Lower Secondary History Notes

August 22, 2016 | Author: Lim Jw | Category: Types, School Work, Study Guides, Notes, & Quizzes
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couple of stuff i dug out and collated.hope it helps in any form to any one out thr ;]...



Political cartoons (H chap ) -a source of opinion/viewpoints on society. (e.g. political/economical/social issues)

Takes one mistakes as a ridicule.

-Interpret using artist’s viewpoint, symbols, captions, humor and satire and historical images. Requires knowledge of historical/literacy images

Creates interest 1) Caricature- Overemphasis on a person’s features 2) Irony-saying opposites,on purpose 3)stereotype-fixed idea about a thing/person

Use them to understand public opinions, examine opposing views, compare historical and contemporary issues. (Present)

How did the locals respond to British rule after WWII? (H chap 7) -shortage of FOOD, WATER, ELECTRICITY, HOUSING. -Ppl lived in overcrowding, slum conditions. Poor sanitation and lack of health services led to diseases. -The Brits efforts were inadequate... -These caused waves of strikes+work stoppages. It was worsened by the involvement of Malayan communist party (MCP). Thus, 1947 aka Year of strikes -They stirred up anti-British feelings in da people (demand for higher rice rations/cheaper foodstuff) and formed many trade unions (Influenced them to go on strikes to demand for better working conditions and higher pays) -The British govt passed laws…All unions had to register wif da govt. this helped to monitor ppl in the trade unions and ensured that money was not funded for communist de stuff. -Singaporeans changed their attitudes towards the British govt and evoked their desire for self-govt.

1) Felt tat the Brits ruled Singapore for over 100 years and still can’t protect it(To the Japs) 2) External events such as India, the Brits largest colony became independent from them. -The Brits had no intention of giving up complete control, but in order to gain support, they allowed some locals to be elected into da Legislative Council. Thus held the first elections in 1948. -To display Democracy, power of ppl. An example is da elections. The process: Nomination Campaign Election -

The Governor, Executive Council are British.

-Legislative Council consists of rich Asians traders, nominated by da British,elected by ppl. THE BRITS STILL HAVE THE FINAL SAY... -Only those born in Singapore can vote, and it wasn’t made compulsory. Thus not a lot of ppl bother to vote. -Singapore Progressive Party(SPP) worked closely wif Brits. Mostly are engeducated and is not popular wif da Chinese-educated. Believed in gradual self govt, introduced Central Providence Fund(CPF) Won 3/6 seats in 1948. -in the 1950s, there were 2 major riots. Maria Hertogh riot and Anti-national service riot -11-13 Dec 1950 - Maria Bertha hertogh, Che Aminah - Maria’s mum,Adeline hertogh wants her Daughter back aft she was releasd due to Jap occupation. Che Aminah refused, matter raised to court, aso not recognizing Maria’s marriage wif a malay teacher. the govt. then returned her to her parents and put her in a convent.muslim community felt disrespected and was upset.feel that Brits took sides,start riot. - Attacked any Eurasian or European, overturn and burn cars. -18 ppl killed,173 injured.2 wks curfew imposed.

-13-14 May 1954 -Sec sch students -Many students were unwilling to serve NS as they feel that their studies have already been interrupted by the war. They didn’t want to defend da colonial govt that ignored the Chinese students’ interests. peaceful demostrations turned violent when the police was called in to disperse the crowd. -26 injured, 48 arrested. -won the sympathy of Chinese public who was against the police’s use of violence towards students.students were more politically conscious.

