paquaòis priofalbs

 

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qua surjbh ah sus cilputbeiras ea lasb, bsì cili tblo`àh su raspact`vi lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi. Ah obsa b asti, piealis `hnar`r qua ah Cifilo`b fbs parsihbs t`aha t`ahah h uh f`ora bccasi b lbtar`bf `hnirlbt`vi a `hstruct`vi pbrb piear rabf`zbr af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea sus cilputbeiras ea lasb, y uhb mrbh pbrta ea fb piofbc`óh cuahtb pir fi lahis cih af cihic`l`ahti oâs`ci pbrb ea fb l`slb nirlb rabf`zbr asta t`pi ea tbrabs.

 

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Lbrci Uaór`ci

Ah astb atbpb sa pripirc`ihbrâ bf factir uhb `eab lâs cfbrb bcarcb ea asta talb, s`rv`ahei ea sipirta pbrb astb `hvast`mbc`óh. Sa ahcihtrbrâh uhb sar`a ea cihcaptis oâs`cis y asahc`bfas qua piherâh ah cihtaxti lae`bhta fb tilb ea e`varsbs ranarahc`bs ea `hvast`mbc`ihas s`l`fbras b tiei bquaf qua bccaeb b asta eiculahti. 2.2 C busbs ciluhas eaf eb ebòi òi ea cilputb cilputbeiras eiras ea l las asb b

Samúh fi puof`cbei ah fb pâm`hb wao Uacgfbhe`b: ‖Fbs cilputbeirbs sih garrbl`ahtbs liearhbs e`saòbebs pbrb bflbcahbr ebtis parsihbfas

y/i cilarc`bfas, ffavbr b cboi tbrabs rafbc`ihbebs cih af trbobji i ahcihtrbr bfmúh t`pi ea ahtratah`l`ahti. Fis ireahbeiras, cili tiei e`spis`t`vi afactróh`ci, t`aheah b prasahtbr uhb sar`a ea nbffbs cih af t`alpi. [uaeas ahcihtrbrta cih priofalbs cih af s`stalb iparbt`vi, f`e`br cih e`spis`t`vis axtarhis qua hi n u uhc`ihbh hc`ihbh i fb `hcbpbc`ebe ea cihactbrsa b @htarhat.“ (Uacgfbhe`b, s.n.) Ah itrbs pbfborbs, piealis eac`r qua fis cilputbeiras, bsì cili tieis fis e`spis`t`vis, astâh axpuastis b sunr`r cubfqu`ar t`pi ea ebòi i ea nbffb yb sab pir fb cbht`ebe ea t`alpi qua ffavb usâheisa, pir af blo`ahta bf qua sa ahcuahtrb axpuasti, i pir eascu`eis ea hisitris fis usubr`is. @hvast`mbhei uh pici lâs siora astb talât`cb, sa ahcihtró uh cihtah`ei puof`cbei ah fb pâm`hb wao ‖Lbhtah`l`ahtimbcr“ qua his ffavó b fb s`mu`ahta cihcfus`óh:  

Giy ah eìb, fb lbyirìb ea fbs parsihbs tahalis fb nirtuhb ea cihtbr cih fb byueb ea uh cilputbeir yb sab ah huastris gimbras i ah huastri s`t`i ea trbobji, pari av`eahtalahta hi s`alpra tilblis fbs pracbuc`ihas eao`ebs pbrb cihtr`ou`r bf cu`ebei y lbhtah`l`ahti ea astis aqu`pis cih tbh `lpirtbhta nuhc`óh, pir affi as `lpirtbhta qua cihizcblis bfmuhbs cisbs qua sih hic`vbs pbrb astis e`spis`t`v e`spis`t`vis. is.

 

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Ah cubhti bf gbrewbra, lucgbs parsihbs s`h ebrsa cuahtb vbh ebòbhei pici b pici su aqu`pi rabf`zbhei cisbs cili fbs qua hilorbralis b ciht`hubc`óh: ½Lbhtahar af aqu`pi carcb ea fbs vahtbhbs ½Axpihar af cilputbeir b fis rbyis eaf sif. ½Qt`f`zbr af lih`tir cili ‖rap`sb“. 

½Cificbr af cilputbeir ah fumbras gúlaeis. ½Lbhtahar af cilputbeir carcb ea aqu`pis afactróh`cis i oic`hbs qua prieuzcbh cblpis lbmhàt`cis yb qua puaeah ebòbr fb `hnirlbc`óh. ½Hi f`lp`br cih c ih nracuahc`b af luaofa eihea sa ahcuahtrb af cilputbeir, cilputbei r, bsì cili hi bsp`rbr cih nracuahc`b af ârab s` as qua gby bfnilorbs. ½Nulbr carcb eaf cilputbeir. ½Cilar y oaoar cubhei sa astà usbhei af cilputbeir. ½Cubhei sa eaja ea usbr af cilputbeir, hi asparbr b qua sa ahnrìa af lih`tir y piharfa ea uhb vaz ah fb nuheb pritactirb, bsì cili bf tacfbei y bf cgbs`s eaf C[Q. ½Hi rav`sbr fb `hstbfbc`óh afàctr`cb ea fb cbsb u in`c`hb, (asti fi eaoa ea gbcar uh aspac`bf`stb). [ir itrb pbrta, fbs bcc`ihas hic`vbs qua bnactbh bf sintwbra sih: ½Easbct`vbr fbs bctubf`zbc`ihas butilât`cbs eaf s`stalb. Asti puaea cbusbr uh mrbh ebòi yb qua fb nuhc`óh ea e`cgbs bctubf`zbc`ihas as `hstbfbr cirracc`ihas ah huastri s`stalb iparbt`vi pbrb pritamarfi ea btbquas `hnirlât`cis, lajirbr su rahe`l`ahti y parl`t`r af nuhc`ihbl`ahti ea huavbs bpf`cbc`ihas qua gbybh s`ei easbrriffbebs. ½@hstbfbr uh sintwbra ea e`st`htbs vars`ihas i `e`ilbs. ½Hi rabf`zbr fb eao`eb f`lp`azb ah af sintwbra. ½Hi rabf`zbr af lbhtah`l`aht lbhtah`l`ahti i pravaht`vi h` af e`bmhóst`ci pbrb eascbrt eascbrtbr br fb ax`stahc`b ea nbffbs eascihic`ebs.

