MA English Notes The Rape of Lock

July 13, 2017 | Author: Iftikhar Hussain Rizvi | Category: Alexander Pope, Satire, Poetry
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MA English Notes The Rape of Lock...


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The Rape of the Lock By

Alexander Pope (1688-1744) Alexander Pope was born in London in 1688. His father Edith Pope was a Roman Catholic linen-merchant, who was forty-four when Alexander, her only child, was born. Edith Pope belonged to a large Yorkshire family, which divided along Catholic and Protestant lines. Pope spent his early childhood at Binfield on the edge of Windsor Forest, and recalled this period as a golden age. Joseph Spence, a critic, minor poet, and Pope's biographer, tells that Pope was "a child of a particularly sweet tempers and had a great deal of sweetness in his look when he was a boy". Due to his melodious voice, he was nicknamed "the Little Nightingale". Pope's father, the son of an Anglican priest, had converted to Catholicism, which caused the family many problems. At the time Catholics suffered from repressive legislation and prejudices − they were not allowed to enter any universities or held public employment. Thus Pope had an uneven education, which was often interrupted. From Twyford School he was expelled after writing a satire on one of the teachers. At home, Pope's aunt taught him to read. He learnt Latin and Greek from a local priest and later he acquired knowledge of French and Italian poetry. Pope also attended clandestine Catholic schools. Most of his time Pope spend reading books from his father's library − he "did nothing but write and read”. While still at school, Pope wrote a play based on speeches from the Iliad. Samuel Johnson tells that Pope's early epic poem, called Alcander, was burned at the suggestion of Francis Atterbury. In 1700, when his family moved to Binfield in Windsor Forest, Pope contracted tuberculosis through infected milk. It was probably Pott's disease, a tubercular affection of the bones. He also suffered from asthma and headaches, and his humpback was a constant target for his critics in literary battles − Pope was called a "hunchbacked toad". In middle age he was 4ft 6in tall and wore a stiffened canvas bodice (‫ )سینہ بند‬to support his spine. After moving to London, Pope published his first major work, An Essay on Criticism. This discussion was based on neoclassical doctrines and derived standards of taste from the order of nature: "Good nature and good sense must ever join; / To err is human, to forgive divine." Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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Before becoming one of the members of Scriblerus Club, Pope associated with antiCatholic Whig friends, but by 1713 he had moved towards the Tories. His friends among Tory intellectuals included Jonathan Switft, Gay, Congreve, and Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford. In 1712 Pope published an early version of THE RAPE OF THE LOCK, an elegant satire about the battle between the sexes, and follies of a young woman with her "puffs, powders, patches, Bibles, billet-doux". The work was expanded in 1714. Its first version consisted of two cantos (1712) and the final version five cantos (1714). Rape of the Lock originated from a quarrel between two families with whom Pope was acquainted. The cause was not very small − the 7th Lord Petre cut off a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair, and kept it as a trophy. Although Pope did not admit it, the title of the work was most likely influenced by Alessandro Tassoni's mockepic The Rape of the Bucket, from 1622. Pope admired Horace and Vergilius and valued them as models for poetry. His great achievements were the translations of Iliad and Odyssey into English. The success of the translations enabled him to move to Twickenham from anti-Catholic pressure of the Jacobites. However, Pope remained a Catholic even after the death of his father (d. 1717) and mother (d. 1733). Pope's collected works were published in 1717. He was one of the first professional poets to be self-sufficient as a result of his non-dramatic writings. In Twickenham Pope to studied horticulture and landscape gardening. During his last years, Pope designed a romantic "grot" (‫ )چھوٹا سا غار‬in a tunnel, which linked the waterfront with his back garden. It was walled with shells and pieces of mirror. Pope's villa, about fifteen miles from London, attracted also a number of writers, including Swift, whom Pope helped with the publication of Gulliver's Travels. With his neighbor, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Pope formed an attachment, but when the friendship cooled down, he started a lifelong relationship with Martha Blount. Pope had met Martha and her sister Teresa already in 1711. Later in IMITATIONS OF HORACE (1733) Pope referred to his former friend Lady Mary as "Sappho" and wrote: "Give me again my hollow tree, / A crust of bread, and liberty." In ESSAY ON MAN (1733-34) Pope examined the human condition against Miltonic, cosmic background. Although Pope's perspective is well above our everyday life, and he do not hide his wide knowledge, the dramatic work suggest than humankind is a part of nature and the diversity of living forms: "Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: / Is Heaven unkind to Man, and Man alone?" In MORAL ESSAYS (1731) Pope separated behavior from character: "Not always actions show the man: we find / Who does a kindness is not therefore kind." Pope prepared an edition of his correspondence, altered to his own advantage. With the translation of the Odyssey, Pope was eager to take all the credit, trying to avoid mentioning the contribution of other writers. In his time Pope was famous for his witty satires and aggressive, bitter quarrels with other writers. When his edition of William Shakespeare was attacked, he answered with the savage burlesque THE DUNCIAD (1728), which was widened in 1742. It ridiculed bad writers, scientists, and critics. "While pensive poets painful vigils keep, / Sleepless themselves to give their readers sleep." Pope died on May 30, 1744. Pope left his property to Martha Blount. Before his death, Pope was mad for a period of time, and he claimed to see an arm coming through the wall. His last epic poem, Brutus, was left unfinished. Modern critics consider The Rape of the Lock to be the