-In 1953,the Brits decided to give da locals more power,to win the hearts and minds of da ppl. Started the RENDEL CONSTITUTION which recommended limited self-government. -Under local power, education/Health/housing/trade & industry. under Brits, External defence/Finance/ Law/Internal security/ external affairs. The Brits gave more power, but was still unwilling to give up da major stuff, not prepared to give up powers -During the 1955 elections,the 2 relatively outstandin political parties is Labour Front(LF) and People’s Action Party(PAP).they focused on anti-colonism and targeted support of Chinese-speaking ppl. SPP shocked the Brits, as they weren’t elected. -David Marshall,an Eng-educated lawyer,who was leader of Labour Front became 1st chief minister of Singapore.Lee kuan yew,aso an Eng-educated lawyer became singapore’s first PM. Singapore’s progress to self-government (H chap 8) - David Marshall 1)1st locally born dude to serve Singapore govt. 2) Jewish lawyer 3) Was under the Brits’ control, and wasn’t respected. He was refused when he asked for more powers. Untimely was because the Brits didn’t expect his party, LF to win da elections! -One of da challenges faced was the strong communist movement. Of which, a violent one was the Hock Lee Bus Riots. -April 1955 - Hock Lee Amalgamated Bus Company was a small company. Workers who worked for it came from Singapore Bus Workers Union (SBWU) and Hock Lee Employers’ union. -SBWU workers demanded for better pay and working conditions. In response, Hock Lee Amalgamated Bus Company or Hock Lee Bus Company dismissed 229 workers. - Workers gathered at the bus depot at Alexandra Road and prevented buses from leaving the garages. Police were called in on 27 April 1955, and the workers’ threw stones at them. Police used Batons. - Students even came in Lorries, and showed their support by bringing food and entertaining the workers with songs and dance. - David Marshall tried to settle this by setting up a Commission Inquiry, but sadly, it failed and da ppl continue rioting. Bus workers form 6 other companies even joined in. -Climax was on 12 May 1955,when ppl attacked the police with bricks/stones/battles. -it all came to an end on 13 may 1955, 4 ppl were killed, 31 were injured. (a.k.a black Thursday) -most imp, the sacked workers got their jobs back.

-David Marshall was unwilling to arrest/imprison the communists. This made the Brits think that Marshall couldn’t protect the Brits’ interests and prevent Singapore from falling into the communists’ hands. -Marshall also asked for more power, but was rejected, as the Brits would not agree with internal self-government. Internal self govt = local representatives having complete control of all internal matters, except external affairs and defense.

-Marshall then went to London,in attempt to get Singapore the full selfgovernment. Yet the Brits were unconvinced that Marshall could cope with the communists, and disagreed. And so, the talks failed.. This made Marshall resign his post of Chief Minister. -Then, Lim Yew Hock succeeded as 2nd Chief Minister. He believed in cooperating with the Brits to control the communists and gain their confidence/support. He was determined to succeed what Marshall had failed... -One of the challenges faced by Lim Yew hock was when he announced the closure of Singapore Chinese middle school students’ union (SCMSSU) due to its communist activities. - October 1956 - Closure of SCMUSSU. Arrest of student leaders and expulsion of 142 students for taking part in communist activities. - Students retaliated quickly. They camped at Chung Cheng High school and Chinese High School. - On 24 Oct 1956, the govt. told parents to persuade their children to return home, but the students refused.

- And Lim chin siong happen to be organizing a meeting near Chinese high school. When it ended, some workers joined in da riots. - The govt. then gave orders for the police to use tear gas to clear the students out of school. - Students threw stones & bottles, overturned cars and damaged traffic lights. The riots went on for 3 days. - A curfew was imposed, armies were called in. road blocks were also set up to prevent ppl from gathering into large crowds. - Many were later arrested, including Lim chin siong and Fong swee suan. -13 ppl died, 100 were injured.

-The Brits were therefore pleased with Lim Yew hock’s success in suppressing the strikes and riots. -In 1957, Lim Yew hock to re-negotiate for full self-self govt. he wanted Singapore to have a say in matters of defense and external events, COMPROMISED on the issue of internal security. The talks were successful and on his return, Lim Yew hock announced that Singapore would have internal self-govt. with elections to be held in May

1959. -Under local control, trade & industry/housing/law & labor/Finance/Education/Health. Under Brits, external affairs/external security. -1959 elections wanted da excutive branch to have all local ministers/prime ministers and no longer the Brits; while legislative branch has NO ELECTED MEMBERS. And Head of state (local) to replace the executive branch of govt. (Brits). -we also establish our own flag and national anthemn. -Citizen Ordinance (law on Singapore citizenship) passed, which allowed those not born locally to be a citizen. This allowed them to vote in this election. -voting was also made compulsory; there was increased interest by the ppl on who should govern Singapore. -13 parties and 194 candidates. They made door-to-door visits/used radios/newspapers/pamplets/rallies/vehicles with loud speakers. -yet, the most impressive party was still da PAP. As they were united, had a clear plan for Singapore, were concerned about the ppl’s lives, and promised to make improvements in health and education. Won 43/51 seats! -Lee Kuan Yew the new Prime minister on the state of Singapore. Yusof bin Ishak became the Head of state. -National symbols were also installed. -yet, Singapore is still not independent, as da Brits controlled her defence politics and external affairs, and the queen appoints the Head of state… stay tuned till da next chap! Joining Malaysia & Separation (H chap 9) -In 1959, Singapore achieved full-internal self-govt. The next logical constitutional step was to gain independence, and so the idea was to merge with Malaya to gain independence from da Brits. -Singapore lacked natural resources, faced a declining entrepot trade, a growing population which required jobs.

