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Atlas Copco

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Printed matter no. 9851 6553 01a

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining 2007

Second edition 2007 www.atlascopco.com

We always take a hard view on costs

Working with Atlas Copco means working with highly productive rock drilling solutions. It also means sharing a common cost-cutting challenge. Like you, we are always looking for new and effective ways to squeeze your production costs – but never at the expense of quality, safety or the environment. Mining and construction is a tough and competitive business. Fortunately, our view on cutting costs is just as hard. Get your free copy of Success Stories at www.atlascopco.com/rock

www.rcb2.se

Committed to your superior productivity.

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB Fax: +46 8 670 7393 www.atlascopco.com

Our commitment is just as strong

Working with Atlas Copco means working with worldleading products and services. What’s more, the people you work with are also the best – committed to creating the ideal conditions for your mining and construction operations. It takes a strong will to get to the top, and a firm hand to stay there. Our commitment to supply you with the best rock-drilling solutions is just as strong. Get your free copy of Success Stories at www.atlascopco.com/rock

Contents Foreword     2 Foreword by Robert Almqvist, Product Line Manager LHD Equipment, Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB

Talking Technically    3 Matching the Scooptram to the Job    9 Minetruck Designed for Underground Applications   11 Upgraded Minetruck MT2010   13 CARE For Mining   15 Rig Control System for Scooptram Loaders   19 Efficient Underground Loading and Haulage   21 Automation in Mining   23 Service Parts for Scooptram and Minetruck

Case Studies   25   27   31   35   39   41   43

Loading in Low Headroom at Waterval Keeping a Low Profile at Panasqueira Getting the Best For Penoles Scooptram ST14 Earns Top Rating Scooptram Impresses Miners in Both Hemispheres High Speed Haulage at Stawell Revival in the Sudbury Basin

Product Specifications   47 Underground Loaders   87 Underground Electric Loaders   95 Underground Trucks 119 Grade Conversion Graph 120 Conversion Table Front cover: Atlas Copco Scooptram and Minetruck operating underground. Scooptram and Boomer are Atlas Copco trademarks. Atlas Copco reserves the right to alter its product specifications at any time. For latest updates contact your local Atlas Copco Customer Center or refer to www.atlascopco.com/rock Produced by tunnelbuilder ltd for Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB, SE-701 91 Örebro, Sweden, tel +46 19 670   -7000, fax -  7393. Publisher Ulf Linder [email protected] Editor Mike Smith [email protected] Senior Adviser Hans Fernberg [email protected] Picture and Specifications Editor Hanna Hall [email protected] Contributors Allain Dubois, Anders Fröyseth, Anne Marie Grossi, Casper Swart, Dave Ogilvie, Don Thompson, Elfrieda Tyrer, Erik Svedlund, Fredrik Green, Hugo Dias, Jonas Henrysson, Karl-Erik Niva, Karl-Johan Dahlin, Kjell Fjordell, Lars-Göran Larsson, Lori-Anne Fleming, Mark Smith, Matt Cobbham, Olle Lundkvist, Peter Trimmel, Reg Labelle, Robert Almqvist, Ulrik Algulin, all [email protected] Maurice Jones [email protected] Adriana Potts, Ulf Sellman

Designed and typeset by ahrt, Örebro, Sweden Printed by Welins Tryckeri AB, Örebro, Sweden Copyright 2007 Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Copies of all Atlas Copco reference editions can be ordered in DVD format from the publisher, address above, or online at www.atlascopco.com/rock. Reproduction of individual articles only by agreement with the publisher.

1

Foreword Since the introduction of our first railbound pneumatic shovel loader in the 1930s, we have been providing our customers with underground loading and haulage equipment. In our product development, our target has always been to improve productivity, reliability, ergonomics, service friendliness, and not the least, safety! Railbound machines, as the first step of mechanization, improved productivity in mines tremendously. However, railbound equipment has limitations in terms of flexibility. This resulted in the development of rubber-tyred pneumatic LHD loaders, starting with the T4G in 1956, and followed by the Cavo 310 and 511 four-wheel drive versions. These vehicles eliminated the problem of tracklaying, but were still limited in mobility due to their need for compressed air. The next milestone was the introduction of the first Scooptram, the ST5. This vehicle was developed by Eddie Wagner, and was the first diesel-driven Load Haul Dump loader for underground mining. Eddie’s brother Elmer had earlier invented the 4-wheel drive articulated vehicle in 1949. Scooptram loaders have, since their introduction into the mines in 1963, been recognized for their flexibility, high productivity and low cost of operation. The real breakthrough for Scooptram loaders came during the 1970s after the introduction of hydraulic rock drilling. The combination of hydraulic drill rigs and LHDs became a flexible and competitive package for underground mining operations. The newly-invented Robbins raise drill also offered an efficient alternative for improving ventilation systems in mines when changing from pneumatics to diesel and electro/hydraulic power. In 2003, for reasons of synergy, we decided to move production of Scooptram and Minetruck products from Oregon in US to our drill rig manufacturing plant in Orebro in Sweden. We knew what had to be achieved and, within a very tight schedule, the new assembly hall was designed and built, the engineering facility re-established, and the production lines set up and manned.

An aggressive new product development plan was established based on thorough market surveys, interviews of numerous operators, service people and mine management in the major mining countries. The first result is the 14 t loader Scooptram ST14. With an efficient load sensing hydraulic system, a modern accurate control system and a cab with “Business Class” ergonomics, it has received acclaim as the most productive loader in its class. It is designed to meet the most stringent requirements of the international mining and tunnelling industries. Not only is it fast and comfortable to drive, it is also highly productive and easy to maintain. The Rig Control System featured on the Scooptram ST14 is a common automation platform for nearly every type of machine produced at Orebro, eliminating hydraulics from the cabin, reducing electrical connections, facilitating fault finding, recording and displaying data, and offering the option of radio remote control. Easy access for quick maintenance is also an important feature. All loaders and trucks in our product range have been upgraded, mainly to improve reliability and serviceability. The most obvious examples are the Scooptram ST1030 and the Minetruck MT2010 which have been equipped with the new Cummins QSL 9 diesel engine. It is a modern clean burning, fuel efficient engine that meets the US EPA Tier 3 and the European stage 3A emissions regulations. Also, we have added low profile loaders to our portfolio, like the ST1030LP and ST1520LP. Our optimism for the future leads us to publish this book, in which we describe our products, their applications, and their specifications. We hope the mix of technical papers, case studies, and vehicle descriptions is to your liking, and will help you to select the right equipment for your application. Of one thing you can be sure: we will continue to be driven by innovation and a solid commitment to providing first class service.

Robert Almqvist Product Line Manager LHD Equipment Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB [email protected]

2

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Matching the Scooptram to the job Original and best For nearly 50 years, Scooptram loaders have been recognized for reliability, power and low cost of operation. Since the first LHD was introduced into the mines in 1958, development has been continuous, resulting in the current range of Scooptram loaders, designed to satisfy all production requirements at low cost/tonne. In each succeeding generation, design improvements are added, building upon e s tablishe d model strengths. Now that Scooptram loaders are built in the Atlas Copco plant at Örebro, Sweden, the pool of available engineering expertise has grown considerably, reflected in recent announcements of all-new models such as the Scooptram ST14 loader. These next generation loaders are being added to the current range of basic models plus variants designed to satisfy the most stringent requirements of the international mining and tunnelling industries.

LHD machines in mines Mechanization of underground production and development has led to increasing use of LHD equipment, because of their success in the particularly harsh mining environment. Not only are their dimensions favourable to underground operations, but LHDs have also demonstrated capability for climbing steep gradients, and for moving quickly over long distances. LHD technology has continuously improved productivity under all mining conditions, from small and narrow orebodies to the largest of open stopes, and in low headroom and difficult entries. In essence, LHDs are semi-rigid, low profile loaders with large bucket volumes that give high mucking capacities in limited spaces. They are especially good in mining applications, with their combination of capacity, manoeuvrability and speed. Diesel powered LHDs are versatile and flexible, and find a variety of uses in

Scooptram ST1030 ready for work.

mining, apart from their normal work on production and development. They may be used for road cleaning, material haulage, or loading trucks. When loading between stope and orepass, the haulage distance is usually between 50 m and 400 m, whereas less than 100 m tramming is normal when loading trucks. All in all, LHDs feature around 50% higher payloads compared to front end loaders with the same engine size, and their long wheelbase gives better stability and higher tramming speeds carrying a full load.

Dimensions Regulations for vehicles working underground usually focus on minimum working clearances and ventilation requirements, which will limit the choice of size of unit and its horsepower setting, and possibly decide between diesel and

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

electric power. Trends in mine design are to accommodate the most-productive equipment possible, because operating costs have been shown not to be directly proportional with increased capacity. Also, the cost of labour is significant, no matter the location, and this may favour larger machines. Nevertheless, there are physical and financial limitations on the size of openings underground, so the fit of the machine becomes a major consideration. In mine operations, the clearance between vehicle and sidewalls, and operator and roof, are critical factors, which will help decide the model best-suited to the conditions. A rule of thumb is to allow a total of one metre minimum operating clearance between vehicle and sidewalls. Sometimes, when a mine is mechanizing using trackless vehicles, the enhanced productivity may allow for enlargement of openings. More often than not, the vehicle has to fit the 3

Talking Technically

Scooptram ST14 side view.

existing openings, and the model will be chosen on the basis of the highest productivity achievable given these constraints.

Bucket capacity Selection of Scooptram bucket size will be governed by the density of the material to be moved. Rock may swell by as much 60% when blasted, and its loose weight/cu m has to be established before recommendations can be made about bucket size. Likewise, abrasivity of the mineral will affect the choice of wear parts for the bucket. The bucket rated capacity will normally be quoted by reference to heaped capacity, but average fill achieved will depend on other factors, such as driver expertise, blasting fragmentation, roadway condition, and route alignment. Atlas Copco establishes a rated tramming capacity for each of its Scooptram loader models, which is the gross recommended payload. They then calculate the standard bucket size, based on material weighing 2.0 or 2.2 t/cu m. If the material to be moved is heavier than this, a smaller bucket may be fitted. If the material is lighter, a larger bucket 4

may be recommended to take full advantage of the rated tramming capacity. Engine, torque converter and transmission are matched and approved for each model, along with axle and tyre capacities. The engineers then consider the overall quality and strength of their design against the envisaged working cycle and projected life. This will result in a qualified statement of rated capacity. Payload should be as close as possible to the rated tramming capacity for the selected model, and overloading should be avoided. Consistent overloading, while apparently attractive, will result in excessive tyre wear, higher operating costs, and shorter working life for the vehicle. Different size buckets are available in increments of 0.2 t/cu m to suit the broken density of the rock to be loaded.

One-pass loading Optimized one-pass loading is a major contributor to overall productivity, and Atlas Copco has devoted much time and resources to perfecting this technique. These new design features have been incorporated into the latest models of Scooptram loader, such as: the high-shape,

high-angle bucket; the Z-bar bucket linkage for higher breakout force; and a higher power-to-weight ratio, with fully-integrated drivetrain, for better tractive effort. As a result, the attack on the muckpile is a more controlled event, with power directed to the bucket edge, instead of being wasted in wheel spinning. The breakout force in the muckpile is a combination of mechanical force provided by the weight and forward movement of the Scooptram and hydraulic force provided by skilful movement of the bucket and boom by the operator. To reduce bucket loading time, powerful hydraulics are required with both tilt and lift functions operating simultaneously. These have to react against the load frame, thereby distributing the stresses throughout the frame. Better visibility for the operator allows for more efficient loading, resulting in less stress transferred to the frame. For consistent one pass loading under all conditions, joystick operation and sensitive controls are a basic requirement. For the trip to the discharge point, the narrow dimensions of the Scooptram loader, and its 85 degree turning angle, ensure that time saved on loading is not wasted when

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

A full bucket is the objective of every trip to the muckpile.

tramming. One pass loading, safe tramming, and efficient dumping, turning and accelerating, will result in the best possible cycle time. For loading into a Minetruck, the norm is to ensure that the truck is filled in 3-4 passes.

Breakout force As there is no commonly accepted norm for measuring the breakout force of LHD loaders, it is usual to apply the figures defined for surface loaders. Both SAE and ISO norms are available for surface loaders, and give roughly the same breakout force. Breakout force is expressed in two different ways, as hydraulic breakout force, and as static vehicle breakout force, which is also called static tipping capacity, SAE J732. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defines hydraulic breakout force as the maximum sustained vertical upward force exerted 100 mm (4 in) behind the tip of the bucket cutting edge, and is achieved through the ability to lift and/or roll back the bucket about a pivot point. It is measured with the pivot point supported, and the vehicle anchored to avoid any movement.

The static vehicle breakout force is the minimum amount of hydraulic breakout force that will rotate the vehicle about the front axle, lifting the rear wheels clear of the ground. It is measured while the vehicle’s brakes are off, and with its transmission in neutral. The difference between these two types of breakout force is important in assessing the design productivity of the vehicle, because not all of the hydraulic breakout force can be utilized if it causes the rear wheels to leave the ground. Most manufacturers of LHD loaders use the bucket tilt circuit to maximize the hydraulic breakout force. However, the standard does not determine the distance of the measuring point from the bucket pivot point, so the breakout force can be varied with the same loader when operating the bucket circuit, simply by using different types or sizes of bucket. This can result in confusion, so comparisons should only be made of machines with similar buckets in which the depth of the cutting edge or bucket volume is the same. In a powerful loader making the best use of its hydraulics, the breakout force using the lift circuit should be sufficient

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

to raise the rear of the machine off the ground, while the hydraulic breakout force using the lift circuit with the rear of the machine anchored should exceed the force obtained using the bucket tilt circuit.

Load sensing hydraulics Whenever a loader attacks a rock pile underground, a tremendous amount of power is required to thrust the bucket deep enough so that it can be filled to capacity. Wheels spin, buckets get stuck and the vehicle often has to make several attempts before successfully penetrating the muck. Sometimes, the driver has to be content to pull away with only a partial bucket load. In the same way, LHDs that have to tackle steep, uphill gradients need extra power to maintain sufficient speed to ensure that the load will reach its destination within the projected cycle time. The latest Scooptram ST14 is fitted with a modern Load Sensing Hydraulic System, which is well-proven and reliable. For more information about the this system, please see page 19 and the article Efficient Underground Loading and Haulage. 5

Talking Technically

Efficient LHD operations in the Jacobina Mine in Brazil.

Safety and control Creating a safe and comfortable environment for drivers is now, more than ever, a top priority. The Scooptram loader driver is side-seated, for bi-directional operation and maximum visibility. Every Scooptram is fitted with an operator’s cabin or canopy, certified to meet current regulations, including ROPS/FOPS, EC and MSHA. They feature a comfortable seat with plenty of legroom, and correct ergonomic positioning, designed to reduce driver fatigue and create a much-improved safety environment. The cabins are proofed against sound and vibration, and wider windows give the driver improved visibility, enhanced by well-placed, highintensity lights. Improving driver control is always high on the list of priorities. Scooptrams have: automatic gear selection which matches the correct gear to the operating load; a two-handed electric control system, which allows the driver to focus on loading and tramming, rather than on gear changing; forward, reverse, and 6

neutral buttons on the hoist and dump controls; and the SAHR braking system, considered to be the safest available.

Low operating costs Reducing maintenance cost and time contributes to a lower cost of ownership and higher productivity. Atlas Copco has designed low maintenance into its Scooptram loaders, with fewer wear parts, improved durability of spares, and components that are mutch easier to maintain. The trunnion caps retention assembly makes pin replacement faster and easier when changing cylinders and buckets. The electronically controlled transverter is fully integrated with the engine in a matched powertrain that delivers longer lifespan. A tapered roller bearing articulation hinge offers more than 10,000 h service. Hydraulic manifolds replace piping wherever possible, and hydraulic pumps are mounted above the transverter for easy access and quick maintenance.

The economical working life of an LHD is decided when the graph of total costs, including depreciation and maintenance, rises above an acceptable level. As a machine gets older, it’s capital costs reduce and its maintenance costs rise. Selecting the correct model will result in optimum capital costs, while engineering design and regular servicing will help control the maintenance costs, resulting in a long working life and a lower cost/tonne.

Operator first - latest Scooptram ST14 Based on the principle that job satisfaction has a significant impact on productivity, in designing the next generation Scooptram series of loaders, Atlas Copco has put operator safety, comfort and working environment first. The new Scooptram ST14 loader provides excellent visibility from the cab, due to a combination of large windscreens, a clean, flat top to the vehicle, and a short and low-level rear end. The driving seat is air-suspended and softer

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

and more comfortable than in other LHDs, with the controls located in the armrests. The drive train design has created more free space in front of the cab, accommodating a unique, roomy footbox into which the driver can stretch out his legs. When driving the ST14, the operator is conscious of a spacious and clean environment in the cab, and the long wheelbase makes for a smooth ride. The ride control system allows the loaded vehicle to be driven at high speed while still retaining maximum comfort. Effective climate control, and the absence of hydraulic hoses in the cab, also contribute to a good environment, both in terms of temperature and air quality, and to safety. The ST14 aims to prove the concept that an investment in an exceptionally good working environment is an investment in increased productivity.

Versatile and productive - Scooptram ST710 One of the most versatile 6.5 t LHDs on the market today, the Scooptram ST710 is packed full of productivity enhancing features. Compared with other 6.5 t loaders, the ST710 wins hands down, with the highest bucket lift and longest reach. It also makes claim to one of the fastest tramming speeds for loaders in its class. The narrow 2.14 m width of the ST710 allows it to work in drift sizes down to 2.9 m-wide x 3.7 m-high. Available with a choice of two 6-cylinder watercooled engines, the 200 hp (149 kW) Deutz Diesel and optional 210 hp (157 kW) Detroit Diesel, the versatile ST710 is a highly productive performer. Matched with a Minetruck MT2010 and Boomer 281 drill rig, the Scooptram ST710 can provide the centrepiece of an unbeatable team for medium-section tunnelling.

Productivity with comfort - Scooptram ST1030 The new 10 t-capacity loader from Atlas Copco, the Scooptram ST1030, carries forward a long legacy of high productivity in this payload category. Building upon the strengths of the popular ST1020,

The circles are showing where the trunnion caps are placed.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

7

Talking Technically

Scooptram ST1030 in Kvarntorp mine, Sweden .

the ST1030 incorporates numerous design improvements and customer suggestions, including the new ergonomically designed operator’s cabin offering reduce fatigue and better safety, and easy serviceability of the split-cap pins and hydraulic system. The Atlas Copco footbox on Scooptram ST1030.

With a Cummins QSL 9, Tier 3 diesel engine rated at 250 hp (186 kW) and transmission, and mono-stick controlled articulated hydraulic power steering, the ST1030 makes driving a pleasure. Add to this the excellent breakout force, and a 25 km/h tramming speed on the flat, and the ST1030 becomes one of the most productive LHDs available for working in drift sections down to 3.3 mwide x 3.9 m-high.

performer, both in the muck pile and in tramming over long distances.    Constructed upon the same principles as the ST710 and ST1030, the ST1520 includes all the innovation and improvements from these models, making it an unparalleled production performer in drifts down to 4 m-wide x 5 mhigh.

Big payload - Scooptram ST1520

The wealth of experience gained by Scooptram loader designers over the last half century is put at the disposal of the purchaser. This ensures that all operational considerations are taken into account in their recommendations for the correct vehicle for the job.

Designed for size, strength and ease of operation, the Scooptram ST1520 achieves the highest productivity for any loader in its class.   This 15 t-capacity loader provides superb visibility from the ergonomically designed and safe operator’s cabin. Equipped with a 400 hp (299 kW) 6-cylinder water-cooled Detroit Diesel engine, its rugged structure makes it a champion 8

Summary

Dave Ogilvie [email protected]

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Minetruck designed for underground applications Choice of four models Atlas Copco Minetruck vehicles are specifically designed for underground use, whether to be loaded by Scooptram or chute, and for long haul or short haul. They are high powered to cope with the steep gradients in mines, have low heights and short turning circles to negotiate underground roadways, and are extremely robust. They have economical, low emission diesel engines selected for their suitability to the rugged mine environment.

Standard features The model range covers capacities from 20 to 50 metric tonnes, with options for different material densities. All the Minetruck products can be fitted with Ansul fire suppression, Lincoln auto lube and Wiggins fast fuel fill, in addition to a comprehensive range of options. The Minetruck MT2010 is covered in detail later in this edition, while the three larger members of its family are described below. All Minetruck versions feature ROPS/ FOPS canopy with back protection; automatic engine overspeed protection, and reduced heat from braking; electric transmission shift control for convenient shifting; converter lockup for better power transfer, less heat and longer component life; centralized lubrication to simplify maintenance; and SAHR brake system for reliable braking. The productivity of trucks is measured by the tonnage carried per km/hour. The cost/tonne of moving the material is then derived from this figure.

Minetruck MT431B The MT431B is a 28.1 t-capacity truck for large underground operations in mining and construction. Its dump box

Minetruck MT5010.

can be emptied in 14 seconds. It is matched to Scooptram loaders ST1030 and ST14. It is powered by a Detroit Diesel DDEC Series 60 engine with a rating at 2,100 rev/min of 298 kW/400 hp. It has a Spicer 6000 Series transmission with full power shift on 4 speed forward and reverse through a single stage Spicer CL-8000 series torque converter with lockup to Rock Tough 508 axles. SAHR braking with fully-enclosed, force-cooled multiple wet discs at each wheel end offers long component life and reliable braking. The operator is side seated in a Grammer seat with retractable seat belts for bi-directional driving, using two pilot operated joysticks for steering and dump control, and is protected by a canopy that is MSHA-ISO ROPS/ FOPS approved. The MT 431B has a top speed on the level of 24.8 km/h empty and 22.8 km/h loaded.It has a fuel tank capacity of 439 litres, with a fuel consumption at

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

full load of 35.5 litres/h. It has a height of 2.74 m to the canopy roof, a width of 2.795 m, a length of 10.18 m, and a turning angle of 42.5 degrees. It will operate in galleries of 5.5 m-width with chamfered corners.

Minetruck MT436B The Minetruck MT436B has a similar specification to the MT431B, with a wider body and larger 32.6 t-capacity. The MT436B has a height of 2.68 m to the canopy roof, a width of 3.065 m, a length of 10.18 m, and a turning angle of 42.5 degrees. It will operate in galleries of 4.54 m-width with chamfered corners, and is matched to Scooptram loaders ST1030 and ST14.