supreme example of mock-heroic verse in the English language. Written in heroic couplets, the Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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poem was most likely composed during the late summer of 1711 and first published in the May edition of Lintot's Miscellany in 1712. The original version of the poem contained 334 lines in two cantos. A more elaborate version appeared two years later, extending the poem to 794 lines in five cantos; a slight final revision was completed for the poem's inclusion in Pope's Works (1717). Inspired by an actual event, The Rape of the Lock recounts the circumstances surrounding the theft of a lock of a young woman's hair by an impassioned male admirer, which caused a rift (‫ )دراڑھ‬between the families involved. The poem was intended to restore harmonious relations between the estranged (‫ )کشیدہ‬families. Subtitled “a heroi-comical poem,” The Rape of the Lock treats the petty matter in full-blown epic style, which results in a great deal of humor. It uses the elevated heroic language that John Dryden, Pope's literary forebear, had perfected in his translation of Virgil and incorporates amusing parodies of passages from John Milton's Paradise Lost, Vergil's Aeneid, and Homer's Iliad, which Pope was translating at the time. Celebrated as a achievement of English originality, The Rape of the Lock established Pope as a master of metrics and a sophisticated satirist. Belinda gets up after

sleeping and get ready for day’s social activities. Her guardian sylph, Ariel, warns her in a dream that some disaster will happen with her today. He promises to protect her to the best of his abilities. However, Belinda takes little notes of this warning. After spending a lot of time on dressing and make up, she travels on the Thames River to Hampton Court Palace, an ancient royal residence outside of London. Here, a group of wealthy young people are gathering for a party. Among them is the Baron who has already made up his mind to steal a lock of Belinda’s hair. He rises early to perform a set of prayers and sacrifices to have success in his aim. When the partygoers arrive at the palace, they enjoy a tense game of cards. This is followed by a round of coffee. Then the Baron takes up a pair of scissor and cut of the lock of Belinda’s hair on third try. Belinda is furious. Umbriel a mischievous genome (‫)روح‬, journeys down to the Cave of Spleen (‫ )غم کی دیوی‬to get a sack of sighs and a flask of tears, which he then pour on the heroin to enflame her anger. Clarissa inflames the fire of rage of Belinda to take the revenge from the Baron. Belinda starts a quarrel between the ladies and gentlemen, in which she attempts to recover the curl of hair cut by the Baron. The lock is lost in the confusion of this mock battle. However, the poet consoles the grieved Belinda with the suggestion that it has been taken up into heavens and immortalized as a constellation (‫)ستاروں کا جھرمٹ‬.

Belinda - Belinda is based on the historical Arabella Fermor, a member of Pope’s circle of prominent Roman Catholics. Robert, Lord Petre (the Baron in the poem) had precipitated a rift between their two families by snipping off a lock of her hair.