 

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½Hi tahar cu`ebei bf bor`r f`hds qua ahcihtralis ah fbs e`narahtas raeas sic`bfas, sic` bfas, yb qua, buhqua b vacas bpbrahtbh sar hit`c`bs i brtìcufis `htarasbhtas y ea bctubf`ebe, rasuftbh s`ahei fbs cilpuartbs ea uh v`rus. ½_abf`zbr eascbrmbs easea waos ea tarcaris i fumbras qua hi sabh in`c`bfas. ½Urbhsl`t`r `hnirlbc`óh sahs`ofa lae`bhta ]`-N`, aspac`bfl aspac`bflahta ahta raeas ea ]`-N` bo`artbs. S` quaralis prifihmbr i axtahear fb v`eb út`f ea huastris aqu`pis ea cólputi, tahalis qua pihar ea huastrb pbrta av`tbhei rabf`zbr tiebs fbs cisbs bhtar`irlahta hilorbebs y s`ahei raspihsbofas cih af easbrriffi eaf raspact`vi lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi. 2.?. Lbhtah`l`ahti eaf cilputbeir.

Samúh af ascr`tir ea vbr`is f`oris ahnicbeis bf ârab ea fb `hnirlât`cb Naf`x Mbrc`b Cbrobffa`rb: ‖Af lbhtah`l`ahti eaf cilputbeir as bquaf qua eaoalis rabf`zbr bf cilputbeir cbeb c`arti t`alpi, o`ah sab pbrb cirram`r nbffbs ax`stahtas i pbrb pravah`rfbs.“ Mbrcìb

Cbrobffa`rb, N., (?;2?)  Bsì l`sli, easea af puhti ea v`stb e ea a Lbr`b eaf [`f [`fbr br Bfamra rblis (ascr` (ascr`tirb tirb ea vbr`is f`oris bcarcb ea fb `hnirlât`cb), af lbhtah`l`ahti ea cilputbeiras: ‖Sa trbtb ea bct`v`ebeas tbhti nìs`cbs cili fóm`cbs qua ouscbh raeuc` r fb

pis`o`f`ebe ea nbffbs ah fis aqu`pis ea cólputi (`hcfuyahei hi sófi cilputbeirbs, s`hi tblo`àh af rbtóh, `lprasirbs, tacfbeis, pbhtbffbs, atc.) a `hcfus`va fb cirracc`óh ea nbffbs lahiras“ Bfamra _blis, L. e. (?;2;).  

Uah`ahei ah cuahtb fi bhtar`irlahta c`tbei, piealis eac`r qua af lbhtah`l`ahti ea uh cilputbeir sih oâs`cblahta fbs lae`ebs y bcc`ihas tbhti pravaht`vbs cili cirract`vbs qua sa eaoah tilbr pbrb qua af aqu`pi sa lbhtahmb fb lbyir cbht`ebe ea t`alpi pis`ofa nuhc`ihbhei ea lbharb ópt`lb y beacubeb. Samúh af t`pi ea bct`v`ebeas qua sa rabf`cah cih e`cgi e`spis`t`vi y af blo`ahta ah eihea sa ahcuahtrb `hstbfbei, af

 

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parìiei ea t`alpi pbrb rabf`zbr fbs bct`v`ebeas ea pravahc`óh ea ebòi puaea vbr`br. 2.3 Lbhtah`l`ahti Lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`v pravaht`vi i ea cilputb cilputbeiras eiras ea lasb

Samúh af cbpìtufi 1 eaf lbhubf ea lbhtah`l`ahti puof`cbei ah af rapis`tir`i eaf Sarv`c`i Hbc`ihbf ea Bprahe`zbja (SAHB) pir Cbl`fi Oitari, af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi: ‗As bquaf qua sa rabf`zb lae`bhta uhb primrblbc`óh prav`b ea bct`v`ebeas, cih af n`h ea av`tbr

ah fi pis`ofa fb lbyir cbht`ebe ea ebòis `lprav`stis, e`sl`hu`r fis t`alpis luartis ea prieucc`óh pir nbffbs y pir ahea e`sl`hu`r fis cistis ea fbs l`slbs. (…) Af lbhtah`l`ahti

pravaht`vi as uhb irmbh`zbc`óh s`stalât`cb ea fi qua trbe`c`ihbf trbe`c`ihbflahta lahta sa gb vah`ei gbc`ahei.‐  (Oitari, 2002). Af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi samúh fb uh`ebe ^ ea fb uh`ebe ea bprahe`zbja ‗Brqu`tacturb Cilputbc`ihbf‐ ea fb Qh`vars`ebe Butóhilb eaf Astbei ea Làx`ci QBAL, sa ean`ha:   ‗Sa ean`ha cili af cihjuhti ea bct`v`ebeas ahcbl`hbebs b pritamar fis aqu`pis ea cólputi ea

pis`ofas nbffbs, ut`f`zbhei làtieis ea f`lp`azb nìs`cb y tblo`àh làtieis obsbeis ah af usi ea sintwbra.‐ (Sâhcgaz, ?;2>).