Minetruck MT5010 The high-performance MT5010 truck has a true 50 t-capacity dump box with 9

Talking Technically

Minetruck MT5010 at Ridgeway Australia.

optimum profile for clean and fast dumping offering unparalleled productivity in demanding underground operations. It is matched to Scooptram ST1520 for loading. Power is provided by a Cummins QSK19-C650 485 kW/650 hp clean burning diesel engine. The unique power train includes an upbox and a combined transmission and converter which, along with the engine control system, offers smooth and precise shifting. The MT5010 has all-wheel drive through conventional front and rear differentials and Spicer 53R300 series axles with centre-flange hubs and wheels to match its capacity. It has an ergonomically-designed, forward seating, sound-proofed, air-conditioned cabin in which the operator also benefits from a functional instrumentation layout with monitoring of the hydraulic and lubrication systems. A rear view camera improves the operator’s vision when reversing. 10

Component access is first class, and the filters are centralized in an easily reachable area. Fuel tank capacity is 644 litres, with a dieseline consumption at full load of 57 litres/h. Fuel tank access covers are readily removed, and pointto-point wiring improves testing and fault location. The dimensions of the MT5010 are 3.2 m-wide, 3.15 m-high to the top of the dump box, and 11.22 m-long. It will operate in galleries of 5.01 m-width with chamfered corners.

Scooptram loading The general rule for filling the Minetruck using a Scooptram is that the loader should complete the operation in three or four clean passes. The Scooptram bucket volume may be changed to achieve this ratio in order to maximize the truck load. For end loading, the bucket width should be 150 mm narrower than the

inside dimension of the truck box, and for side loading, the top of the bucket should extend no more than 400-500 mm below the box side in the dump position. The bucket lip should reach to the centreline of the box for perfect loading. Eject-O-Dump buckets are available for use where ground conditions do not permit adequate back height for Scooptram side loading. Using this system, the bucket pin height should be able to clear the box side. Eject-O-Dump buckets reduce the Scooptram capacity by 10-15%, and this should be taken into account when selecting the most suitable Minetruck.

Kjell Fjordell

[email protected]

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Upgraded Minetruck MT2010 Increased productivity Atlas Copco recently upgraded the popular Minetruck MT2000 to MT2010 with a change of engine and redesigned electrical system. Other minor revisions have been incorporated, and the whole concept mine tested under rigorous conditions for 2,500 hours in Turkey. The customer reported that the trial went very well, with good performance, easier maintenance, and excellent operator acceptability. Absolutely no technical issues needed to be addressed, and the general feedback indicated that the truck is seen as very powerful and comfortable to drive.

Main objectives Atlas Copco first introduced four-wheel drive mine trucks in 1960, when the MT10 was built for use in underground mines. In 1985, the MT420 was introduced, and 94 units were sold by 2002. The MT420B was manufactured in parallel in 1998-1999, and 16 units were produced. Its successor, the MT2000, has added another 94 units to this large fleet. Now, the MT2010 takes the place of the MT2000. The design philosophy for the MT2010 has been to increase productivity and decrease operating cost, resulting in a lower cost/tonne for the customer. It has therefore been designed to improve serviceability and to reach higher levels of availability and reliability. Many of the changes to the MT2010 are similar to those on the recently upgraded Scooptram ST1030 loader, which has also been the subject of redesigned electrics. The two vehicles have the same new instrument panel with built-in data collection unit. The panel features an integrated warning system and an engine fault code display. The system also indicates when it is time to change the air filters. The PLC has been moved into the cabin for better protection from the working environment.

Minetruck MT2010 in Kvarntorp, Sweden.

The MT2010 has been designed with special attention to driver comfort, with ergonomic seat, extended legroom, and responsive mono-stick steering, which requires very little effort, reduces fatigue, and helps productivity.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

New engine The Cummins QSL 9 diesel engine fitted to the MT2010 is clean burning, and meets the US EPA Tier 3 and the European stage 3A emissions regulations. 11

Talking Technically

The trial test of the QSL9 engine was conducted in Koza Mine, Turkey. The truck operated successfully for 2500 hours.

The QSL 9 was first delivered with the Scooptram ST1030 for six months. The reports from the customers were positive and the engine was selected for the MT2010 as well. The fully electronically controlled Cummins QSL 9 has a high-density power design with an electrical sensor for air intake restriction. The alternator is solid mounted to the engine, with a multi rib belt with spring-operated tensioner. The transmission cooler has been incorporated into the radiator for better cooling capacity and easier access, and the engine benefits from electronic protection for overheat or low oil pressure. Diagnostic software is available. The Cummins QSL 9 C300 is an 8.9 litre in-line six-cylinder engine that weighs just 738 kg and is rated as 224 kW/300 hp power output. Its overall dimensions are smaller than its predecessor in the MT2000. The engine has a high-pressure common rail fuel system with electronic injection and a wastegate turbocharger. Users can expect a longer working life due to the lower piston speed, while the 12

bypass oil filtration in combination with full flow will increase bearing and ring life. All of this adds up to a smoother running engine with lower maintenance and overhaul costs.

Drivetrain and options The MT2010 has an oversized Clark 5000 series transmission for long life, and converter lock-up to transmit more power to the ground with less heat build-up. The SAHR brakes are fully enclosed, force cooled, with multiple wet discs at each wheel end. Benefits are a 10,000 h life without adjustment, and increased vehicle safety from what is the safest brake in the mining industry. The tapered roller bearing articulation hinge on the MT2010 also has a 10,000 h life without adjustment. The Rock Tough axles have a 4,000 h warranty as the best in the industry, with SAHR brakes as an integral part of their design. Conventional differentials are standard in both front and rear axles. Lincoln automatic lubrication and

Ansul fire protection can be fitted, and the vehicle can be specified with an ejector box. The Minetruck MT2010 is purpose matched with the Scooptram 710 and 1030 as efficient loading and hauling combinations.

Kjell Fjordell [email protected]

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

CARE for mining Matching the fleet to the job In these days of instant cost analysis, it is increasingly difficult to disguise low productivity. The emphasis on unit costs, in particular, focuses on the performance of the main production fleet. As capital equipment becomes more reliable, its productivity increases. However, productivity is a function of utilization, making it essential that the fleet strength is closely matched to the job. Numbers and capacities of trucks and loaders are key to this, and the Atlas Copco CARE For Mining simulation tool provides the mine operator with a reliable means of estimating this requirement.

Exercising CARE Using CARE For Mining, the vehicle needs for the whole mine can be evaluated. Simulation using a mathematical model of the proposed system to deal with stochastic variables is far more accurate than the traditional spreadsheet. Individual vehicles behave independently of each other in terms of availability and shift schedules, but, in real life, queues and traffic disturbance interact to cause dependence on each other. Simulation allows the engineers to evaluate this behaviour over time, and under different conditions, showing the interaction between various elements and how they affect system performance. Vehicles of different types and capacities can be inserted into the CARE simulation, together with several production locations. It will handle both truck and loader estimations, and takes different scenarios and varying traffic conditions into account. Studies have been undertaken at various mine locations in order to broaden the database, and some of the results are examined in this article. CARE For Mining simulations are designed for use in all underground loading and transport situations, and will

Scooptram ST14 in Kvarntorp, Sweden.

supply the mine management with vital inputs to their equipment purchase decisions. To summarize, the tool will simulate loading and transport of ore and waste for any hard rock underground mine, and will determine truck and loader needs for different scenarios taking into account the effects of traffic disturbance, availability and preventive maintenance. The best setup can be estimated in a given scenario based on costs, vehicle types, availability, rock properties, production plan and shift schedules. In addition, different mine layouts can be investigated with respect to productivity.

Simulation as a tool The CARE For Mining simulation technique is based on trial and error, testing a given scenario for success. A scenario is set up, the simulation is run, the result is analysed, and then the process is rerun with new data, if necessary. Conventional wisdom is to concentrate on the problem, not on the data available. Reality can be simplified. If an easy model is chosen initially, and more logic is added when the easy logic generates some results, the objective will be achieved more rationally. Simulation is simply a mathematical model of a real or proposed process or system, in

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

which objects behave more like real life. This is not possible using Excel calculations because too many input parameters are not deterministic, slack time phenomena are hard to assess, traffic congestion is non-linear by nature, and randomness is hard to simulate. Hence, for complex processes such as loading and transport logistics within a limited capacity system where parts interact with each other, simulation is necessary. In underground mines, there are always special considerations, and these include: how to set up when the last loading point is a conveyor belt; how to set up loading from a loading bay only, without any stope or face; how to set up truck needs only, without any loaders affecting the result; and how to set up for chute loading.

Vazante mine study A simulation of loading and transport requirements was undertaken at Vazante mine, part of the Votorantim Metals group, in November, 2006. The purpose was to estimate the vehicle requirement for replacement of the mine truck and loader fleet. Capacity simulation of loading and transport of ore and waste rock in the mine was undertaken, without costs calculations. 13

Talking Technically

The current situation was set up using mine data for January to October, and then adjusted to give results similar to real life. Because vehicles were reportedly overloaded in normal operation, their rated capacity was increased for the purposes of calculation, and a fill factor was not used. The input data from the first simulation was applied to simulate replacement with Atlas Copco loaders and trucks, using information supplied by Atlas Copco. The results from the second simulation were then analysed, and equipment input data was progressively refined until the output data reflected the customer’s production needs. Mechanical availability was used, rather than calendar-based availability. Production over the period was 1,174,062 t using nine trucks of various designations, for which total hauled, total hours, tonnes/h, and real tonnage were entered into the simulation.

62

Mine layout, according to simplified picture to the left.

Dump 97 8

47

43

45

LP4

32

45

54

LP4

41

65

LP4

39

58

LP4

19

LP3

113

LP4

101

LP4

51

34

68 7 62 5 20 3 42 2

Production Total production (ore) 820.000 tonnes Total production (waste),508 880 tonnes Truck fleet, MT5010 Average availability 87% Box fill factor 92% Shift schedule 2 x 12 hour shifts, 7 days per week, 52 weeks/year Effective time in truck approximate 10 hours/shift Others Only truck need/capacities are simulated. In the simulation it is estimated that there will always be ore at the loading bays, i.e. production and LHD’s work flawless.

Simplified mine layout.

Vehicles

Quantity

Availability

Utilization

Capacity (t)

3xST1520

80

65

15

3xMT5010

80

65

50

2xMT5010 teletram

80

65

42.5

Conclusions Operational parameters dictate that the mine would need two of the MT5010 trucks to be equipped with teletram boxes, and only 80% mechanical availability is proposed for all trucks. This results in a simulation where four MT5010s are not enough for the required production, whereas five MT5010s will fulfil existing production needs, with some spare time as margin. Three loaders are enough, because idle time is available for them to increase production a little. The simulation results are estimations only, as a guide to choosing the right equipment. The results are based on input data given from the mine.

One of the simulation set-ups.

Vehicles

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to Votorantim for permission to publish the above article, which was extracted from a report prepared by consultants Onnerlov of Malå, Sweden on 21st November, 2006.

Robert Almqvist

[email protected]

Total hauled

Total hours

Tonne/ hour

MT5010_2

312 630

3 698

84.55

MT5010_3

297 229

3 674

80.9

MT5010_4

255 373

3 692

69.17

MT5010_5

255 405

3 709

68.85

MT5010_6

288 235

3 685

78.23

1 408 872

27 391

381.7

Total Result showing the number of trucks needed.

14

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Rig Control System for Scooptram loaders Quantum leap The introduction of the well-proven Atlas Copco Rig Control System RCS to Scooptram loaders has brought seamless integration with the drivetrain components. At the same time, joysticks in armrests, and easy-to-read multifunction colour displays on a single screen, have transformed the operator’s life. The same screen allows maintenance engineers to check status on modules and I/O ports, speeding fault detection and remedy. With RCS, soft stopped steering reduces vibration, and boom and bucket movements are better controlled, all contributing to less stress on operator and machine. A reduced number of electrical connection points, richer functionality, and component commonality with other Atlas Copco machines all add lustre to the performance of the new generation Scooptram loaders with RCS.

Common automation platform Rig Control System (RCS), which is based on standard PC-computer technology, is the automation platform for Atlas Copco equipment. CAN-bus technology provides the backbone of RCS. This system is flexible and easily expandable, allowing new units to be added anywhere along the data bus, without adding another cable. The electronic modules are all developed for purpose, and are ruggedized and protected from external magnetic and electric influences. The third generation of RCS has taken a quantum leap forward with respect to logging capabilities, serviceability and machine accuracy. The flexibility of the system can be adapted and configured for all different types of products. Customers can start at a low level of automation and, as their requirements change, can upgrade. New functionality can be

The Scooptram ST14 proves its superior performance in the muck pile.

added, without major rebuilding of the machine.

of the control system are strategically placed to make replacement easy.

RCS benefits

Screen display

RCS is the Atlas Copco CMT electronic control system platform. It offers increased serviceability, an improved manmachine interface with options for easy upgrades such as to Radio Remote Control RRC, and comprehensive logging of machine functions. Data is easily collected and transferred using a USB memory stick as standard, or other retrieval means as required. With RCS, it has become much easier to get information from the machine for servicing and diagnostics, all of which is logged and displayed in clear text on the cabin screen. All of this information is displayed in one place, and there are no hydraulics inside the cabin, reducing noise levels considerably. All parts

RCS facilitates improved operator ergonomics, clearing the cabin of gauges and instruments, creating more room and better visibility. In the main menu, the operator can change the screen display to one of a selection of languages in seconds, allowing engineers and operators of several nationalities to operate and service the machine without ambiguity. All menus are self-explanatory, and the screen symbols are easily recognizable, so there is no need to interpret the information. There are several access levels to RCS to prevent accidental or unauthorized changing of parameters and settings. These are restricted at the first level to the operator, then to the local service

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

15

Talking Technically

PC-card

AP module

Resolver module

I/O module

A HOLMBERG 2007

CCI module

RCS - a common automation platform.

staff, and at the third level to Atlas Copco service engineers. As a result, nuisance site visits to restore settings are eliminated, while fault finding and correction is vastly improved. The RCS screen provides instantaneous monitoring of operational condition for items such as

torque, intercooler temperature, fuel consumption, and engine status. The digital dashboard shows warnings and stops on screen, and is completely integrated with the RCS system. If the icon has a green background, there is no error; if yellow, there is a minor error such as

Default screen.

Load

Bucket count

Fuel Level

Engine hours Errors and warnings Engine status

16

Ride control

Gear

blocked filter; if red, there is a major error such as low oil pressure, and the machine is automatically shut down. A self-diagnostic system makes fault finding easy, indicating if there is a module failure, and where the problem lies.

RCS for Scooptram The new generation Scooptram loaders from Atlas Copco are assembled on an RCS platform, which makes them easier to build and maintain. With all-electronic control, they are automation ready, with much richer functionality and better ergonomy. It is easier to add options, and all machines are ready for RRC Radio Remote Control as standard. Previously, adding RRC to a machine required the fitting of a heavy electro-hydraulic manifold block to which pilot hoses to the controlled functions had to be connected. Then the RRC machine unit had to be installed, and the connections to the manifold block and machine electrical

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Beacon-Red Strobe – Flash Light Hamess Belt

Antenna

OU – Operator Unit Hydraulic Interface

MU – Machine Unit

Operator working with the Scooptram RRC.

system had to be interfaced. Thanks to RCS, the current RRC installation is a small MU that fits beneath the seat. Connect power, CAN and antenna, and it is ready for operation! Other benefits accrue, such as steering interlock, redundant design, and new access control, all of which make for greater safety. Likewise, load weighing, soft stops, logging and services interface contribute to functionality. The first generation of LHDs has mechanical control linkages. Second generation has pilot hydraulic controls and valves, electronic PLC and extra electronic valves for Radio Remote Control. The current third generation has RCS architecture, CAN-bus based distributed control system, and electronically controlled valves replacing the pilot hydraulics. As a result, the number of electrical connection points has decreased by two thirds, reducing the potential for breakdown, and making fault detection easier. There is also an interactive user interface, and a common RCS platform with drill rigs and other Atlas Copco surface and underground equipment. Hardware and software is developed and maintained by Atlas Copco Automation Department in Orebro, Sweden.

Current generation The RCS prototype Scooptram ST1010 C was field-tested at a Canadian mine for 4,400 hours during 2003-2004. The experience has been absorbed into the design of the latest model, the Scooptram ST14 launched in 2006. The ST14 is joystick controlled from a panel in the armrest. The left joystick steers right and left, with a soft stop. A steering interlock operates when the door is open, or the armrest is not in position. The right joystick controls boom and bucket for hoist and dump. The transmission selects gears in two major modes: automatic, in which the operator chooses direction and range with dedicated buttons; and semi-automatic in which the operator moves gear ranges up and down as required. There is a manual mode, which is used solely for verification testing. There are brake and throttle pedals set into the unique footbox, developed for this purpose. Logs are recorded for vehicle statistics over its entire life. The event log covers the last 500 events, such as errors, warnings, and restarts. The maintenance log shows essential pressures and temperatures when limits are exceeded since the last power on. Load weighing is integrated

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

using hydraulic hoist pressures, and the automatic counting scheme accumulates loads by counting buckets. The accuracy is +/-500 kg.

IREDES In order to facilitate use of different equipment from different producers in the same organization, Atlas Copco, together with other major machine manufacturers, mining and construction companies and third party suppliers, has established a standard for data exchange between rock excavation equipment and users’ computer systems. This International Rock Excavation Equipment Data Exchange Standard, or IREDES, is the common language in data exchange for mining and tunnelling, and the current range of Atlas Copco equipment has been adapted to IREDES. The Scooptram ST14, for instance, exports production data logs in IREDES XML format.

Ulrik Algulin

[email protected]

17

We understand what you’re after

Working with Atlas Copco means working with highly productive rock drilling solutions. It also means sharing a common cost-cutting challenge. Like you, we are always looking for new and effective ways to squeeze your production costs – but never at the expense of quality, safety or the environment. Mining and construction is a tough and competitive business. Fortunately, we understand what you’re after. Get your free copy of Success Stories at www.atlascopco.com/rock Committed to your superior productivity

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB Fax: +46 19 670 7393 www.atlascopco.com

Talking Technically

Efficient underground loading and haulage Load sensing hydraulics Powerful Scooptrams are vital to efficiency in underground loading and haulage. The objective has always been to provide a vehicle that can be relied on to deliver precisely the right amount of power at exactly the right moment. This has been little more than a dream, until the introduction of the Load Sensing Hydraulic System driven by a variable displacement pump. This is replacing the traditional Open Centre Hydraulic System driven by a fixed displacement pump, that has served many years as the industry standard. Load Sensing Hydraulic System is a central feature on the latest Atlas Copco Scooptram ST14.

Key source

Scooptram ST14 loading at the face.

Whenever a loader attacks a rock pile underground, a tremendous amount of power is required to thrust the bucket deep enough so that it can be filled to capacity. Wheels spin, buckets get stuck, and the vehicle often has to make several attempts before successfully penetrating the muck. Sometimes, the driver has to be content to pull away with only a partial bucket load. In the same way, LHDs that have to tackle steep, uphill gradients need extra power to maintain sufficient traction to ensure that the load will reach its destination within the projected cycle time. The key source of power for thrust, bucket movement and traction does not lie in the size of the diesel engine, but in the hydraulic pumping system that distributes and controls the flow of hydraulic oil. This is where the power for all these critical functions is generated, and where power losses can occur. Currently, there are two systems available. These are the Open Centre and Load

Sensing Hydraulic Systems, discussed below.

Open Centre Hydraulic System With the Open Centre Hydraulic System, the pump constantly delivers a flow that is proportional to the speed of the engine. When no function is activated, the oil flows through the “open centre” in the valve spools, and is returned to the hydraulic tank. When a function is activated, the open centre starts to close, which causes the pressure to rise. At the same time, the passage to the cylinder begins to open. The more the spool shifts, the more the open centre closes, and the more the pressure is increased. When the pressure is higher than the cylinder pressure, the cylinder begins to move, but oil that is not directed to the cylinder is returned to the tank at a pressure drop, which, in turn, creates heat.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

When the spool has been fully shifted, the open centre is closed, and the entire flow goes to the cylinder. If the load is higher than the maximum system pressure, the oil goes via the main relief valve back to the tank with a maximum pressure drop, which creates a great deal of heat.

Load Sensing Hydraulic System The Load Sensing Hydraulic System, on the other hand, is a modern, wellproven and reliable system. It was originally introduced for surface loaders, but is now available on the latest underground loader from Atlas Copco, the Scooptram ST14, thoroughly tested at the Kristineberg Mine in Sweden. Contrary to the Open Centre Hydraulic System, the Load Sensing Hydraulic System on the ST14 has two variable pumps working together. This provides exactly the right amount of flow and 19

Talking Technically

Power Consumption

Mucking situation, dumping only Pressure

Pressure

Open Centre Hydraulic System

Load Sensing Hydraulic System ST14 Losses

Dump cylinder

Dump cylinder

Losses

Savings

Flow

Q pump

Flow

Max Q pump

Power Consumption

Tramming situation, steering

Pressure

Pressure

Open Centre Hydraulic System

Load Sensing Hydraulic System ST14 Losses

Steering cylinders

Steering cylinders

Losses

Flow

Savings

Flow

Q pump

Max Q pump

Power Consumption

Combined situation, hoist and dump Pressure

Pressure

Open Centre Hydraulic System

Load Sensing Hydraulic System ST14

Hoist cylinders

Hoist cylinders

Losses

Losses Dump cylinder

Flow

Q pump

Savings Dump cylinder

Flow

Max Q pump

In an open centre system, the hydraulic flow (the horizontal axis) is determined by the engine speed (revs). Consequently, a large amount of unused oil is pumped through the system unnecessarily, with corresponding power losses and heat build-up. In a load sensing system, the hydraulic flow is determined by the actual demand, and the pump only delivers the required flow at the required pressure level. No oil is throttled back to the tank, to create heat and power losses. In both systems, the hydraulic pressure (the vertical axis) is determined by the actual pressure requirement. By choosing the Load Sensing Hydraulic System for the Scooptram ST14, the speed on grade has been increased by up to 14%. During mucking, it is possible to move the bucket with minimal losses of traction force.

pressure at any one time, distributing the power wherever and whenever it is needed. As the system is activated only when moving the control stick, only a minimum of pumping power is lost, thereby reducing fuel consumption. Furthermore, the hydraulic system is faster, which means shorter working cycle times and higher productivity, and gives the operator better control of the load, resulting in a smoother, more comfortable ride. The spools in the Load Sensing Hydraulic System are “closed centre”, 20

which means that when no function is activated, no oil flows through the system. The pump strokes back to zero flow, and maintains only a low standby pressure. As soon as a function is activated, a pressure signal from the cylinder port is fed back to the pump, which then regulates to a pressure level just above the highest load. This means that the pump only delivers the flow that is needed at the required pressure level, and that no oil is throttled back to the tank, creating heat. If the load is higher than maximum system pressure, the pump strokes back

and holds the maximum pressure at zero flow, again saving energy. The capabilities of the Load Sensing Hydraulic System enable the use of a stiffer converter with a higher degree of efficiency that transfers more of the power to the driving wheels, and reduces the amount of heat loss. This results in a higher speed on grade for the Scooptram ST14, and maximum utilization of the installed diesel power. This results in improved performance, minimum power losses and lower overall fuel consumption.