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The Baron - This is the pseudonym (‫ )فرضی نام‬for the historical Robert, Lord Petre, the young gentleman in Pope’s social circle who offended Arabella Fermor and her family by cutting off a lock of her hair. In the poem’s version of events, Arabella is known as Belinda. Caryl - The historical basis for the Caryl character is John Caryll, a friend of Pope and of the two families that had become estranged over the incident the poem relates. It was Caryll who suggested that Pope encourage reconciliation by writing a humorous poem. Goddess - The muse who, according to classical convention, inspires poets to write their verses Shock - Belinda’s lapdog Ariel - Belinda’s guardian sylph, who supervises an army of invisible protective gods. Umbriel - The chief gnome, who travels to the Cave of Spleen and returns with bundles of sighs and tears to aggravate Belinda’s vexation Brillante - The sylph who is assigned to guard Belinda’s earrings Momentilla - The sylph who is assigned to guard Belinda’s watch Crispissa - The sylph who is assigned to guard Belinda’s “favourite Lock” Clarissa - A woman in attendance at the Hampton Court party. She lends the Baron the pair of scissors with which he cuts Belinda’s hair, and later delivers a moralizing lecture. Thalestris - Belinda’s friend, named for the Queen of the Amazons and representing the historical Gertrude Morley, a friend of Pope’s and the wife of Sir George Browne (rendered as her “beau,” Sir Plume, in the poem). She eggs Belinda on in her anger and demands that the lock be returned. Sir Plume - Thalestris’s “beau,” who makes an ineffectual challenge to the Baron. He represents the historical Sir George Browne, a member of Pope’s social circle.

Q No1: Discuss Pope as a satirist. Or

Pope is a conscious artist of techniques of satire. Discuss. Or

Examine Pope as a Moralist. Or

Discuss Pope a social reformer. Or

“Every satirist is an idealist at heart”. How far it is true about Pope?

Answer: In “The Rope of the Lock” Pope exposes the artificial and hollow life of 18th century men and women. He paints it with humorous and delicate satire. Satire is the major stylistic device which Pope has used to create the desired impact. This satire is not directed against any Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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individual but against the follies and vanities in general of fashionable men and women of Pope’s age. Pope started his poem with the object to reconcile two quarreling families but as the poem progressed; he forgot his original intentions and opened an attack on female follies and vanities. Belinda is not Arabella Fermore, she represents the fashionable ladies of the time and through her the follies and vanities of the whole sex are satirized. Similarly, Baron represents not Peter alone but is a representative of the whole aristocratic gentlemen of that age. In “The Rape of the Lock” Pope satirizes (‫ )طنزکرنا‬at the vanities (‫گھمنڈ‬،‫)غرور‬, follies, frivolities, shallowness (‫)کھوکھل پن‬, hypocrisy (‫)منافقت‬, self-embellishment (‫)خود کو سجانا‬, idleness and false ideas of honour of eighteen century. He uses satire along with its several shades to achieve the desired aim. It is meant to amuse and instruct at the same time. In the result, Pope’s satire is least destructive. He is a satirist with a definite moral purpose. The very opening lines, “What dire offences from amorous causes springs? What mighty contests rise from trivial things’? Pope ironically shows the prevailing moral bankruptcy (‫ )اخلقی دیوالیہ پن‬and artificiality. Belinda’s long and laborious preparations in toilet show her pride and vanity. Pope brings out forcefully the obdurate (‫ )سخت‬female pride as well as vanity of his age through his portrait of Belinda and her conduct. The ceremony of her embellishment is described like a religious ritual. The details of the objects are given in a comic way. The comparison of Belinda with a goddess underlines the hollowness of the age. Puffs, powders and love letters all these weapons are placed side by side with Bible to produce anticlimax effect. The intention there is to satire on the vanities and false moral standards of eighteen century women. Pope is both a satirist and a moralist. Petty affairs were given greater importance than the solemn and moral ones. This shows the reversal of values and standards. The death of lap dog or breaking of a fragile (‫ )نازک‬china jar is as serious a matter as the death of a husband. The ethics of eighteen century English were obviously in a sad and rotten state, which was severely satirized by Pope in “The Rape of the Lock”. The leading negative trends and attitudes of 18th century men and women are the subject matter of Pope’s “The Rape of the Lock”. These trends are exposed in a satirical way. It is commonly known that real purpose of satire is the amendment of vices by correction. Accordingly, Pope’s satire is a nice criticism of life and exposure of human weakness, follies, absurdities (‫ )فضولیات‬and shortcomings. He uses humour, wit, anticlimax, anti-thesis (‫)الٹ‬, metamorphosis (‫)صورت یا ہییت بدلنا‬, hyperbole (‫)حد سے زیادہ تعریف‬, sarcasm (‫)طنز‬, lampoon (‫)مذمت‬, mockery (‫)مذاق اڑانا‬, ridicule, innuendo (‫کنایہ‬،‫ )اشارہ‬and irony with great skill to achieve his goal, Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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i.e. his moral end. The distinguishing aspect of Pope’s satire is that it operates at three levels, exposure, laughter and instruction. By the use of different other expressions Pope has achieved his moral purpose. His mock epic is a nice piece of social criticism. His satire is evident in the portrait of Belinda’s character. She is called as the “fairest of mortals” “goddess” and “the rival of beam of the sun”. The only intention is to mock at the lady. Another example of Pope’s satire can be seen in the description of the “cave of spleen”. The goddess of spleen is a representative figure of 18th century women. In short, it becomes clear without any doubt that “The Rape of the Lock” is a bitter and realistic satire on 18th century aristocratic circle. Pope’s purpose was not confined to mere condemnation and entertainment. He was a true humanist who always aimed at moral reformation. His noble cause is to establish the superiority of sane values. It is true that he has exposed the moral degeneration in a bitter manner but his satire is least destructive. He is a great artist and moralist who have wanted to reform the society for better.