Samúh fis butiras af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi cihs`sta ah crabr uh blo`ahta bl`mbofa pbrb af s`stalb y cihsarvbr f`lp`bs tiebs fbs pbrtas qua cilpihah uhb cilputbeirb, eaf l`sli liei, as af ahcbrmbei ea av`tbr qua huastrbs cilputbeirbs ea lasb prasahtah c`artbs nbffbs `lprav`stbs ffavbhei b cboi e`narahtas làtieis ea f`lp`azb nìs`cb y ea pravahc`óh ea arriras ah af sintwbra. 2.3.2 Lbht Lbhtah`l`ahti ah`l`ahti pravaht`v pravaht`vi i eaf gbrewbra Samúh: Aspbòb Oiquarb, L. (?;2;). ‖Af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi cihs`sta ah crabr uh

blo`ahta nbvirbofa pbrb af s`stalb y cihsarvbr f`lp`bs tiebs fbs pbrtas qua cilpihah uhb cilputbeirb. Af lbyir húlari ea nbffbs qua prasahtbh fis aqu`pis as pir fb bculufbc`óh ea pifvi ah fis cilpihahtas `htarhis, àsta bctúb cili b`sfbhta tàrl`ci. Af cbfir maharbei pir fis cilpihahtas hi puaea e`sparsbrsa beacubeblahta pirqua as btrbpbei ah fb cbpb ea pifvi.

 

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Fbs pbrtìcufbs ea mrbsb y bca`ta qua puaeb cihtah cihtahar ar af b`ra eaf blo blo`ahta `ahta sa lazcfbh cih af pifvi, crabhei uhb aspasb cbpb b`sfbhta qua ranfajb af cbfir gbc`b fis ealâs cilpihahtas, cih fi cubf sa raeuca fb v`eb út`f eaf s`stalb ah maharbf. [ir itri fbei, af pifvi ciht`aha afalahtis ciheuctiras qua puaeah maharbr cirtic`rcu`tis ahtra fbs trbyactir`bs ea fis c`rcu`tis `lprasis y tbrjatbs ea par`nàr`cis. S` sa qu`ara prifihmbr fb v`eb út`f eaf aqu`pi y gbcar qua parlbhazcb f`ora ea rapbrbc`ihas pir lucgis bòis sa eaoa ea rabf`zbr fb f`lp`azb cih nracuahc`b.“  

Samúh af brtìcufi ‗‐ Butilbt`zbc`óh ea fbs bct`v`ebeas ea lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea gbrewbra y sintwbra ea fis aqu`pis ea cólputi: cbsi ea astue`i ârab tàch`cb eaf Mio`arhi Butóhili Eascahtrbf`zbei luh`c`pbf ea Sbhtb Afahb.‐‐ [uof`cbei ah af rapis`tir`i ea fb uh`vars`ebe Astbtbf [ahìhsufb ea Sbhtb Afahb, af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi ea gbrewbra: ‗‐Gbca ranarahc`b b uhb f`lp`azb ea fbs pbrtas qua cilprahea uh cilputbeir y fb var`n`cbc`óh ea

fis par`nàr`cis4 ffavbhei uh `hvahtbr`i qua `he`qua fis par`ieis ea e`c gi lbhtah`l`ahti.‐‐ (Bherbea & Mihzâfas, ?;20). Samúh fis butiras af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi eaf gbrewbra as ah af qua sa fa rabf`zb uhb f`lp`azb nìs`cb b fb cilputbeirb pbrb bsì lbhtahar uh blo`ahta nbvirbofa pbrb fb l`slb, mrbc`bs bf lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi eaf gbrewbra sa af`l`hb af pifvi ea fb cilputbeirb af cubf as cilo`hbei cih fb mrbsb y bca`ta qua puaeb astbr prasahta ah af b`ra y pir af cubf fis cilpihahtas ea fb cilputbeirb sunrah ea bulahtis ea talparbturb qua pierìbh ffambr b e`sl`hu`r su v`eb út`f. 2.3.? Lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi eaf sintwb s intwbra ra Samúh fb rav`stb c`ahtìn`cb puof`cbeb pir fb Qh`vars`ebe Astbtbf eaf Sur ea Lbhboì ‗Cihtrif

Ea Lbhtah`l`ahti [ravaht`vi ah Cilputbeiras b H`vaf ea Sintwbra‐:   ‗Af cihtrif ea lbh tah`l`ahti pravaht`vi b h`vaf ea sintwbra parl`ta raeuc`r priofalbs ah af s`stalb mbrbht`zbhei su nuhc`ihbl`ahti ópt`li y an`cbz pbrb cih af usubr`i.‐ ([`sci, Lbrc`ffi,

Mut`arraz, & Caeaòi, ?;?;).

 

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Samúh af brtìcufi ‗‐ Butilbt`zbc`óh ea fbs bct`v`ebeas ea lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi ea gbrewbra y sintwbra ea fis aqu`pis ea cólputi: cbsi ea astue`i ârab tàch`cb eaf Mio`arhi Butóhili Eascahtrbf`zbei luh`c`pbf ea Sbhtb Afahb.‐‐ [uof`cbei ah af rapis`tir`i ea fb uh`vars`ebe Astbtbf [ahìhsufb ea Sbhtb Afahb, af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi ea sintwbra: ‗‐Sa, sa ran`ara b uh pricasi pbrb ipt`l`zbr y lajirbr af nuhc`ihbl`ahti ea fis primrblbs

qua pisaa af cilputbeir (s`stalb iparbt`vi, primrblbs, bht`v`rus, atc.), tblo`àh b rabf`zbr obcdups cbeb eatarl`hbei t`alpi. Eaf l`sli liei qua cih af gbrewbra, af sintwbra as uhb pbrta nuheblahtbf ea huastri [C y tblo`àh hacas`tb sar rav`sbeb y bs`st`eb par`óe`cblahta. As fb pbrta fóm`cb, fi qua his parl`ta `htarbctubr cih af [C pbrb rabf`zbr e`narahtas nuhc`ihas y tbrabs. Samúh fis butiras af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi eaf Sintwbra as bquaf qua sa ahcbrmb ea ipt`l`zbr y ebrfa uh nuhc`ihbl`ahti lâs an`cbz b fis e`st`htis primrblbs ea fbs cilputbeirbs cili, pir ajalpfi: af s`stalb iparbt`vi. iparbt` vi. Mrbc`bs b asta piealis pravah`r nbffbs ah af sintwbra ea huastrb cilputbeirb y tblo`àh piealis av`tbr vbr`is eifiras ea cboazb a `hcfusi hi tahar qua bcue`r b uh tàch`ci qua his ciora pir af sarv`c`i ea brramfbr huastrb [C. 2.5 lbhtah`l`ahti lbhtah`l`ahti cirr act`vi ea cilputb cilputbeiras eiras ea la lass b.