Power losses Small movements under high pressure in conventional hydraulic systems always lead to substantial power losses, and the use of the bucket is a good example. It is common practice to move the bucket slightly, to make it easier to penetrate the muck pile. With the Open Centre Hydraulic System, a large amount of thrusting power is lost each time the hydraulic oil is activated and directed to the bucketmoving cylinders, reducing the amount of power retained for traction. With the modern Load Sensing Hydraulic System, more than enough power is retained for both bucket movements and traction, and the traction power drops only marginally with each small bucket movement. The tests carried out with the Scooptram ST14 prove the point. The extra wheel spin caused by the increased amount of available power was easily compensated. By easing up on the throttle, and attacking the muck pile at lower revs, the operators found they could get excellent traction, and save fuel at the same time. To summarize, the search for increased efficiency in underground loading and hauling operations is satisfied by a vehicle that can deliver the exact amount of pressure and flow required for each function. Load Sensing Hydraulic Systems in underground equipment such as the Scooptram ST14 are a milestone for Atlas Copco, and a major step forward for the industry.

Jonas Henrysson

[email protected]

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Automation in mining Key role The mining industry continues to experience unprecedented growth as global demands for minerals and metals remain at record levels. Automation is playing a key role in the production process and paving the way for future mining ventures.

Natural choice

Scooptram ST14 The recently launched Atlas Copco Scooptram ST14 is a typical example. Vehicles were tested at Boliden’s Kristineberg Mine in Sweden, and at Inco’s Stobie Mine in Canada. Other units are being delivered to mines in Sweden, Canada, Portugal, Chile and Russia. This new loader design reduces the physical strain on the operator by making better

Scooptram ST14 with RCS makes better use of available power.

use of available power. The bucket penetrates the muckpile easier and quicker, and is filled to capacity at every attempt. This increases the number of loads per shift, with corresponding improvements in productivity. These productivity and safety benefits are derived from applying the company’s RCS (Rig Control System) and ABC (Advanced Boom Control)

systems witch are already installed on most of its Rocket Boomer, Simba and Boltec underground and rigs.

Rig Control System The ABC system offers three modes: ABC Basic, Regular or Total. These correspond to manual, semi-automatic and fully automatic operation. ABC Total is

Mine automation

Increasing process integration

Underground mining operations with production processes that are exceptionally deep, unusually difficult to access, or extremely hazardous are typical environments that make automation and self-operating equipment a natural choice. Mining companies currently invest in automated equipment as a means of increasing safety, reducing manual repetitive work, and increasing overall efficiency and productivity. As one of the world’s leading suppliers, Atlas Copco has been instrumental in developing much of the automation technology that is available for the modern mining industry. This includes everything from computerized control and guidance systems on large underground drill rigs and loaders, to remote control and satellite hole navigation systems on surface crawler rigs. The aims of such innovations are to consistently reduce human exposure to the harsh and dangerous environment of underground mining and at the same time increasing efficiency and equipment utilization.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Automation development

Automation Systems

Equipm. automation

Increasing business understanding

21

Talking Technically

Atlas Copco automation products in use.

the mode that is now gaining the most ground, offering accurate and precise hole collaring, and faster drill and blast work cycles. Developments such as these are designed to keep efficiency high and costs low, so that miners can meet the future challenges of the industry with confidence. As most of the tonnage in tomorrow’s world will be extracted using mechanized equipment, automation makes perfect sense. But more importantly, it is getting harder and harder to find new deposits. When they are found, they are generally more difficult and more expensive to mine than before. The new mines are often located in remote areas, which are not the most attractive for recruiting the best-qualified people. To mine these deposits profitably, automation will not just be an option, it will be a necessity.

Centre of excellence When the LKAB-owned mines of Kiruna in northern Sweden became mechanized in the 1980s they worked in close co-operation with Atlas Copco to develop drill rigs and systems that could be controlled at a safe distance from the mining area. These rigs now also run during night shifts in automatic mode, entirely without supervision. Today, Örebro in the heartland of Sweden is the centre for Atlas Copco research and development in this field. The region has a long tradition of mining, and it was in Örebro that Atlas Copco developed its first Rig Control System (RCS) in 1996. Since then it has become the standard for drill rig applications and the platform for all 22

subsequent automation innovations by Atlas Copco. The PC-based RCS platform, and its associated modules, considerably reduce the wear and tear to which mining equipment and personnel are normally subjected. They make operations faster and lighter, and make the equipment easier to handle and maintain. Much of the communication with today’s rigs is handled through the Internet, satellite and telephone, taking production planning and fault-finding to a higher level.

Automation in action Other examples of progress from automation are automatic bit changers and automatic tunnel profiling systems. Measure While Drilling MWD, a system for the logging of rock strata characteristics using the rock drill as a sensor while drilling the blast holes, is also a product of automation. Using MWD, the logged data is transferred to a PC for further analysis and interpretation. The resultant data gives a prediction of the geology ahead of the face, which is invaluable when drilling in mixed strata. The focus is increasingly on the use of technology to preview reality. For example, it would be hugely advantageous to show the loader operator what the muck pile looks like before he drives in, to show the driller what the orebody looks like before he sets up the rig, and to show the blaster what the hole looks like inside before he commences charging. LHD automation applications currently are in the whole production cycle - from teleremote mucking, autonomous

tramming to dump site, auto dumping and then return autonomously to the drawpoint for the next loading cycle. There are also trucking applications where the trucks are loaded by LHDs or by chutes and then tram autonomously to the dump site, dump the load and tram back to loading area. Productivity improvements, as well as maintenance savings, are becoming real through all these various projects mentioned above. Automated systems provide realtime information to the management and supervisors of these mines, not to mention the operator of the system. This is for accurate planning, scheduling and measuring the process. Atlas Copco has learned that, wherever mining and construction activities may be located, we must continually strive to make improvements, and we must never stop trying to increase efficiency for our customers. - Automation is the key.

Casper Swart

[email protected]

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Talking Technically

Service parts for Scooptram and Minetruck Spare parts policy The aim of Atlas Copco service parts policy is to promote Atlas Copco Genuine Parts using a One Service - One Part Number protocol. Our general guidelines recommend what parts should be considered for customers’ stock, and our service kits include all necessary parts and tools for the job. All parts needed for our products, and originally installed at our factory, have gone through our research and development process, with the emphasis on consistent quality. Most important to equipment owners and operators is the fact that only Atlas Copco Genuine Parts are covered by Atlas Copco warranty.

Aftermarket Aftermarket Marketing Department is responsible for spare parts policy. The characteristics of the part greatly affect the way the spare part level is set. If a part assembly module includes any wear parts or consumables that need to be changed within a regular time interval, these parts are generally also sold loose or in a kit. If a part is highly advanced technologically, or has tight tolerances that may complicate the service or repair, it is generally sold as a complete functioning unit.

ducts

® 38 OP 30 l kits C verhau Copco

arket pro

Afterm

O

Prev

entiv

Main features - These kits contain all parts needed for preventive maintenance service based on engine hours as per factory recommendation. - With these kits you will maintain your machine as per factory recommendation and optimize your production in an economical way.

- All the parts needed for preventive maintenance service contained in one solid box for shipping and handling at the job site.

eM

aint enan Sco ce Ki o ts Min ptram ® etru TM an d ck

- One part number per service interval for easier order handling and logistics.

- The price is most competitive compared to buying individual items

ling

hand easier order

for number - One parttics. cand logis auling instru de the overh you need also inclu list which . kits conta aul of your rock - The kits spare parts - These mendation 3038. and overh factory recom tions and service to auling COP as per drill for overh e compared COP 3038 your rock competitiv will bringand optimize is most kits you . ons, - The price idual items - With these ry specificati mical way. indiv g facto econo buyin an back to ction in en box, your produ solid wood ined in a site. are conta ling at the job hand - The parts ing and for shipp

tures ng for maki Main fea in all parts neededdrill,

“One

Our spare parts are easy to disassemble and assemble on the machine at site, without needing to send the vehicle to the workshop. Thought is given to whether special tools are needed in order to properly carry out the service or repair. Aftermarket publishes a range of brochures and a handbook covering its activities.

One service- one part number protocol

Atlas Copco Aftermarket products

Preventive maintenance kits for ST1030

Atlas

Preventive Maintenance Kits for Scooptram and Minetruck.

Servi

ce O

ne N

umbe

r”

Customers gain many advantages by using parts kits instead of ordering individual parts and tools separately. Not only do the kits contain everything needed for a service, rebuild or overhaul but they will also save time when carrying out the work. Instead of searching for parts, the customer only has to open up the kit box to find everything required for servicing his machine. The kits are based on the parts needed for each

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

specific job, to meet the service interval stated in our maintenance manuals. Our parts kits feature: selected quality parts and tools for servicing and overhauling machines; a solid box container for secure shipping and handling at the job site; one part number, under the oneservice-one part number protocol; and simplified service requirements. The advantages of using genuine Atlas Copco parts kits are: machine products are maintained to factory specifications, thus optimizing economic production; easier order handling and logistics; and the price is most competitive compared to buying individual items.

Preventive maintenance Preventive Maintenance Kits are available for Scooptram and Minetruck, and are based on factory recommendations for servicing according to engine or operational hours. PM Kits depend on model of product, and descriptions 23

Talking Technically

Scooptram configured with RRC kit.

follow industry terminology, such as: service kit; repair kit; overhaul kit; standard tool kit; and special tool kit. Each kit includes all parts that should be replaced during the service, repair or overhaul. Depending on the complexity of the specific maintenance job, instruction manuals are supplied with the kit. Preventive Maintenance Kits’ contents meet the needs of servicing a product to meet expected life cycle and cost, compared to the price of replacement. The kit contents are based upon recommendations from the supplier of the

product and/or Atlas Copco, according to experience with similar products, working conditions and environment.

Loader Remote Control The latest generation of Atlas Copco Scooptram loaders are ready prepared to accept Radio Remote Control, RRC. This is a line-of-sight application that enables safer and more effective operation in unstable mine stopes. Scooptram RRC gives the operator control of his machine while keeping at a safe distance.

The machine unit and the operator unit supplied by Atlas Copco have been designed to ensure full interaction with the Scooptram. They are lightweight, and have a long communication range and long operating time. The system is monitored to detect errors, and there are several safety features.

Peter Trimmel

[email protected]

Scooptram configured with RRC kit Scooptram Model

Scooptram RRC Kit

Hydraulic RRC Installation kit

Comment

ST2G

5580 0088 00

5575 4856 00

To be verified before order To be verified before order

ST3.5

5580 0083 35

4 different options

ST710 Canopy

5580 0100 18

5572 7585 00

ST710 Cab

5580 0100 97

5572 7585 00

ST1020/ST1030

5580 0085 83

5575 3984 00

ST8B

5580 0084 98

5574 4982 00

ST1520

5580 0082 43

5575 4616 00

24

To be verified before order

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Rustenburg, South Africa

Loading in low headroom at Waterval Boosting production The Anglo Platinum Group of South Africa, the world’s leading plat­inum producer, has completed an ambitious plan to boost its annual output by 75% from 2.2 million ounces to 3.5 million ounces by the year 2006. This tough target would have been a daunting prospect for most mining companies, especially in conditions at its Waterval mine, where headroom seldom exceeds 2.0 m. However, Anglo Platinum, which accounts for more than half of the total platinum produced in South Africa, has very extensive experience of low seam operations. This experience led the company to Atlas Copco, who supplied a com­plete equipment package to Waterval’s specification to meet all of its low headroom loading, drilling, and rock bolting needs.

Thin seam, high output Waterval Mine is near Rustenburg, about 150 km northwest of Johannes­burg. It is one of Anglo Platinum’s newest mines, and will be making its contribu­tion to the group’s target by excavating 3.2 million t/year in an orebody just 0.6 m-thick and on a decline of nine degrees.   Despite the low seam and restricted mining space, Anglo Platinum was convinced that it could tackle the task successfully, and opted for the room and pillar method with ramp access, to­gether with mechanized equipment.   The mine design meant that the rooms would be extremely confined, with a height of 1.8-2.0 m. This, in turn, meant that headings would have to be as low as possible, and the equipment extremely compact.   Anglo Platinum also in­sisted that quantum im­provements be made at the mine in three priority areas: safety, production and pro­ductivity, in that order.   Potential suppliers were assessed by Waterval engineers. Atlas Copco was the only company able to provide a total solu­t ion around the three key mining tools needed: loader, drill rig, and bolting rig. These needed

to be low profile, compact and techncally advanced, spe­cially designed for low seam work and exacting environments.   In addition, Atlas Copco agreed to act as a cooperation partner in all aspects of the rock excavation process, providing operator training, spare parts supply and service and maintenance.

Atlas Copco Scooptram ST600LP at work in the Waterval stopes.

Purpose matched package The equipment trio comprised the Atlas Copco Scooptram ST600LP loader, the Rocket Boomer S1L drill rig, and the Boltec SL bolting rig. The units were progressively delivered to Waterval, until there were 23 Scooptram ST600LP loaders, 15 Rocket Boomer rigs, and six Boltec units at the site.   The Scooptram ST600LP, also known as the Ratel, is a compact LHD with a height of around 1.5 m. It has a 6 t loading capacity, and is equipped with a special bucket for low height work. It is powered by a clean burning 136 kW Deutz diesel engine.   The Rocket Boomer S1L has well-proven, heavy duty Atlas Copco compo­nents such as the COP 1838 rock drill, BUT 28 boom, and BMH 2837 feed.   The Boltec SL is a high production, semimechanized rock bolting rig with an electrical remote control system. Apart from standard rockbolt installation, it is also equipped

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

25

Loading in Low Headroom at Waterval

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Room and pillar layout at Waterval where the Scooptram ST600LP works in as low as 1.8 m headroom.

to perform long hole drilling for anchor and cable bolting. The Boltec SL uses the same carrier as the Rocket Boomer S1L, bringing advantages of commonality.   The equipment complement for each mining section is one Rocket Boomer, one Boltec, and two Scooptram ST600LP loaders.

Production Drilling

Rocket Boomer S1L working in low headroom at Waterval.

The layout at Waterval is divided into 12 sections with nine panels or stopes. Each panel averages 12 m-wide x 1.8 m-high, with pillars of approximately 6 m x 6 m. The drillers work three 8 h shifts per day, six days a week and their target per section is 23,000 t/month. That translates to 200 t per panel, or two panels per shift. Some 68-74 x 3.4 mlong holes are required in each panel, taking around 2.5 h to drill. Three 77 mm holes form the cut, and the main round is drilled using Atlas Copco Secoroc model –27 R32 43-45 mm bits.   Ramps from the surface provide the access for men, machines and supplies, and also accommodate conveyor belts for transporting the ore out of the mine. The mine expects each Rocket Boomer rig to yield around 200,000 t/year.   For rockbolting, 1.6 m-long Swellex bolts

are used, in a standard bolting pattern of 1.5 m x 1.2-1.5 m. The Boltec SL is equipped with Secoroc Magnum SR28 Tapered Speedrods, with 38 mm model -27-67 bits for Swellex installation. The tramming height of the Boltec SL is just 1.30 m, with ground clearance of 0.26 m. It is equipped with a COP1028HB rock drill, and can insert a Swellex bolt of length up to 1.6 m in roof height of 1.8 m.   With so many available faces in close proximity to each other in the room and pillar layout, utilization is a key factor for maintaining a high level of productivity and efficiency. The required utilization for the drill rigs ranges from 50 -75%, and availability is about 90%.

Low height loading The Scooptram ST600LP is an extremely robust loader designed specifically for demanding thin seam applications where the roof heights are as low as 1.8 m. For visibility on the far side of the machine, video cameras point to front and rear, displaying the views on a screen in the driver’s cab.   Loading from the different rooms is a crucial part of the operation, and the spe­ cially designed E-O-D (Eject-O-­Dump) 6 tcapacity bucket on the Scooptram ST600LP makes low height work easy. Using the E-O-D bucket, the rock is pushed out by a push plate onto feed­ers that transfer it to the conveyor system for transportation to the surface. The Scooptram loaders are refuelled underground and generally drive up to the surface for maintenance.   At Waterval, Anglo Platinum gives top priority to dilution and utiliza­tion. The amount of rock waste must be kept to an absolute minimum, and the fact that this can be achieved with mecha­nized equipment in such a low, flat seam is seen as a major achievement.   To ensure high availability of the equip­ ment, Anglo Platinum and Atlas Copco have entered into full-service contracts that provide for 24 h service and maintenance. It makes good business sense for the mine to have a service contract manned by specialists with the technical know-how and skills for optimal maintenance.

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to the management at Waterval for their kind assistance in revision of this article. 26

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Barroca Grande, Portugal

Keeping a low profile at Panasqueira One hundred years of history Primary Metals Inc (PMI) is owner of the Panasqueira mine in Portugal, in production for over 100 years, and still the largest single source of tungsten in the world. Thin seams in low headroom make the mining tricky, but Atlas Copco Portugal was able to come up with the perfect package of low headroom mining equipment, including its increasingly popular Scooptram ST600LP. PMI also chose Atlas Copco Finance for funding the fleet purchase, agreeing a simple supplier-credit arrangement tailored to match the demands of the operation. As a result, overall mine productivity has increased by 25%, and daily production records are being broken. Above all, the partnership between equipment supplier and end-user is proving to be progressive and profitable!

Introduction

Production levels

The Panasqueira mine is located at Barroca Grande in a mountainous region of Portugal, 300 km northeast of the capital city of Lisbon, and 200 km southeast of the port city of Porto. The mining concession lies in moderately rugged, pine and eucalyptus covered hills and valleys, with elevations ranging from 350 m above sea level in the southeast to a peak of 1,083 m above sea level in the northwestern corner. The concession area is an irregular shape trending northwest-southeast, and is approximately 7.5 km-long. It is 1.5 km-wide at the southeastern end, and 5.0 km-wide at the northwestern end, where the mine workings and mill facilities are located. The geology of the region is characterized by stacked quartz veins that lead into mineralized wolfram-bearing schist. The mineralized zone has dimensions of approximately 2,500 m in length, varying in width from 400 m to 2,200 m, and continues to at least 500 m in depth.

Access to the mine’s main levels is by a 2.5 m x 2.8 m decline from surface, with a gradient of 14%. The main levels consist of a series of parallel drives that are spaced 100 m apart, and which provide access to the ore passes for rail transport, and connect with ramps for movement of drilling and loading equipment. There are seven veins between the 2nd and 3rd Levels, which are 90 m apart. The veins are almost flat, but occasionally split or join together. They pinch and swell, and are usually between 10 and 70 cm-thick, and can plunge locally as much as 3-4 m in a very short distance. Blocks of ore are laid out initially in 100 m x 80 m sections by driving 5 m-wide tunnels, 2.2 m-high. Similar tunnels are then set off at approximately 90 degrees to create roughly 11 m by 11 m pillars, which are ultimately reduced by slyping to 3 m by 3 m, providing an extraction rate of 84%. Blasted ore is loaded from the stopes by a fleet of six low-profile Atlas Copco Scooptram

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Barroca Grande: home to the world´s largest tungsten mine.

27

Keeping a Low Profile at Panasqueira

ST600LP loaders tipping into 1.8 m-diameter bored raises connecting to the main level boxes. Rail haulage with trolley locomotives is used to transport the ore to the shaft on Level 3, and to the 900 t-capacity main orepass on Level 2 that provides storage for the 190 t/h jaw crusher located at the 530 mlevel. Crushed ore discharges onto the 1,203 mlong, 17% inclined Santa Barbara conveyor belt that connects with a 3,000 t-capacity coarse ore bin located beneath the mine office. Primary mine ventilation is provided naturally by several ventilation raises. Airflow is controlled by curtains in main areas and assisted by axial flow fans where needed, particularly in the stopes. Compressed air is needed for the charging of the blast holes with ANFO, and a new

Scooptram under maintenance.

Schematic of stope layout.

Initial pillar

Final pillars

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Wolframite seam

compressor unit was installed underground in 2002. The mine is supplied by 3.0 kV electrical power, which is reduced to 380 V for distribution to equipment.

Mining method The stoping process begins when spiral ramps are driven up to access the mineralized veins, and the orebody is opened in four directions and blocked out. East-west oriented tunnels are called Drives, and those trending north-south are called Panels. Drives and Panels are driven 5 m-wide and, where they intersect, 1.8 m-diameter raises are bored between haulage levels to act as orepasses for all of the stopes. Chutes are installed in the bottoms of the orepasses to facilitate the loading of trains. The height of the stopes is nominally 2.1 m, but can increase to 2.3 m in areas where ore bearing veins are more variable in their dip, strike or thickness. Precise survey control is maintained, so that all final pillars are aligned vertically. Experience has shown that the stopes will usually begin to collapse about 4 or 5 months after extraction, which gives plenty of time to glean any remaining fines from the floor. Stope drilling is carried out by new generation Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer S1L low profile electric hydraulic single boom

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Keeping a Low Profile at Panasqueira

jumbos. Rounds are drilled 2.2 m-deep, utilizing a Vee-cut, and 41 and 43 mmdiameter drill bits. Drilling is carried out on two shifts, with about 28 holes required per 5 m-wide round. ANFO is loaded pneumatically into the blast holes, and electric delay detonators along with small primers are used for blasting. Blasting takes place around midnight, and the mine then ventilates throughout the night. Each blasted face produces about 60-65 t of rock, and each rig can drill up to 10 faces/shift, depending upon the availability of working places. After the blast, the muck pile is washed down, and the back is scaled. Ore is loaded and hauled by the Scooptrams from the headings to the orepasses. Once the limits of the stopes are established, then the final extraction takes place with 3 m x 3 m pillars created from the perimeter retreating to the access ramp.

Secoroc SR35 bits used by the COP 1838 rockdrills are returning 370 m/bit, while the 41 mm-diameter bits are returning 450 m /bit. In such abrasive rock, bit wear has to be closely monitored to avoid an escalation in costs. Likewise, regrinding has to be to a high standard. The recent addition of Rocket Boomer S1L models to the fleet has resulted in a 50% increase in output/drill rig, while less waste rock is generated due to the lower profile required for safe operation. This drill rig will operate in a seam height as low as 1.3 m and is equipped with four-wheel drive for maximum tractability. The COP 1838 rock drill has double reflex dampening for high-speed drilling and excellent drill steel economy.

Atlas Copco Boomer S1L drill rig in operation..

Core drilling underground at Panasqueira.

Drilling performance The mine drill rig fleet comprises three Atlas Copco Boomer H126L drill rigs mounted with COP 1238ME rock drills; five Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer S1L low-profile drill rigs mounted with COP 1838ME rock drills; and three older drill rigs retrofitted with COP 1238LP rock drills. All drilling uses ballistic button bits, of which the preferred 43 mm-diameter Atlas Copco Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

29

Keeping a Low Profile at Panasqueira

Atlas Copco Scooptram ST600LP in low headroom stope.

Drilling is performed primarily on day and afternoon shifts on around 50 faces. These are maintained in close proximity to one another, to avoid long moves for the drill rigs.