Q No. 2: “The Rape of the Lock” is a mock-heroic poem. Discuss.

Answer: Heroic or epic poems are poems like Odyssey, the Aeneid and Paradise Lost, that deals with man’s exalted aspects. Their action is powerful, their parsonages (‫اشخاص‬،‫ )کردار‬are dignified and their style is elevated. Following the traditions and devices of a serious epic, mock epic deals with situations and personage in a serious manner and style, but these situations and personage are trivial and petty. In the result, it produces humorous effect. “The Rape of the Lock” is a mock-heroic epic poem, both in its matter and spirit. The intention is to reject the artificiality and hollowness of the Pop’s age. Pope had intelligently used the formula and elevated style of epic poetry but has employed it to something very trivial. The petty and ridiculous cutting of a lock of hair, has been given an epic treatment. In the result, the little is made great and great little. Ultimately, the poem falls in the category of mock-epics. However, it is important to note that “The Rape of the Lock” is a very complex mock epic. It is not limited only to comparison and parody; rather it has instructive purpose too. Mockheroic effect is achieved at three levels; action, convention (‫ )روایات‬and style. At the surface level of the action, the mock-heroic effect is produced by contrasting Belinda’s spending of day in trivial activities with heroic adventures and great achievements of heroes and heroines of serious epic. Mockery is also produced by comparing petty war of sexes--- of Belinda and Lord Peter--- with the bloody wars of nations. The desired aim is achieved when the reader find the war of sexes as that of nations. Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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Similarly at the social level, the poem gives the picture of moral condition of people of Pope’s age. The world of coaches, snuff boxes, lap dogs, and lustful eyes is like the elevated world of Homer, Vergil and Milton. The mock-heroic effect is produced by placing side by side gigantic with very small and the heroic with non-heroic. Therefore, “The Rape of the Lock” is more than a mere parody of serious epic. It is also evident from the fact that actually this poem was written to reconcile the two families. It aims at moral reformation. This places “The Rape of the Lock” in the line of “Odyssey”, “Aenied” and “The Fairy Queen”. “The Rape of the Lock” revolves around a very serious theme like Milton’s “Paradise Lost”. But its theme is not only funny but trivial also. In the result, its action automatically becomes parody of pure epic. Almost all the epic starts with the invocation (‫ )دعا۔التجا‬to muse (‫)شاعری کی دیوی‬, god, goddess and God. Having a trivial theme and action Pope invokes a fashionable vain-belle Belinda for help. The use of supernatural machinery is another tradition and distinctive feature of epic poetry. Pope has effectively imitated this feature of serious epic also. In classical epics, the role of gods and goddess was very important. In “The Rape of the Lock” this role is played by tiny spirits, Sylphs (‫)ہوا کا دیوتا‬, Nymphs (‫)حور‬, Genomes (‫ )روحیں‬and Salamanders (‫)آگ کادیوتا‬. It is quite according to the trivial subject and self-exhibiting characters of the poem. Likewise, Umbrial’s journey into “the cave of spleen” is intentionally designed to make fun of the visits of epic heroes to the underworld. The weapons used in the war of sexes do not consist of shinning swords and mighty shields but hairpins, cosmetics and amorous looks (‫)ہوس بھری نگاہیں‬. Pope creates the same serious atmosphere, which reader finds in Virgil’s “Aenied’. Like Homer and Milton, Pope also uses different similes. He compared Belinda’s eyes with a radiant lighting sun. At another place he ironically compares her with “Queen Dido” and “Helen”. The funniest comparison is between Belinda’s petticoat and “Mighty shield” of epic heroes. Lastly, Pope’s elevated style is another source of mock-heroic effect. He uses number of poetic beauties like periphrases (‫)ہیر پھر کے بات‬, alliteration (‫ہر لٴین کے شروع میں ایک جیسے الفاظ کا‬ ‫)آنا‬, long vowel, sounds and elevated poetic diction. These all devices increase beauty, charm and mock-heroic effect of the poem. Besides, Pope uses rhetorical (‫ )فصیح و بلیغ‬style just like serious epic. Then the use of high sounding words, signs of exclamation and interrogation throughout the poem makes its style grander. Then there are lengthy speeches like the serious epic. In the end, it can be said that with any doubt that “The Rape of the Lock” in one of the finest piece of mock-epic. But it is not just a parody of epic tradition. It gives Pope a position of a great artist and moralist.