-PAP felt that Singapore survival as an independent state will be difficult, and favored merger due to POLITICAL and ECONOMICAL reasons. Reasons/Benefits to spore’s political side Reasons/Benefits to spore’ economical side -We attained full internal self-govt. from the Brits. Malaya had -Singapore’s economy depended on trade and manufacturing full independence. industries, many of which still at its infant stages -And only through merger, then can Singapore attain full -Singapore is also limited to purchase all the goods produced by independence form the Brits. these new industries. -furthermore, the Malayan govt. imposed trade tariffs on goods traded between two countries. (Tariffs are taxes collected by the govt. on goods coming in/ going out of the country) -Merger gives rise to a common market, where goods can be sold/bought freely without being taxed + increase in trade, expansion of industries and creation of jobs.

-Yet, Malaya wasn’t keen about the idea of merger. They were afraid of racial imbalance, that the Chinese will outnumber the Malays. (A pre-dominantly Chinese state) -However in 27 May 1961, Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman made a speechas he felt that the idea should be re-considered. Initial fear of racial imbalance could be overcome by including the Borneo territories. It would be made up of mostly Malays and other indigenous/natives groups. - Malaysia reasons would be that they can benefit in terms of 1) Security- make use of the ppl to curb the communist which is active too in Malaya (more ppl=more manpower) 2) Economy Singapore is a valuable economic asset, with a high population and has a secure port. The 3 Borneo territories were rich in natural resources like timber/rubber/oil/pepper. A union meant economic cooperation/coordination under central Malaya govt , they can get a share! -reasons/benefits of Brits and Sarawak/North Borneo Economic reasons, relief of long term responsibilities(its colonies are spore/sabah/sarawark), secure stability in da strong anti-communism Malaya

Very poor, underdeveloped and under populated. Merger would help solve these problems.

-The PAP welcomed the idea and even had talks with the Tunku, but the radicals within PAP opposed the idea.

-PAP therefore started a year-long campaign to build up support for the merger. -And so, a referendum was conducted in Singapore on 1 September 1962 to find out which type of merger the ppl wanted. Majority(71%) supported the govt position. -Malaya and Singapore had diff views… Malaya 1) To work out details bout the common market later, after signing the Malaysia merger. 2) $50 million grant from Singapore for the development of Sabah & Sarawak. 3) Collect all revenue and give spore what it needs to run its state.

Singapore 1) To work out details of the common market together, before signing the Malaysia merger. 2) Provide a loan instead of a grant, of $150 million. 3) Send an agreed sum of money as tax

Conclusion 1) Common market to be established in stages 2) Singapore to provide $150 million loan 3) Singapore collects its own revenue and pays an agreed sum of money

-The Cobbold commission was set up in Jan 1962 to find out whether ppl favored in Sabah/Sarawak to join Malaysia. -Result is that 2/3 ppl favored merger. And so, Malaysia would be formed on 31 August 1961. -However, there were oppositions from Indonesia/Philippines and the communists.

Indonesia -Sabah and Sarawak should merge with Indonesia. -broke off diplomatic ties/trade relations with Malaysia. -launched a policy of confrontation. -armed raids by Indonesian agents were carried out in Sabah/Sarawak. -disrupt life in spore by setting off bombs in public places

Phillipines -claimed that Sabah belongs to the Philippines. -broke off diplomatic ties with Malaysia.

The communists -the aggressive anti-communist govt in Malaysia would crack down their activities. -tried to win over confidence of 13 PAP members. -formed Barisan Socialist (Socialist front)

-and so, a United Nations Commission was set up to find if Sabah and Sarawak were in favor of joining Malaysia. -Result-70% supported meger. -On 16 September 1963, Malaysia came into existence. 14 states were under control of the central govt at Kuala Lumpar. -HOWEVER, in less than 2 yrs, Singapore separated from Malaysia due to various disagreements. Look below~ -There were disagreements over economic matters. 1) A common market wasn’t set up; Singapore was still seen as an economic rival! 2) Tariffs were still imposed on Singapore-produced goods exported to the other states in Malaysia 3) The central govt introduced new taxes in Singapore, and increased da contribution of its revenue to the central govt from 40%-60%. 4) It also demanded the closing of the Bank of China, which was suspected of funding the communists. These decisions were seen as unfair, as there is a time when Singapore had difficulties and collected less revenue due to the Indonesian trade embargo. This strained relations between the central govt and Singapore. - There were disagreements over political matters. 1) Malaya’s political parties are formed according to their respective races. Singapore political parties are multi-racial. 2) We were expected to follow and adjust to Malaya’s system. Example, the three parties only cared for the interests of their own community, but Singapore parties were multi-racial in outlook. -There were disagreements over treatments of different races. 1) The Malays were given special rights, whereas ppl in Singapore were given equal opportunities. -There were rivalry between PAP and the Alliance. 1) During 1963 elections, when Alliance expected its UMNO members to retain their seats in Malay areas the ppl supported PAP. This shows that they believed/supported PAP in its program of improving standards of living, Alliance vowed to win PAP. 2) In 1964, PAP took part in the federal elections, with a goal of building a