Scooptram ST600LP

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to the directors and management at Panasqueira for their kind assistance in the production of this article, and for providing access to the mine statistics.

Each Scooptram ST600LP cleans 4-6 headings/shift on a maximum 200 m round trip to tip, consuming 12 lit/h of dieseline. The ST600LP is an extremely robust LHD designed specifically for demanding low seam applications where the back heights are as low as 1.6 m. It has an operating weight of 17.3 t and a tramming capacity of 6 t, equipped with a 3.1 cu m bucket. It is 8.625 m-long, 1.895 m-wide and 1.56 m from floor to top of canopy. It is powered by a robust 6-cylinder diesel engine, providing a mechanical breakout force of 8.7 t and hydraulic breakout force of 9.3 t. For visibility on the far side of the machine, video cameras point forward and aft, reporting to a screen in the driver’s cab. The model has gained a well-deserved reputation in the platinum, palladium and chrome mines of South Africa, where gradients are steep and rock is highly abrasive. The ST600LP is now proving itself in similar rigorous conditions at Panasqueira, where the roof is not well defined, and there are frequent seam irregularities. 30

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

fresnillo, Mexico

Getting the best for Penoles Special operations Industrias Penoles’ Proano and Francisco I Madero mines are very special operations. Both underground mines, Proano is a 450 year-old operation and the richest silver mine in the world, and FIM is just six years old and the largest zinc mine in Mexico. Located in the central state of Zacatecas, both mines are key users of Atlas Copco equipment, which includes Scooptram and Minetruck products. Penoles has decided to standardize its whole mining fleet on Atlas Copco equipment to obtain maximum benefit from the service and distribution centre in nearby Caleras.

Mechanization pioneer The official name of the Proano mine comes from Captain Diego Fernandez de Proano, who discovered the site and developed the first mining works on the hill that bears his name. The operation is also known as Fresnillo mine because of its proximity to Fresnillo city. It is run by the Compania Fresnillo, SA de CV, which is 100% owned by Penoles. With a history that can be traced as far back as the 1550s in Pre-Hispanic times, Proano has gone through a number of phases, which have left an important mark on the mine. Its operations have been stopped due to economical and technical difficulties (1757 to 1830), as well as during the Mexican Revolution (1913 to 1919), and inevitably it has gone through several ownership as well as technological changes. From employing basic manual tools in the early days, the mine now employs modern mechanized units, including some of the most sophisticated mining machinery available. Embracing mechanization early on has been one of the factors that has helped Proano cement its position as the world's largest and most profitable silver mine. They started mechanizing operations about 40 years ago, and during the last 30 years there has been a steady increase in production. Products are silver-lead concentrates and silver-zinc concentrates. In 2005, Proano produced

nearly 34 million troy ounces, or 1,055 t, of silver.

Proano mine headframe.

Production expansion During the mine's long history it has had to adapt to changes in the geology and work parameters. For instance, the mining method has had to be fundamentally changed several times, and each time the appropriate technology and equipment has had to be introduced. Atlas Copco has worked alongside the mine management for several years to adapt and innovate with primary equipment, service, training, inventory management an parts stock. The mine recently implemented

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

31

Getting the Best For Penoles

During the first three months of 2006, the entire Atlas Copco mining fleet at Proano achieved a physical availability of 89.5% against the objective of 90%. Atlas Copco's commitment to Proano goes beyond providing new equipment, and a few years ago it decided to set up a distribution & service centre in Caleras, Zacatecas.

Mining operations

Scooptram ST1020 loading Minetruck MT2000 at Proano Mine.

32

a substantial production increase, going from 4,500 t/day to 7,000 t/day. To support this production expansion the company recently increased its mining fleet with the purchase of three Rocket Boomer 281 development drill rigs additional to its four existing units, another Simba M4 C production drill rig additional to its existing three units, five Scooptram ST1020 loaders to complement its existing fleet of 17 units, and two MT2000 trucks to increase its fleet to seven units. Atlas Copco has also started a service contract for the Simba rigs, which requires the presence of four technicians on site, and offers similar assistance for the loaders. Currently, the Proano mining fleet represents a mix of old and new Atlas Copco technology. Amongst the old units are ST 6C loaders, BBC 16 pneumatic rock drills, BMT 51 pusher leg rock drills and DIP & DOP pneumatic pumps. There are also Diamec U6, Diamec 262 and Diamec 252 exploration drill rigs, Boltec 235 bolting rigs, Rocket Boomer 104 drill rigs, Simba 1254 production drill rigs and Robbins raise borers. Furthermore, the mine uses Secoroc drill steel on development and production rigs. Proano was the first mining operation in Mexico to employ the Boltec rigs and the Rocket Boomer 281 rig with telescopic advance, which represent completely new technology. Likewise, Proano owns two Diamec U6 APC deep hole drill rigs, the first mine in the Americas to use this type of machine.

The underground operations can be accessed either through two shafts, Central Shaft and San Luis Shaft, or by one of the mine's several ramps. The mine has seven levels, and in Level 425 is the San Carlos orebody which currently produces 67% of production. Proano carries out about 40,000 m of development drilling a year. To support this work, there are three different contracting companies: Mincamex, Jomargo and Mecaxa. All three companies own Atlas Copco equipment, mainly Rocket Boomer drill rigs and Scooptram loaders. The mining method is cut & fill using upwards and downwards drilling. However, the amount of drilling and the hole diameter have changed over the years. They went from drilling 20 m downwards and 10 m upwards to drilling 22 m downwards and upwards. Then changes in the orebody allowed use of long hole drilling employing Simba rigs with top hammers. The base main level is serviced with electricity, water and air, from where the sublevels are supplied. Currently, the miners drill 25 to 32 m downwards and 25 to 32 m upwards, using a computerized Simba M4 C DTH rig from a single set up.

Community & environment The expansion of the Fresnillo city through the years means that Proano's operations are now situated almost inside the city. The company has taken this fact as an opportunity to develop a good relationship with the community. In order to diminish the environmental impact of its operations, the company has invested in the installation of environmentally friendly equipment and machinery. Proano has an ISO 14000 Environmental Management System certification and has also been awarded a Clean Industry Registration by the Mexican environmental authority.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Getting the Best For Penoles

Furthermore, the company has founded an ecological park, which is a sanctuary for several species of mammals, birds and reptiles. Nearby, there is also a tourist mine, and a mining museum to make the public familiar with the mining process and to preserve the history of the industry. In 2004 the company opened the Parque los Jales, a public area that includes lakes, paths and open areas for physical exercise and relaxation. This facility was built on the land formerly occupied by the tailings pond.

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Atlas Copco Mexicana (Tlalnepantla)

New operation Located about 15 km north of the city of Zacatecas, Francisco I. Madero (FIM) is one of Penoles' newest mines, having started commercial production only in 2001. The mine's name comes from a former Mexican President, Francisco Ignacio Madero, killed during the Mexican Revolution. Although a polymetallic mine with reserves of gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc, FIM's main products are zinc concentrates and lead concentrates. At the end of 2005, the mine had reserves of 27.5 million t with an average zinc grade of 3.3% and 0.74% of lead. With an investment of US$125.8 million and a production capacity of 8,000 t/day, in 2005 FIM produced a total of 65,948 t of zinc concentrates, and during the first semester of 2006 produced 31,572 t. The mine is equipped with a radio system for internal and external communication through a network of coaxial cables in the production levels, development areas and mining infrastructure. This system incorporates voice, data and video channels for communication between personnel, accident reduction, production control and location of vehicles and personnel. Atlas Copco started working with the Penoles' team in charge of the FIM project in October, 1997 and has continued to provide technical support in the planning and development of the mine. The first order from the mine was for four Rocket Boomer L1C and three Rocket Boomer L2C drill rigs with single and twin booms respectively. These rigs, which have enclosed, air conditioned cabs, feature ABC Regular computerized drilling system with communication ports and protocols for PC, failure and anti jamming systems. FIM also ordered eleven ST8C loaders with weighing system, real time communication system via leaky feeder to a control centre, and auto-diagnostic system

M E X I C O

Mexico City BELIZE GUATEMALA

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EL SALVADOR

with data port. The first machines arrived in 2000. This initial fleet has subsequently been expanded to include: two Robbins raiseborers, a 61R and a 63RM; three SB 300 scalers; a Craelius Diamec U6 exploration rig; a Simba production drilling rig; and two Boltec 235 bolting rigs. Furthermore, Atlas Copco Mexicana and FIM have an important maintenance contract, which has been running for six years. This is the largest such contract that Atlas Copco has in Mexico, and comprises a team of around 20 people including mechanics and supervisors, directly supported by their Caleras distribution & service centre. According to the management at FIM, the Atlas Copco equipment has contributed to the rapid and safe advance in production at this mine.

Map of Mexico showing the locations of the mines.

FIM mining operations For development and production work, FIM employs several contracting companies, amongst which are Minera Castellana, which also carries out exploration work. Contractors Arconso and Paniagua Obras Mineras both conduct development work. The latter has a specific contract to conduct at least 200 m/month of development work using an FIM Rocket Boomer L1C rig equipped with COP 1838 drill and one of the Scooptram ST8C loaders. Around 235 m of development has been achieved in a month. The ST8C loader operator is very happy with the machine, which is the most modern

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

33

Getting the Best For Penoles

The mine layout showing extraction via sub-level stoping. Besides production drilling, mine development work amounting to some 36,000 metres per year (3,000m/month) is also carried out.

Mine workers at Francisco I. Madero Mine.

equipment he has worked to date. He finds the controls easy, and had no problem learning to drive. Because of the generally poor ground conditions, FIM employs cut & fill with pillars as its mining method. It has been the method of choice since operations started. It opens voids of 8 to 10 m, bounded by non-recoverable pillars of 6 m in a square section. It has a mineral recovery factor of 86% to 90%.

For production, horizontal and vertical drilling is used in a ratio of 30:70, but that will change by mid-2007 to 100% long hole drilling angled 75 degrees upwards. The roof is expected to be subjected to less damage, and less support should be needed. The risk of rock falls is also much lower. This is similar to methods used at Proano, so their experience will be most useful. FIM uses a mixture of shotcreting and bolting, and recently acquired two Boltec 235 roof bolters with COP 1532 drills. Each machine regularly installs nine roof bolts per hour, or 56 per shift. Depending on the quality of the rock, up to 70 bolts/shift have been installed. On average, about 2,400 bolts/month are installed. Tests at the mine prior to purchase of the Boltec bolting rigs revealed that the bolts were taking 17 t each. Most of the mined material is unloaded by gravity directly to a crushing station. The rest of the production is hauled in 40 t-capacity trucks in a closed circuit of horizontal haulage on the general haulage level, located at 210 m from surface. A conveyor belt is installed in a 4 x 3 ramp with an inclination of 21% and a length of 1,290 m from level 2022 to the surface. For personnel access, mining equipment and general mining services, there is a 4.6 m x 4.0 m ramp with an inclination of 13.5% and 1,790 m length between surface and the general haulage level.

Maintenance To deliver its maintenance contract, Atlas Copco has its own facilities at the mine, backed up by the distribution and service centre in Calera. The contract includes preventive and corrective maintenance, and follows a programme already prepared for all the Atlas Copco fleet. The service contract has a specific programme every week depending on the machines to be serviced. About 50% of the machines have been working for between 18,000 and 20,000 hours without any rebuild, which is a good reference for the quality of the equipment. The contract also involves operator training.

Acknowledgements This article first appeared in Mining and Construction No 1, 2007.

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Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Kristineberg, Sweden

Scooptram ST14 earns top rating Load sensing hydraulics The first Atlas Copco Scooptram ST14 to be equipped with a Load Sensing Hydraulic System was highly praised during trials at the Kristineberg mine in Sweden. The system distributes the hydraulic oil to the machine's various cylinders at the right pressure, at the right time, and with a minimum of power loss, irrespective of whether several functions are activated at the same time. The result is a loader that is more responsive, faster to fill, quicker on grade and easier to handle. The operators were impressed by the ready availability of power to penetrate the muckpile and fill the bucket in one pass, while the management welcomed the improved productivity.

Competitive trial Kristineberg is Sweden's deepest mine and has been in operation since 1940. It produces 550,000 t/year of ore containing zinc, lead, copper, gold and silver.   Early in 2006, the new Atlas Copco Scooptram ST14 equipped with Load Sensing Hydraulic System was put through its paces in daily production at the mine, alongside a larger similar machine. Performance data was recorded, and comparisons made. After 1,500 hours of operation, it was already apparent that the ST14 was emerging as a clear winner.   Most noticeable during the trials was the ready availability of power for penetrating the muck pile, manoeuvring and filling the bucket, ramp haulage and traction.   Operators in mines like Kristineberg place high demands on their equipment. First and foremost, they need a loader that is very strong and easy to handle, but comfort is always a close second. In particular, they want to be able to stretch their legs out properly while driving, instead of half-standing, which has been a perennial problem with other machines.   The new air suspended seat on the Scooptram ST14 is also rated as a big improvement. When working long shifts, the Scooptram ST14 offers a good seating position and

a comfortable, clean environment, which is a major contributor to improved productivity.   The operators report that the machine has exceptional power, both for attacking the muckpile, and for tramming. The quick and powerful bucket action is also much better than on comparable loaders. The bucket is filled in next to no time, reducing the loading cycles by a significant margin.   From a servicing point of view, the operators are very much in favour of the ST14 because there is no need to climb on top of the body to reach awkward places. All of the daily operator servicing can be carried out at ground level.   Safety and operator comfort have been major goals for the ST14 designers, who have improved visibility and added the unique footbox to give the operator extra legroom.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Winders at Kristineberg mine in Sweden.

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Scooptram ST14 Earns Top Rating

Business class The new Scooptram ST14 loader provides operators with a high level of comfort. Based on the principle that job satisfaction has a significant impact on productivity, Atlas Copco designers have put the operator's safety, comfort and working environment first, a strategy that has been highly praised at Kristineberg.   Giving full consideration to the physical demands of the job, the improvements have been well thought out and very cleverly designed.   As a result, visibility from the cab is excellent, the sitting position is ergonomically correct, the amount of legroom is unique, and the ride is comfortable and pleasurable.   Atlas Copco's attention to ergonomic design and the working environment has resulted in a loader that provides operators with the kind of comfort usually associated with business class travel.   The driving seat is air suspended and softer and more comfortable than in any other LHD. This has been made possible by the location of the controls in the armrests, and the footbox concept, which resulted from re-engineering of the drive train design to create more free space in front of the cab. There is also more free space around the operator, and the long wheelbase makes for a smooth, comfortable ride. An effective ride control system contributes to smooth tramming, allowing the vehicle to be driven at speed while still maintaining maximum comfort.   Superior visibility has resulted from the combination of large windscreens, the clean, flat top of the vehicle body, and the drive train design with its short and low-level rear end.   The environment inside the cabin is both spacious and clean. The designers have avoided the use of textiles, and have instead used materials that are easy to keep clean and free from dust.   Climate control, with no hydraulic hoses in the cab, also contributes to a good environment, controlling air temperature and quality, and improving safety.

Design targets achieved

The ST14 proves its superior performance in the muck pile.

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With eight months of successful testing of the Scooptram ST14 behind them, the Atlas Copco design team were able to confirm that their targets had been met. Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Scooptram ST14 Earns Top Rating

The big windscreen and flat body give the driver of the ST14 a clear, uninterrupted view.

  The ST14 meets the highest safety standards, and its ergonomics are much appreciated by the operators. Reliability is very high, as the same power train is used as in the proven ST1520, and performance is above expectations.   It was a challenge for the ST14 to be judged by operators with long experience driving Kristineberg's 16.5 t-capacity loaders. However, the ST14 has proved to match, or even exceed, the output of the larger loaders.   All of the teething problems have been addressed, and necessary improvements have been introduced on the assembly line.   The Scooptram ST14 proves the concept that an investment in an exceptionally good working environment is an investment in increased productivity. Operators of the ST14 feel healthier, experience greater job satisfaction, are more motivated, achieve more, and still have plenty of energy left over after finishing a long shift.

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to New Boliden, owners of Kristineberg mine. This article first appeared in Mining and Construction No 2, 2006. Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Fast hydraulics on the ST14 improve loading and hauling cycle times.

37

Experience and Knowledge

Working with Atlas Copco means working with world-leading products and services. What’s more, the people you work with are the best – with the ability to listen and to understand the diverse needs of our customers. This approach requires experience and knowledge, presence, flexibility and involvement in their processes. It means making customer relations and service a priority. Through interaction, innovation and a continuous drive to improve the way we do things – we help our customers achieve results.

Committed to your superior productivity.

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB Fax: +46 19 670 7393 www.atlascopco.com/rock

Ontario, Canada /  Western Australia

Scooptram loaders impress miners in both hemispheres Looking good Atlas Copco’s Scooptram ST14 was put through its paces at CVRD Inco’s Frood-Stobie mine in Canada, while extended field-testing of the new Scooptram ST1520 was undertaken at the Beta Hunt Nickel Mine in Western Australia. Both tests were extremely rigorous, under operating mine conditions, and encouraging reviews have been received about performance and operator comfort. Meantime, the new Scooptram ST1040 has been launched, further broadening the range of capacities available in this exciting series of technically advanced vehicles.

ST14 at Frood-Stobie CVRD Inco’s Frood-Stobie mine in Sudbury, Ontario has been in operation since 1911. It is one of Canada’s oldest and largest producers of nickel. The three mining divisions have two shafts, the deepest of which goes to the 4,075 ft level.   During 2006, more than 3 million tons of ore was mined using a combination of sublevel cave and VRM method. This demanding environment provided the perfect testing ground for the new generation Atlas Copco Scooptram ST14, a much-anticipated addition to the latest range of underground loaders.   The trials at Frood-Stobie provided information on Scooptram ST14 performance in what are considered to be typical Canadian mining conditions. Parameters such as capacity, durability, fuel consumption, safety, serviceability, and ergonomics were all closely monitored.   Operating in the mine’s Division ‘A’ production block, the Scooptram ST14 consistently moved more than 100 buckets/shift of ore from the stopes. After two months on trial, the unit had clocked up 558 hours of operation.   One of the areas of the mine where the ST14 was tested is at the 2,340 level, where it trammed approximately 180 m to dump into the ore pass that feeds the 2,600 level. The complete cycle from the muck pile to the ore pass and back averaged three minutes, with excellent bucket fill.

  These results were proof positive to the operators and mechanics engaged in documenting the performance and reliability of this technically advanced vehicle. In particular, enthusiasm ran high with respect to its comfort, ergonomic design and serviceability.   Operators reported that the Scooptram ST14 is a powerful unit in the muck pile, and handles as well as their smaller Scooptram ST8B. The comfort, visibility and stateof-the-art technology is impressive.   Mining companies, including CVRD Inco, have also actively assisted Atlas Copco in the development of new loader technology to meet current industry expectations. The ST14 is designed not only to meet, but also to exceed these expectations. The trial at Frood-Stobie was successfully concluded at the end of 2006.

Derrick Decker, ST14 operator (in cab) with, from left, Gord Black, Mobile Maintenance Supervisor and Larry McLaughlin, Maintenance Supervisor, at the Frood-Stobie Mine.

ST1520 at Beta Hunt Consolidated Minerals, owner of the Beta Hunt Nickel Mine in Western Australia, have clocked up more than 6,000 hours on the Scooptram ST1520 in an extended trial. The company has been impressed with the

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

39

Scooptram loaders Impress Miners in Both Hemispheres

Atlas Copco Scooptram ST14 working in the sublevels at Frood-Stobie mine in Canada.

Scooptram ST1520.

40

vehicle’s availability, productivity, and operator comfort.   The tramming speed of the ST1520 carrying a full load has been praised by Beta Hunt management. They note that their operators can muck out a heading faster with the ST1520, even though it has a smaller bucket than their other loaders. The ST1520 has the ability to tram nearly anywhere in second gear, and has never overheated while it has been at the mine.   The ergonomics and driver comfort were also quickly appreciated by the operators. The ST1520 is a lot more comfortable to drive over long periods for all sizes and

shapes of operator, with it’s foot box arrangement and seating ergonomics.   For a 15 t-capacity loader, the ST1520 is also relatively slim at less than 3 m-wide, allowing access to areas that were previously out of reach for similar vehicles, and thereby contributing to overall productivity.

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to the managements at Frood-Stobie and Beta Hunt for their participation in these important trials and for their permission to publish this article.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Melbourne, Australia

High speed haulage at Stawell Keeping on track Trucking ore from a depth of one kilometre beneath the surface can be a slow and expensive process, but it’s a thing of the past for the Stawell Gold Mine in Australia, where high speed haulage using a fleet of the latest Atlas Copco Minetruck MT5010 trucks plays a major role in the operation. Getting the ore out involves a long drive up the sublevel ramps at 1:8 to the 400 m level, and then on an incline of 1:10 to surface, a journey of 10.5 km. The drivers report that the MT5010 is the smoothest ride in their experience, and the management is obtaining their lowest-ever cost/t. The MT5010 is providing a very good return on investment!

Long history Stawell Gold Mine, located about 250 km west of Melbourne, was first mined in 1853. It was closed in 1926, and stayed dormant for more than 50 years. It then re-opened in 1982, and has been in operation ever since. From 1992 until 2005, Stawell was owned by MPI Mines, who instituted a plan to increase gold production from 100,000 oz/yr to 130,000 oz/yr by end-2006.   However, the mine recently changed hands, and is now operated by Perseverance Resources, who have adopted the same objective. To meet these targets, bench stoping with cemented rock fill pillars in primary stopes is used. With this mining method, approximately 80% of the ore is recovered from the stopes. Remote-controlled loaders shift the ore out of the stopes, from where a fleet of five Atlas Copco MT5010 trucks is employed hauling it to the surface along a gravel roadbed maintained by two graders in continuous operation.   Stawell management is convinced that the MT5010 is the best truck on the market in terms of load capacity and performance.

Faster is better Stawell is a very deep mine with incline access. Inevitably, the adit is the bottleneck in the production operation, because it limits the size of truck that can be employed hauling

ore to surface. However, within the normal underground speed constraints, the faster the trucks, and the cleaner they run, the greater will be the amount of ore that gets to surface.   At Stawell, getting the ore to surface involves an 10.5 km drive which, even with the MT5010, involves a round trip of 100 minutes. On the 1:8 gradient, its speed under full 50 t load is 12 km/h, some 2-3 km/h faster than the next fastest truck on the current market.   This is because the MT5010 has the greatest power-to-weight ratio of any truck in its class, giving it the highest possible travel speeds per tonne.   Based on the success of the site’s first MT5010, commissioned in 2003, the mine subsequently ordered another three, with the latest arriving on site in early January, 2005. Together, the new fleet has helped Stawell

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Visual inspection of a Minetruck MT5010 with full load near Stawell portal.

