Making of James Bond

May 30, 2016 | Author: Nik | Category: Types, Research, History
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James Bond Jump to: navigation navigation,, search This article is about the spy series in general. For the character, see James see  James Bond  (character).. For film series, see James (character) see James Bond (film series). series). For other uses, see James see James  Bond (disambiguation). (disambiguation).

 James Bond 

Ian Fleming' Fleming's image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. Author

Ian Fleming


United Kingdom




Spy fiction




Jonathan Cape

Publication date


 James Bond 007 is a fictional character created character created in 1953 by writer Ian writer Ian Fleming, Fleming, who

featured him in twelve novels and two short story collections.[1] The character has also  been used in the longest running and most financially successful English language film [2][3][ [3][4] 4] franchise to date, starting in 1962 with Dr. No.[2] After Fleming's death in 1964, subsequent James Bond novels were written by Kingsley Amis (as Robert Markham), Markham), John Pearson, Pearson, John Gardner , Raymond Benson and Sebastian Faulks. Faulks. Moreover, Christopher Wood novelised two screenplays, Charlie Higson wrote a series on a young James Bond while other writers have authored unofficial versions of the character .[5] There have been 22 films in the EON Productions series to date, the most recent of  [6][7] 7] which, Quantum of Solace, was released on 31 October 2008 (UK).[6][ In addition there has been an American television adaptation and two independent feature productions. Apart from movies and television, James Bond has also been adapted for many other  media, including radio plays, comic strips and video games. games. The EON Productions films are generally termed as "official" films originating with the  purchase of the James Bond film rights by producer Harry producer Harry Saltzman in the late 1950s.[8] Creation and inspiration Main articles: James articles: James Bond (character) and  Inspirations  Inspirations for James Bond 

Sidney Reilly, Reilly, The Ace of Spies, is often considered the archetypal muse for Bond. Commander Sir James Bond, (KCMG (KCMG,, RNVR ) is an officer of the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) (more commonly, MI6 MI6). ). He was created in January 1952 by British journalist Ian Fleming while on holiday at his Jamaican estate, Goldeneye. The hero, James Bond, was named after an American ornithologist ornithologist,, a Caribbean bird expert

and author of the definitive field guide book  Birds  Birds of the West Indies. Indies. Fleming, a keen  birdwatcher , had a copy of Bond's field guide at Goldeneye. Of the name, Fleming once said in a Reader's Digest interview, interview, "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, 'James Bond' Bon d' was much better than something more interesting, like 'Peregrine Carruthers.' Exotic things would happen to and around him, but he would be a neutral figure — an anonymous, blunt instrument wielded by a government department."[9]  Nevertheless, news sources speculated about real spies or other covert other covert agents after whom James Bond might have been modeled or named, such as Sidney Reilly or William or William Stephenson,, best-known by his wartime intelligence codename of Intrepid. Although they Stephenson are similar to Bond, Fleming confirmed none as the source figure, nor did Ian Fleming Publications nor any of Fleming's biographers, such as John Pearson or Andrew Lycett. Lycett. James Bond's parents are Andrew Bond, a Scotsman Scotsman,, and Monique Delacroix, from Canton de Vaud Vaud,, Switzerland Switzerland.. Their nationalities were established in On Her Majesty's of Sean Secret Service. Service. Fleming emphasised Bond's Scottish heritage in admiration of Sean Connery''s cinematic portrayal, whereas Bond's mother is named after a Swiss fiancée of  Connery Fleming's. A planned, but unwritten, novel would have portrayed Bond's mother as a Scot. Ian Fleming was a member of a prominent Scottish banking Scottish banking family. family.[10] In his fictional biography of secret agent 007, John Pearson gave Bond's birth date as a s 11  November (Armistice (Armistice Day) Day) 1920 (The beginning of the film "For Your Your Eyes Only" gives his wife's birth date as 1943. This seemingly assumes Bond to be younger than Pearson claimed). There is a reference to Bond's age in Fleming's You Only Live Twice, when Tanaka tells him he was born in the Year Year of the Rat (1924/25 or o r even 1912/13). In the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service , Bond's family motto is found to be "Orbis non sufficit" ("The world is not enough"). The novel also states that the family that used this motto may not necessarily be the same Bond Bon d family from which James Bond came. came.[11]

Hoagy Carmichael —another  —another James Bond model.

After completing the manuscript for Casino Royale, Fleming allowed his friend, later his editor, poet Will William iam Plomer  Plomer to to read it. Plomer liked it and submitted it to Jonathan Cape, Cape, who did not like it as much. Cape finally published it in 1953 on the recommendation of  Fleming's older brother Peter  brother Peter , an established travel writer .[12] Most researchers agree that James Bond is a romanticised version of Ian Fleming, himself  a jet-setting womanizer . Both Fleming and Bond attended the same schools, preferred the same foods (scrambled (scrambled eggs, eggs, and coffee coffee), ), maintained the same habits (drinking, smoking, wearing short-sleeve shirts{?}), shared the same notions of the perfect woman in looks and style, and had similar naval career paths (both rising to the rank of naval Commander ). ). They also shared similar height, hairstyle, and eye colour . Some suggest that Bond's suave and sophisticated persona is based on that of a young Hoagy Carmichael.. In Casino Royale , the heroine Vesper Lynd remarks, "Bond reminds me Carmichael rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and ruthless." Likewise, in Officer Gala Brand thinks that Bond is "certainly goodMoonraker   , Special Branch Officer Gala looking . . . Rather like Hoagy Carmichael in a way wa y. That black hair falling down over the right eyebrow. eyebrow. Much the same bones. bon es. But there was something a bit cruel in the mouth, [13] and the eyes were cold." Fleming did admit to being partly inspired by his service in the Naval the Naval Intelligence Division of the Admiralty Admiralty,, most notably an incident depicted in Casino Royale, when Fleming and Naval and Naval Intelligence Director Admiral Director Admiral Godfrey went on a mission to Lisbon en route to the United States during World War II. II. At the Estoril Casino, Casino, which harboured spies of warring regimes due to Portugal Portugal''s neutrality, neutrality, Fleming was 'cleaned 'clean ed out' by by a "chief German "chief German agent" in a game of Chemin of Chemin de Fer . Admiral Godfrey's account differs in that Fleming played Portuguese businessmen, whom Fleming fantasised as German agents he defeated at cards. Moreover, references to "Red Indians" in Casino Royale (four times; twice in the final page) are to his own 30 Assault Unit. Unit. Novels and related works Main article: James article: James Bond novels

In February 1952, Ian Fleming began writing his first James Bond novel. At the time, Fleming was the foreign manager for Kemsley Newspapers, owners of The Daily Express in London London.. Upon accepting the job, Fleming asked for two months' yearly vacation in his h is contract—time spent writing in Jamaica Jamaica.. Between 1953 and his death in 1964, Fleming  published twelve novels and one on e short-story collection (a second collection was  published posthumously). Later, continuation novels were written by Kingsley Amis (as Robert Markham), Markham), John Gardner , Charlie Higson, Higson, Raymond Benson, Benson, who was the first American author of James Bond. The Young Bond series of novels was begun in 2005, [14][15] 15]  by Charlie Higson. Higson.[14][ In July 2007, it was announced that Sebastian Faulks has been commissioned to write a new Bond novel to commemorate Fleming's 100th Birthday. Birthday. The book - titled Devil May Care - was published on 27 May 2008.

Ian Fleming novels • • • •

1953 Casino Royale [16] 1954 Live and Let Die [17] 1955 Moonraker [18] 1956 Diamonds Are [19]

 Forever  1957 From Russia with  Love [20] 1958 Dr. No [21]

1959 Goldfinger [22]

• • • • • •

1960 For Your Eyes Only [23] - short stories 1961 Thunderball [24] 1962 The Spy Who Loved Me [25] 1963 On Her Majesty's Secret Service [26] 1964 You Only Live Twice [27] 1965 The Man with the Golden Gun [28] 1966 Octopussy and The Living Daylights [29] short stories

 Adaptations Films

Overview Main article: James article: James Bond film series

In the late 1950s, EON Productions guaranteed the film adaptation rights for every 007 novel except for Casino Royale (those rights were recovered in 1999[30]). In 1962, the first adaptation was made with Dr. No, which starred Sean Connery as 007. Connery starred in 6 more films after his initial portrayal (including 1983's Never Say Never Again, which was not part of the EON series). George Lazenby replaced Connery (for 1 film) before the latter's last EON film, after which the part was played by Roger Moore (for 7 films), Timothy Dalton (for 2 films), Pierce Brosnan (for 4 films) and Daniel Craig (2 films to date). As of 2008, there have been 22 films in the EON series. The 21st film, Casino  Royale, with Daniel Craig as James Bond, premiered on 14 November 2006,[31] with the film going on general release in Asia and the Middle East the following day.[32] Notably, it is the first Bond film to be released in China. The second James Bond film to feature Daniel Craig is Quantum of Solace, which gets its title from a short story of the same  For Your Eyes Only, 1960), but shares no similarities with the plot. name by Ian Fleming ( For Daniel Craig is expected to return as James Bond for a third movie in the as yet unnamed "Bond 23."[33] The film series has grossed over $4 billion b illion (£2 Billion) (nearly $11 billion when adjusted for inflation) worldwide, making it the highest grossing film series ever.[4] The 22nd and newest movie in the series, Quantum of Solace, was released in the UK on 31 October  2008. As of 9 November 2008, global box office totals for Quantum of Solace were almost $161 million (£ 103 million), placing the Bond series ahead of the  Harry Potter  [34][35] [35]  film series even when not adjusting for inflation.[34]