Malaysia not along the racial lines. PAP attained only a seat while Alliance won 89/104, but they were upset at PAP for contesting. -There were Racial Politics. 1) UMNO leaders started an anti-PAP campaign through the Utasan Melayu(a Malay newspaper published in Jawi script) 2) In da Singapore govt’s descision to redevelop certain areas, 2,500 families had to be resettled; of these 200 were Malay families. And it claimed that 3,000 Malay residents were affected. Misleading articles on that suggests PAP’s lack of concern for Malay families. -There were internal threats such as racial riots. 1) On 21 July 1964, 25000 Malays gathered at Padang to celebrate Prophet’s Mohammed’s birthday which turned into a race riot.23 ppl died, 454 injured. Island-wide curfew was imposed till 2 August 1964. Lee Kuan yew/Tun Razak toured the island and urged ppl not to be influenced by those trying to cause disunity among them. Goodwill committees were also set up, which consists of community leaders from various racial groups. 2) On September 1964, a second riot broke out (Old Malay trishaw rider murdered at Geylang serai. Attackers supposed to be a group of Chinese). Curfew was imposed, 13 ppl died and 106 injured. -The agreement among them was not upheld. 1) PAP & Alliance agreed not to raise any matters that were racial in nature/challenge each other politically for the da next two years. Yet, it didn’t last long. In October 1964, Alliance stated that there will be a major reconstruction ongoing to prepare for Singapore state election in 1967. They declared themselves as the new govt here, acting as direct political challenge to the PAP. 2) PAP brought along another 4 Malaysian political parties to campaign for a Malaysian Malaysia where all are treated equally. It questioned the special rights for Malays. -Therefore, differences between the Alliance & PAP were too complicate to resolve, and racial riots could happen again. -Tunku decided that Singapore must leave Malaysia and Singapore leaders eventually agreed with this decision. -On 9 August 1965, Lee Kuan Yew announced at Caldecott Hill that Singapore is no longer part of Malaysia. -Now, we are in charge of all our own affairs. We became a republic (country where head of state is not king/queen but a

president) and an independent nation. And also United Nation’s 117th member. -Yusof Ishak became first president/head of state. -we have our own pledge/flag. Flag is raised at United Nation’s building. -Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed on 8 August 1967 Challenges faced by newly independent Singapore(H chap 10) -Singapore faced several challenges to our own survival. 1) Limited land 2) Lack natural resources 3) Growing population 4) Fall in trade 5) Weak industry base DEFENCE -The Brits announced the withdrawal of its military troops by the end of 1971, which meant we had to build our own self-defense. -Made NS a must for those fit male aged above 18.gave them trainings. TRADE & BUISNESSES -entrepot trade is also no longer sufficient for Singapore’s continued growth, as neighboring countries like Malaysia/Indonesia had also started developing their own ports. -The two pronged approach was adopted to overcome these problems. 1) Multinational corporations (MCNs) from Japan/western Europe/USA to set up factories in Singapore. Big businesses with HQs at main countries 2) Transform Singapore to a more organized and branches at other countries. Eg-Sony, Apple,Toyota and efficient country in the region.

-We attract MNCs by providing incentives/focusing industrialization/improving Singapore’s infrastructure.




Airports/ports/financial institutions/public utilities/telecommunications

HOUSINGS & HYGINES -we also improved on our housing and hygiene. Before self-government,

housing conditions were very poor. -The Singapore improvement trust (SIT) set up by the Brits did not build sufficient housings. Half a million lived in the slums/squatter settlements in 1959. - And so, Housing development board (HDB) gave top priority to housing problems. It implemented housing programs through three-to-five year plans to build affordable housing. EDUCATION -The education system was to get ppl to interact and support Singapore’s economical development. And so, there were integrations for different educational systems. It is to make education accessible to all groups of ppl, technical education. -teachers were recruited and training for them were enhanced. More schools were built. There was emphasis on math/science/technical subjects and the bilingual policy.

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