41

High Speed Haulage at Stawell

500m

1000m

1500m

Stawell Gold Mines MINERALISED SYSTEM Longitudinal Projection December 2004 0

SCALE

500m

RESERVE BLOCKS INDICATED RESOURCE BLOCKS INFERRED RESOURCE AREA MINED AREA GOLDEN GIFT DOMAINS EXPLORATIONS TARGET BASALT PORPHYRY FAULT BLANK

Getting the ore out at Stawell involves an incline of 1:8 to the 400 m level and then 1:10 to surface.

42

to its medium term objectives while reducing the mining cost/tonne to the lowest it has ever been.

Comfortable power The Atlas Copco Minetruck MT5010 is currently offered with the Cummins QSK-19C650 engine as standard. This water-cooled diesel provides an MSHA power rating of 485 kW (650 hp) at 2100 rpm, has a displacement of 19 litres (1,159 cu in) and a six-cylinder, in-line configuration. It is designed for maximum utilization with minimum maintenance. The articulated pistons are made to last 30% longer and also give 30% longer life after the engine’s first rebuild. Oil seals have been engineered so they are never exposed to contaminants.   The MT5010 is equipped with air conditioned ROPS/FOPS- cabin with forwardfacing seat and back-up video monitor, and has an active hydraulic suspension system for improved operator comfort and handling. Indeed, Stawell operators report that the MT5010 suspension is the most comfortable in their experience and provides a much softer, smoother ride, observing that, when working 12-hour shifts, this makes a difference. The cab is also set up for efficient operation, with good driver visibility, clear instruments, and all controls easy to reach.   One of the most noticeable and impressive features of the MT 5010 truck is its power. The Cummins engine delivers torque of more than 3,000 Nm through the six-speed automatic transmission. From a standing start under load it pulls extremely well, whereas vehicles from the previous fleet struggled. It also has a tight turning circle, saving on backing out trucks in the limited space underground, and is a lot less tedious

to drive, being much faster than the earlier machines.   The engine on the MT5010 is electronically controlled for maximum fuel efficiency, minimum exhaust emissions and continuous diagnostic monitoring. This control system, along with an electronic transverter, provides smooth and precise gear changes. In addition to the selection of Cummins as the engine supplier, Atlas Copco has put the MT5010 through a series of more than 40 performance-enhancing upgrades to the engine, powertrain, cab, suspension, structural body, and systems, which dramatically increase engine and component life. Servicing is fast and simple, thanks to easy access to filters, test points, and other parts which require regular maintenance.

Continuous support The routine performed by the mine’s maintenance team includes checking main functions after each 12-hour shift, as well as more thorough services at 125 hours, and the recommended intervals of 250 hours.   The MT5010s, despite their arduous working situation, are acknowledged by Stawell management as being the best performing truck on site, with the highest t/km and excellent availability. As a result, the MT5010s now comprise 70 percent of the hauling fleet.   Where problems have been experienced, the mine knows it can rely on support from Atlas Copco. If they need a part, or a question answered, Atlas Copco provides a true, 24-hour service, seven days a week, and treats every enquiry with the correct degree of urgency. A technical training course on the MT5010 was conducted at the mine by Atlas Copco to further enhance Stawell expertise. Many of the participants reported back that it was the best on-site training they had ever received from any equipment supplier, observing that Atlas Copco understands that aftermarket service and support is an important complement to any sale.   Future plans at Stawell include further exploration and deeper development work. In the next four to five years they plan to increase the mining depth to at least 1,300 m.

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to the management and staff at Stawell mine for their assistance in the production of this article.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Ontario, Canada

Revival in the Sudbury Basin Success at McCreedy West The Sudbury Basin area of Ontario, Canada is currently enjoying a revival in the fortunes of the mining industry following an increase in world prices for nickel, the metal that made the area famous. But metal prices alone do not account for the revitalization of McCreedy West Mine, located some 40 km north of the Greater City of Sudbury. Excellent planning using the best available equipment was a necessary ingredient, and Atlas Copco was with them all the way.

Economic recovery McCreedy West Mine, re-launched as a new venture in May, 2002, is already achieving revenues, and the prospects for long-term returns look bright. Behind this revival is FNX Mining, headquartered in Toronto, Canada. FNX Mining has a wealth of expertise for what has been described as the most advanced operation in the area. But there is an additional factor that makes a significant contribution to the overall effort – the successful co-operation between FNX Mining and Atlas Copco, in which Atlas Copco ensures the reliability of main drilling and haulage operations. The opportunity to make a profit from these previously worked deposits depended not only on better metals prices. It also depended on the feasibility of refurbishing the mine infrastructure and on FNX’s ability to exploit small mineral deposits in an efficient way. FNX Mining is currently developing and mining from different locations in the mine, and using a limited amount of equipment on about 10 faces at any one time. In such an operation, versatility and equipment availability are essential.

Local cooperation To meet these demands, FNX Mining chose to concentrate on Atlas Copco products and services. A contributing factor in the decision was the efforts of the Atlas Copco sales

and service team, conveniently based in Lively, in the suburbs of Sudbury. Based on a review of equipment availability, costs and productivity to determine the lowest cost per tonne, the ST1510, as well as a Minetruck MT5010, were subsequently chosen for the McCreedy West project. McCreedy has 120 employees working on two 10-h shifts a day. The deposits are quite widely dispersed across five zones from levels of approximately 213 m to below 490 m (200 ft to 1,600 ft) with an average head grade of ore mined at 1.7% nickel. FNX Mining uses primarily mechanized cut-and-fill, following narrow veins. Current operations use an Atlas Copco Boomer 322 twin-boom jumbo and Scooptram LHD´s for loading. However, the mine and its staff are flexible, using whatever safe mining methods are required to get at the paying ore in the most economical way.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Minetruck MT5010 returning to the mine ramp for another load.

43

Revival in the Sudbury Basin

Footwall decline One of the most important developments has been the driving of a footwall decline, from the 950 level to the 1,400 level, to access the nickel-rich Inter Main Deposit now being mined. This, in addition to early exploitation of the 700 Deposit, is one of the factors that enabled early revenue to be achieved. The ore-to-waste ratio now stands at 5:1, mine waste having been reduced from a high of 35 per cent during earlier mining operations. In the ore zones, the ideal drive height is 3 m (10 ft), although this is sometimes increased to take the remaining ore. Cuts range up to 9.5 m (30 ft). Shotcrete pillars are used as temporary support for greater widths. On current plans, 80 per cent of all mining will occur in the Inter Main Deposit, where there are about a million tons of useful ore at 80 per cent extraction. The orebody here is more discontinuous than usual, occurring in lenses, necessitating selective cut-and-fill, although there is expected to be some retreat bulk mining. Six horizons are currently being mined, which are split into different sections.

Geologists rule

Minetruck MT436B discharging at surface.

44

With irregular geology, deciding where mining should take place is not an easy task. Geologists are a big part of the operation here, and are on site every day. The miners don’t blast a face until a geologist has seen it and given approval. The overall rock quality is good. It is expected, however, that some faults and orebody offsets in the Inter Main Zone will increase support measures. Support is usually by 1.9 m (6 ft) rebar bolts and wire-mesh sheets, with cable bolting on rare occasions. In the cut-and-fill areas, support pillars are constructed with shotcrete to enable maximum ore extraction. The 1.600 haulage level links the McCreedy West workings to the neighbouring Levack Mine. FNX Mining has reconditioned this area and, by agreement with CVRD/INCO, is able to hoist the McCreedy West ore via the Levack No. 2 Shaft to complement the MT5010 mine trucks on the main ramp. In normal cut-and-fill mining, the crew consists of the jumbo operator, two miners on bolting, and one operating the Scooptram. There is an additional two-man crew on workplace safety using jacklegs and stopers Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Revival in the Sudbury Basin

drills for bolting. In narrower workings, the crew is limited to two men.

Drilling and blasting The Atlas Copco Rocket Boomer 282 was used on the 1,285 sub-level in the Inter Main Deposit, drilling 4.8 m (15 ft) holes with 5 m (16 ft) rods, with 60 holes in a face section measuring 6.4 m-wide x 4.6 m-high (21 ft x 15 ft). It takes between two hours and two hours 45 minutes to drill such a round. Support in this area is provided by rebar rock bolts and wire mesh sheets using a scissor-lift access platform and handheld rock drills to install the bolts. All rock drilling tools are from Atlas Copco Secoroc. The 45 mm diameter bits are ballistic type, using R32 drill rods. The same series of bits are used for all mining, because of their better wear life. Twicedaily deliveries of bits by Atlas Copco helps reduce inventories. The bits are reground, and drill steel refurbished, at the Atlas Copco workshop in Lively. Drill string components are sold on a stock replenishment basis, using an Atlas Copco storage container near the surface workshop. Deliveries are made to a converted container supplied by Atlas Copco equipped with drill steels and bits stored in individual containers, specific to each driller. To avoid delays, deliveries are based on the consumption of previous weeks, rather than ordering when the need arises.

Maximizing haulage Another major decision in the redevelopment of McCreedy West was how to optimize the haulage on the main ramp, which has an average grade of 18 per cent. Since it was the only main access, FNX Mining wanted to maximize its capacity by using trackless transport of the highest capacity. To determine whether the Atlas Copco MT5010 could be used on the main ramp from the 1,400 level while ensuring the safety of vital service lines such as ventilation ducts, an existing 30 t mine truck was rigged to simulate its profile. A combination of surveying and trial runs then proved that limited slashing would achieve the required 4.6 m x 4.6 m (15 ft x 15 ft) clearance for the truck to be used. The MT5010, which is the fastest truck in its class, takes between 45 minutes and one hour for the return trip, which is much

less than for the smaller trucks. In fact, the average cycle time on the MT5010 saves about one Canadian dollar/tonne, compared to using 30 t trucks. It handles excellently and has fuel economy with a really good range, enabling it to run all day on one tank of fuel. Its turning radius is excellent, and it gives a good ride with even power. McCreedy West utilises a fleet of Atlas Copco Scooptram loaders comprising of ST1520s, ST7.5Zs, ST1020s, and ST710s. The mine also has three Atlas Copco Minetruck MT436B and three MT5010. Scooptram duties include loading out from blasted faces, waste storage, rehandling stockpiles, and loading the Minetruck. When loading with the ST1520, the Z-bar linkage lifts higher than the ST8B, taking two buckets to load the MT436 B. The ST1520 is well liked because the operator has good visibility from the cab, which is roomy and comfortable. It also has exceptional lighting. Safety is a big issue in mining operations, with mining companies being judged more and more by their safety performance. They are well aware that a low claim rate and a good accident record reduce costs. To assist in this, the new generation of Atlas Copco vehicles offers more ergonomically designed cabs with better operator comfort and visibility, improved drivetrains, lower emissions, easier servicing and maintenance, a range of other advances.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

‘3-D’ sectional diagram of McCreedy West Mine viewed from the northwest.

45

Revival in the Sudbury Basin

training and liaison with mine staff on shortterm servicing. All underground maintenance requirements are handled from a single workshop, but as McCreedy West is an access-ramp mine, most mobile equipment is brought to the surface for servicing. Services at 250-h, 500-h and 750-h are carried out on the premises, but for 1000-h services, the equipment is taken back to Atlas Copco’s main workshop in Lively.

Additional initiatives

McCreedy Minetruck and Scooptram operators with their equipment.

Production Scooptram Waste rock at McCreedy West comes primarily from development drives, and is stored in old drives or in mine-fill operations using Scooptram loaders with rammers, which are bolted on as necessary. Depending on the circumstances, some Scooptram loaders are remotely operated for safety, such as when working through waste to a remote orebody. Up to three Scooptram loaders can be operated by remote control although, due to the generally excellent ground conditions, more than one is rarely needed. The 50-60,000 t of waste that had been generated by early development work was stockpiled on the surface, and is now being crushed and graded for return underground as fill material. All ore is carried by Scooptram loaders to either intermediate stockpiles underground, or for direct loading into the Minetruck at the main ramp.

Maintenance contract Atlas Copco provides dedicated product maintenance under a Gold Service Contract. Within this framework, a dedicated product support technician (PST) is permanently based at the mine, working closely with the mine maintenance foreman and technicians to ensure that all Atlas Copco equipment has maximum availability. The contract includes a guarantee of 90 percent availability, vehicle condition audits, monitoring of parts inventory on site, and 46

Besides a high level of service, other initiatives contribute to profitability. These include SPOT Boxes (Spare Parts On Time) – a suitable steel container or box supplied by Atlas Copco for each unit at the mine containing a stock of service parts. The content is predetermined according to experience of consumption and a technical review of wear and critical items, based on conditions of use and the consequences of failure. SPOT Boxes are located in the surface workshop, but smaller SPOT boxes with frequently used parts can be situated on the rigs or elsewhere underground. Larger boxes are fitted with forklift slots and lifting lugs for easy movement.

Good start All in all, McCreedy West’s new life is off to a good start. It has a new mining company, production is on target at 2,000 t/day, it is generating revenue, it has a first class safety record, all works are within government environmental controls, and its prospects for reserves look bright. In addition, wherever FNX Mining goes, Atlas Copco is there to meet its needs. The mine manager states that Atlas Copco service has been excellent. If there’s a problem it gets solved, and things are dealt with at the right level. Atlas Copco Secoroc delivery is also highly appreciated, and two deliveries a day means there is no waiting for anything the mine needs.

Acknowledgements Atlas Copco is grateful to the management at McCreedy mine for their assistance in reviewing this article and permission to publish.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST2D

33

The Scooptram ST2D is a reliable 3 600 kg tramming capacity underground loader for smaller sized operations that range from narrow vein mines to construction sites. This vehicle has built its reputation bucket by bucket throughout the world.

Features Load frame • A parallel boom design matched to an aggressive bucket configuration provide for efficient mucking operations

Operator’s compartment

• High ground clearance protects the machine from damage • Three point mounting and anti-skip protection provides safe access for operators and service personnel

• Side seated operator position for efficient bi-directional operation with maximum visibility

General

• Ergonomic operator seat with seat belt for comfort during a full operating shift

• Central manual lubrication

• Long life roller bearing centre articulation joint

Power frame • Conventional and proven components are well protected within the frame

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

47

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST2D

Transmission Modulated power shift, 4 speeds forward and reverse

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Engine Deutz Diesel MSHA Rating at 2,300 rpm Maximum torque at 1,500 rpm Number of Cylinders Displacement Cooling MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

3 600 kg 9 060 kg 5 936 kg

3.7 seconds 3.0 seconds 6.4 seconds F6L-912W, Tier/Stage 1 63 kW/84 hp 292 Nm 6 in line 5.6 L Air 127 m3/min 142 m3/min

Transmission Dana

Series R32000

Converter Dana

C-270 series

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

14D 16° (8° on each side) No spin Standard LCB

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 12.00x24, 16 ply, STMS, L-5S, TT* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection.

Tank capacities Fuel Hydraulic

Axles Spiral bevel differentials, full floating, planetary wheel end drive Brakes Hydraulically applied spring released: fully enclosed wet discs at each wheel end Parking and emergency: Spring applied, hydraulically released, multiple wet discs, built into transmission Tyres Nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service, on demountable rims Operator’s compartment Side seated operator for bi-directional operation and maximum visibility Canopy: MSHA approved Monostick steering control Dual lever dump and hoist control

Optional Equipment

Brakes Service

Hydraulic system Filtration, suction line Dump/hoist system pressure Steering pressure Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinder (1), diameter Hoist cylinder (1), diameter Dump cylinder (1), diameter

Converter Single stage

25 micron 11.4 MPa 13.1 MPa 127 mm 178 mm 178 mm 148 litres 144 litres

Main Frame Boom up lock device Wheel chocks and chock brackets Various bucket sizes Dump cylinder rod protector Knockdown - specify weight and dimension limitations Shipping covers EOD bucket Ergonomics Wheel steering control System options Ansul single bottle fire suppression w/engine kill Lincoln auto lube w/timer Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Electrical Audio - visual reverse alarm Gauge lights Controls and instruments Block out 3rd and/or 4th gears Low hydraulic level warning Single lever dump and hoist control Power unit Engine shutdown system Oil bath air cleaner Exhaust purifier and fume diluter Hydraulic system EOD hydraulics & controls only Drive train Posi-Stop Brakes Documentation LinkOne parts book CD LinkOne viewer Parts manual - plasticised Service manual - plasticised Other Tool box

48

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0

1st gear (km/h)

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.0

3.1

2.9

2.9

2.8

2.8

2nd gear (km/h)

6.9

6.6

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.0

5.8

5.7

5.6

5.2

4.9

4.0

3.2

3rd gear (km/h)

11.4

10.9

10.5

10.1

9.5

8.6

7.2

6.3

4th gear (km/h)

19.5

18.2

15.8

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:5

1:4

ST2D standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1st gear (km/h)

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.0

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.8

2.8

2.7

2.5

2nd gear (km/h)

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.8

5.3

4.9

4.5

4.0

3.6

2.7

2.0

3rd gear (km/h)

11.2

10.6

10.1

9.2

7.6

6.4

5.1

4.2

3.5

2.6

1.7

4th gear (km/h)

18.9

16.6

12.0

8.4

5.2

2.6

ST2D Standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

49

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST2D............................ 12 320 kg • Axle load, front end.......................................... 5 960 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 6 360 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

3733 40° 2086

2544 2052 1443 1467

1548 610 20°

267

890

1270

1270

1921

L1 6645

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-40.5° 883

1555

2880

2800

R2668

2400 R4766

Rear view 1638

2880

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 50

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST2G

The Scooptram ST2G is a reliable 3 600 kg tramming capacity underground loader for smaller sized operations that range from narrow vein mines to construction sites - including those at high altitude. This vehicle has built its reputation bucket by bucket throughout the world.

Features Load frame • A parallel boom design matched to an aggressive bucket configuration provide for efficient mucking operations

Operator’s compartment

• High ground clearance protects the machine from damage • Three point mounting and anti-skip protection provides safe access for operators and service personnel

• Side seated operator position for efficient bi-directional operation with maximum visibility

General

• Ergonomic operator seat with seat belt for comfort during a full operating shift

• Central manual lubrication

• Long life roller bearing centre articulation joint

• ISO ROPS/FOPS Canopy

Power frame • Conventional and proven components are well protected within the frame

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

51

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST2G

Transmission Modulated power shift, 4 speeds forward and reverse

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Engine Deutz Diesel MSHA Rating at 2,300 rpm Maximum torque at 1,500 rpm Number of Cylinders Displacement Cooling MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

3 600 kg 9 060 kg 5 936 kg

3.7 seconds 3.0 seconds 6.4 seconds BF4M1013EC, Tier/Stage 1 87 kW/117 hp 422 Nm 4 in line 4.76 L Water 241 m3/min 212 m3/min

Transmission Dana

Series R32000

Converter Dana

C-270 series

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

14D 16° (8° on each side) No spin Standard Posi stop

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 12.00x24, 16 ply, STMS, L-5S, TT* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection.

Tank capacities Fuel Hydraulic

Axles Spiral bevel differentials, full floating, planetary wheel end drive Brakes Spring applied hydraulically spring released: fully enclosed multiple wet discs at each wheel end Parking and emergency: as for service Tyres Nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service, on demountable rims Operator’s compartment Side seated operator for bi-directional operation and maximum visibility Canopy: ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Monostick steering control Single lever dump and hoist control

Optional Equipment

Brakes Service

Hydraulic system Filtration, suction line Dump/hoist system pressure Steering pressure Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (1), diameter Hoist cylinders (1), diameter Dump cylinder (1), diameter

Converter Single stage

25 micron 11.4 MPa 13.1 MPa 127 mm 178 mm 178 mm 148 litres 144 litres

Main Frame Various bucket sizes Boom up lock device Wheel chocks and chock brackets Dump cylinder rod protector Knockdown - specify weight and dimension limitations Shipping covers EOD bucket Ergonomics Wheel steering control System options Ansul check fire auto fire suppression Ansul single bottle fire suppression w/engine kill Lincoln auto lube w/timer Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Electrical system Blue strobe light - power on Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Block out 3rd and/or 4th gears Scooptram RRC RRC interface Hydraulic system options EOD hydraulics & controls only Brake release tow hook Documentation LinkOne parts book CD LinkOne viewer Parts manual - plasticised Service manual - plasticised Other Tool box

52

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0

1st gear (km/h)

4.5

4.4

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.9

3.9

3.8

3.7

3.6

3.5

2nd gear (km/h)

9.1

8.7

8.4

8.2

7.9

7.8

7.5

7.2

6.9

6.4

5.8

4.5

3.4

3rd gear (km/h)

15.0

14.2

13.5

12.9

11.7

10.3

8.3

7.0

6.0

4.9

3.9

4th gear (km/h)

25.4

23.3

19.7

13.9

9.4

6.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:5

1:4

ST2G standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1st gear (km/h)

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.8

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.4

3.1

2nd gear (km/h)

8.9

8.5

8.2

7.9

7.6

7.3

6.7

6.0

5.4

4.7

4.2

2.9

1.5

3rd gear (km/h)

15.1

13.9

12.4

10.6

8.2

4th gear (km/h)

24.5

20.7

13.9

9.0

1.9

ST2G standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

53

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST2G............................ 13 000 kg • Axle load, front end.......................................... 5 660 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 7 340 kg 3782

Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

40°

3747

2544 2325

2162

1443 1467

1537

539 16°

267 L1 2289

1270

1270

1668 2161 2280

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-40.5° 40,5°

1735 3066 2521

2900 2162

2111

2000 x 45° CHAMFER

R2305

Rear view

2400

R4287 R4697

2521 3066

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 54

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST3.5

The Scooptram ST3.5 is a 6 000 kg tramming capacity underground loader designed for small to medium sized underground operations that include development work, production mining, construction sites, and site clean-up activities. The ST3.5 has a strong, positive reputation built over time, bucket by bucket.