The EON films Franchi se Count



 Dr. No


 From  Russia with Love



Year Actor


Inflation Adjusted Total Box Office**

Total Box Office


$59, $59,60 600, 0,00 0000

$1,2 $1,200 00,0 ,000 00 $425 $425,4 ,488 88,7 ,741 41

$78,9 8,900,000 000

$2,500, 00,000 $555 555,909, 09,803

Guy $124 $124,9 ,900 00,0 ,000 00 Hamilton

$3,5 $3,500 00,0 ,000 00 $868 $868,6 ,659 59,3 ,354 54


Terence Young


Sean 1964 Conner  y Terence $141 $141,2 ,200 00,0 ,000 00 $11, $11,00 000, 0,00 0000 $966 $966,4 ,435 35,5 ,555 55 Young Thunderb 1965 Goldfinge r 



You Only  Live Twice


Lewis Gilbert

$111,60 1,600, 0,00 0000

$9,5 $9,500 00,0 ,000 00 $720 $720,3 ,388 88,0 ,023 23


On Her  Majesty's Secret  Service

George Peter R. 1969 Lazenb Hunt y

$87, $87,40 400, 0,00 0000

$7,0 $7,000 00,0 ,000 00 $513 $513,4 ,445 45,2 ,231 31

$116 $116,0 ,000 00,0 ,000 00

 Diamonds  Are 1971  Forever 

Sean Conner  y


 Live and   Let Die

Roger  Guy Moore Hamilton


The Man with the Golden Gun


The Spy Who  Loved Me



$7,2 $7,200 00,0 ,000 00 $617 $617,5 ,520 20,9 ,987 87

$161,800,00 $12, $12,000 000,0 ,000 00 $785, $785,677 677,4 ,477 77 0

$97, $97,60 600, 0,00 0000 $13, $13,00 000, 0,00 0000 $426 $426,8 ,826 26,7 ,774 74 1974

$187 $187,3 ,300 00,0 ,000 00 $28, $28,00 000, 0,00 0000 $666 $666,3 ,367 67,6 ,656 56

1977 Lewis Gilbert


Moonrake 1979 r 


 For Your  1981  Eyes Only

$210,300,00 $34, $34,000 000,0 ,000 00 $624, $624,527 527,2 ,272 72 0

$202 $202,8 ,800 00,0 ,000 00 $28, $28,00 000, 0,00 0000 $481 $481,0 ,005 05,5 ,579 79


$187,500,00 $27, $27,500 500,0 ,000 00 $405, $405,873 873,4 ,493 93 0


$157,800,00 $30, $30,000 000,0 ,000 00 $316, $316,186 186,6 ,616 16 0


Octopuss  y


 A View to a Kill 


The  Living   Daylights


 Licence to 1989  Kill 


John Glen

$191,200,00 $40, $40,000 000,0 ,000 00 $362, $362,876 876,0 ,056 56 0 Timoth y Dalton

$156,200,00 $42, $42,000 000,0 ,000 00 $271, $271,586 586,4 ,451 51 0


GoldenEy e


Martin $353 $353,4 ,400 00,0 ,000 00 $60, $60,00 000, 0,00 0000 $499 $499,9 ,954 54,3 ,330 30 Campbell


Tomorrow 1997  Never   Dies

Roger  Spottiswoo $346,600 $346,600,00 ,0000 $110, $110,000, 000,000 000 $465,588 $465,588,53 ,5355 de


Pierce Brosna The Michael n $390,000 $390,000,00 ,0000 $135,000 $135,000,00 ,0000 $504,705 $504,705,88 ,8822 World Is Apted 1999

 Not   Enough


 Die  Another   Day


Lee $456,000 $456,000,00 ,0000 $142,000 $142,000,00 ,0000 $546,490 $546,490,27 ,2722 Tamahori


Casino  Royale


Martin $599,200 $599,200,00 ,0000 $150,000 $150,000,00 ,0000 $640,803 $640,803,67 ,6777 Campbell

Quantum of Solace




Daniel Craig

Films 122

Marc $515,588 $515,588,68 ,6877 $230,000 $230,000,00 ,0000 $515,588 $515,588,68 ,6877 Forster  $4,739,157,4 $1,123,000,0 $11,615,711,9 47 00 60

* Figure as of 6 May 2007 (source -  ). ** Figures are inflated to 2008 dollars as of 24 March 2008 figures based on the Consumer Price Index. *** All figures are in US Dollars [36]

Non-EON films, radio and television programmes

In 1954, CBS paid Ian Fleming for the rights to adapt Casino Royale into a one hour  television adventure as part of their Climax! series. However, Barry Nelson played a CIA agent named Jimmy Bond, Clarence Lieter was a British agent played by Michael Pate and Peter Lorre was Le Chiffre.

In 1956, Bob Holness starred in a South African radio adaptation adap tation of Moonraker, making him the second actor to portray James Bond. According to Andrew Pixley's notes to Danger Man Original soundtrack, Ian Fleming collaborated with Ralph Smart to bring James Bond to television, but dropped out taking his creation with him. Ralph Smart went on to develop Danger Man with Patrick  McGoohan who would later turn down James Bond. In 1967, Casino Royale was adapted into a spoof Bond Bon d film starring David Niven as Sir  James Bond 007 and Ursula Andress as Vesper Vesper Lynd. Lynd. David Niven, had, in fact, been Ian Fleming's Fleming 's preference for the part of James Bond. [37] EON Productions, Productions, however, chose Sean Connery. Connery. David Niven is the only on ly James Bond actor who is mentioned by b y name in the text of two of Fleming's James Bond novels. In On Her Majesty's Secret Service, Bond visits an exclusive ski resort and is told that David Niven is a frequent visitor and in You Only Live Twice Kissy Suzuki mentions him as the only man who had been kind to her in her brief foray to Hollywood. Ursula Andress is also mentioned in the text of On  Her Majesty's Secret Service as being present at the ski resort. The 1973 BBC documentary Omnibus Omnibus:: The British Hero featured Christopher Cazenove  playing a number of such title characters (e.g. Richard Hannay and Bulldog Drummond), Drummond), including James Bond in dramatised scenes from Goldfinger - notably featuring the hero  being threatened with the novel's circular saw, rather than the film's laser beam - and  Diamonds Are Forever .[38] A legal loophole allowed Kevin McClory to release a remake of Thunderball titled Never  Say Never Again in 1983. The film, featuring Sean Connery as Bond, is not considered an "official" James Bond film because it is not part of the Bond film franchise from EON Productions and United Artists, Artists, although it is currently owned by United Artists Artists parent MGM. Its original theatrical release in October 1983 actually ac tually created a situation in which two Bond movies were playing in theaters at the same time, as the "official" EON Bond film, Octopussy was still playing in theaters. Since then, MGM has bought the name "James Bond", preventing a repeat of this episode.


1954 1956 1967 1983

Title Titl e


Actor Acto r

TV Barry Episode  Nelson Bob Radio Moonraker  Holness David Casino Royale Film  Niven Sean  Never Say Never  Film Connery  Again Casino Royale

Total Box Office

n/a n/a



Inflation Adjusted Total Box B ox Office**

n/a n/a

$44, $44,400 400,0 ,000 00 $12,0 $12,000 00,00 ,0000 $274, $274,243 243,1 ,113 13 $160 $160,00 ,000, 0,000 000 $36,0 $36,000 00,00 ,0000 $331 $331,40 ,405, 5,624 624

You Only Live Twice



Michael Jayston

TV Corey  James Bond Jr. cartoon Burton series Toby Radio  Dr. No Stephens

1991 2008 Totals







$204,400,000 $48,000,000 $602,860,000

Actors Main article: List article: List of actors considered for the James Bond character 

Cultural impact  See also: James also: James Bond parodies

Statues of Bond actors Pierce Brosnan and Sean Connery at Madame Tussauds. Tussauds. James Bond has long been a household name and remains a huge influence within the genre. The Austin Powers series by writer, producer and comedian Mike Myers, Myers, and other   parodies such as Johnny English (2003), Bons baisers de Hong Kong , OK Connery, the "Flint Flint"" series starring James Coburn as Derek Flint, the "Matt "Matt Helm" Helm" movies starring Dean Martin, Martin, and Casino Royale (1967) are testaments to Bond's prominence in popular  p opular  [39] culture. The Bond series also received many homages and parodies in popular media. The 1960s TV imitations of James Bond such as I Spy, Get Smart ,Charles Vine, Matt Helm and The Man from U.N.C.L.E. went on to become popular successes in their own right, the last having enjoyed contributions by Fleming towards its creation: the show's lead character, " Napoleon Solo," Solo," was named after a character in Fleming's novel Goldfinger ; Fleming also suggested the character name April Dancer, which was later used in the spin-off  series The Girl from U.N.C.L.E..[40] A reunion television movie, movie, The Return of the Man ca meo by George Lazenby as James  from U.N.C.L.E. (1983), is notable for featuring a cameo Bond in tribute to Fleming (for legal reasons, the character was credited as "JB").