Samúh fb muìb siora af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi y cirract`vi pbrb pcs al`t`eb pir fb uh`vars`ebe butóhilb ea Làx`ci, af lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi: ‖Cihs`sta ah fb rapbrbc`óh ea bfmuhi ea fis cilpihahtas ea fb cilputbeirb, puaea sar

uhb sifebeurb paquaòb, af cblo`i titbf ea uhb tbrjatb (sih`ei, v`eai, [email protected] ea lalir`b, ahtra itrbs), i af cblo`i titbf ea bfmúh e`spis`t`vi par`nàr`ci cili af rbtóh, tacfbei, lih`tir, atc.“

(Lif`hb, ?;;;). Fb alprasb Af`ta Cilputar axpartb ah inracar lbhtah`l`ahti ea ireahbeiras cih `hstbfbc`óh, bctubf`zbc`óh y sifuc`óh ea `hc`eahc`bs ah pcs ea sioralasb y pirtât`fas bn`rlb qua:

 

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‖Af lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi ea cilputbeirbs as fb rapbrbc`óh y sust`tuc`óh ea fis cilpihahtas ea gbrewbra y sintwbra qua sa bvarìbh.“ (Af`taCilputar, ?;27).

Ea bcuarei cih asti, af lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi as ah picbs pbfborbs brramfbr fi qua sa rilpa, as rapbrbr fis ebòis i eanactis qua sa prasahtbh ah af aqu`pi. Asta t`pi ea lbhtah`l`ahti sa obsb ah ficbf`zbr y cirram`r tiei bquaffi qua astà ahtirpac`ahei af pricasi hirlbf eaf e`spis`t`vi, y qua, pir ahea, ahtirpaca tblo`àh af pripós`ti pbrb af qua nua crabei. 2.5.2 Lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi eaf gbrewbra Samúh af lbhubf ea lbhtah`l`ahti ea cilputbeiras ea St`vah Brlari Dra`soarmar al`t`ei pir fb uh`vars`ebe eaf cbucb, af lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi eaf gbrewbra: ‖Boireb fb `htarpratbc`óh ea fis p`t`eis qua maharb af cilputbeir cubhei gby priofalbs

nìs`cis qua `lp`eah su brrbhqua, bsì cili uh cilpahe`i ea fbs pr`hc`pbfas sifuc`ihas b fis priofalbs nìs`cis lâs nracuahtas qua `lp`eah af nuhc`ihbl`ahti eaf cilputbeir.“ (Dra`soarmar,

?;22). Easea af puhti ea v`stb pfbslbei ah fb pâm`hb wao ‗ Bhâf`s`s  Bhâf`s`s mubf`‐:  ‖Af Lbhtah`l`ahti Cirract`vi ea Gbrewbra as af pricasi qua rabf`zb paquaòbs

rapbrbc`ihas ah af gbrewbra ea huastrb cilputbeirb, `hcfusi gbstb ffambr b cblo`br i raalpfbzbr uhb p`azb ebòbeb pir uhb huavb, asti ear`vbei ea uhb nbffb prasahta ah e`cgb p`azb qua gbca qua huastrb cilputbeirb hi puaeb nuhc`ihbr cirractblahta cirractbl ahta y pir fi tbhti hi pieblis trbobjbr ah affb.“ (_ib, s.n.).

Ah obsa b fi e`cgi bhtar`irlahta piealis eac`r qua af lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi eaf gbrewbra as rapbrbr i cblo`br bfmúh cilpihahta axtarhi eaf cilputbeir tah`ahei ah cuahtb fis ebòis ax`stahtas, asta pricasi his byuebrâ b prifihmbr i axtahear fb v`eb út`f ea huastri cilputbeir.

 

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2.5.? Lbhtah`l`ahti Lbhtah`l`ahti cir cirract`v ract`vi i eaf s intwb intwbra ra

Samúh af lbhubf ea lbhtah`l`ahti ea cilputbeiras ea St`vah Brlari Dra`soarmar al`t`ei pir fb uh`vars`ebe eaf cbucb, af lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi eaf sintwbra: ‖sa cahtrb ah fbs bct`v`ebeas b easbrriffbr cubhei uh primrblb `hnirlât`ci nbffb, y

easbrriffb uh cilpahe`i ea fbs pr`hc`pbfas sifuc`ihas b fis priofalbs ea sintwbra lâs nracuahtas qua `lp`eah af nuhc`ihbl`ahti eaf cilputbeir.“  (Dra`soarmar, ?;22). Eaf l`sli liei, ah fb pâm`hb wao ‗Lbhtah`l`ahti ea aqu`pi ea cólputi‐ bn`rl bh qua: ‖Af lbhtah`l`ahti eaf sintwbra his parl`ta ebrfa uhb v`eb huavb b huastri cilputbeir,

af ipt`l`zbr fis racursis y bprivacgbrfis bf lâx`li as uhb ea fbs tbrabs lâs `lpirtbhtas, yb qua bsì huastri [C trbobjbrb lucgi lajir, lâs râp`ei y s`h priofalb b fmuhi.“ (Lbhtah`l`ahti ea aqu`pi ea cólputi, (G`ebfmi, s.n.)  B lbharb ea cihcfus`óh, piealis eac`r qua asta t`pi ea lbhtah`l`ahti sa ran`ara b fb rapbrbc`óh i ra`hstbfbc`óh titbf ea uhb bpf`cbc`óh sintwbra cubhei cubhei sa astà prasahtbei uhb nbffb ah àf4 asta lbhtah`l`ahti puaea `r easea uh sintwbra cubfqu`arb ea e`saòi i trbobji gbstb uh S`stalb Iparbt`vi. 2.1 Fbs F bs Uachifim Uachifimìbs ìbs ea ffb b @hnirl @hnirlbc`óh bc`óh y fb Cil Ciluh`cbc` uh`cbc`óh óh ([email protected] ) ah fb aeucb aeucbc`óh c`óh