Q No3: “The Rape of the Lock” is a mirror to social life of eighteenth century England. Elaborate. Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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Discuss Pope’s realism. Or

Discuss “The Rape of the Lock” as a social criticism.

Answer: A great work of art is always the most typical product of its own time. It reflects the life of its age in itself. If it fails to do so, it will also fail to be universal in its appeal. Without any doubt “The Rape of the Lock” is a great work of art and it reflects the social and cultural life of its time. “The Rape of the Lock” is concerned with the aristocratic society and presents a charming picture of it. The aristocracy of the 18th century English society was a newly formed class. The aristocratic people were primarily urban with easy flow of money from trade and commerce. They spent their time in idle gossips, back biting, playing games of cards, and in frivolities of sex and love games. Sex intrigues (‫ )ترغیبات‬and courting lies (‫محبت کے‬ ‫ )جھوٹ‬at the parties were their chief hobbies. Being free from the problems of earning their bread they were living a fashion crazy life. The “Rape of Lock” is a mirror of such a kind of society. Lord Peter and Belinda are representative figures of that society. The details of the daily routine of the gentle men and women are given in an entertaining way. They raise from the luxurious beds at 12’O clock in the noon and it was done by the licking of the lap dogs. The strayed life of the women is clear from their toilet ceremony. The ladies used to spend more time on applying beauty products to them than anything else. Belinda’s preparation at the dressing table is not only ironic and amusing but meaningful too. For many of them like Belinda, dressing table was sacred place like the place of worship. Pope gives minute details of the ladies constant concern for enhancing their beauty effect with artificial means. They undertake great pains to make their hair curly. They were more anxious to win the heart of the choicest beaus (‫)محبت کرنے وال نوجوان‬. For that purpose, they spent hours at dressing table and dance and play games of cards with gentlemen of their own choice. In other words, these ladies were devoid of any real moral sense or any real meaningful purpose in life. To them, husbands were no more important than lap dogs. The death of husbands affected them only as much as the death of lap dogs or breaking of china jars. For them reputation was all, but honour was almost equal to nothing. Loss of chastity was not a serious matter for them. To them church meant nothing but to miss a ball was a serious issue for them. Gentlemen of that age were also not better than ladies. They were chiefly concerned with getting richer and carrying on sexual adventures with fashion crazy ladies. Lord Peter is a real portrait of the youth of that age. For them all time was a leisure time. To them love letter were more sacred than the Bible. Flirtation with the young ladies was both their hobbies and Email: [email protected]:+923006150661