George Lucas has said on various occasions that Sean Connery's portrayal of Bond was one of the primary inspirations for the Indiana Jones character, a reason Connery was [41][42] [42] chosen for the role of Indiana's father in the third film of that series. series.[41] Music  Main article: James article: James Bond music

The "James "James Bond Theme" Theme" was written by Monty Norman and was first orchestrated by the John Barry Orchestra for 1962's Dr. No, although the actual authorship of the music has been a matter of controversy for many years. In 2001, Norman won £30,000 £3 0,000 in libel damages from the British paper The Sunday Times, which suggested that Barry was entirely responsible for the composition.[43] Barry did go on to compose the scores for eleven Bond films in addition to his uncredited contribution to Dr. No, and is credited with the creation of "007 " 007," ," used as an alternate Bond theme in several films, as well as the popular orchestrated theme "On Her Majesty's Secret Service." Both the "James Bond Theme" and "On Her Majesty's Secret Service" have been remixed a number of times by popular artists, including Art of Noise, Noise, Moby Moby,, Paul Oakenfold, Oakenfold, and the Propellerheads Propellerheads.. The Beatles used a portion of the "Bond theme" in the introduction of their song "Help" as released on the American version of the "Help" LP. The British/Australian string quartet also named bond named bond (purposely in lower case) recorded their own version of the theme, entitled "Bond on Bond."[44] Barry's legacy was followed by David Arnold, Arnold, in addition to other well-known composers such as Chris Minear and Corbin Ott and record producers such as George Martin, Martin, Bill Conti,, Michael Kamen, Conti Kamen, Marvin Hamlisch and Éric Serra. Serra. Arnold is the series' current composer of choice and composed the score for the 22nd Bond film, Quantum of Solace. A Bond film staple are the theme songs heard during their title their title sequences sung by wellknown popular singers (which have included Tina Turner , Paul McCartney and Wings Wings,, Sheryl Crow and Tom Jones, Jones, among many others). Shirley Bassey performed three themes in total. After  Doctor  Doctor No, On Her Majesty's Secret Service is the only Bond film with a solely instrumental theme, though Louis Armstrong' Armstrong's ballad "We "We Have All the Time in the World," World," which serves as Bond and his wife Tracy's love song and whose title is Bond's last line in the film, is considered the unofficial theme. Likewise, although the credit sequence to From Russia with Love features an instrumental version of the film's theme, another version, with lyrics sung by Matt Monro, Monro, can be partially heard within the film itself, and is featured on the film's soundtrack album. The themes usually share their names with their film. A large reason for the turning down of Mr. Kiss Kiss Bang Bang for Thunderball for  Thunderball was that it was not named after the movie. " Nobody Does It Better ", ", the theme for The Spy Who Loved Me , was the first Bond theme not to share its title with that of the movie, although the words "the spy who loved me" do appear in the lyrics. The song is featured in both credit sequences of the film, and in orchestral form throughout. "Nobody Does It Better" was nominated for an Academy Award for "Best Original Song" of 1977, but lost to the theme song to You Light Up My

Life. Hamlisch's score for the film was also nominated for an "Oscar ", Life. ", but lost to John Williams'' score for Star Williams for Star Wars. Wars. The only other Bond themes to be nominated for an Acade Academy my Award Award for best song are "Live and Let Die", Die", written by Paul and Linda McCartney and performed by their group Wings,, and "For Wings "For Your Eyes Only", Only", written by Bill Conti and Michael Leeson and  performed by Sheena Easton, Easton, though a few of John Barry's scores have been nominated. The only Bond theme to reach number one on the pop charts in the US was Duran Duran's "A View View to a Kill." The only singer, to date, to appear within a title sequence is Sheena Easton during For  Your Eyes Only. The only singer of a title song to appear as a character within the film itself, to date, is Madonna Madonna,, who appeared (uncredited) as fencing instructor Verity Verity,, as well as contributing the theme for  Die  Die Another Day. The title sequence in Die Another Day is notable, however, for being the only one in which the visuals actually serve to further the  plot of the film itself, as opposed to being merely a montage or collage of abstract images related to the film or to the larger James Bond mythos. The latest theme song is Alicia Keys and Jack White' White's "Another "Another Way to Die", Die", from a lso the fourth Quantum of Solace, the first James Bond theme song to be a duet. It is also Bond movie that doesn't have the name of the movie in its lyrics. In 1998, Barry's music from You Only Live Twice was adapted into the hit song composer Guy Chambers for British recording artist Robbie Millennium by producer and composer Guy Williams.. The music video features Williams parodying James Bond, and references Williams other Bond films such as Thunderball and From Russia With Love . It should also be noted that the video was filmed at Pinewood Studios, where most of the Bond films have  been made. In 2004 the Cavaliers Drum and Bugle Corps won the Drum Corps International World Championship with "007," using the music of James Bond as composed by b y David Arnold. The Cavaliers performed selections from GoldenEye, Die Another Day ("Hovercraft Theme" and "Welcome to Cuba"), and Tomorrow Never Dies. Burt Bacharach's Bacharach's score for 1967's Casino Royale included "The "The Look Of Love", Love", nominated for an Academy Award for Best Song, Song, has become a standard for its era, with the biggest-selling version recorded by Sergio Mendes and Brasil '66 (#4 on the Billboard  pop charts in 1968). It was heard again in the first Austin Powers film, film, which was to a degree inspired by Casino Royale. Video games Main article: James article: James Bond (games)

In 1983, the first Bond video game, developed and published by Parker Brothers, Brothers, was released for the Atari 2600, 2600, the Atari 5200, 5200, the Atari 800, 800, the Commodore 64, 64, and the

ColecoVision.[45] Since then, there have been numerous video games either based on the ColecoVision. films or using original storylines. Bond video games, however, did not reach reac h their popular stride until 1997's revolutionary GoldenEye 007  by  by Rare for the Nintendo the Nintendo 64. 64.[46] Subsequently, Subsequently, virtually every Bond video game has attempted to copy the accomplishments and features of GoldenEye 007 to varying degrees of success; even going so far as to have a game entitled GoldenEye:  Rogue Agent that had little to do with either the video game GoldenEye 007 or the film of  the same name. Bond himself plays only a minor role in which he is "killed" " killed" in the  beginning during a 'virtual 'virtual reality' reality' mission, which served as the first level of the game. Since acquiring the licence in 1999, Electronic Arts has released eight games, five of   Everything or Nothing , which broke which have original stories, including the popular  Everything away from the first-person shooter trend shooter trend that started with GoldenEye 007 (including the games "Agent Under Fire" and "Nightfire") and instead featured a third-person  perspective. It also featured well known actors including Willem Dafoe, Dafoe, Heidi Klum, Klum, Judi Dench,, John Cleese and Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, although several previous games Dench have used Brosnan's likeness as Bond. In 2005, Electronic Arts released a video game  From Russia with Love, another game in the same vein as Everything or  adaptation of  From 19 80s  Nothing . This was the second game based on a Connery Bond film (the first was a 1980s text adventure adaptation of Goldfinger ) and the first to allow the player to play as Bond with the likeness of Sean of Sean Connery. Connery. Connery himself recorded new voice-overs for the game, the first time the actor had played Bond in twenty-two years. In 2006, Activision secured the licence to make Bond-related games, briefly sharing but effectively taking over the licence from EA. The deal became exclusive to Activision in September 2007.[47] Activision studio Treyarch has released the new James Bond game "Quantum of Solace" a movie tie in of "Casino Royale" and "Quantum of Solace" it (not unlike "Goldeneye 007") is a first person shooter and it does include a new 'dashing to cover' and 'cover fire' third person game play. play. In relation to the twenty-first film in the series Sony Ericsson released a Casino Royale edition of their K800i their K800i mobile phone. In this edition, a Java ME game loosely based on the movie was included. Vodafone has also published a game for the same platform called 007: Hoverchase and developed by IOMO IOMO.. Comic strips and comic books Main articles: James articles: James Bond (comic strip) and  James  James Bond comic books

In 1957 the Daily Express, a newspaper owned by Lord Beaverbrook , approached Ian Fleming to adapt his stories into comic strips. After initial reluctance by Fleming who felt the strips would lack the quality of his writing, agreed and the first strip Casino Royale was published in 1958. Since then many illustrated adventures of James Bond have been  published, including every Ian Fleming novel as well as Kingsley Amis's Colonel Sun, and most of Fleming's short stories. Later, the comic strip produced original stories, continuing until 1983.

Titan Books is presently reprinting these comic strips in an ongoing series of graphic of graphic novel-style novel -style collections; by the end of 2005 it had completed reprinting all Fleming-based adaptations as well as Colonel Sun and had moved on to reprinting original stories. Several comic book adaptations book adaptations of the James Bond films have been published through the years, as well as numerous original stories. Most recently, a thinly-veiled version of Bond (called only "Jimmy" to avoid copyright issues) appeared in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier . In this story, Bond is the villain; he chases the heroic duo of Mina of Mina Murray and Allan Quatermain across London, aided by b y disguised versions of Bulldog of Bulldog Drummond ("Hugo Drummond") and Emma Peel ("Miss Night"). Characters See also: List also: List of James Bond allies , List  , List of James Bond villains , and  Bond  Bond girl 

The James Bond series of novels and films have a plethora of allies and villains. Bond's superiors and other officers of the British Secret Service are known by b y letters, such as M and Q. In the novels, Bond has employed two secretaries, Loelia Ponsonby and Mary Goodnight,, who in the films typically have their roles and lines transferred to M's Goodnight secretary, Miss Moneypenny. Moneypenny. Occasionally Bond is assigned to work a case with his good friend, CIA agent Felix Leiter . Throughout both the novels and the films there have only been a handful of recurring of recurring characters.. Some of the more memorable ones include Bill Tanner , Rene Mathis, characters Mathis, Jack  Wade,, Jaws and recently Charles Robinson. Wade Robinson. J.W. Pepper is Pepper is also a recurring character.[48] Vehicles and gadgets Main articles: List articles: List of James Bond vehicles , List  , List of James Bond gadgets , and  List   List  of James Bond firearms

Exotic espionage equipment and vehicles are very popular elements of James Bond's literary and cinematic missions. These items often prove critically important to Bond in successfully completing his missions.

An Aston Martin DB5 as seen in Goldfinger .