Samúh uh astue`i irmbh`zbei pir `htamrbhtas ea fb uh`vars`ebe @hcb Mbrc`fbsi ea fb ^amb, fbs Uachifimìbs ea fb @hnirlbc`óh y fb Ciluh`cbc`óh ([email protected]): ‖Sa easbrriffbh b pbrt`r ea fis bvbhcas c`ahtìn`cis prieuc`eis ah fis âlo`tis ea fb

`hnirlât`cb y fbs tafaciluh`cbc`ihas. As af cihjuhti ea tachifimìbs qua parl`tah af bccasi, prieucc`óh, trbtbl`ahti y ciluh`cbc`óh ea `hnirlbc`óh prasahtbeb ah e`narahtas cóe`mis (taxti, `lbmah, sih`ei, v`eai)“ (Bybfb, ?;21)

Fb lbastrb Cihsuafi Oafficg ea fb ascuafb uh`vars`tbr`b eaf ârab ea làtieis ea `hvast`mbc`óh y e`bmhóst`ci ah aeucbc`óh ea fb Qh`vars`ebe ea ^bfahc`b bn`rlb qua:

 

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‖Fb e`lahs`óh sic`bf ea fbs [email protected] sa v`sfulorb v`sf ulorb btahe`ahei b fb nuarzb a `hnfuahc`b qua t`aha

ah fis e`narahtas âlo`tis y b fbs huavbs astructurbs sic`bfas qua astâh alarm`ahei, prieuc`àheisa uhb `htarbcc`óh cihstbhta y o`e`racc`ihbf ahtra fb tachifimìb y fb sic`aebe.“  

(oafficg, ?;2?). Ea bcuarei b fi e`cgi bhtar`irlahta, af pripós`ti ea fbs t`c as nbc`f`tbr   af af bprahe`zbja, bprahe`zbja,   af easbrriffi af easbrriffi ea gbo`f`ebeas y fbs e`st`htbs nirlbs ea bprahear. Astbs garrbl`ahtbs sa vbh rahivbhei cih af n`h ea supf`r fbs hacas`ebeas tachifóm`cbs qua surmah ah fb sic`aebe b lae`eb qua vblis bvbhzbhei y avifuc`ihbhei. 2.1.2 @lpbcti @lpbcti ea fbs fbs ([email protected] S ) Samúh af f`ori ‖Uachifimìbs ea fb `hnirlbc`óh y fb Ciluh`cbc`óh“ ea Avafyh Bybfb:   ‖Fbs [email protected] gbh cihtr`ou`ei bf crac`l`ahti acihól`ci, fb liearh`zbc`óh eaf Mio`arhi y af

fimri ea fb aqu`ebe. Su cbrâctar trbhsvarsbf parl`ta su ut`f`zbc`óh cili garrbl`ahtb `lpufsirb eaf easbrriffi ah e`narahtas ârabs ea fb bct`v`ebe acihól`cb y sic`bf“ (Bybfb, ?;21).

Fb _av`stb Afactróh`cb Aeucbra bsamurb qua: ‖As prac`si cihs`earbr cihs`ear br qua fbs [email protected] hi sih hautrbs, pis`t`vbs i hambt`vbs4 sih s`lpfalahta

fi qua af usubr`i gbmb ea affbs4 hi iostbhta, s` quaebh isc`fbhei ah fb hbeb, puaeah nbviracar fbs eas`mubfebeas sic`bfas, pir fi qua as pranar`ofa bsul`rfbs cih raspihsbo`f`ebe y ebrfas uhb ir`ahtbc`óh pis`t`vb ah oahan`c`i eaf easbrriffi `htamrbf ea fbs ciluh`ebeas.“ (Sâhcgaz Eubrta,

?;;7). Ah cihcfus`óh, fis t`cs gbh avifuc`ihbei aspactbcufbrlahta ah fis úft`lis bòis, eao`ei aspac`bflahta b su cbpbc`ebe ea `htarcihax`óh `htarciha x`óh b trbvàs ea fb _ae. Astb huavb nbsa ea easbrriffi gb tilbei mrbh `lpirtbhc`b ah fb irmbh`zbc`óh ea fb ahsaòbhzb y pricasis paebmóm`cis. Sa racihica qua af usi ea fbs [email protected] puaea blpf`br af bccasi b ipirtuh`ebeas ea bprahe`zbja, bprahe`zb ja, lajirbr fis fimris ea aeucbc`óh y bsì l`sli, fb cbf`ebe ea nirlbc`óh `hcirpirbhei làtieis bvbhzbeis ea ahsaòbhzb.

 

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2.1.?. Cbrbcta Cbrbctarìs rìs t`cb t`cbss ea ffb bs ([email protected] S )

Jihbssah (2001) cihs`earb qua fbs [email protected] t`ahah = cbrbctarìst`cbs qua parl`tah uh bprahe`zbja s`mh`n`cbt`vi y as asahc`bf taharfbs ah cuahtb, sih fbs s`mu`ahtas: 

  Cubhei fis astue`bhtas pbrt`c`pbh pricasbhei `htaf`mahtalahta fb @hnirlbc`óh, sih raspihsbofas ea fis rasuftbeis, ut`f`zbh af cilputbeir cili garrbl`ahtb pbrb bequ`r`r cihic`l`ahti i pbrb bulahtbr su prieuct`v`ebe cih af n`h ea bfcbhzbr rasuftbeis sa cihv`artah ah astue`bhtas bct`vis.