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vacations. Lord Peter’s sense of victory and triumph at the cutting of Belinda’s lock of hair is symbolic of the shallowness, triviality and emptiness of the youth of the contemporary aristocratic class. Their most favorite games were games of playing cards, symbolic of futility and laziness. Pope also presents the picture of other classes of the society of his time. Among people of other classes are the judges, the merchants and others. Judges did not take their job seriously, nor were the jury-men careful and patient about their responsibility. The judges and jury-men act impatiently and care more for their meal rather than cases. The merchants were also concerned with making money at the exchange. Pope also gives satirical remark at the coffee-drinking habit of the age, which was regarded as the sign of aristocratic fashion. To sum up it can be said, such a wasteful kind of life was led by the fashionable people of Pope’s time. Undoubtedly, Pope has given a realist picture of his age but in a bit satirical way. Though, it does not give a complete picture of Pope’s age, yet it presents a real picture of one particular class of his time, aristocratic class, and here its completeness is beyond any doubt.

Q No4: Give a character sketch of Belinda Answer: Pope has presented Belinda as a complex character. He has presented her in different roles and under different shades, some are satirical other ironical but all entertaining. The character of Belinda has created much controversy since the publication of the poem. Some critics consider her treatment fair while others as unfair. However, the reality lies in between these two extremes we can discuss her character under the following heads:

1: The Heroine of the Poem:Belinda is the heroine of the story. It is her character around whom the story of the whole poem is woven. We see her sleeping till noon and her awakening by her lap dog “Shock”. We are present at her toilet and watch the progress of the sacred rites of pride. Then we see her proceeding from the Thames River to the Hampton Court. Then her smiling looks upon the well dressed youths that crowds her. In short, she is the main character and heroine of the poem.

2: Belinda ve Miss Arabella Fermore:It is through Belinda that poet laughs at the follies of female sex. Belinda is the Miss Arabella Fermore of real life. She was an acknowledged beauty of her time, when Pope wrote this poem. Her different portraits show two locks of hair that rests on her shoulder. These two

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locks are the same that we found in Belinda’s character and this poem is all about the rapping of these two locks by Lord Peter.

3: A creation of Wit, Beauty and Poetry:Belinda is a creation of wit, beauty and poetry. She wakes up at 12 and the first thing which grasps her attention is a love-letter. Then she paints and decorates her with diamonds, ornaments, perfumes and puffs, powders and patches (‫)جوڑ دار کپڑا‬. Then she went out for the conquest of lovers. Her smiles are sunny, her manners polished, her eyes large. She goes for sail and then to Hampton court and participate in different fun making activities. Then her locks are raped by the Baron. She fights with the help of snuff and bodkin. Her party triumphs but she is unable to regain her lost locks.

4: An object of Mockery and Adoration:Belinda is both object of ridicule and beauty which compel admiration. As a representative of the aristocratic class, she is mocked at. But, as a beautiful and charming lady, she deserves our admiration. On the one hand, she is mocked at; on the other hand she is praised as a woman of beauty and charm. She is almost presented as goddess of beauty and youth.

5: Representative of her class:Belinda is represents lady Fermore of real life, whom Lord Peter made angry by cutting her lock. Lord Peter in the poem is represented by the Baron. Both the families of Fermore and Peter’s were inimical to each other but they were friendly to Pope. Pope would not have been able in bringing them close to each other if he had not presented them satirically. Therefore, as an individual, Pope praised them but in the full-fledged version he mocked at them. Belinda and Lord Peter appeared to him as typical representative of their class and he satires them.

6: Central Character of the poem :From the opening lines, it immediately becomes clear that Belinda is the central character. She is the heroine of this mock-epic. Here in the fourth line, she is given a place which is higher than any other’s; she is both the end and means of the poem. She is accorded the status of the goddess of charm and beauty. Her character represents degradation of aristocratic class. This makes her character larger than other character of the poem.

7: Her Ravishing and Dazzling beauty:The first thing that Pope tells us about Belinda is her ravishing (‫ )بگھا لے جانے والی‬dazzling (‫ )چندیا دینے والی‬beauty. When she opens her eyes, brightness of her eyes seemed to eclipse the sun. This metaphor suggests the dazzling beauty of Belinda.