Fleming's novels and early screen adaptations presented minimal equipment equ ipment such as  From Russia with Love' s booby-trapped attaché case. case. In Dr. No, Bond's sole gadgets were a Geiger counter and counter and a wristwatch with a luminous (and radioactive radioactive)) face. The gadgets, however, assumed a higher profile in the 1964 film Goldfinger . The film's success encouraged further espionage equipment from Q Branch to be supplied to Bond. In the opinion of critics, some Bond films have included too many gadgets and vehicles,[49] such as 1979's science fiction-oriented fiction-oriented Moonraker and 2002's Die Another Day. James Bond's cars have included the Aston Martin DB5, V8 Vantage Vantage (80s), V12 Vanquish and DBS (00s); the Lotus Esprit; the BMW Z3, Z3, BMW 750iL and the BMW Z8. Z8. Bond's most famous car is the silver grey Aston Martin DB5, DB5, first seen in Goldfinger ; it later  features in Thunderball , GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, and Casino Royale. The films have used a number of different Aston Aston Martin DB5s for filming and publicity, one of which was sold in January 2006 at an auction in Arizona for $2,090,000 to an unnamed European collector. That specific car was originally sold for £5,000 in 1970. 197 0.[50] In Fleming's books, Bond had a penchant for "battleship grey" Bentleys Bentleys,, while Gardner  awarded the agent a modified Saab 900 Turbo (nicknamed the Silver Beast) Beast) and later a Bentley Mulsanne Turbo. In the James Bond film adaptations, Bond has been associated with several well-known watches, usually outfitted with high-tech features not found on production models. The Rolex Submariner , one of the few recurring models, mode ls, was worn by Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, and Timothy Dalton's versions of James Bond. Bon d. Roger Moore also sported a number of digital watches by Pulsar  Pulsar and and Seiko Seiko.. Pierce Brosnan's and Daniel Craig's James Bonds were both devotees of the Omega Seamaster . The selection of James Bond's watch has been a matter of both style and finance, as product placement agreements with the watch manufacturers have frequently been arranged. Bond's weapon of choice in the beginning of  Dr.  Dr. No is an Italian-made Beretta 418 .25 calibre, later replaced by the German-made Walther PPK , chambered in 7.65mm (a  peculiar choice, as Valentin Zukovsky remarks in GoldenEye: the PPK as found in the U.S. and Western Western Europe is most commonly chambered in .380ACP .380ACP). ). The PPK was used in every subsequent film and became his signature weapon until the ending of Tomorrow  Never Dies, when Bond upgraded to the Walther P99. P99. He has subsequently used the P99 World Is Not Enough, Die Another Day, and Casino  pistol in Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Strangely, Bond resumed use of the PPK in Quantum of Solace, Solace, the direct sequel  Royale. Strangely, of Casino Royale.

Biography  Family and early years See also: Young Bond 

An illustration of James Bond as he appears appe ars in the Young Bond series by Charlie Higson James Bond is an ageless character in his late thirties. In Moonraker , he admits to being eight years shy of mandatory retirement at age forty-five, therefore, James Bond is thirtyseven years old.[2] The actors who have portrayed Bond have varied greatly in age. George Lazenby was 29 when On Her Majesty's Secret Service was released, while Roger Moore was 58 when A View to a Kill was released. James Bond's birth year is unknown because becau se Fleming changed the dates and times of  events. Most researchers and biographers concluded that he was born either in 1917, 1920, 1921, or 1924 (see (see more). more). Ian Fleming never said where James Bond was born although people have speculated, based on derivative works. You Only Live Twice reveals Bond is the son of a

Scottish father, Andrew Bond, of  Glencoe,, and a Swiss mother, Monique Delacroix, of the Canton de Vaud. Glencoe Vaud. The boy James Bond spends much of his h is early life abroad, becoming multilingual in German and French  because of his father's being a Vickers armaments company representative. When his  parents are killed in a mountain climbing accident in the Aiguilles Rouges near  Chamonix,, eleven-year-old James is orphaned.[3] Chamonix In On Her Majesty's Secret Service, the Bond family motto might be non sufficit Orbis (Latin for "The world is not enough"). The coat of arms and motto belonged to the historical Sir Thomas Bond; his relation to James Bond is unclear and neglected by the latter. latter. In fact, he is indifferent to his potential genealogical relationship to Sir Thomas Bond, demonstrated by his abrupt response to Griffin Or on being told of the motto: “ Griffon Or broke in excitedly, 'And this charming motto of the line, "The World is not Enough".

You do not wish to have the right to it?' 'It is i s an excellent motto which I shall certainly adopt,' said Bond curtly. curtly. He looked pointedly at his watch. 'Now I'm afraid we really must get down to  business. I have to report back to my Ministry.' Ministry.' ”

On Her Majesty's Secret Service , Chapter 6: Bond of Bond Street?

After the death of his parents, he goes to live with his aunt, Miss Charmian Bond, in Pett Bottom village, where he completes his early education. Later, he briefly attends Eton College at "12 or thereabouts" (13 in Young Bond ), ), but leaves after two halves because of  girl trouble with a maid. He recounts losing his virginity at sixteen, on a first visit to Paris,, in the short story "From Paris " From a View to a Kill". Kill". Bond is removed from Eton and sent to Fettes College in Edinburgh Edinburgh,, Scotland Scotland,, his father's school. Per Pearson's James Bond: The Authorised Biography and an allusion in From Russia with Love, Bond briefly attended the University of Geneva. Geneva.[4] Some of Bond's education is based on Fleming's own, both having attended Eton, and the University of Geneva. In the film You Only Live University; in Twice Bond asserts having a First in Oriental Languages from Cambridge University; the film, The Spy Who Loved Me, an acquaintance identifies him as a Cambridge graduate; in the film Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond attends Oxford to study Danish Danish.. The  polyglot Bond speaks German German,, French French,, Russian Russian,, and Japanese — yet, Ian Fleming's novel series, the films, and the post–Fleming continuation novels contradict con tradict each other about which languages. In Quantum of Solace, Bond speaks some Spanish fluently and seems to understand Italian Italian.. In 1941, Bond lies about his age in order to enter the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II, II, from which he emerges a Commander . He retains that rank while in the British Secret Service of Fleming's novels, and the continuation novels, and the films. Continuation novelist John Gardner promoted Bond to Captain in Win, Lose or Die. Since Raymond Benson's novels are a reboot reboot,, Bond is a Commander, and a member of the RNVSR (Royal RNVSR  (Royal Naval Volunteer Volunteer Supplementary Reserve), an association of war veteran [5] officers. officers. In the SIS [6][7] 7] Bond is a civil servant, servant, working in the Ministry of Defence as a Principal Officer, [6][ a [8] civilian grade equivalent to a Captain in the Royal Navy. Navy.

It is never stated when James Bond became a 00-agent, though references in Casino  Royale suggest during World War II while Goldfinger suggests 1952. After joining the RNVR, Bond is mentioned travelling in the U.S., Hong Kong, Kong, and Jamaica Jamaica,, and that he  joined another organisation, such as the SOE or the 00-Section of the SIS or as leader of a Royal Marine unit on secret mission behind enemy lines in the war or in (Fleming's) "Red Indians" 30 Commando Assault Unit (30 AU). One supporting fact is Bond in the Ardennes firing a bazooka a bazooka in 1944.[citation needed ] The 30 AU were the only British small unit attached to the US Army in Europe. In Bond's obituary obituar y, his commanding officer, officer, M, alludes to the rank as cover: "To serve the confidential nature of his duties, he was accorded the rank of  lieutenant in the Special Branch of the R.N.V.R., R.N.V.R., and it is a measure of the satisfaction his services gave to his superiors that he ended the war with the rank  of Commander." — You Only Live Twice, chapter 21: "Obit"

Bond earns his 00 status with two tasks, outlined ou tlined in Casino Royale. The first, assassinating a Japanese spy on the 36th floor of the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center  in New York York City. City. The second, assassinating a Norwegian double agent who betrayed betra yed two British agents. Bond travels to Stockholm to stab and kill the man in his sleep. In James teenag er..  Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 , Pearson suggests Bond first kills as a teenager Throughout the films, Bond's attitude towards his job is similar; he dislikes taking life, resorting to black humour relief. It was part of his profession to kill people. He had never liked doing it and when he had to kill he did it as well as he knew how and forgot about it. As a secret agent who held the rare Double-O  prefix – the licence to kill in the Secret Service – it was his duty to be as cool about death as a surgeon. If it happened, it happened. Regret was unprofessional — worse, it was a death-watch  beetle in the soul." — Goldfinger , chapter 1: "Reflections in a Double Bourbon"

In the novel Goldfinger , James Bond is haunted by memories of a Mexican gunman he killed with bare hands days da ys earlier. earlier. The cinematic Bond is at ease with killing until Brosnan's tenure; GoldenEye suggests the brutality of his job troubles him while, in The World Is Not Enough, he admits cold-blooded killing is a filthy business. Nonetheless, he kills when needed, and on film commits murder  murder in in shooting the unarmed Elektra King, King, and assassination in killing Mr. Big, Big, a national leader, in Live and Let Die. The literary James Bond is reserved in his licensed killing, sometimes disobeying kill orders if the mission might be accomplished otherwise, as in "The "The Living Daylights" Daylights" where he makes a last-second decision to disobey orders and not kill an assassin. Instead, he shoots the assassin's gun and accomplishes the mission. Later, he feels so strongly about that decision that he hopes M will fire him for it. There are Fleming works in which Bond does not kill anyone. Bond hates those who kill non-combatants, especially a woman. wo man. He forsakes Queen and Country in avenging the deaths of innocent victims Felix Leiter and Leiter and  bride, Della, in the film  Licence to Kill . In both literature and cinema, James Ja mes Bond has a cavalier attitude toward his death, d eath, accepting that he most likely will be killed if captured, and expects MI6's disavowal of  o f  him. He withstands torture in Casino Royale, The World World is Not Enough, and Die Another   Day without talking. The cinematic James Bond (introduced in 1962) already was a veteran Secret Service agent. In Dr. No, when ordered re-equipped with a 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol PPK pistol replacing his Beretta automatic pistol, agent 007 protests that he has used the weapon for 10 years. In the novels preceding Dr. No, Bond uses a .25 ACP Beretta automatic pistol carried in a light-weight chamois leather holster, leather holster, however, in From Russia with Love, in the draw, draw, the gun snags in Bond's jacket, and, because of this incident, M and Major Boothroyd order  Bond re-equipped with a Walther Walther PPK and a Berns-Martin triple-draw holster made of  stiff saddle leather. He continues using this pistol until un til John Gardner's Licence Renewed , where he uses different weapons, choosing the AS ASPP 9 mm in later books. According to Gardner in the novelisation for  Licence Walther PPK is not Bond's Bo nd's favourite  Licence to Kill , the Walther weapon. With Raymond Benson, Bond begins using the PPK again until being updated in  both the film and novelisation Tomorrow Never Dies with the Walther P99. P99. In Quantum

of Solace, Solace, Bond uses the Walther Walther PPK again. James Bond: The Secret World World of 007  reports that Bond is a judoka a judoka and knows other martial other martial arts. arts. Description and personal life