 

Cubhei fis astue`bhtas `htamrbh fbs `eabs huavbs b su cihic`l`ahti prav`i, e eâheifas âheifas saht`ei y s`mh`n`cbei y ut`f`zbh fis cilputbeiras cili garrbl`ahtbs cimhisc`t`vbs i lae`is ea prieucc`óh astblis gbofbhei ea astue`bhtas qua cihstruyah su cihic`l`ahti. cihic` l`ahti.

 

Cubhei fis astue`bhtas trbobjbh a ah h uhb cciluh`ebe iluh`ebe ea bprahe`zbja, ah af qua cbeb uhi rabf`zb su cihtr`ouc`óh tbhti pbrb bfcbhzbr fbs latbs astbofac`ebs, cili pbrb lbx`l`zbr af bprahe`zbja ea fis itris y ut`f`zb af cilputbeir pbrb rabf`zbr prasahtbc`ihas qua priluavah y bpiybh af trbobji ah aqu`pi sa astâ gbofbhei ea uh bprahe`zbja cifboirbt`vi.

 

Cubhei fis astue`bhtas trbtbh ea bfcbhzbr fimris y i iojat`vis ojat`vis cfbris ah af cihic`l`ahti y fis cilputbeiras fas byuebh b irmbh`zbr sus bct`v`ebeas sa aht`ahea qua fis astue`bhtas astâh fimrbhei uhb aeucbc`óh `htahc`ihbeb.

 

Cubhei af @htarhat, af cirrai afactróh`ci y fbs v`eaicihnarahc`bs p parl`tah arl`tah axpbhe`r fbs ciluh`ebeas cihstructirbs ea cihic`l`ahti, lâs bffâ ea fbs pbraeas eaf bufb y fis astue`bhtas sa ahr`quacah cih af `htarcblo`i parlbhahta ea `eabs y ea cihic`l`ahtis sa gbofb ea uhb e`eâct`cb cihvarsbc`ihbf.

 

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 

Cubhei fis astue`bhtas ffavbh b cboi tbrabs i priyactis qua t`ahah qua var cih s`tubc`ihas ea fb v`eb rabf i eihea àstbs sih s`lufbebs lae`bhta bct`v`ebeas ahnicbebs b fb sifuc`óh ea priofalbs sa cihs`earb uhb paebmimìb cihtaxtubf`zbeb.

 

N`hbflahta, cubhei fis astue`bhtas bf tarl`hbr uh priyacti i tbrab gbca gbcah h uhb ranfax`óh y bhâf`s`s ea fis pricasis qua ffavbrih b cboi y ea fbs eac`s`ihas qua tilbrih pbrb brt`cufbrr fi qua gbh bprahe`ei qu`ara eac`r qua sa gbh vuafti ranfax`vis nnrahta brt`cufb rahta b su pricasi ea bprahe`zbja.

Ah rasulah, fbs [email protected] parl`tah easbrriffbr easbrrif fbr cilpatahc`bs ah cubhti bf pricasbl`ahti y lbhaji ea fb `hnirlbc`óh, af lbhaji ea gbrewbra y sintwbra ahtra itrbs, easea e`varsbs ârabs eaf cihic`l`ahti, asti sa eb eao`ei b qua bgirb astblis ah uhb rabf`ebe ah eihea fbs parsihbs sa ahcuahtrbh luy `hvifucrbebs ah fb v`rtubf`ebe pir e`varsis lit`vis, pir ahea affis l`slis fi ealbhebh.

 

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E`saòi Latieifóm`ci Cihtaxtubf`zbc`óh Ea Fb @hvast`mbc`óh

Fbs cbrbctarìst`cbs ea fb piofbc`óh eihea sa rabf`zb af priyacti prieuct`vi ea atbpb prâct`cb as ah fb `hst`tuc`óh aeucbt`vb p`fiti S`lóh oifìvbr eaf mrbei 22 btahe`ahei sifi b fis bspactis qua sabh ea `htaràs e`racti ah fb `hvast`mbc`óh y tah`ahei ah cuahtb fis pr`hc`p`is àt`cis. Latieifimìb

Fb latieifimìb qua sa easbrriffb ah af priyacti ea atbpb prâct`cb as fb @hvast`mbc`óh Bcc`óh (@-B), sa rabf`zb fb `hvast`mbc `hvast`mbc`óh `óh ah af lbrci ranarahc` ranarahc`bf bf pbrb fuami bpf`cbrfb ah fb garrbl`ahtb garrbl`aht b t`c (pâm`hb wao), Fbs nbsas qua sa vbh b astructurbr sih fb pfbh`n`cbc`óh, fb ajacu ajacuc`óh, c`óh, af samu`l`ahti y af c`arra eaf priyacti.

 

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Crihimrblb Ea Bct`v`ebeas

[email protected]^IS AS[ACÌ[email protected] 

 [email protected]^@EBEAS  [email protected]^@EB EAS  E`bmhóst`ci 2

  E`saòbr uhb pâm`hb wao cih fis fahmubjas ea: lbrcbei (GULF), e`saòi mrân`ci (CSS) y ea primrblbc`óh (JbvbScr`pt).

Crabr uhb pâm`hb wao cih fis fahmubjas ea: lbrcbei (GULF), e`saòi mrân`ci (CSS) y ea primrblbc`óh (JbvbScr`pt).

prasboaras fb talât`cb b siora astue`br, e`r`m`ei b astue`bhtas eaf mrbei 22, aeucbc`óh supar`ir. Uah`ahei ah cuahtb fis rasuftbeis iotah`eis ah af e`bmhóst`ci y su pistar`ir bhâf`s`s, sa safacc`ihbrâ af cihtah`ei ea fb pâm`hb wao. 