Features Load frame • A parallel boom design matched to an aggressive bucket configuration provide for efficient mucking operations

Operator’s compartment

• Optional turbo charged engine for high altitude applictions • High ground clearance protects the machine from damage

• Side seated operator position for efficient bi-directional operation with maximum visibility

General

• Ergonomic operator seat with seat belt for comfort during a full operating shift

• Central manual lubrication

• Long life roller bearing centre articulation joint

Power frame

• Hydraulic hoses, electrical cables and hot surfaces are well protected

• Conventional and proven components are well protected within the frame

• Three point mounting and anti-skid protection provides safe access for operators and service personnel

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

55

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST3.5

Transmission Modulated power shift, 3 speeds forward and reverse

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back Engine Deutz Diesel MSHA Rating at 2,300 rpm Maximum torque at 1,500 rpm Number of Cylinders Displacement Cooling MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

6 000 kg 9 960 kg 7 950 kg

Converter Single stage

4.7 seconds 5.0 seconds

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

3.6 seconds 3.2 seconds F8L-413FW, Tier/Stage 1 136 kW /182 hp 617 Nm 8 12.8 L Air 297 m3/min 269 m3/min

Transmission Dana

Series 32000

Converter Dana

C-270 series

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

406 14° (7° on each side) No spin Standard

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 17.50x25.20 ply, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, suction line Dump/hoist system pressure Steering pressure Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter Hoist cylinders (2), diameter Dump cylinder (1), diameter Tank capacities Fuel Hydraulic

25 micron 13.8 MPa 15.9 MPa 89 mm 152 mm 152 mm 216 litres 170 litres

Axles Spiral bevel differentials, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

Tyres Tubeless, Nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service Operator’s compartment Side seated operator for bi-directional operation and maximum visibility, ISO ROPS/FOPS certified Canopy

Optional Equipment Main Frame Boom up lock device Wheel chocks and chock brackets Knockdown construction - specify weight and Dimension limitations Shipping covers Ergonomics Low height MSHA canopy - 2m Wheel steering control System options Ansul check fire auto fire suppression Ansul single bottle fire suppression w/engine kill Lincoln auto lube w/timer Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Wiggins fast fuel fill Hydraulic oil fill cap retainer Electrical system High exhaust temperature warning light Audio-visual reverse alarm Gauge lights Controls and instruments Longer throw stab cylinder Low hydraulic level warning Scooptram RRC (line of sight radio remote control) RRC interface only Speedometer and tachometer Bucket float Block out 3rd gear Power unit Engine idle down system Engine shut down jetstop Hydraulic system options EOD hydraulics & controls only Brake release tow hook Documentation LinkOne parts book CD LinkOne viewer Parts manual - plasticised Service manual - plasticised Other Tool box

56

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4 3.5

3.2

30.0

1st gear (km/h)

4.7

4.7

4.5

4.3

4.3

4.1

4.1

4.0

4.0

4.0

3.9

2nd gear (km/h)

9.5

9.1

8.8

8.6

8.1

7.7

6.9

6.3

5.6

5.0

4.3

3rd gear (km/h)

18.3

16.9

14.8

12.1

9.1

6.5

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

30.0

ST3.5 standard configuration, bucket empty.

Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

Ratio 1st gear (km/h)

4.7

4.7

4.7

4.5

4.5

4.3

4.3

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.0

3.9

2nd gear (km/h)

9.7

9.5

9.2

8.8

8.7

8.3

8.0

7.7

7.2

6.8

6.3

5.0

3rd gear (km/h)

18.9

17.8

16.7

15.1

13.1

10.9

8.4

3.9

ST3.5 standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.6

2.8

3.0

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

3.4

3.1/*3.0

2.7/ *2.8

2.3

2.1

1.9/* 1.8

3

Width, bucket (mm)

W

2 121

1 956/*2 159

1 956/*1 969

1 956

1 956

1 956/*1 969

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

2 888

2 916/*2 833

2 916/*2 893

2 678

2 798

2 697/*2 837

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

813

812/ *2 548

711/ *2 548

579

689

597/*2 562

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

3937

3 984/*3 972

3 835/*4 035

3660

3 770

3 678/*3 942

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

1321

1 313/*2 548

1 397/*2 548

1546

1 428

1 528/*2 562

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

57

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST3.5............................ 17 100 kg • Axle load, front end.......................................... 8 000 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 9 100 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

3984 2549 2247 1981

1526 ST3.5

1609

530

1313

13°

370 812 1478 2916

2899

2643

8458

1211

1827

1956

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-42.5° 42.5°

2886

3000

3595

3500

2620 R 2 M x 45° Chamfer 5446 R

Rear view

2886 3595

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 58

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST600LP

The low-profile Scooptram ST600LP “the Ratel™” is a robust underground loader that is built for demanding low-seam applications where the back heights are as low as 1 800 mm.

Features Load frame • Parallel boom design for low profile mine production. • Low profile standard and EOD bucket designs for efficient mucking operations • Heavy duty fender design with extra bump protection Safety hinge bar locking device to provide a safe working environment for operators and maintenance staff

Operator’s compartment • Low profile structure with reclined, low profile operator seat offering good access to machine control functions • Side seated operator position for efficient bi-directional operation

• A short length and low height frame reduces the chance of damage with the frame hitting the mine back thereby providing reduced maintenance costs and extended component life. • Heavy duty, sloping engine covers reduce the risk of component and frame damage. • Heavy duty fenders and extra bump protection give additional machine protection • Three point mounting access for entry onto the machine • High ground clearance protects the machine from damage

• Enhanced operator visibility with the use of forward and rear viewing cameras each coupled to a cab mounted monitor. Cameras are linked to the transmission to provide good visibility in both tramming directions

General

Power frame

• Neutral start and engine protection systems

• Conventional and proven powertrain components featuring either an air or water cooled engine, a torque converter, a transmission and axles that are matched and provide excellent digging characteristics.

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

• Operator visibility is enhanced by 4 lights forward and 4 lights to the rear • Long life roller bearing centre hinge design • Central manual lubrication

59

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST600LP

Transmission Modulated power shift, 3 speeds forward and reverse

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back Engine Deutz Diesel MSHA Rating at 2,300 rpm Maximum torque at 1,400 rpm Number of Cylinders Displacement Cooling MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

6 000 kg 9 300 kg 8 688 kg

Converter Single stage Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

4.7 seconds 5.0 seconds

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

3.6 seconds 3.2 seconds

Tyres Tubeless, nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service, on demountable rims

BF6M1013E, Tier/Stage 1 136 kW/185 hp 667 Nm 6 in line 7.2 L Liquid (Water/Anti-Freeze)

Operator’s compartment Side seated operator for bi-directional operation. MSHA calculated canopy. Black and white, forward and rear camera viewing system with monitor

495m3/min 156 m3/min

Optional Equipment Main Frame Boom up lock device Dump cylinder rod protector Knockdown - specify weight and dimension limitations EOD bucket

Transmission Dana

Series 32000

Converter Dana

C-270

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation

Series 406 14° (7° on each side)

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

System options Check fire auto fire suppression Single bottle fire suppression w/engine kill Fire extinguishers (2 off) Lincoln auto lube w/timer Manual hydraulic tank fill pump

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Electrical system Blue strobe light - power on Audio-visual reverse alarm

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 17.5x25, 20 ply, STMS, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, suction line System pressure Steering pressure Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter Hoist cylinders (2), diameter Dump cylinder (1), diameter Tank capacities Fuel Hydraulic

60

25 micron 13.8 MPa 15.9 MPa 89 mm 152 mm 152 mm 220 litres 77 litres

Controls and instruments Block out 3rd and/or 4th gears Neutral brake Safety wheels Hydraulic system EOD hydraulics & controls only Documentation LinkOne parts book CD LinkOne viewer Parts manual - plasticised Service manual - palsticised Other Tool box

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

1st gear (km/h)

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.9

3.6

2nd gear (km/h)

9.6

9.2

8.8

8.5

8.1

7.6

6.8

6.2

5.6

4.9

4.3

2.7

3rd gear (km/h)

18.4

16.9

114.8

11.9

8.7

6.5

2.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0 3.2

ST600LP standard configuration, bucket empty

Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

30.0

1st gear (km/h)

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.1

3.9

3.8

2nd gear (km/h)

9.8

9.5

9.2

8.9

8.6

8.4

8.1

7.7

7.3

6.8

6.3

5.0

3.8

3rd gear (km/h)

19.0

17.8

16.8

15.1

12.8

10.9

8.4

6.7

4.8

1.5

ST600LP standard configuration, bucket loaded

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

61

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST600LP....................... 18 040 kg • Axle load, front................................................. 7 670 kg • Axle load, rear..................................................10 370 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket D 45°

2710 G

1400

E

C

1300 12°

330

330

R 690 BASED ON TIRE DEFLECTION OF 25MM 3034

F H

2896

A

1896

A

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle 39°

Video Camera 42.5°

1800

3271 3847

4500 2000 X 45° CHAMFER

Rear view 2240 R 5430 R

3271 3847

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 62

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST710

The Scooptram ST 710 is a compact 6.5 metric ton underground loader with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment especially for narrow-vein mining.

Features Load frame • A Z-bar front-end for efficient loading and mucking • An aggressively designed “high shape” factor bucket, reducing the need for multiple passes to fill the bucket • Easy to change bucket and cylinders with trunnion cap pin retention system • Boom support and lock for safe work under boom

Operator’s compartment Ergonomically designed and spacious compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with: • maximized legroom provided by the Atlas Copco footbox • comfortable operator’s seat offering improved ergonomic positioning, body orientation and generous shoulder and hip room • compliant with sound and vibration regulations to minimize operator’s fatigue; reduced noise level to 82 dB(A) inside the cab

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Power frame • Atlas Copco unique powertrain including an upbox, and a combined transmission and converter allowing space for the footbox plus a low and short rear end • Electronic transmission and engine control systems for smooth and precise shifting • A high power-to-weight ratio complemented by a fully integrated powertrain, automatically matching the gear selection to the load - producing a high tractive effort without wheel spin • Stacked V-core radiator and charge air cooler: easy to replace damaged tubes and to clean

General • Great serviceability with centralized service points • Long-life roller bearing centre hinge • Anti skid material at service access points

63

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST 710

Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back

6 500 kg 14 200 kg 10 347 kg

6.1 seconds 4.6 seconds 1.3 seconds 1.7 seconds

Engine Deutz Diesel MSHA Rating at 2,300 rpm Maximum torque at 1,400 rpm MSHA part 32 ventilation rate Ventilation particulate index

BF6M1013FC-MVS, Tier/Stage 1 149 kW/200 hp 805 Nm 481 m3/min 113 m3/min

Upbox Superior

AC826V

Transmission and converter Funk

DF150

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation

406 14° (7° on each side)

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 17.5x25, 20 ply, STMS, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, return line 4 micron System pressure 20.7 MPa Steering pressure 22.4 MPa Hydraulic tank capacity 87 litres Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter 80 mm Hoist cylinders (2), diameter 160 mm Stabilizer cylinder (1), diameter 180 mm Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

191 litres 41 litres/hour 3.0 micron

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end Tyres Tubeless, smooth, extra deep tread design for underground mine service on demountable rims Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Open door retainer Two pilot operated joysticks for steering, dump & hoist control Push button transmission control on dump and hoist lever Foot-box

Optional Equipment Main Frame Optional bucket sizes EOD buckets Boom up lock device Wheel chocks and chock brackets Ergonomics Enclosed cab Air conditioner (cab) Heater (cab and canopy) System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Ansul single bottle fire suppression with engine kill Electric fill pump for hydraulic oil Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Second fire extinguisher Electrical system Audio-visual reverse alarm Batteries, dry Loadrite weighing system 12/24 Voltage converter Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and 4th gears Blockout 4th gear Extended data gauge package Deutz diagnostic data reader DDEC Series 40 diagnostic tools Ride control Atlas Copco RRC interface Atlas Copco RRC (line of sight) Power unit Detroit diesel series 40 engine, 157 kw/210 hp Cold weather packages for 120v or 240v, may include: Block heater, ether start, battery warmer, fuel heater, arctic oil Epoxy coated radiator

Standard Equipment Engine Rock Tough exhaust purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with V-core radiator Upbox Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Transmission and converter Automatic power shift with integral converter, fully modulated 4 speed shifting, forward/reverse

64

Hydraulic system Brake release tow hook Documentation Extra DDEC Engine manual kit LinkOne parts book, CD LinkOne viewer Parts Manual - plasticoated Other Face mechanics tool set Shop mechanics tools set Special tools set Parts kit - 1 000 hour consumables EC specification

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0

1st gear (kph)

4.8

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.5

4.4

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

2nd gear (kph)

7.9

7.8

7.6

7.5

7.3

7.2

7.0

6.8

6.7

6.5

6.3

5.8

5.1

3rd gear (kph)

15.3

14.7

14.1

13.5

12.7

12.0

11.0

9.7

8.4

6.7

4.7

4th gear (kph)

24.8

23.1

21.3

18.8

14.1

9.9

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

ST710 standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

1st gear (kph)

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.1

4.0

3.8

3.5

2nd gear (kph)

7.8

7.6

7.4

7.2

7.0

6.8

6.5

6.3

6.0

5.8

5.4

4.1

2.6

3rd gear (kph)

15.0

14.2

13.4

13.3

11.0

9.3

6.6

3.9

4th gear (kph)

23.9

21.3

17.7

11.7

Ratio

ST710 standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Buckets Bucket data

  STD

Material density (t/m )

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

3.4

3.2

3.0

2.8

2.6

3

Width, bucket (mm)

W

2 040

2 040

2 040

2 040

2 040

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

3 000

2 920

2 895

2 830

2 750

Tramming position: Ground to bucket tip (mm)

T2

1 340

1 295

1 280

1 220

1 135

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

1 590

1 520

1 500

1 440

1 360

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

4 375

4 375

4 375

4 375

4 375

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

1 635

1 695

1 705

1 750

1 825

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

65

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST 710........................... 18 200 kg • Axle load, front end.......................................... 8 372 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 9 828 kg

4375 (H1) 3690

Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

3150 35∞

2760 1695 (H2)

2105 1500 15∞

1295 (T2)

305 2610

1650

1650

1520 (L1)

3300

2920 (T1)

8830

1120 1924 2040 (W)

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle 42.5°

2910

3000

3680

3500

2000 x 45∞ CHAMFER

R3230

Rear view

R5970

2910 3680

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 66

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST1030

The Scooptram ST1030 is a reliable 10 tonne capacity underground loader with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment for unparalleled productivity in any underground mine.

Features Load frame • A Z-bar front-end for efficient loading and mucking

Power frame

• An aggressively designed “high shape” factor bucket, reducing the need for multiple passes to fill the bucket

• Atlas Copco unique powertrain including an upbox, and a combined transmission and converter allowing space for the footbox plus a low and short rear end

• Easy to change bucket and cylinders with trunnion cap pin retention system

• Electronic transmission and engine control systems for smooth and precise shifting

• Boom support and lock for safe work under boom

• A high power to weight ratio complemented by a fully integrated powertrain, automatically matching the gear selection to the load producing a high tractive effort without wheel spin

Operator’s compartment Ergonomically designed and spacious compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with: • maximized legroom because of the Atlas Copco footbox • comfortable operator’s seat offering improved ergonomic positioning, body orientation and generous shoulder and hip room • compliant with sound and vibration regulations to minimize operator’s fatigue; reduced noise level to 82 dB(A) inside the cab

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

• Stacked V-core radiator and charge air cooler: easy to replace damaged tubes and to clean

General • Great serviceability with centralized service points • Excellent serviceability with centralized service • Long-life tapered roller bearing centre hinge • Anti skid material at service access points

67

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST1030

Engine Rock Tough exhaust purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with V-core radiator

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back Engine Cummins Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2,000 rpm Maximum torque at 1,400 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

10 000 kg 15 200 kg 13 900 kg

Upbox Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box 8.0 seconds 6.0 seconds 2.1 seconds 3.9 seconds

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

255 m3/min 340 m3/min

Tyres Tubeless, smooth, extra deep tread design for underground mine service

DF250

Upbox Superior

AC826V 19D 20° (10° on each side) Standard No Spin

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 18 x25, 24 ply, STMS, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, return line 4 micron System pressure 21.4 MPa Hydraulic tank capacity 189 litres Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter 90 mm Hoist cylinders (2), diameter 160 mm Stabilizer cylinder (1), diameter 200 mm Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

QSL9 C250, Tier/Stage 3 186 kW/250 hp 1 085 Nm

Transmission and converter Funk

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

Transmission and converter Automatic power shift with integral converter, fully modulated 4 speed shifting, forward/reverse

284 litres 50 liters/hour 8.0 micron

Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Two pilot operated joysticks for steering and dump/hoist control Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Open door retainer Door Interlock with steering and dump/hoist circuits

Optional Equipment Main Frame Optional bucket sizes EOD buckets High wear resistant bucket packages Shipping covers Ergonomics Enclosed cab Wheel control steering Heater (cab) Air conditioner (cab) System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Electric fill pump for hydraulic oil Fire extinguisher - 6 kg (extra) Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Wiggins fast hydraulic tank fill Loadrite weighing system RRC (Radio Remote Control) Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears Brake release retriever tow hook Ride control Power unit Cold weather packages, 120v or 240v: Block heater, engine oil pan heater, battery warmer, fuel heater and arctic oil Fire resistant fluids Documentation LinkOne parts book, CD LinkOne viewer Other Parts kit - 1 000 hour consumables Face mechanics tool set Shop mechanics tools set Special tools set EC specification

68

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0

1st gear (km/h)

5.0

4.8

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.1

3.9

3.7

2nd gear (km/h)

8.9

8.5

8.3

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.1

6.8

6.5

6.2

5.8

4.7

3rd gear (km/h)

15.8

14.7

13.8

12.8

11.6

10.2

7.9

5.9

4.4

4th gear (km/h)

26.7

23.3

18.9

12.7

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.7

3.4

2.9

6.7

6.1

5.4

5.1

4.1

3.3

ST1030 standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio 1st gear (km/h)

4.9

4.8

4.8

4.8

2nd gear (km/h)

8.7

8.3

7.9

7.6

7.2

3rd gear (km/h)

15.1

13.9

12.4

10.6

8.2

4th gear (km/h)

24.9

19.1

30.0

ST1030 standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

6.3

5.6

5.0

4.5

4.2

3.8

3.6

3.3

3.1

3

Width, bucket (mm)

W

2 760

2 490

2 490

2 490

2 490

2 490

2 340

2 340

2 340

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

3 490

3 490

3 370

3 270

3 206

3 210

3 130

3 130

3 080

Tramming position: Ground to bucket tip (mm)

T2

2 080

2 080

1 945

1 840

1 770

1 790

1 690

1 690

1 640

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

2 060

2 060

1 920

1 810

1 750

1 750

1 660

1 660

1 610

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

5 190

5 190

5 060

4 980

4 980

4 960

4 960

4 960

4 970

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

1 550

1 550

1 665

1 760

1 820

1 820

1 890

1 890

1 940

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

69

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST1030......................... 26 300 kg • Axle load, front .............................................. 10 000 kg • Axle load, rear ............................................... 16 300 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

5060 (H1) 40° 3400 3046

2355 1750

1665 (H2) 15°

1945 (T2)

415 2885

1855

3370 (T1)

1755 3606 9745

1920 (L1)

1310 2260

2490 (W)

Left turning radius Turning angle 42.5°

Recommended drift size R6135

R6775 3400

3000

4330

4000 R3450 2000 x 45° Chamfered Corner

Rear view

3400 4330

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 70

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST1030LP

The ST1030LP is a reliable 10 tonne capacity Scooptram® with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment for unparalleled productivity in low seam height underground mines.

Features Load frame • A Z-bar front-end for efficient loading and mucking • An aggressively designed high fill factor bucket, reducing the need for multiple passes to fill the bucket • Easy to change bucket and cylinders with trunnion cap pin retention system • Boom support and lock for increased safety during maintenance

Operator’s compartment

• A high power-to-weight ratio complemented by a fully integrated powertrain, automatically matching the gear selection to the load - producing a high tractive effort without wheel spin • Stacked V-core radiator and charge air cooler: easy to replace damaged tubes and to clean

General • Great serviceability with centralized service points • Long-life tapered roller bearing centre hinge

Ergonomically and spacious designed compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with:

• Anti skid material at service access points

• Maximized legroom with the Atlas Copco “Footbox”

• Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125°F)

• Comfortable operator’s seat providing improved ergonomic positioning, body orientation and generous shoulder and hip room

• Central manual lubrication • Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well protected

Power frame • Atlas Copco unique powertrain including an upbox, and a combined transmission and converter allowing space for the “Footbox” plus a low and short powerframe • Electronic transmission and engine control systems for smooth and precise shifting

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

71

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST1030LP

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back Engine Cummins Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2,000 rpm Maximum torque at 1,400 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

10 000 kg 15 200 kg 13 900 kg

Electrical system Hydraulic warning system....tank & transmission level, tank temperatur

8.0 seconds 6.0 seconds

Tyres Tubeless, smooth, extra deep tread design for underground mine service Wheel rim guards

2.1 seconds 3.2 seconds QSL9 C250 186 kW/250 hp 1085 Nm

Hydraulic system Heavy duty gear type pumps Pressure side filter for the pilot circuit Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Bucket float control

Transmission and converter Funk

DF250

Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Two pilot operated joysticks for steering and dump/hoist control Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Open door retainer Door Interlock with steering and dump/hoist circuits

Upbox Superior

AC826V

Fuel Anti-siphon fuel supply

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

354 m3/min (estimate) 127 m3/min (estimate)

19D +/-10° Standard No Spin

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage Alternator, high output

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories 140 A

Tyres Tire size 20.5 R 25 L5 * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, return line 12 micron System pressure 21.4 MPa Hydraulic tank capacity 189 litres Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter 90 mm Hoist cylinders (2), diameter 160 mm Stabilizer cylinder (1), diameter 200 mm Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

284 litres 50 liters/hour 8.0 µm

Standard Equipment Engine Rock Tough exhaust purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with V-core radiator Upbox Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Transmission and converter Automatic power shift with integral converter, fully modulated 4 speed shifting, forward/reverse LinkOne viewer Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

72

System Ansul dual bottle fire suppression system with engine kill Fire extinguisher, 6 kg Central manual lubrication Video system with 2 monitors and three cameras; linked to transmission

Optional Equipment Main Frame Optional bucket sizes EOD buckets High wear resistant bucket packages Shipping covers Ergonomics Enclosed cab System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Electric fill pump for hydraulic oil Fire extinguisher - 6 kg (extra) Heater Air conditioner Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Wiggins fast hydraulic tank fill Loadrite weighing system RRC (Radio Remote Control) Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears Brake release retriever tow hook Ride control Power unit Cold weather packages, 120v or 240v: Block heater, engine oil pan heater, battery warmer, fuel heater and arctic oil Fire resistant fluids Documentation LinkOne parts book, CD LinkOne viewer Parts kit - 1 000 hour consumables Other Face mechanics tool set Shop mechanics tools set Special tools set EC specification

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0

1st gear (km/h)

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.1

4.0

4.0

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.6

3.4

2nd gear (km/h)

8.0

6.9

7.6

7.4

7.1

6.9

6.6

6.4

6.3

6.0

5.7

4.6

3.5

3rd gear (km/h)

14.1

13.4

12.7

11.7

11.1

10.1

8.3

6.7

6.4

4.3

2.2

4th gear (km/h)

24.3

21.1

17.9

11.3

7.0

2.6

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

4.1

4.9

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.3

5.5

5.3

4.5

3.7

2.1

ST1030LP standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

Ratio 1st gear (km/h)

4.4

4.3

4.3

2nd gear (km/h)

7.9

7.3

7.3

6.9

6.6

6.3

6.0

3rd gear (km/h)

13.7

12.7

11.7

9.3

7.9

6.3

3.5

4th gear (km/h)

22.9

17.0

11.2

3.0

2.9

ST1030LP standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

6.3

5.6

5.0

4.5

4.2

3.8

3.6

3.3

3.1

3

Width, bucket (mm)

W

2 760

2 490

2 490

2 490

2 490

2 490

2 340

2 340

2 340

Tramming position: Axle centerline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

3 490

3 490

3 370

3 270

3 206

3 210

3 130

3 130

3 080

Tramming position: Ground to bucket tip (mm)

T2

1 800

1 800

1 700

1 650

1 630

1 550

1 550

1 550

1 550

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

2 060

2 060

1 920

1 810

1 750

1 750

1 660

1 660

1 610

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

5 190

5 190

5 060

4 980

4 980

4 960

4 960

4 960

4 970

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

1 690

1 690

1 690

1 790

1 850

1 850

1 920

1 920

1 970

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

73

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST1030LP..................... 26 300 kg

4750

Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

328 1853 2884

1796

364

1687

1665

1840

1769

3317

40°

1753 3606

1530 3400

1760

2260

2490 (W)

9890

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size 4709

R3013

R6

74 4

4184

2500 2000 X 45° CHAMBER

2328 2920

Rear view

4056

4523

3900

Turning angle 42.5°

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 74

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST14

The 14 tonne capacity underground loader Scooptram ST14 features state of the art levels of safety, serviceability and operator comfort, providing unmatched performance in any underground mining operation.