The tombstone of James Bond´s wife, Teresa, which Bond visits. Shown at a James Bond convention in 1992. In the novels (notably From Russia with Love), Bond's physical description has generally  been consistent: slim build; a three-inch, vertical scar on his right cheek (absent from the film version); blue-grey eyes; a "cruel" mouth; short, black hair (long in the Timothy Dalton films, and in the revamped version with Craig, Bond has blond hair) , a comma of  which falls on his forehead (greying at the temples in Gardner's novels); and (after  Casino Royale) the faint scar of the Russian cyrillic letter "Ш" (SH) (for  Shpion: "Spy") on the back of one of his hands (carved by a SMERSH agent). In From Russia with Love he is also described as 183 centimeters (6 feet) in height and 76 kilograms (167 lb) in weight. In film, Bond is portrayed as highly intelligent. In Goldfinger , he calculates how many trucks it takes to transport all the gold in Fort Knox. Knox. Also, in the film version of  Casino  Royale, he is shown to have skill at calculating probabilities of draws from a deck in a Texas hold'em h old'em tournament in Montenegro Montenegro.. When not on assignment or at headquarters, Bond spends his time at his flat off o ff the Kings Road in Chelsea Chelsea.. His flat is looked after by an elderly Scottish housekeeper named May May,, who is very loyal and often motherly to him. According to Higson's Young Bond series, May previously worked for Bond's aunt, Charmian. Bond Bo nd hardly ever brings women back  to his home, happening only once between the novels Diamonds Are Forever and From  Russia with Love when he briefly lived with Tiffany Case; Case;[9] and once in the film series: in Live and Let Die, M and Moneypenny visit Bond at his flat, forcing him to hide his female company in the wardrobe. According to Pearson's book and hinted at in From Tiffany often got into arguments with May and eventually left. At his  Russia with Love, Tiffany home, Bond has two telephones. One for personal use and a second red phone that is a

direct line between his home and headquarters; the latter is said always to be ringing at inopportune moments. In both the literary and cinematic versions of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, James Bond marries, but his bride, Teresa "Tracy" di Vicenzo, Vicenzo, is killed on their wedding day by his archenemy, Ernst Stavro Blofeld; Blofeld; the loss resonates in both versions of the character  for many years thereafter. In the novels, Bond gets revenge in the following novel, You Only Live Twice when, by chance, he comes across Blofeld in Japan, while the cinematic Bond takes on Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever with an ambiguous result. Later, in the  pre-title sequence of  For  For Your Your Eyes Only, Bond dispatches a bald, wheelchair-bound Blofeld. Bond and Kissy Suzuki bear a child, although Fleming's novels do not state his existence. Bond is obviously aware of his son's existence by the time of Raymond of Raymond Benson' Benson's short story "Blast "Blast From the Past" Past" in which his son asks him to come to New York York City as a matter of urgency before being killed by Irma Bunt. Bunt. Bond is famous for ordering his vodka martinis "shaken, not stirred." stirred." In the novel of vodka straight, served with a pinch of black b lack pepper, a Moonraker , he drinks a shot of vodka habit he picked up working in the Baltic region. region. He also drinks and enjoys gin martinis, champagne,, and bourbon champagne and bourbon.. In total, Bond consumes 317 drinks of which 101 are whisky, 35 sakes sakes,, 30 glasses of champagne and a mere 19 vodka martinis. This is an average of  one drink every seven pages.[10] Bond occasionally supplements his alcohol consumption with the use of other drugs, for both functional and recreational reasons. For instance, in amphetamine benzedrine  benzedrine accompanied by Moonraker Bond consumes a quantity of the amphetamine champagne, in order to gain extra confidence and alertness during his bridge game against Sir Hugo Drax; and in On Her Majesty's Secret Service he consumes the  barbiturate derivative seconal in order to induce a state of "cosy self-anaesthesia" in his London flat.[11] In Fleming's novels, Bond is a heavy smoker, at one point reaching 70 cigarettes a day.[12] On average, Bond smokes 60 a day, although in certain novels he attempts to cut back so that he can accomplish certain feats, such as swimming. He is also forced to cut back  after being sent to a health h ealth farm per M's orders in Thunderball . Bond specifically smokes a blend of Balkan and Turkish tobacco with a higher than average tar content from Morlands of Grosvenor Street called "Morland Specials." The cigarette itself has three gold bands on the filter signifying Bond's (and Fleming's) commander rank in the secret service. Additionally Bond carries his cigarettes in a trademarked monogrammed gunmetal cigarette case. In continuation novels by John Gardner , Bond cuts back by smoking low-tar cigarettes from Morlands and later H. Simmons of Burlington Arcade. Later works by Raymond Benson has Bond continuing cont inuing to use this brand. Cinematically, Cinematically, Bond has been off and on usually going with changes in society. society. During the films starring Connery, Connery, Lazenby and Dalton, Bond was a smoker, while during Moore's and Brosnan's tenure he does not smoke cigarettes, although he does occasionally smoke cigars. In Brosnan's second portrayal of Bond, in Tomorrow Never Dies, he remarks upon a Russian who is smoking by saying "Filthy habit". The last time Bond smoked on film was in 2002

in Die Another Day, and he was smoking smok ing a cigar, not a cigarette. In Daniel Craig's tenure, he is never seen smoking at all. Although Fleming states in the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service that "James Bond was not a gourmet gourmet,," he clearly appreciates food and an d has a sophisticated (if perhaps idiosyncratic) palate. When in England, Bond "lived on grilled soles, oeufs cocotte and cold roast beef with potato salad," his favourite food is scrambled eggs served with coffee (particularly as served by his housekeeper) although "the best meal he had ever eaten" is enjoyed in Miami during the novel Goldfinger, and comprises stone crabs with melted  butter served with toast and iced rose champagne. In the same novel Bond also articulates his hatred of tea of tea,, which he describes as "mud" and considers partially responsible for the decline of the British Empire. Empire. In both novel and film, Bond has meaningless affairs or one or one night stands with virtually every woman he encounters, and discards them the minute they become an inconvenience. Fleming had a tempestuous love life; he had numerous affairs even though he was married, and there were frequent accusations of sado-masochistic of sado-masochistic acts in [13] his relationships with women. This has led critics to speculate over how much Fleming  projected his own character into the figure of James Bond as Bond, too, has a dismissive attitude towards women. For instance, Bond does not desist from hitting women and his rough handed treatment of women has been noted. noted.[14] His suave, chauvinistic charm even seduces women who initially find him repellent, such as Holly Goodhead in Moonraker  or Wai or Wai Lin in Tomorrow Never Dies. While the women he sleeps with do willingly give in to him, he does doe s not take the initial 'no' for an answer. In the film version of Goldfinger , Bond forces himself upon Pussy Galore in a barnyard, to which she fights back at first, though she eventually relents. Bond also is not above blackmailing above blackmailing a female employee of  the spa he is sent to in order for her to have sex with him in the film version of  Thunderball . In more recent incarnations, his attitudes toward women have softened somewhat; he respects the new, female M, while a few female characters, such as Elektra King and Paris Carver , have gotten under his skin. When the film canon was rebooted with Casino  Royale, James Bond's sexual appetite had somewhat cooled though he somewhat jokingly admits to an attraction to married women, reasoning it "keeps things simple." His pursuit of Solange of Solange Dimitrios is merely for the purpose of collecting information on her husband, h usband, Alex, to stop a terrorist plot. Once he retrieves the information, he leaves her immediately without having sex with her. When they meet, Vesper Lynd predicts that James sees women as little more than sex objects to be used and James later jokes that Vesper Vesper isn't his type due to her being single (ironic given Vesper in fact has a boyfriend kidnapped by Mr. White's organisation). Nevertheless, James falls deeply in love with Vesper Vesper to the  point of attempting to quit the spy business to be with her, becoming genuinely heartbroken and bitter when it is revealed reve aled she is a mole for Mr. White. In Daniel Craig's recent portrayals of Bond, it can be noted that, once he sleeps with a woman, she will end up dead during the events of that film. All of the girls (3) that

Craig's Bond has slept with have had odd or uncommon first names (Solange, Vesper, Vesper, Strawberry). Bond is an avid boating enthusiast. He is seen on boats both for business and leisure. Bond is seen boating in Dr. No, No, From Russia with Love, Love, Thunderball Thunderball,, You Only Live Twice,, Live and Let Die, Twice Die, The Man with the Golden Gun, Gun, The World World Is Not Enough Enough,, Casino Royale, Royale, and Quantum of Solace. Solace. Birth year debate

According to Pearson, Bond was born on November on November 11, 11, 1920 1920.. However, the novel You n ovel, M writes an obituary for  Only Live Twice implies the birth year as 1924. In the novel, James Bond after believing him to be dead. M writes that Bond left school schoo l when he was 17 years old and joined the Ministry of Defence in 1941 "claiming an age of 19." If Bond was 17 in 1941, then he was born in 1924. Also Tiger Tanaka, Tanaka, a Japanese secret agent, states that Bond was born in the year of the rat, rat, which hints at 1924. However, the novel Moonraker (which is set in 1954) states that Bond's age is 37. This would place Bond's date of birth in 1917-1918 and indeed in the novel "From Russia With With Love" the KGB dossier on Bond states a birth year of 1918. A more complex date of birth, according to John Griswold and his book  Ian  Ian Fleming's  James Bond: Annotations and Chronologies is November is November 11, 11, 1921 1921.. Griswold notes that Bond's joining of the Ministry of Defence was originally written in Fleming's manuscript as 1939 and later changed to 1941. Briefly, Griswold contends that Bond joined the Admiralty in 1939 (the same year Fleming joined) and 1941 is a year marker that places place s his recruitment into an organisation that was later attached to the Ministry of Defence by Fleming. Griswold believes that a lot of details in Bond's timeline make better sense with the original 1939 date. For instance, if one computes Bond's age for when he was admitted into the Admiralty to when his parents died, then Bond would have been 11 in 1933 from January 1 through to November to November 10 if he was born in 1921. 1933 is the year  mentioned in Casino Royale for when Bond "bought" his first Bentley. Since all of the years claimed for when Bond was born would have made him too young to purchase this Bentley, Bentley, a more likely scenario is that he "inherited" it from his late father. Griswold  presented this idea to Ian Fleming Publications in February 2003. The company recognised this issue for its Young Bond series of novels featuring Bond as a teenager teenage r in the 1930s and along with its author, Charlie Higson, defined Bond being born in the year  1920. In Higson's series, the Bentley in question q uestion was purchased and used in December  1933 in Double or Die by Bond with money he had received for helping someone win a lot of money at a roulette table. Previously Bond had inherited a Bamford & Martin Sidevalve Short Chassis Tourer around Easter 1933 from his Uncle Max. Modern film biography 