8: Her Habits:-

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Pope has described Belinda’s habits in detail. She is a late riser and awakes 12’o clock in the day. She is extremely sophisticated and has great love for luxuries and beauty. It seems she has no other interests in life. The first thing she does after awaking up is to make up her. This is a clear indication of the fact that beautifying herself is like a religious rite for her.

9: Her romantic nature:Belinda has a romantic nature. Her journey on the river Thames can be compared with that of Cleopatra in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. This parallel strengthens her romantic nature. Like Cleopatra her physical charms makes even religious sanctity irrelevant. She wears a lively and agile look in her eyes and on her face which reveals the brilliance and intelligence of her mind. She is cautiously courteous to everyone, and gives pleasing gesture to all. She sheds her smiles on everyone who comes to her as the sun sheds its warmth on everyone. Her physical charm is captivating and can shake the faith of anyone.

10: A shrewd Coquette (‫) غلط ترغیب دینے والی عورت‬:Belinda is true representative of the vices found in her class, but none of them is serious. She reveals to us her shrewdness and coquetry. She is blind with a sense of arrogance. Above all, Pope wants to present her as an embodiment of self-deception.

11: An emotional Being:Belinda is an emotional being. She is excessively joyful in victory and greatly tearful in sorrow. When Baron succeeds in cutting the lock of Belinda, she shows the extreme of being exceedingly sorrowful and tearful.

12: Lack of spirituality:In Belinda spiritual lackness is quite evident. She just like all aristocratic ladies of her time is more careful about personal reputation rather than spiritual sacredness. She is hardly aware of her soul and she is only sentimental. She has no sense of moral integrity.

Q No 5: Discuss the role of Supernatural machinery in “The Rape of the Lock”. Answer: The use of supernatural machinery like the gods, angels, devils and so on is an important feature of epic poetry. It is found in epics of different countries from Illied to Paradise Lost. Every epic based upon the relation between men and women and the higher super natural divine powers who shape their destiny. It actually is an inalienable part of epic writings and raises the central action of epic to the metaphysical world.

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Keeping this tradition of epic poetry alive Pope has also used supernatural elements in “The Rape of the Lock”. Pope has two alternatives. He could use the Christian or the Classic Greek machinery. But the use of Christian machinery would not have served his purpose in the mock-epic. Whereas keeping in mind the mock-epic theme of “The Rape of the Lock”, the use of Classical Greek machinery was also not an easy job. All this compelled Pope to use some different kind of supernatural machinery that could serve his purpose. As “The Rape of the Lock” was meant to satirize the vanities, bogus moralities and unchaste thinking of 18th century men and women, Pope skillfully used the petty spirits like Sylphs, Nymphs, Gnomes and Salamanders. These tiny spirits are in reality representatives of different kinds of 18th century women. These tiny spirits serves variety of purpose in “The Rape of the Lock”. They are very important dramatically, thematically and structurally for the poem. Keeping up the tradition of series epic, Pope has introduced these microscopic spirits. Through this supernatural machinery Pope creates the impression that the heroic part is over and Pseudo heroism and artificiality has taken its place. The non-heroic characters of 18th century beaus and belles are highlighted through supernatural machinery. They are not merely mock-epic elements, nor are they merely instruments of satire on the aristocracy; they also bring out fine passages of poetry from Pope. Through these tiny spirits Pope mirrors and mocks at the 18th century aristocratic conventions and customs. The way Ariel disclosed to protect chastity of women from plotting Lords is a mock in itself. Most of the speeches of Ariel as well as his visit to cave of spleen move simultaneously on mirroring and mocking. Pope’s use of this supernatural machinery is clever. The size of these tiny spirits is also very important. Their tiny size highlights the triviality and pettiness of the thinking of aristocratic women of Pope’s age. These tiny spirits indicate that how trivial and tiny were the ways and customs of the women of his age. From all this description of the Sylph’s machinery it is perfectly clear that Pope made it an integral part of poem. This machinery vastly enriched the literary mockery and made the poem a work of timeless appeal.

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