Safacc`óh ea fb pfbht`ffb siora fb cubf sa easbrriffbrâ fb pâm`hb wao.

Ae`c`óh ea fb pfbht`ffb siora fb cubf sa easbrriffbrâ fb pâm`hb wao. N`hbf`zbc`óh ea fb pâm`hb wao. Avbfubr cihtah`eis ea pâm`hb wao ah fahmubja primrblbc`óh GULF.

fis fb af Avbfubc`óh ea fb pâm`hb ea wao. ea

     f .     u       J 

 .     i      m        B

 . .     p       a       S 

     t .      c       I 

 .     v     i       H

 

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Bhaxis Bhâf`s`s Ea _asuftbeis Eaf E`bmhóst`ci 2

Asta e`bmhóst`ci nua rabf`zbei lae`bhta uh cuast`ihbr`i ea e`az pramuhtbs, pbrb fb sifuc`óh eaf l`sli sa cihtó cih fb pbrt`c`pbc`óh ea qu`hca parsihbs qua bobrcbh uh rbhmi ea aebeas ahtra fis e`ac`s`ata y tra`htb bòis. -[r am uht uhtb b 2. ¹ [ brb tt`` quà as af sintwb sintwbra9 ra9

[brb astb pramuhtb, uh 03.3% ea fbs parsihbs ahcuastbebs safacc`ihbrih fb raspuastb cirractb qua ah asta cbsi sarìb: ‖As af cihjuhti ea primrblbs y rut`hbs qua parl`tah bf cilputbeir rabf`zbr eatarl`hbebs tbrabs“. Ah obsa b asti, sa puaea

av`eahc`br qua fb lbyirìb ea fbs parsihbs t`ahah uh cihic`l`ahti prav`i bcarcb eaf sintwbra, pir ahea, hi as hacasbr`i prinuhe`zbr siora astb talât`cb ah fb pâm`hb wao.

-[r am uht uhtb b ?. ¹ [ brb tt`` quà a ass af gbre gbrewbra wbra99

Ah cubhti bf gbrewbra, sarâ hacasbr`i qua sa gbmb uh pici lâs ea àhnbs`s ah fb pâm`hb wao, yb qua af ?; % ea fbs parsihbs raspihe`ó uhb ipc`óh e`narahta b: ‖As af

cihjuhti ea afalahtis nìs`cis i lbtar`bfas qua cihst`tuyah uhb cilputbeirb i s`stalb `hnirlât`ci“, fi qua his `he`cb qua gby uhb cbht`ebe s`mh`n`c bt`vb ea parsihbs qua búh hi

t`ahah cilpfatblahta cfbri asta cihcapti.

 

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-[r am uht uhtb b 3. ¹ [ brb t` quà as af l lbh bhta tah`l`aht h`l`ahti i pravaht pravaht`vi9 `vi9

Cih raspacti bf lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi ahcihtrblis uhb lbyir vbr`aebe ea raspuastbs ah cilpbrbc`óh b fbs bhtar`iras pramuhtbs, fi qua his `he`cb qua gby c`artb cihnus`óh ahtra fis ahcuastbeis pbrb ean`h`r asta talb, yb qua 2;/21 parsihbs raspihe`arih qua af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi ‖As af east`hbei b fb cihsarvbc`óh ea aqu`pis i `hstbfbc`ihas“. `hstbfbc`ihas“ . Eao`ei b fi bhtar`irlahta lahc`ihbei, ffamblis b fb cihcfus`óh

ea qua as hacasbr`i ahnbt`zbr ah asta talb ah fb pâm`hb wao pbrb qua gbyb uhb lbyir cfbr`ebe ahtra fbs parsihbs.

-[r am uht uhtb b 5. ¹ [ brb t` quà as af lb lbhta htah`l`aht h`l`ahti i cirract`vi9

Asta as uh cihcapti qua fb lbyirìb ea fbs parsihbs cihicah samúh fis rasuftbeis rasuft beis iotah`eis ah fb ahcuastb rabf`zbeb, af 7>.=% ea fb piofbc`óh raspihe`ó qua af

 

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lbhtah`l`ahti cirract`vi: ‖As bquaf qua cirr`ma fis eanactis iosarvbeis ah fis aqu`pbl`ahtis i `hstbfbc`ihas“ fi qua anact`vblahta as fb ipc`óh cirr actb. Sa eaoa

lahc`ihbr asta talb ah fb pâm`hb wao, pari s`h prinuhe`zbr tbhti.

-[ram -[ ram uhtb 1. ¹ C be beb b cubht cubhti i s a racil`aheb eb ebrfa rfa lb lbhtah`l`ahti htah`l`ahti b uhb cilput cilputbeirb beirb  pbrb tahm tahm b uhb v` v`eb eb út`f lâ lâss fbrm fbrm b9  

Qh >;% ea fbs parsihbs qua raspihe`arih astb ahcuastb bsamurbh qua as racilahebofa gbcarfa af raspact`vi lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi b uh cilputbeir cbeb 1 i > lasas, b pasbr ea qua lâs ea fb l`tbe ea fb piofbc`óh raspihe`ó cirractblahta, hi piealis eajbr ea fbei b asa 5;% qua hi t`aha cfbri cbeb cubhti as racilahebofa gbcarfi. Cihicar fis `htarvbfis ea t`alpi ah fis qua sa eaoah rabf`zbr af lbhtah`l`ahti lbhtah`l`ahti as `mubf ea `lpirtbhta bf gacgi l`sli, pir affi as hacasbr`i `hcfu`r fb raspuastb b astb pramuhtb ah fb pâm`hb wao.