The 2006 film Casino Royale is a reboot of the film series that depicts Bond's first mission as Agent 007. The film's official website[15] gives a biography of the Bond that  parallels the backstory of Fleming's literary character, but it is updated to reflect Bond's

new birth date of April 13, 1968; April 13 being the day in which Casino Royale was  published in 1953 and 1968 being the year in which Daniel Craig was born. This version of the character was born in West Berlin, Germany. Germany. His parents, Andrew Bond and an d Monique Delacroix Bond, died in a climbing accident, so he was brought up in Kent Kent,, UK ,  by his aunt Charmain. Like the original character, Bond is kicked out of Eton College and attends his father's alma mater, Fettes College. College. Bond attends the University of Geneva while at Fettes through an exchange program. After After Fettes, Bond joins the Royal Navy and attends Britannia Royal Naval College at the age of 17. The modern biography clarifies Bond's military service by stating he joins the Special Boat Service while in the Regular Royal Regular Royal Navy, Navy, where he obtains the rank of Commander, and then is placed in the 030 Special Forces Unit (a reference to Fleming's 30th Assault Unit during World World War War II, a unit he nicknamed his 'Red Indians'; see Casino Royale). Bond serves covertly in Iraq Iraq,, Somalia Somalia,, Iran Iran,, Libya and actively in Bosnia Bosnia.. He is then recruited by the RNR Defence Intelligence Group. Bond attends specialized courses at Cambridge and Oxford universities during this period, earning a degree in Oriental Languages from Cambridge. Bond is noted to be fluent in English, French, German, Russian, and Italian, and writing passable Greek, Spanish Spanish,, Chinese Chinese,, and Japanese at the time he joins MI6 MI6.. In training, he receives exceptionally high marks for physical endurance, logic, and Psychological Ops exercises. He serves in the Royal Navy from age 17 to 31, joining MI6 at age 30, and is promoted to 00 Agent at age 38 in 2006.  Alternative biographies and theories The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen

A wholly non-canonical conjecture about the Bond lineage can be found in Alan Moore's comic book series, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, set in Victorian Britain. Britain. In it the portly, portly, sinister, and secretive MI5 agent placed in charge of the League is named Campion Bond. Bond. His superior, the overall director of the top-secret team, is code-named M, an obvious reference to the James Bond series. Although Moore makes no overt connection between Bond and Campion (due to copyright issues), the code Double-O Seven being engraved in morse code on Campion's walking stick and keys,[16] has led fans to propose that Campion is meant to be an ancestor of the modern secret agent. Another   Family's got a reputation. A bad 'un." In the character in the comic notes that the Bond " Family's recent The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier , a young MI5 spy named "Jimmy" appears, possessing Campion's 007 cigarette case and clearly meant to be Bond, with another character comparing him to his grandfather (Campion). Jimmy is presented as an incompetent psychotic rapist whose daring exploits against Dr. No are no more than a cover story for him to commit double dou ble agent work against the United Kingdom on behalf  of the United States. The Black Dossier also hints that Campion and Jimmy are both descendants of Sir Basildon Bond, an underling of Sir of Sir Jack Wilton, Wilton, the original M, who in 1558 established Prospero's Men (the original League) for Queen Gloriana I. I. Prospero Prospero,,

the head of the organization, was the original 007. Further evidence is the presence of  Auric Goldfinger , who is mentioned in The New Traveller's Almanac. Wold Newton

In his fictional biographies, author Philip author Philip José Farmer suggests Farmer suggests that Bond belongs in the Wold Newton family tree along with Tarzan Tarzan,, Doc Savage, Savage, and many other fictional [17] heroes. Followers of Farmer's speculations have greatly elaborated on Bond's family. family. Code name

One proposal long debated by fans of the film series is the notion that "James Bond" is merely a code name used by a long line of British secret agents. While it does explain Bond's longevity and frequent changes of appearance, this idea has always been highly controversial.  Die Another Day director Lee director Lee Tamahori believed that the name "James Bond" is a code

name (like 007) which is given to the best and most accomplished secret agents. The theory is meant to explain the changes in actors (e.g., Roger Moore vs. Timothy Dalton) Dalton) and Bond's apparent agelessness. The idea was created so that Tamahori could get Connery to make a cameo appearance in the film, and thus explain how it was possible that Connery and Brosnan as Bond could both be on film at the same time.[18]

Tamahori explained the theory: "My idea was basically that there have been several Bonds. It's just a prefix a prefix and a code name. name. Even James Bond is not the guy's name. That's the way I've always been able to view these things from when Connery left and Lazenby and Moore took over, right up to Brosnan. How could this guy be so young still? Of  course to me, it is just a prefix p refix and a code name. That means that Connery either died or  retired, Moore died or retired and so on. Following that, that allows you to have possibly two James Bonds in a movie. What happened to the others? Were they retired from active service or were they killed? That's where I came from." The theory, as well as the intent to have Connery cameo in Die Another Day, was rejected  by producers Barbara Broccoli and Michael G. Wilson (although a televised news report during production reported erroneously that Connery had filmed a cameo as Bond's father). One and probably the only o nly evidence to support this theory is Lazenby's final line in the pre-title sequence of On Her Majesty's Secret Service where the Bond girl runs away after Bond is ambushed on a beach: "This never happened to the other fella." The theory is denounced by most fans due to continuity in subsequent films when Bond's wife, Tracy (from On Her Majesty's Secret Service) is mentioned — most notably in The Spy Who Loved Me, where Moore's Bond reacts emotionally when the death of his wife is  For Your Your Eyes Only Bond is seen attending Tracy's grave, and mentioned. In the later  For Felix Leiter refers Leiter refers to Bond's marriage in Licence to Kill . Also in The World Is Not   Enough, when Electra inquires Bond whether he ever lost a loved one, Bond does not give an answer and changes the subject immediately. In addition to this, once in a while, Bond is seen with gadgets and weapons, such as Honey Rider 's knife, from previous

films that he obviously kept as souvenirs. In the game Everything or Nothing , Brosnan and Moore's Bond at least are intended to be the same individual, as the Brosnan's Bond recalls encountering Jaws and Max Zorin. Zorin. A scene was apparently originally planned in On Her Majesty's Secret Service that would feature Bond having plastic having plastic surgery as a means of explaining his new appearance, but the scene never made it into production. The idea that the James Bond name — in addition to the 007 number — has been given to subsequent agents was also featured in the Casino  Royale satire, where the original James Bond is a retired, legendary British spy who won a VC at the Siege of Mafeking and who berates M for having given his number and name to a brash young agent whose description appears to match Sean Connery's Bond. Later  in the film, six further MI6 agents are assigned the name "James Bond 007", including Vesper Lynd and baccarat master Evelyn master Evelyn Tremble. Tremble. The theory is by the status of some actors ac tors in their final appearance as a particular p articular.. In  License to Kill ) he resigns in order to pursue a personal Timothy Dalton's last film ( License agenda, and in Pierce Brosnan's final film ( Die Another Day) he is abandoned by b y SIS only to be secretly approached by b y M offering reinstatement. One could also argue that these films refute the theory because in those films, Bond lost 007 status but was still James Bond.  Actors

All the actors who portrayed James Bond in order, from top left to bottom right: Sean Connery,, George Lazenby, Connery Lazenby, Roger Moore. Moore. Timothy Dalton, Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig. Craig.

The first actor to portray James Bond in the EON series was Sean Connery in Dr. No, released in 1962. Connery Conner y played the role in four further films before resigning. Australian actor George actor George Lazenby was cast in On Her Majesty's Secret Service in 1969. However, Lazenby resigned, and Connery returned for the next film, Diamonds Are  Forever , in 1971, and later in Never Say Never Again in 1983. Connery had the longest run, appearing in seven films over a 21-year period. 1973's Live and Let Die featured Roger Moore' Moore's debut as Bond. Moore also appeared in seven films. After Roger Moore's retirement, the role subsequently went to Timothy Dalton, Dalton, who was contracted in 1986 for three films (with an option for a fourth) as James Bond. Dalton starred in The Living Daylights (1987) and Licence to Kill (1989), with the third film  planned for 1991. However, Howeve r, legal ownership problems of the James Bond franchise delayed release until 1995, by b y which time Dalton had resigned. Persistent rumours state that Dalton's third film was going to be The Property of a Lady, but the story, treatment, and draft screenplays were called GoldenEye.[19] In 1994, Irish actor Pierce actor Pierce Brosnan was hired as James Bond. Brosnan's debut, GoldenEye (1995), was the franchise's highest grossing film at that date, and he starred in three more films. Brosnan is the only actor who did not star in a James Bond film titled after an Ian Fleming novel and is the second actor not to have been from the United Kingdom, also the only actor who did not resign from the role. The latest actor to play the role is Daniel Craig, Craig, hired in 2005. Craig's debut in Casino [20]  Royale was successful both critically and commercially. commercially. Craig's performance was also the first in the series to earn a BAFTA nomination for Best Actor. Actor.[21] The 22nd Bond film, Quantum of Solace, was released in 2008 and the 23rd is scheduled for 2010.[22] Before Sean Connery was cast as James Bond, Harry Saltzman favoured Roger Moore for the role, while Cubby Broccoli preferred Broccoli preferred Cary Grant (but the producer ultimately decided against Grant because he knew that if he succeeded in signing him, it would be a [23][24] [24] one-year deal and the next film would necessitate a search for another Bond). Bond).[23] Before George Lazenby was cast in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, Timothy Dalton was offered the part, but turned it down as a s he then felt himself to be too young for it. Pierce Brosnan was initially approached after Roger Moore relinquished the role, when Timothy Dalton was unavailable, but his contract co ntract with the TV show Remington Steele made him [25] unavailable. In the course of the official series, American actors have been engaged en gaged to play James Bond on two occasions — and have been approached at other times as well. John Gavin was contracted in 1970 to replace George Lazenby, but Connery was well-paid to reappear in Diamonds Are Forever .[26] James Brolin was contracted in 1983, to replace Roger Moore, and prepared to shoot Octopussy when the producers paid Moore to return. To date, the only American to play James Bond is Barry Nelson, Nelson, in the 1954 American television adaptation of Casino Royale, though Brolin's three screen tests were publicly released for the first time as a special feature named  James Brolin: The Man Who Would  Would  [27]  Be Bond in the Octopussy: Ultimate Edition DVD.