Features Safe working environment

Peak performance

• Excellent visibility with low rear hood height and larger window area

• When compared to a standard gear pump hydraulic system, the more efficient variable displacement piston pump hydraulic system increases tractive effort up to 44% when digging and increases unit tramming speed on grade by up to 14%. Overall unit efficiencies are improved

• Door interlock (applies brakes, blocks steering and hydraulics when door opens) • Automatic brake-test logging • SAHR braking system • Oil-free operator’s compartment

• An enhanced boom and bogie geometry optimizes digging performance

Superior operator’s comfort

• Cab in line with the tyres for improved maneuvrability and same turning radius in both directions

• Spacious Atlas Copco footbox • Sound level in optional cab, below 80 dB(A) • Low vibration level in cab • A durable, air suspended seat • Dump & hoist and steering controls located in the armrests • Simple, clear and multi-functional display in cab

• Integrated declutch function for faster truck loading

Serviceability • Easy access to service points, filters and valve blocks • The well-proven Atlas Copco Rig Control System (RCS) contributes with service information and diagnostics logged and displayed in clear text on screen

• Extended wheel base for a steady ride during tramming

Reliability for enhanced productivity • Proven powertrain components • Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125°F)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

75

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST14

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Standard bucket volume (nominal heaped) Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Engine Cummins Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2,100 rpm Maximum torque at 1,350 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index Upbox Superior Transmission and converter Dana Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

14 000 kg 22 300 kg 18 240 kg 6.4 m3

7.6 seconds 3.0 seconds 1.8 seconds QSM11, Tier/Stage 2 250 kW/335 hp 1674 Nm TBA TBA T825 Series T40000 53R 16° (8° on each side) Standard No Spin

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage Alternator Control System

24 Volt starting 140 A Atlas Copco RCS

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 26.5x25, 32 Ply, L5S, * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, return line System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter Hoist cylinders (2), diameter Stabilizer cylinder, diameter Fuel Fuel tank capacity

Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS and is approved at 60 KJ Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Air suspended Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Two electronic operated joysticks for steering, dump & hoist control in armrests Interactive display module Load sensing hydraulic system Heavy-duty piston Rexroth A10VO pump system Control System Logging of production data; load per bucket, number of buckets, accumulated load Logging for maintenance planning; engine, transmission, brake and hydraulic system data Trouble shooting tool, for engine, transmission, hydraulics and the RCS System.

Optional Equipment Main Frame Optional bucket sizes EOD buckets High wear resistant bucket package Shipping covers Wheel chocks and brackets Knockdown construction Ergonomics Enclosed cab Heater (cab/cabin) Air conditioner (cabin only) CD player (cabin only)

12 micron 27.6 MPa 218 litres

System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Wiggins fast hydraulic, engine, and radiator fill Scooptram RRC – line of sight radio remote control Finnkat exhaust cleaning system Brake release retriever tow hook Ride control

105 mm 200 mm 230 mm

Electrical system Machine status indicator lights Xenon cab lights

390 litres

Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears Load weighing system

Standard Equipment Engine Rock Tough catalytic purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Upbox Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Transmission Automatic power shift with integrated converter, fully modulated 4 speed shifting, forward/reverse Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

76

Tyres Tubeless, smooth, extra deep tread design for underground mine service

Power unit Cold weather package 120V or 240V: Block heater, battery warmer, fuel heater, oil pan heater and arctic oil Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Documentation LinkOne parts catalogue, CD LinkOne Reader Operator and maintenance manual - plasticized Other Face mechanics tool set Shop mechanics tools set Special tools set Service tool box for RCS

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

1:5

1:4

30.0

1st gear (kph)

5.2

5.0

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.6

4.5

4.5

4.3

4.0

2nd gear (kph)

10.0

9.8

9.5

9.3

9.0

8.8

8.2

7.7

7.2

6.5

5.9

4.4

3.2

3rd gear (kph)

17.1

16.3

15.6

14.3

12.1

10.4

8.2

6.8

5.5

3.8

0.6

4th gear (kph)

28.5

25.4

19.5

13.9

8.6

1.9

6.0

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.0

3.5

5.1

4.4

3.8

2.1

ST14 standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

Ratio 4.9

1st gear (kph)

4.8

4.7

4.6

2nd gear (kph)

9.5

9.2

8.9

8.6

8.1

7.5

6.5

5.7

3rd gear (kph)

16.1

15.2

13.7

11.3

8.4

6.7

4.2

1.1

4th gear (kph)

26.3

20.0

12.9

6.7

3.0

ST14 standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m3)

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

7.8

7.0

6.4

5.8

5.4

Width, bucket (mm)

BW

2 800

2 800

2 800

2 800

2 800

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

3 755

3 670

3 600

3 550

3 480

Tramming position: Ground to bucket tip (mm)

T2

2 170

2 050

1 955

1 860

1 785

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

2 040

1 930

1 840

1 750

1 680

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

5 930

5 930

5 930

5 930

5 930

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

2 190

2 285

2 360

2 440

2 500

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

77

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST14............................. 38 000 kg • Axle load, front................................................ 19 115 kg • Axle load, rear................................................. 18 885 kg

H1

4115

T2 1935 H2 2380

1960

2550

3640

5120

5930

Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

13.4°

435 1680 3385

2020

L1 1820 T1 3585

1835 3855

BW

2640

2800

10825

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

W1 W2

V

Turning Radius data

A W1 W2

B

3500

Left and right turn

C

Angle:

Corner 90º Corner 45º Chamfered 2000 mm

V

44°

Radius: Bucket mm Inner back tire

A

7 105

B

3 415

Rear

C

6 600

Drifth: with mm

Max turn

to Corner 45°

W1 3 820

to Corner 90°

W2 4 455

4500 Rear view

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 78

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST1520

The Scooptram ST1520 is a rugged built 15 tonne capacity underground loader with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment for unparalleled productivity in any underground mine.

Features Load frame

Power frame

• A Z-bar front end for efficient loading and mucking

• Atlas Copco unique powertrain including an upbox, a combined transmission and converter allowing space for the footbox plus a low and short back end

• An aggressively designed “high shape” factor bucket, reducing the need for multiple passes to fill the bucket • Easy to change bucket and cylinders with trunnion cap pin retention system • Boom support and lock for safe work under boom

Operator’s compartment Ergonomically designed and spacious compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with: • maximized leg room provided by the Atlas Copco footbox • comfortable operator’s seat offering improved ergonomic positioning, body orientation and generous shoulder and hip room

• Electronic transmission and engine control system for smooth and precise shifting • A high power-to-weight ratio complemented by a fully integrated powertrain, automatically matching the gear selection to the load, producing a high tractive effort without wheel spin • Stacked V-core radiator and charge air cooler: easy to replace damaged tubes and to clean

General • Excellent serviceability with centralized service points • Long-life tapered roller bearing centre hinge

• compliant with sound and vibration regulations to minimize operator’s fatigue; reduced noise level to 83 dB(A) inside the cab

• Anti skid material at service access points

• new, wider windows for safety and enhanced operator’s visibility

• Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well protected

• 3 point access to operator’s compartment

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

• Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125F) • Central manual lubrication

79

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST1520

Engine Rock Tough exhaust purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with V-core radiator

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back Engine Detroit Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2,100 rpm Maximum torque at 1,200 rpm MSHA Part 32 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

15 000 kg 25 500 kg 21 700 kg

Upbox Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box 7.3 seconds 5.0 seconds 2.3 seconds 3.1 seconds

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

712 m3/min 213 m3/min

Tyres Tubeless, smooth, extra deep tread design for underground mine service

T825

Transmission Dana

Series 40000 53R 16° (8° on each side) Standard No Spin

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 29,5x25, 24 ply, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, return line 25 micron System pressure 20.7 MPa Hydraulic tank capacity 221 litres Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter 125 mm Hoist cylinders (2), diameter 216 mm Stabilizer cylinder (1), diameter 267 mm Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

Series 60 DDEC, Tier/Stage 2 298 kW/400 hp 1898 Nm

Upbox Superior

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

Transmission and converter Automatic power shift with integral converter, fully modulated 4 speed shifting, forward/reverse

530 litres 79 litres/hour 8.0 micron

Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation KAB seat with retractable seat belts Open door retainer Two pilot operated joysticks for steering, dump & hoist control

Optional Equipment Main Frame Optional bucket sizes EOD buckets High wear resistant bucket packages Shipping covers Ergonomics Enclosed cab Wheel control steering System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Electric fill pump for hydraulic oil Fire extinguisher - 6 kg (extra) Heater Air conditioner Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Wiggins fast hydraulic tank fill Loadrite weighing system RRC (Radio Remote Control) Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears Brake release retriever tow hook Ride control Power unit Cold weather packages, 120v or 240v: Block heater, engine oil pan heater, battery warmer, fuel heater, arctic oil Fire resistant fluids Documentation LinkOne parts book, CD LinkOne viewer Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Other Face mechanics tool set Shop mechanics tools set Special tools set EC specification

80

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

1st gear (kph)

6.2

6.1

6.0

5.9

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

5.8

5.7

5.6

2nd gear (kph)

12.1

11.7

11.4

11.0

10.6

10.2

3rd gear (kph)

20.6

19.4

18.2

16.4

14.0

4th gear (kph)

33.8

29.2

22.2

14.8

4.6

6.0

Ratio

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:5

1:4

5.5

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.0

4.6

9.5

8.9

8.3

7.4

6.6

4.7

2.7

11.7

8.8

6.7

4.4

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

5.1

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.4

4.0

6.7

5.9

5.0

4.3

2.0

ST1520 standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

Ratio 1st gear (kph)

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.2

2nd gear (kph)

10.7

10.3

9.9

9.5

8.9

8.4

7.5

3rd gear (kph)

18.1

16.8

15.1

12.9

9.6

7.6

4.3

4th gear (kph)

29.2

23.2

14.8

6.7

3.5

ST1520 standard configuration, bucket loaded.

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.7

2.0

2.3

2.6

2.9

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

8.8

7.5

6.5

5.8

5.2

3

Width, bucket (mm)

W

2 920

2 920

2 920

2 920

2 920

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

3 900

3 710

3 565

3 450

3 300

Tramming position: Ground to bucket tip (mm)

T2

2 020

1 865

1 730

1 635

1 505

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

2 250

2 070

1 920

1 810

1 660

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

6 000

6 000

6 000

6 000

6 000

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

2 200

2 365

2 490

2 585

2 720

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

81

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight ST1520......................... 41 300 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 19 500 kg • Axle load, back end........................................ 21 800 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

6000 (H1) 5535 4130 3810 2365 (H2)

2650 2035

1865 (T2)

12.8˚

441 3545

3710 (T1) 3150

1985

2080 4065 11320

2070 (L1)

2648

2920 (W)

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle 42.5∞

R7115

R7540

3985 4795

3700

4500 R3885

Rear view

2000 x 45∞ Chamfered Corner 3985 4795

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 82

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Scooptram ST1520LP

The low profile Scooptram ST1520LP is a rugged built 15 tonne underground loader with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment for unparalleled productivity in any underground mine where the back height are as low as 2700 mm.

Features Load frame • A Z-bar front end for efficient loading and mucking • An aggressively designed “high shape” factor bucket, reducing the need for multiple passes to fill the bucket • Easy to change bucket and cylinders with trunnion cap pin retention system • Boom support and lock for safe work under boom

Operator’s compartment Ergonomically designed and spacious compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with:

Power frame • Atlas Copco unique powertrain including an upbox, a combined transmission and converter allowing space for the footbox plus a low and short rear end • Electronic transmission and engine control system for smooth and precise shifting • A high power to weight ratio complemented by a fully integrated powertrain, automatically matching the gear selection to the load - producing a high tractive effort without wheel spin

• maximized leg room provided by the Atlas Copco footbox

• Stacked V-core radiator and charge air cooler: easy to replace damaged tubes and to clean

• comfortable operator’s seat offering improved ergonomic positioning, body orientation and generous shoulder and hip room

General

• compliant with sound and vibration regulations to minimize operator’s fatigue; reduced noise level to 83 dB(A) inside the cab

• Excellent serviceability with centralized service points • Long life tapered roller bearing centre hinge • Anti skid material at service access points • Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125F)

• new, wider windows for safety

• Central manual lubrication

Operator’s visibility

• Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well protected

• Enhanced operator visibility with the use of - forward and rear viewing cameras, each coupled to a cab mounted monitor and linked to the transmission providing good visibility in both tramming directions - side view camera and cab monitor Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

83

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Scooptram ST1520LP

Engine Rock Tough exhaust purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with V-core radiator

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping Rolling back Engine Detroit Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2,100 rpm Maximum torque at 1,200 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation – Vent Rate – Particulate index

15 000 kg 25 500 kg 21 700 kg

Upbox Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box 7.3 seconds 5.0 seconds 2.3 seconds 3.1 seconds

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, multiple wet discs at each wheel end

712 m3/min 213 m3/min

Tyres Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

T825

Transmission and converter Dana

Series 40000 53R 16° (8° on each side)

Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation KAB seat with retractable seat belts Open door retainer Two pilot operated joysticks for steering, dump & hoist control Forward, reverse and side viewing cameras, with two cabin monitors

Standard No Spin

Optional Equipment

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt starting 24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 29,5x25, 24 ply, STMS, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, return line 4 micron System pressure 20.7 MPa Hydraulic tank capacity 221 litres Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter 125 mm Hoist cylinders (2), diameter 216 mm Stabilizer cylinder (1), diameter 267 mm Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

Series 60 DDEC, Tier/Stage 2 298 kW/400 hp 1898 Nm

Upbox Superior

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

Transmission and converter Automatic power shift with integral converter, fully modulated 4 speed shifting, forward/reverse

410 litres 79 litres/hour 8.0 micron

Main Frame Optional bucket sizes EOD buckets High wear resistant bucket packages Shipping covers Knockdown - specify weight and dimension limitations Ergonomics Enclosed cab Wheel control steering System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Ansul dual bottle fire suppression with engine kill Electric fill pump for hydraulic oil Fire extinguisher - 4.5 kg Heater Air conditioner Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Scooptram RRC Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and 4th gears Blockout 3rd gear DDEC - diagnostic data reader Brake release retriever tow hook Ride control Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Cold weather packages for 120V or 240V, may include: Block heater, ether start, battery warmer, fuel heater and arctic oil Documentation LinkOne parts catalogue, CD Operator’s and maintenance manual - plasticized Other Parts kit - 1 000 hour consumables Face mechanics tool set Shop mechanics tools set Special tools set

84

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

1st gear (kph)

6.2

6.1

6.0

5.9

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

5.8

5.7

5.6

2nd gear (kph)

12.1

11.7

11.4

11.0

10.6

10.2

3rd gear (kph)

20.6

19.4

18.2

16.4

14.0

4th gear (kph)

33.8

29.2

22.2

14.8

4.6

6.0

Ratio

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:5

1:4

5.5

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.0

4.6

9.5

8.9

8.3

7.4

6.6

4.7

2.7

11.7

8.8

6.7

4.4

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1:4

5.1

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.4

4.0

6.7

5.9

5.0

4.3

2.0

ST1520LP standard configuration, bucket empty. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

Ratio 1st gear (kph)

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.2

2nd gear (kph)

10.7

10.3

9.9

9.5

8.9

8.4

7.5

3rd gear (kph)

18.1

16.8

15.1

12.9

9.6

7.6

4.3

4th gear (kph)

29.2

23.2

14.8

6.7

3.5

ST1520LP standard configuration, bucket loaded

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.7

2.0

2.3

2.6

2.9

Volume, nominal heaped (m3)

8.8

7.5

6.5

5.8

5.2

3

Width, bucket (mm)

W

2 920

2 920

2 920

2 920

2 920

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

T1

3 900

3 710

3 565

3 450

3 300

Tramming position: Ground to bucket tip (mm)

T2

2 020

1 865

1 730

1 635

1 505

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

2 250

2 070

1 920

1 810

1 660

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

6 000

6 000

6 000

6 000

6 000

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

2 200

2 365

2 490

2 585

2 720

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

85

UNDERGROUND LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate gross weight ST1520LP........... 41 300 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 19 500 kg • Axle load, back end........................................ 21 800 kg

6000 (H1)

Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

5883 5535 4130 3810 2365 (H2)

2301 2035

1865 (T2)

12.8˚

441 3545

3710 (T1) 3150

1985

2080 4065 11320

2070 (L1)

2920

2648 1800

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle 42.5° 42,5°

2700 5006

4420 R7116 R7541

Rear view

R3586

2000X 45° CHAMFER

4101

5006

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 86

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Electric Scooptram EST2D

W

The Electric Scooptram EST2D is a reliable electric 3 600 kg tramming capacity underground loader that has been proven in mines around the world where local conditions such as reduced mine ventilation or high ambient temperatures make the use of diesel powered units impractical.

Features Load frame • A parallel boom design matched to an aggressive bucket configuration provide for efficient mucking operations

• Random wrap cable reel with automatic tensioning offered for different cables specifications matched to the mine electrical system

Operator’s compartment

• High ground clearance protects the machine from damage

• Side seated operator position for efficient bi-directional operation with maximum visibility • Ergonomic operator seat with seat belt for comfort during a full operating shift

Power frame • Conventional and proven components are well protected within the frame • ABB electric motor with overload protection and onboard start is offered with various voltages and electrical frequencies

• Three point mounting and anti-skip protection provides safe access to operators and service staff. • Ergonomic operator seat with seat belt for comfort during a full operating shift

General • Long life roller bearing centre articulation joint • Central manual lubrication

• Ground fault/ground check systems protect mine personnel

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

87

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Electric Scooptram EST2D

Motor On board system Ground fault system

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping

3 629 kg 9 316 kg 6 000 kg

3.7 seconds 2.4 seconds 4.0 seconds

Transmission and converter Full power shift, 3 speeds forward/reverse, integral torque converter, single stage Axles Spiral bevel differentials, full floating, planetary wheel end drive. Brakes 4 - wheel end, fully enclosed, hydraulically applied, wet discs Parking and emergency: Spring applied, hydraulically released, multiple wet discs, built into transmission

Motor ABB Electric Motor Power rating

3phase 50 and 60 Hz 56 Kw/75 hp

Transmission and converter Dana

Tyres Nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service, on demountable rims

Series 32000

Operator’s compartment Side seated for bi-directional operation and maximum visibility Monostick control steering Dual lever dump and hoist controls

Axles Dana Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

Series 14D 16° (8° on each side) No spin Standard

Optional Equipment

Brakes Service

LCB

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 12.00x24, 16 ply, STMS, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, suction line System pressure Steering pressure Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinder (1) Hoist cylinder (1) Dump cylinder (1) Pumps: Dump/hoist Steering Tank capacity Hydraulic

25 micron 11.4 MPa 13.1 MPa 127 mm 178 mm 178 mm 163 lpm at 1,800 rpm 68 lpm at 1.800 rpm 144 litres

Main Frame Various bucket sizes Boom up lock device Knockdown - specify weight and dimension limitations Eod bucket Ergonomics Wheel steering control System options Single bottle fire suppression w/engine kill Lincoln auto lube w/timer Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Electrical system Ground fault box not included Shielded trailing cable Zig zag transformer Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Block out 3rd gear Single lever dump and hoist control Power unit Various voltage and frequency electrical motors. Hydraulic system EOD hydraulics & controls only Drive train Posi-Stop brakes Documentation LinkOne parts book CD LinkOne viewer Parts manual - plasticised Service manual - plasticised Other Tool box

88

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:5

1st gear (km/h)

2.46

2.41

2.36

2.32

2,27

2.24

2.19

2.15

2.12

2.09

2.05

1.86

1.65

2nd gear (km/h)

4.95

4.77

4.59

4.43

4.23

3.94

3.50

3.16

2.83

2.46

2.11

1.16

0.0

3rd gear (km/h)

8.23

7.72

7.09

6.03

4.71

3.80

2.42

0.90

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

EST2D standard configuration, bucket empty Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1st gear (km/h)

2.44

2.37

2.32

2.26

2.20

2.16

2.10

2.06

1.99

1.89

1.79

1.50

1.22

2nd gear (km/h)

4.87

4.64

4.42

4.17

3.66

3.24

2.62

2.21

1.83

1.32

0.59

0.0

0.0

3rd gear (km/h)

8.00

7.35

5.99

4.51

2.93

1.37

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

EST2D standard configuration, bucket loaded

Cable specification Cable and reel Cable Type/ Dia. mm #2/34.04

#1/38.35

#2/0 44.45

maximum cable length (m ) based on voltage

Reel Dia.(mm)/ max Cap

380V, 50HZ

460V, 60HZ

550V, 50HZ

575V, 60HZ

1 219/131

79

128

131

131

1 371/174

79

128

154

174

1 219/101

97

101

101

101

1 371/137

97

137

137

137

1 219/76

76

76

76

76

1 371/107

107

107

107

107

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

89

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight EST2D.......................... 13 000 kg • Axle load, front end.......................................... 5 960 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 7 040 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

3732

40° 2086*

2544 2052 1688

1443 1467

20°

610

267

890

1270

1270

* MSHA adjustable canopy W/Rib roll at lowest position. Canopy is adjustable for 51mm and 102mm increase in height

2134

6880

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-40.5°

1515 883

2800

2934

R2635

R4797

2400 Rear view

1651

2934

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 90

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Electric Scooptram EST3.5

The Electric Scooptram EST3.5 is a reliable electric 6 000 kg capacity underground loader that has been proven in mines around the world where local conditions such as reduced mine ventilation or high ambient temperatures make the use of diesel powered units impractical.