 

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-[ram -[ ram uhtb >. ¹ C uâf craas cr aas qua as af `lp `lpbcti bcti b blo`ahtb lo`ahtbff ea pie piear ar gbcarfa uh ouah lbhtah` lb htah`l`ahti l`ahti b tu cilputb ci lputbeirb9 eirb9

Ah fbs raspuastbs b astb pramuhtb piealis iosarvbr fb ip`h`óh ea cbeb uhb ea fbs parsihbs qua rabf`zó astb ahcuastb. Fb lbyirìb ea fbs parsihbs ffambrih b fb cihcfus`óh ea qua rabf`zbr af raspact`vi lbhtah`l`ahti bf cilputbeir as ouahi pbrb af lae`i blo`ahta yb qua raeuca af cihsuli ea aharmìb y hi maharb tbhtb obsurb qua pistar`irlahta sa bculufb. Ea fbs raspuastbs ebebs piealis `hnar`r qua fbs parsihbs t`ahah uhb `eab uh pici maharbf cih raspacti bf talb, pir ahea, cihs`eari qua sarìb ouahi axpf`cbr lâs b eatbffa af `lpbcti blo`ahtbf ea rabf`zbr uh ouah lbhtah`l`ahti ah fb pâm`hb wao.

 

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-[ram -[ ram uhtb =. ¹ Ruà cihjuhti ea ga garr rr bl bl`ahtb `ahtbss ea ttrbob rbobji ji ut`f`zbrìbs pbrb rabf`zb rabf`zbrr uh lbhtah`l`ahti lb htah`l`ahti pravaht`vi ah tu cilputb cilputbeirb9 eirb9

 B pasbr ea qua uh 23.3% ea fis ahcuastbeis ahcuastbeis hi lbrcbrih fb ipc`óh ipc`óh cirractb, fb lbyirìb sì tahìbh cfbri qua b fb girb ea rabf`zbr uh lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi af cihjuhti ea garrbl`ahtbs lâs bprip`bei arb bquaf qua `hcfuìb fb sipfbeirb, af eastirh`ffbeir y fb pufsarb bht`astât`cb. Asti his `he`cb qua sarìb ouahi `hcfu`r fb talât`cb ah fb pâm`hb wao, pari s`h fb hacas`ebe ea prinuhe`zbr ah mrbh lbharb, obstbrìb cih gbcar uhb orava lahc`óh bf raspacti.

-[ramuhtb 7. _afbc`ihb fb s`mu`ahta `lbmah cih bfmuhb ea fbs raspuastbs  pras ahtbeb ahtbebss

[brb astb pramuhtb bhaxblis fb `lbmah bhtar`ir y fis rasuftbe rasuftbeis is ast astuv`arih uv`arih luy e`v`e`eis, tbh sifi si fi af 5>.=% ea fbs parsihbs rafbc`ihbrih astb `lbmah ccih ih uh pricasbeir,

 

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fi qua his `he`cb qua as pr`lire`bf `hcfu`r ah af cihtah`ei ea fb pâm`hb wao fis cilpihahtas `htarhis eaf cilputbeir.

-[ram -[ ram uhtb 0. ¹ S boa boass rabf`zb rabf`zbrr af l lbhta bhtah`l`ahti h`l`ahti pravaht`vi ea uh cilput cilputbei beirr ea lasb9

Eao`ei b qua astb as uhb pramuhtb sahc`ffb, su raspuastb arb ea s` i hi. Af >>.=% ea fbs parsihbs hi t`ahah af cihic`l`ahti i hi sboah cóli rabf`zbr af lbhtah`l`ahti pravaht`vi ea su cilputbeir ea lasb, pir fi tbhti, sa cihs`earb pr`lire`bf axpf`cbr af pbsi b pbsi ea astb tbrab ah fb pâm`hb wao pbrb qua bsì, fbs parsihbs puaebh bprahear b rabf`zbrfi ea uhb lbharb luy nâc`f.

 

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-[r am uht uhtb b 2;. S am úh ffb ba ass tructurb ea a ass ta e`s pis` t`vi qua pa parl`ta rl`ta ffb b ran ranr` r`mm arb arbc`óh, c`óh, rabf`zb rabf `zb uhb afacc`óh afacc`óh ea fb fbss s `m u`ahta u`ahtass ipc`iha ipc`ihass .

Ah asta cbsi fb `lbmah bsic`beb as fb ea uh ciifar i vaht`fbeir, tbf vaz pir su nirlb nua uh pici lâs sahc`ffi pbrb fbs parsihbs `eaht`n`cbr qua af hilora ea asta cilpihahta hi sa ahcihtrbob ahtra fbs ipc`ihas ebebs, s`h alobrmi, astb pramuhtb astâ f`mbeb b fb pramuhtb 7 y as pir asti sa s`mua cihs`earbhei `lpirtbhta or`hebr cihtah`ei `hnirlbt`vi siora fbs pbrtas `htarhbs ea uh cilputbeir ah fb pâm`hb wao.

 

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Cihcfus`ihas

Cili puhti b lajirbr bcarcb ea fis `hstrulahtis ea racifacc`óh ea ebtis, tahalis af tblbòi ea fb piofbc`óh b fb qua sa fa rabf`zó fb ahcuastb, sa pierìb tahar ah cuahtb bobrcbr uh húlari lbyir ea parsihbs pbrb qua fis ebtis racifactbeis sabh lâs axbctis. Af lbrci taór`ci fi piealis lajirbr bmramâheifa cihtah`ei tilbhei lâs nuahtas, pari qua sabh cih `hnirlbc`óh lâs rac`ahta. Ah cubhti b fb garrbl`ahtb [email protected] s` sa fimró fb latb pripuastb ah cubhti b su e`saòi y afboirbc`óh. Ahtihcas, ah cihcfus`óh, sa puaea eac`r qua s` sa culpf`arih fis iojat`vis qua sa pfbhtabrih bf `h`c`br cih af priyacti yb qua ah affis n`murbobh fb afboirbc`óh ea fb pâm`hb wao.

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