The History of James Bond Home Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond, leaves a legacy as one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. Fleming's contribution to popular literature and post-war  Western culture cannot be overstated. The legend begun way back in 1952 where Fleming begun writing the story Casino Royale in his Jamaican estate called Goldeneye. Fleming used to work as a journalist as well as a naval intelligence officer before he took up writing. Fleming, who was born in May 28th, 1908, singlehandedly transformed popular detective and spy fiction from the dark, through the eye of James Bond, secret agent 007. At first Fleming's books were not a huge success and it wasn't until almost a decade after his first novel Casino Royale, Albert Broccoli and Harry Saltzman turned Dr. Dr.  No (6th Bond novel) into a movie. Fleming often visited the sets while the films were being made and approved of Sean Connery's performance. His work before writing influenced him greatly with his work writing the James Bond novels. James Bond was influenced by himself,  but the name came from the author of the book 'The Ultimate Guide Book To Birds In The West West Indies' - by by James Bond. Fleming argued that he created Bond as "an interesting man to whom extraordinary things happen." Fleming appropriated the name "James Bond" because he felt the name suitably "dull" and "anonymous." In contrast to Fleming's desire, Bond's skill at high-stakes gambling (Casino Royale), his easy of knowledge of the best wines, champagnes, automobiles, and cigarettes made 007 an icon of class. From Dom Perignon to Mooreland's cigarettes, from Bentleys to Aston Martins, James Bond defines a certain elegant taste. Fleming's easy use of detail and brand-names to define his characters helped blaze a new style in popular literature where the real world and the fictional world collided. Fleming's villains provide the author with great opportunity to explore larger themes. Through the grand schemes of Goldfinger, Dr. No, and Ernst Stavro Blofeld, Fleming wages a literary battles with the deadly sins.

Ian Fleming -----------------------------The Man Who Created James Bond

Ian Fleming died suddenly of a heart attack on August 12, 1964 at 56 years old during the shooting of  Goldfinger. He would never get to see how much of an impact 007 would make on entertainment and society over the next 40 years.

User Rating: 7.0/10 60,140 votes MOVIEmeter: Down 12% in popularity this week. See why on IMDbPro IMDbPro.. Director: Marc Forster  Writers (WGA) (WGA):: Paul Haggis (written by) and Neal Purvis (written by) ... more Contact: View company contact information for Quantum of Solace on IMDbPro IMDbPro.. Release Date: 7 November 2008 (India) more Genre: Action | Adventure | Thriller  Thriller more more Plot: Seeking revenge for the death of his love, secret agent James Bond sets out to stop an environmentalist from taking control of a country's valuable resource. | full synopsis Plot Keywords: James Ja mes Bon Bond d | Secret Agent | Ca Carr Fa Fallllin ing g Off  Cliff  Cliff || Aqueduct | Expl Explodin oding g Buil Buildin ding g Awards: Nominated for 2 BAFTA Film Awards. Another 2 wins & 10 nominations more

Quantum of Solace From Wikipedia, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi enc yclopediaa

Jump to: navigation navigation,, search  For other uses, see Quantum of Solace (disambiguation). (disambiguation). Quantum of Solace

British theatrical poster  James Bond

Daniel Craig

Also starring

Olga Kurylenko Mathieu Amalric Gemma Arterton Judi Dench Jeffrey Wright Giancarlo Giannini

Directed by

Marc Forster 

Produced by

Michael G. Wilson Barbara Broccoli

Novel/Story by

Ian Fleming (Characters) Michael G. Wilson (Plot)

Screenplay by

Joshua Zetumer (uncredited) Zetumer (uncredited) Paul Haggis  Neal Purvis Robert Wade

Cinematography Music by Main theme

Roberto Schaefer  David Arnold "Another Way to Die" Die"


Jack White


Alicia Keys Jack White

Editing by

Matt Chesse Rick Pearson

Distributed by

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Columbia Pictures

Release date(s)

31 October 2008 (UK  (UK , EI EI)) 14 November 2008 ( NA)  NA) 19 November 2008 (AUS (AUS))

Running time

106 minutes


US$230 US$ 230 million [1]

Preceded by

Casino Royale

Followed by

 Bond 23 IMDb • Allmovie

Quantum of Solace is the 22nd James Bond film by EON Productions, Productions, released in the

United Kingdom on 31 October and in North America on 14 November 2008. The direct sequel to the 2006 film Casino Royale, it was directed by Marc Forster and Forster and features Daniel Craig' Craig's second performance as James Bond. Bond. In the film, Bond battles Dominic Greene (Mathieu Amalric), Amalric), a member of the Quantum organisation posing as an environmentalist who intends to stage a coup d'état in Bolivia to take control of its water  supply. supply. Bond seeks revenge for the death of his lover, love r,Vesper Vesper Lynd, Lynd, and is assisted by Camille Montes (Olga Kurylenko), Kurylenko), who is also seeking revenge. Producer Michael Producer Michael G. Wilson developed the film's plot while Casino Royale was shooting.  Neal Purvis, Purvis, Robert Wade, Wade, Paul Haggis, Haggis, and Joshua Zetumer contributed Zetumer contributed to the script. The title was chosen from a 1960 short story in Ian Fleming' Fleming's For Your Eyes Only, though the film does not contain con tain any elements of the original story. Location filming took   place in Panama Panama,, Chile Chile,, Italy Italy,, and Austria while interior sets were built and filmed at Pinewood Studios. Studios. Forster aimed to make a modern film that also featured classic cinema motifs: a vintage aeroplane was used for a dogfight sequence, and Dennis Gassner 's 's set designs are reminiscent of Ken of Ken Adam' Adam's work on several early Bond films. Taking a course away from the usual Bond villains, villains, Forster rejected any grotesque appearance for the character Dominic Greene to emphasise the hidden and secret nature of the film's contemporary villains. The film premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 29 October 2008, gathering mixed reviews which mainly praised Craig's gritty performance and the film's action sequences sequence s while feeling that Quantum of Solace was not as impressive as the predecessor Casino  Royale. It was, however, the second most commercially successful Bond film, earning GB£50 GB£ 50 million in product in product placement, placement, and grossing US$ US$552,054,688 552,054,688 at the box the box office as of 21 January 2009.


The film continues immediately after the events of Casino Royale with Bond driving from Lake Garda to Siena Siena,, Italy Italy.. With the captured Mr. White in the luggage compartment of his car, Bond is attacked by chasing henchmen. After evading his  pursuers, Bond and M interrogate White regarding his organisation, Quantum Quantum.. M's  bodyguard, Mitchell, is revealed as a traitor, traitor, attacking M and allowing White to escape; Bond chases Mitchell across Siena and kills him. Following a forensic investigation into Mitchell's apartment, Bond heads to Haiti to track down and kill Mitchell's contact. Bond learns that henchman Slate was sent to kill Camille Montes at the behest of her lover, Dominic Greene, Greene, the chairman of an ecological organization called Greene Planet. While observing her meeting with Greene, Bond learns that Greene is helping the Bolivian general Medrano – who murdered Camille's family – overthrow his government in exchange for a seemingly barren piece of desert of desert.. Greene has Camille escorted away on Medrano's boat to "sweeten" their deal, but Bond rescues her. Bond then follows Greene to a private jet, which flies him to a performance of Tosca at Lake Constance, Constance, Austria Austria.. Bond infiltrates Quantum's meeting at the opera, and a gunfight ensues in a restaurant. A bodyguard of Guy Haines, an advisor to the British Prime Minister , is accidentally killed, and M has ha s Bond's passports and credit cards revoked. Bond travels to Italy to reunite with his old ally René Mathis, Mathis, whom he convinces to accompany him to La Paz. Paz. They are greeted by Strawberry Fields, an MI6 field operative from the British Consulate, Consulate, who demands that Bond return to the UK on the next available flight. Bond disobeys and seduces her in their hotel suite. Bond meets Camille again at a fund-raiser being held by Greene, and they leave hastily together, but are pulled over by the Bolivian police. The police order Bond to open the luggage compartment of his vehicle, revealing a bloodied Mathis. As Bond lifts Mathis out of the vehicle, the policemen open fire and fatally wound Mathis. After Bond subdues the police and deposits depo sits Mathis' body in a waste container, Bond and Camille drive to Greene's intended land acquisition and survey the area in a Douglas DC-3 plane. They are intercepted and shot down by an Aermacchi SF.260 fighter and a Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopter . They escape from the crippled plane by parachuting by parachuting;; landing in a sinkhole sinkhole.. While escaping the cave, Bond and Camille discover Quantum is blockading Bolivia's supply of fresh water, normally flowing in subterranean rivers, rivers, by damming it. The duo return to La Paz, where Bond meets M and learns Quantum murdered Fields by drowning her in crude oil. Believing that Bond has become a threat to both friend and foe, M orders him to disarm and end his activities in Bolivia, but he defies her and escapes. Bond meets CIA agent Felix Leiter at Leiter at a local bar, who discloses Greene and Medrano will meet at an eco-hotel in the Bolivian desert. After the meeting, Bond attacks and kills the departing Colonel of Police for betraying be traying Mathis, and sets off a chain of explosions in the hotel when a hydrogen fuel tank is hit by an out of control vehicle. Camille kills Medrano, and Bond captures Greene. After interrogating him, he leaves Greene stranded in the middle of the desert with only a can of motor of motor oil. oil. Bond drives Camille to a train station, where they kiss before she departs.

Bond goes to Kazan Kazan,, Russia Russia,, where he confronts Vesper Lynd' Lynd's former lover, Yusef  Kabira. Yusef Yusef is a member of Quantum who seduces high-ranking women with valuable connections, getting them to give up government assets as ransom for himself in fake kidnappings where he is supposedly held hostage. He is attempting to do the same with Canadian agent Corinne Veneau, Veneau, even giving her h er the same kind of necklace he gave Vesper. Surprising them at Yusef's apartment, Bond tells Corinne about Vesper and advises her to alert the Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Service. As Bond is leaving Yusef's Yusef's apartment he is confronted by M, who is surprised that Bond did not kill Yusef, Yusef, but rather  left him alive for questioning. M reveals that Leiter Le iter has been promoted at the CIA to to replace Beam, and that Greene was found in the desert, shot dead and with motor oil in his stomach. Bond doesn't volunteer any a ny information on Greene, but tells M that she was right about Vesper Vesper.. M then tells Bond that MI6 needs him and fully reinstates him as an agent. Bond walks off into the night telling M that he never left. As he leaves, he drops Vesper's necklace in the snow.

Body language for communication using body using body movements or gestures or gestures instead Body language is a term for communication

of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal language or other communication. co mmunication. It forms part of the category of  paralanguage,  paralanguage, which describes all forms of human communication that are not verbal language language.. This includes the most subtle of movements that many people are not aware of, including winking and slight movement of the eyebrows eyebrows.. In addition body language can also incorporate the use of facial of facial expressions. expressions. Understanding body language Although they are generally not aware of it, many people send and receive non-verbal signals all the time. The technique of 'reading' people is used frequently. For example, the idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is commonly c ommonly used in interviews. It sets the person being interviewed at ease. Mirroring the body language of someone else indicates that they are understood. Body language signals may have a goal other than communication. Both people would keep this in mind. Observers limit the weight they the y place on non-verbal cues. Signalers clarify their signals to indicate the biological origin of their actions. •

One of the most basic and powerful body-language signals is when a person crosses his or her arms across the chest . This can indicate that a person is  putting up an unconscious barrier ba rrier between themselves and others. It can also indicate that the person's arms are cold which would be clarified by rubbing the arms or huddling. When the overall situation is amicable, it can mean that a  person is thinking deeply about what is being be ing discussed. But in a serious or  confrontational situation, it can mean that a person is expressing opposition. This is especially so if the person is leaning away awa y from the speaker. A harsh or blank  facial expression often indicates outright hostility ho stility..

Consistent eye contact can indicate that a person is thinking positively of what the speaker is saying. It can also mean that the other person doesn't trust the speaker  enough to "take his eyes e yes off" the speaker. speaker. Lack of eye contact con tact can indicate negativity. negativity. On the other hand, individuals with anxiety disorders are often unable to make eye contact without discomfort. Eye contact co ntact is often a secondary and misleading gesture because we are taught from an early age to make eye contact when speaking. If a person is looking at you but is making the arms-across-chest signal, the eye contact could be indicative that something is bothering the person, and that he wants to talk about it. Or if while making direct eye e ye contact a person is fiddling with something, even while directly looking at you, it could indicate the attention is elsewhere. Also there are three standard areas that a person will look  which represent different states of being. If the person looks for one eye to the other then to the forehead it is a sign that they are taking an authoritative position. If they move from one eye to the other to the nose that signals that they are engaging in what they consider to be a "level conversation" with neither party holding superiority. The last case is from one eye to the other and then down to the lips this is a strong indication of romantic feelings. Disbelief is often indicated by averted gaze, or by touching the ear  ear or  or scratching scratching the chin chin.. When a person is not being convinced by what someone is saying, the attention invariably wanders, and the eyes will stare away for an extended  period.[1] Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side, or by the eyes looking straight at the speaker but becoming slightly unfocused. A head tilt may also indicate a sore neck, and unfocused eyes may indicate ocular problems in the listener. Interest can be indicated through posture or extended eye contact. Deceit or the act of withholding information can sometimes be indicated by touching the face during conversation. co nversation. Excessive blinking is a well-known indicator of someone who is lying.

It should be noted that some people (e.g., people with certain disabilities, or those on the autistic spectrum) spectrum) use and understand body language differently, or not at all. Interpreting their gestures and facial expressions (or lack thereof) in the context of normal of normal body language usually leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations (especially if body language is given priority over spoken language). It should also be stated that people from different cultures can interpret body language in different ways.  [ edit  edit   ] How prevalent is non-verbal communication in humans? 

Some researchers put the level of nonverbal communication as high as 80 percent of all communication. More reasonably it could be at around 50-65 percent. That’s exactly what Mehrabian discovered in his communication study. He found that only 7 percent of 

communication comes from spoken words, 38 percent is from the tone of the voice, and 55 percent comes from body bod y language. However, Mehrabian was only referring to cases of expressing feelings or attitudes, such as when a person says "I do not have hav e a problem with you!" when people commonly focus on the tone of voice, and body language of the  person, rather than the actual words said. It is a common misconception that these  percentages apply to all communication.[2]  [ edit  edit   ] Body language in groups

In groups there is typically one person speaking at a time but many more can be showing their responses via body language [3]. This may be an important reason behind groups tending to be more emotional and less rational than individuals.  [ edit  edit   ] Personal Space

This section may contain original research or unverified claims . Please improve the article by adding references references.. See the talk page for details. (JAN 2009) Generally, Generally, if you are closer than arm’s reach, then you are in someone’s someone’s personal space. space. To create more space in crowded areas such as elevators and bars, people often tense up and use their arms as protection. They will hold them close to their body – often crossed c rossed  – and will also avoid eye contact. People guard their intimate space passionately p assionately,, wherever it is, and do not appreciate others invading it. Respecting people’s intimate space involves not invading it with objects like bags or jackets, or with body parts, unless they are welcomed. Intimate space is closer than 50 centimetres (18 inches), social is at around 50 centimetres (18 inches) - 1.5 metres (5 feet) and casual (for strangers) is at 1.5 - 3 metres (5-10 feet). These distances differ from culture to culture; in China for  example, they are smaller. smaller.  [ edit  edit   ] Female Interest and Body Language

This section may contain original research or unverified claims . Please improve the article by adding references references.. See the talk page for details. (Jan 2009) Women commonly display interest in men via sexual cues. These serve to entice men to approach them. Some of the cues to signal female interest include: the parade, echoing and mirroring, room encompassing glance, pointing, leg crossing, the pointing knee, neck  touching, head tilt, shoulder shrugs, rotation of the pelvis, showing wrists, skirt hike, laughing and smiling, the tap, forehead bow, eye contact, touching, childlike playfulness and proximity to name n ame many.  [ edit  edit   ] The Rule of Four 

This section may contain original research or unverified claims . Please improve the article by adding references references.. See the talk page for details. (Jan 2009)

The rule of four states that in order o rder to be sure that another person is unequivocally displaying non-verbal sexual interest, four connection positive symbols must be present and they must have h ave imminent direction. A person who is simply sexually aroused might display one or a great variety of cues, but they might be generally directed toward a room and not at anyone specifically

Using Body Language Techniques > Using Body Language Message clusters | Core patterns | Parts-of-body language | Other notes | See also

Body language is an important part of communication which can constitute 50% or  more of what we are communicating. If you wish to communicate well, then it makes sense to understand how you can (and cannot) use your body to say sa y what you mean.

Message clusters

Body language comes in clusters of signals and postures, depending on the internal emotions and mental states. Recognizing a whole cluster is thus thus far more reliable than than trying to interpret individual elements. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aggressive body language: language: Showing physical threat. Attentive body language: language: Showing real interest. Bored body language: language: Just not being interested. Closed body language: language: Many reasons are closed. Deceptive body language: language: Seeking to cover up lying or other deception. Defensive body language: language: Protecting self from attack. Dominant body language: language: Dominating others. Emotional body language: language: Identifying feelings. Evaluating body language: language: Judging and deciding about something. Greeting body language: language: Meeting rituals. Open body language: language: Many reasons for being open. Power body language: language: Demonstrating one's power. Ready body language: language: Wanting to act and waiting for the trigger. Relaxed body language: language: Comfortable and unstressed. Romantic body language: language: Showing attraction to others. Submissive body language: language: Showing you are prepared to give in.

Core patterns

A number of core of core patterns can be identified that include clusters of body movements: •

Crossing, Expanding Crossing, Expanding,, Moving away, away, Moving forward, forward, Opening Opening,, Preening Preening,, Repeating,, Shaping Repeating Shaping,, Striking and Touching

Parts-of-the-body language

You can send signals with individual parts individual parts of the body as well as in concert. Here's details of the contributions of each part each part of the body. body. •

• • •

Head: Face Head: Face,, Cheek Cheek,, Chin Chin,, Mouth Mouth,, Lips Lips,, Teeth Teeth,, Tongue Tongue,, Nose Nose,, Eyes Eyes,, Eyebrow Eyebrow,, Forehead,, Hair Forehead Arm:: Elbow Arm Elbow,, Hand Hand,, Finger Torso: Neck Neck,, Shoulder Shoulder,, Chest Chest,, Back Back,, Belly Belly,, Bottom Bottom,, Hips

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