Features Load frame • A parallel boom design matched to an aggressive bucket configuration provide for efficient mucking operations

• Random wrap cable reel with automatic tensioning offered for different cables specifications matched to the mine electrical system

Operator’s compartment

• High ground clearance protects the machine from damage

• Side seated operator position for efficient bi-directional operation with maximum visibility • Ergonomic operator seat with seat belt for comfort during a full operating shift

Power frame • Conventional and proven components are well protected within the frame

• Three point mounting and anti-skip protection provides safe access to operators and service staff

General • Long life roller bearing centre articulation joint • Central manual lubrication

• ABB electric motor with overload protection and onboard start is offered with various voltages and electrical frequencies • Ground fault/ground check systems protect mine personnel

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

91

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Electric Scooptram EST3.5

Motor On board start system Ground fault system

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity Breakout force, hydraulic Breakout force Motion times Boom: Raising Lowering Bucket: Dumping

6 000 kg 9 960 kg 8 180 kg

6.0 seconds 4.0 seconds

Transmission and converter Full power shift, 3 speeds forward/reverse, integral torque converter, single stage Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive

4.0 seconds

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

Motor ABB Electric motor: Power rating

3phase, 50 and 60 Hz, 1000V 74.6 kw/100 hp

Tyres Tubeless, Nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service, on demountable rims

Transmission and converter Dana

Series 32000

Operator’s compartment Side entry and side seated for bi-directional operation and maximum visibility

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation Differentials: Front Rear

406 14° (7° on each side) No spin Standard

Optional Equipment

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Electrical system System Voltage

24 Volt accessories

Tyres Tire size, front and rear 17.50x25, 20 ply, L-5S* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system Filtration, suction line System pressure Steering pressure Cylinders diameter: Steer cylinders (2), diameter Hoist cylinders (2), diameter Dump cylinder (1), diameter Pumps: Dump/hoist Steering Tank capacity Hydraulic

25 micron 13.8 MPa 15.9 MPa 89 mm 152 mm 152 mm 92+92 lpm at 2,100 rpm 61 lpm at 2,100 rpm 273 litres

Main Frame Various bucket sizes Boom Up Lock Device Knockdown - Specify weight and dimension limitations EOD bucket Ergonomics Wheel Steering Control System options Single bottle fire suppression Lincoln auto lube w/Timer Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Electrical system Ground fault box not included Shielded trailing cable Zig zag transformer Audio-visual reverse alarm Controls and instruments Block out 3rd gear Single lever dump and hoist control Power unit Various voltage and frequency electrical motors Hydraulic system EOD hydraulics & controls only Documentation LinkOne parts book CD LinkOne viewer Parts manual - plasticised Service manual - plasticised Other Tool box

92

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:5

1st gear (km/h)

2.82

2.72

2.65

2.59

2.52

2.48

2.42

2.36

2.29

2.19

2.07

1.75

1.42

2nd gear (km/h)

5.57

5.30

5.09

4.79

4.25

3.76

3.05

2.58

2.16

1.61

0.88

0.00

0.00

3rd gear (km/h)

9.14

8.41

6.96

5.24

3.50

1.87

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

6.0

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

16.0

18.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

EST3.5 standard configuration, bucket empty

Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

Ratio

1:5

1st gear (km/h)

2.76

2.66

2.57

2.49

2.43

2.35

2.19

2.05

1.90

1.72

1.54

1.14

0.71

2nd gear (km/h)

5.42

5.11

4.71

4.00

3.11

2.51

1.62

0.71

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

3rd gear (km/h)

8.82

7.16

4.88

2.74

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

EST3.5 standard configuration, bucket loaded

Cable specification Cable and reel Cable Type/ Dia. mm #2/34.04

#1/38.35

#2/0 44.45

maximum cable length (m ) based on voltage

Reel Dia.(mm)/ max Cap

380V, 50HZ

415V, 50HZ

440V, 50HZ

460V, 60HZ

550V, 50HZ

575V, 60HZ

660V, 50HZ

1000V, 50HZ

1 219/131

90

104

118

131

131

131

131

131

1 371/174

90

104

118

134

174

174

174

174

1 524/244

90

104

118

134

184

244

244

244

1 219/101

101

101

101

101

101

101

101

101

1 371/137

111

127

137

137

137

137

137

137

1 524/180

111

127

143

164

180

180

180

180

1 219/76

76

76

76

76

76

76

76

76

1 371/107

107

107

107

107

107

107

107

107

1 524/122

122

122

122

122

122

122

122

122

Buckets Bucket data

STD

Material density (t/m ) 3

Volume, nominal heaped (m ) 3

Tramming position: Axle centreline to bucket lip (mm)

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.4

3.1/*3.0

2.7/ 2.8

2.3

2.1

1.9/* 1.8

W

2 121

1 956/*2 159

1 956/*1 969

1 956

1 956

1 956/*1 969

T1

2 888

2 916/*2 833

2 916/*2 893

2 678

2 798

2 697/*2 837

Truck loading: Reach (mm)

L1

813

812/ *2 548

711/ *2 548

579

689

597/*2 562

Raised position: Back height, max. (mm)

H1

3 937

3 984/*3 972

3 835/*4 035

3 660

3 770

3 678/*3 942

Raised position: Bucket tip, height (mm)

H2

1 321

1 313/*2 548

1 397/*2 548

1 546

1 428

1 528/*2 562

* EOD bucket Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

93

UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC LOADERS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate weight EST3.5.......................... 17 900 kg • Axle load, front end.......................................... 7 400 kg • Axle load, back end........................................ 10 500 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty bucket

3936

40° 2421

2702

2118 2042 1845 1729

1501 10,6°

348 3039

1483

2896 8849

876

1178

1956

1905

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size 3627 2920

2000x45° CHAMFER

3000

R2620 R5480

3500

3627

Rear view

2920

Turning angle +/-42.5°

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tire deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 94

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Minetruck   MT2010

The Minetruck MT2010 is a 20 metric tonne underground truck developed for small to medium-scale underground operations and high speed development.

Features Dump box

Power frame

• Optimum box profile for clean and fast dumping

• A high power-to-weight ratio

• Box support and lock for safe work under box

• Oversized power train components for long life and low costs

Operator’s compartment • MSHA canopy with back protection

General

• 3 point mounting access for entry and exit from operator’s compartment

• Great serviceability with centralized service points

• Optional back up camera and monitor for operator assistance

• Anti skid material at service access points

• Optional spacious and ergonomically designed compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with: - forward seating enclosed cabin - ROPS and FOPS certified for maximum safety - air conditioning for convenient working conditions

• Long-life roller bearing centre hinge • Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125F) • Central manual lubrication • Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well routed and protected • Highest ramp haulage performance • SAHR brake system • CE certified

- windows for safety and enhanced operator’s visibility

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

95

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Minetruck MT2010

Engine Rock Tough exhaust purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Cooling package with tube type radiator

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity

20 000 kg

Motion Times Dump Box: Dumping

15 seconds

Engine Cummins Diesel Engine Power rating at 2 100 rpm Maximum torque at 1 350 rpm MSHA Part 32 ventilation rate MSHA Part 32 particulate index

QSL9C300, Tier/Stage 3 224 kW/300 hp 1 369 Nm 368 m3/min 396 m3/min

Transmission Dana

Series 5000

Converter Clark

CL8000 series

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation

457 Series 20º (10º on each side)

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Tyres Dimension 16.00R25* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Cylinders diameter: Two steer cylinders Two dump cylinders

15.5 Mpa 223 liters

Transmission Full power shift, 4 speed forward/reverse Converter Single stage with automatic lock up Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive Conventional front differential Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end Tyres Tubeless, steel radial, lug tread design for underground mine service Operator´s compartment Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Canopy MSHA approved with integrated rib roll protection Grammer seat with retractable seat belt Two pilot operated levers for steering and gear shifting Electrical system Hella projection lights 4 x x70W Isolation switch lockout

Optional Equipment

115 mm 140 mm

Main Frame Optional box sizes Shipping covers

Electrical system Voltage, system start & accessories Alternator, high output Hydraulic warning system

24 V 140 A Level, hyd. temp.

Ergonomics Forward facing enclosed cab with wheel control steering Low built canopy Heater (not for low built) Air conditioner, cabin

Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load

379 litres 29.4 litres/hour

Tyres 18.00R25 System options Ansul checkfire, autofire suppression Ansul single bottle fire suppression with engine kill Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Back up camera and monitor Manual hydraulic tank fill pump Electrical system Tail and brake lights Block heater (120V or 240V) Drive train Neutral brake apply Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears Speedometer Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Documentation LinkOne parts book, CD Operator’s and maintenance manual - plasticized Other Tool box

96

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0 1:5

1st gear (km/h)

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

2nd gear (km/h)

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

7.9

7.9

7.9

7.9

7.8

7.8

3rd gear (km/h)

14.1

14.1

14.0

13.9

13.8

13.8

13.7

13.6

13.5

13.5

13.1

4th gear (km/h)

25.1

24.9

24.7

24.4

24.2

23.4

21.9

19.6

16.0

18.0

20.0

MT2010 standard configuration, empty box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1st gear (km/h)

4.5

4.5

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.3

2nd gear (km/h)

8.0

7.9

7.9

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.7

7.7

7.6

7.3

7.0

3rd gear (km/h)

14.0

13.8

13.7

13.5

13.2

12.3

10.9

4th gear (km/h)

24.7

24.2

22.4

17.6

MT2010 standard configuration, loaded box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application.

Dump boxes Dump box data

   STD

Material density (t/m )

1.8

Volume, SAE heaped (m ), 2:1

12.1

10.8

9.9

9.2

Volume, Semi-heaped (m3)

11.1

10.0

9.2

8.3

Volume, SEA struck (m3)

10.5

9.1

8.3

7.6

3

3

2.0

2.2

2.4

Width, dump box (mm)

W

2 172

2 172

2 172

2 172

Dump position: Box height, max (mm)

H1

4 572

4 438

4 438

4 289

Tramming position: Dump box height (mm)

H2

2 525

2 362

2 362

2 184

C

317

317

317

338

Dump position: Tailgate clearance (mm)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

97

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate net weight MT2010.................. 20 500 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 13 800 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 6 700 kg

58°

Standard equipped vehicle with empty box

4438 (H1)

2362 (H2)

2444 1848 392

14° 3086

1700

317 (C) 1440

2920

2172 (W)

2210

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-42.5° R7490

3365 4210

3500

3500

R4635 2000 x 45° Chamfered Corner 3365 4210

• Turning radius left and right are symmetrical. • Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 25 mm tyre deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. • For 18.00R25 tyres add 68 mm to all height dimensions and 139 mm to dimensions (w) 98

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Minetruck    MT431B

The Minetruck MT431B is a 28.1 metric ton capacity underground truck for large underground operations in mining and construction. The Atlas Copco MT431B is ready to deliver reliable productivity to your operation.

Features • ROPS/FOPS canopy with back protection • Jacobs engine brake provides increased brake life, automatic engine overspeed protection, and reduced heat from braking • Electric transmission shift control for convenient shifting • Converter lockup offers better power transfer, less heat and longer component life • Centralized lubrication simplifies maintenance • SAHR brake system offers long component life and very reliable braking

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

99

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Minetruck MT431B

Engine Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with v-core radiator

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity

28 125 kg

Motion Times Dump box: Dumping

14 seconds

Engine Detroit Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2 100 rpm Maximum torque at 1 350 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation rate MSHA Part 7 particulate index

DDEC IV Series 60, Tier/Stage 2 298 kW/400 hp 1 898 Nm 793 m3/min 241 m3/min

Transverter Dana

Series 6000

Converter Spicer

CL-8000 Series

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation

Tyres Tubeless, steel radial, lug tread design for underground service

Series 508 18º (9º on each side)

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Operator’s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Two pilot operated joysticks for steering and dump control

Tyres Dimension 18.000R33 * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Cylinders diameter: Two steer cylinders Two hoist cylinders Dump cylinder diameter

15.8 Mpa 238 liters 152 mm 228 mm 228 mm

Electrical system Voltage, system start & accessories Alternator, high output Hydraulic warning system

24 V 140 A Level, hyd. temp.

Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load

439 litres 35.5 litres/hour

Transmission Full power shift, 4 speed forward/reverse Torque converter Single stage with lock up Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive Conventional front differential Rear axle, trunnion mounted, self-lubricating bushings Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

Electrical system Rock Tough protection lights Isolation switch lockout

Optional Equipment Main Frame Shipping covers, cabin Ergonomics Forward facing cab KAB 555 seat w/retractable seatbelts cabin Heater Air conditioner, cabin Side seated with steering wheel, canopy System options Ansul dual bottle fire suppression with engine kill Electric hydraulic tank fill pump Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on 24/12 V power converter, cabin Load lights Side light opposite operator, cabin Drive train Converter- no lock up Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears Load man, cabin Speedometer Automatic transmission control Back up camera and monitor Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Articulation repair kit Maintenance kit Documentation LinkOne parts catalogue, CD Parts and service manual - plasticized Extra DDEC manual kit Other Tool box, cabin

100

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

1st gear (kph)

5.7

5.7

5.7

5.7

5.7

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.6

2nd gear (kph)

10.2

10.2

10.1

10.1

10.0

10.0

10.0

9.9

9.9

9.8

9.8

3rd gear (kph)

18.0

17.9

17.7

17.6

17.4

17.4

17.3

16.0

14.4

12.2

4th gear (kph)

32.0

31.5

31.0

27.1

20.4

16.0

18.0

Ratio

MT431B standard configuration, empty box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

20.0 1:5

1st gear (kph)

5.70

5.67

5.64

5.61

5.59

5.56

5.53

5.50

5.47

2nd gear (kph)

10.15

10.06

9.97

9.88

9.79

9.65

8.77

7.77

6.51

3rd gear (kph)

17.84

17.55

17.27

14.85

10.95

4th gear (kph)

31.36

26.70

5.45

5.42

MT431B standard configuration, loaded box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application.

Dump boxes Dump box data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.4

Volume, SEA struck (m )

3

16.2

13.7

12.3

9.8

3

Volume, Semi-heaped (m )

17.3

15.2

13.9

11.5

Volume, SAE heaped (m3)

18.5

16.7

15.5

13.2

3

Width, Dump box (mm)

W

3 050

2 795

2 795

2 795

Dump position: Box height, max (mm)

H1

4 650

5 420

5 365

5 200

Tramming position: Dump box height (mm)

H2

2 600

2 445

2 400

2 175

C

350

300

385

-

Dump position: Clearance (mm)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

101

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate net weight MT431B................. 28 000 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 19 900 kg • Axle load, back end.......................................... 8 100 kg

5365 (H1)

Standard equipped vehicle with empty box

2740

59°

2400 (H2) 15°

385 (C)

370 3430

1465

3555 5020 10180

2795 (W)

2795

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-42.5° 42.5°

4500

5280

4440

R8570

5000

R4650 2000 X 45° Chamfered Corner 4440 5280

• Turning radius left and right are symmetrical • Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 25 mm tyre deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 102

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Minetruck    MT436B

The Minetruck MT436B is a 32.6 metric ton capacity underground truck for large underground operations in mining and construction. The Atlas Copco MT436B is ready to deliver reliable productivity to your operation.

Features • ROPS/FOPS canopy with back protection • Jacobs engine brake provides increased brake life, automatic engine overspeed protection, and reduced heat from braking • Electric transmission shift control for convenient shifting • Converter lockup offers better power transfer, less heat and longer component life • Centralized lubrication simplifies maintenance • SAHR brake system offers long component life and very reliable braking

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

103

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Minetruck MT436B

Tyres Tubeless, steel radial, lug tread design for underground mine service

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity

32 650 kg

Motion Times Dump box: Dumping

14 seconds

Engine Detroit Diesel Engine Power rating at 2 100 rpm Maximum torque at 1 350 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation rate MSHA Part 7 particulate index

DDEC IV Series 60, Tier/Stage 2 298 kW/400 hp 1 898 Nm 793 m3/min 241 m3/min

Transmission Dana

Series 6000

Converter Dana

CL-8000 Series

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation

Series 508 18º (9º on each side)

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Tyres Dimension 26.5R25* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Cylinders diameter: Two steer cylinders Two hoist cylinders Dump cylinder

15.8 Mpa 238 liters 152 mm 228 mm 228 mm

Electrical system Voltage, system start & accessories Alternator, high output Hydraulic warning system

24 V 140 A Level, hyd. temp.

Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load

439 litres 35.5 litres/hour

Standard Equipment Engine Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with v-core radiator Transmission Full power shift, 4 speed forward/reverse Converter Single stage with lock up Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive Conventional front differential Rear axle, trunnion mounted, self-lubricating bushings

Operator´s compartment Canopy ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Side seated operator for bi-directional operation Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Two pilot operated joysticks for steering and dump control Electrical system Rock Tough protection lights Isolation switch lockout

Optional Equipment Main Frame Wheel chocks Shipping covers, cabin Ergonomics Enclosed, cabin Heater Air conditioner, cabin KAB 555 seat w/retractable seatbelts cabin Side seated with steering wheel, canopy System options Ansul dual bottle fire suppression with engine kill Electric hydraulic tank fill pump Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel fill Electric brake release pump Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Load lights Side lights- opposite operator cabin Tail and brake lights Front and rear red lights 2 each Block heater, 240 V 24/12 V power converter cabin Drive train Converter- no lock up Controls and instruments Blockout 3rd and/or 4th gears (only side seated versions) Fuel gauge in panel (front seated cabin) Load man weighing system Speedometer Automatic transmission control Back up camera and monitor Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Documentation CatBase parts catalogue, CD LinkOne parts catalogue, CD Parts and service manual - plasticized Extra DDEC manual kit Other Tool box, cabin

Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end

104

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

1st gear (kph)

5.01

5.0

4.98

4.97

4.96

4.95

4.94

4.92

4.91

4.90

4.89

2nd gear (kph)

8.95

8.91

8.87

8.83

8.79

8.75

8.71

8.67

8.65

8.60

8.56

3rd gear (kph)

15.81

15.68

15.56

15.44

15.31

15.19

14.81

13.64

12.25

10.47

4th gear (kph)

28.07

27.67

27.27

25.37

20.84

16.0

18.0

Ratio

MT436B standard configuration, empty box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

20.0 1:5

1st gear (kph)

4.99

4.97

4.94

4.92

4.90

4.87

4.85

4.83

4.80

4.78

2nd gear (kph)

8.89

8.82

8.74

8.67

8.59

8.51

7.87

7.12

6.08

4.97

3rd gear (kph)

15.63

15.39

15.16

13.36

10.29

4th gear (kph)

27.51

24.03

4.76

MT436B standard configuration, loaded box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application.

Dump boxes Dump box data

STD

Material density (t/m3)

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

Volume, SEA struck (m3)

16.6

14.4

13.0

11.8

Volume, Semi-heaped (m3)

18.4

16.3

14.8

13.8

Volume, SAE heaped (m3)

20.2

18.2

16.7

15.8

Width, dump box (mm)

W

3 355 3 050

3 355 3 050

3 050

3 050

Dump position: Box height, max (mm)

H1

5 440 5 520

5 320 5 385

5 410

5 240

Tramming position: Dump box height (mm)

H2

2 510 2 595

2 430

2 370

2 255

C

210

315

350

250

Dump position: Clearance (mm)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

105

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate net weight MT436B................. 30 600 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 20 500 kg • Axle load, back end.........................................10 100 kg

5385 (H1)

Standard equipped vehicle with empty box

2680

59°

2430 (H2) 15°

315 (C)

305 3430

1465

3555 5020 10180

3065

3050 (W)

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

Turning angle +/-42.5° 42.5°

4500

5380

4540

R8570

5000

R4515 2000 X 45° Chamfered Corner 4540 5380

• Turning radius left and right are symmetrical • Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 25 mm tyre deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 106

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Minetruck   MT436LP

The Minetruck MT436LP is a 32.6 metric ton capacity low profile underground truck, designed to work in low seam mining applications where the back height can get down to 2.8 m.

Features Operator’s compartment

General

Ergonomically and spacious designed compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with:

• Long-life tapered roller bearing centre hinge

• ROPS/FOPS canopy with back protection and sound suppression

• Central manual lubrication

• Comfortable operator’s seat providing improved ergonomic positioning, body orientation and generous shoulder and hip room • Enhanced operator visibility with the use of - forward and rear viewing cameras, each coupled to a canopy mounted monitor and linked to the   transmission providing good visibility in both   tramming directions

• Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125°F) • Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well protected The Atlas Copco MT436LP is ready to deliver reliable productivity to your operation.

Power frame • Converter lockup offers better power transfer, less heat and longer component life • Jacobs engine brake provides increased brake life, automatic engine overspeed protection, and reduced heat from braking • Electric transmission shift control for convenient shifting • SAHR brake system offers long component life and very reliable braking

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

107

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Minetruck MT436LP

Engine Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with v-core radiator

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity

32 650 kg

Motion Times Dump box: Dumping

14 seconds

Engine Detroit Diesel Engine Power rating at 2 100 rpm Maximum torque at 1 350 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation rate MSHA Part 7 particulate index

DDEC IV Series 60 298 kW/400 hp 1 898 Nm 793 m3/min 241 m3/min

Transmission Dana

Series 6000

Converter Dana

CL-8000 Series

Axles Rock Tough Degree of oscillation

Series 508 18º (9º on each side)

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Tyres Dimension 26.5R25* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Hydraulic system System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Cylinders diameter: Two steer cylinders Two dump cylinders Filtration, return line

15.8 Mpa 238 liters 152 mm 228 mm 4.0 µm

Electrical system Voltage, system start & accessories Alternator, high output Hydraulic warning system

24 V 140 A Level, hyd. temp.

Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

439 litres 95 litres/hour 8.0 µm

Transmission Full power shift, 4 speed forward/reverse Converter Single stage with lock up Axles Spiral bevel differential, full floating, planetary wheel end drive Conventional front differential Rear axle, trunnion mounted, self-lubricating bushings Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end Tyres Tubeless, nylon, smooth tread design for underground mine service, on demountable rims Operator´s compartment Canopy MSHA-ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Forward facing seat with steering wheel Grammer seat with retractable seat belts forward and back up camera, with monitor Hydraulic system Hella projection lights Heavy duty gear type pumps Electrical system Rock Tough protection lights Isolation switch lockout Fuel Anti-siphon fuel supply

Optional Equipment Main Frame Wheel chocks System options Ansul dual bottle fire suppression with engine kill Lincoln auto lube with timer Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Side lights Tail and brake lights Controls and instruments Blockout 4th gears DDEC - Diagnostic data reader Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Articulation Repair Kit Documentation LinkOne parts catalogue, CD Operator´s and maintenance manual - plasticized Other Face mechanics tool set Tool box

108

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.3

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0 1:5

1st gear (kph)

4.8

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.3

4.2

2nd gear (kph)

8.5

8.2

8.0

7.8

7.7

7.6

7.4

7.3

7.2

7.1

6.9

3rd gear (kph)

14.5

13.9

13.5

13.2

12.7

12.3

11.8

11.3

10.7

9.8

8.9

4th gear (kph)

24.8

23.6

22.2

20.9

18.3

15.6

12.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

MT436LP standard configuration, empty box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.5

14.3

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

1:5

1st gear (kph)

4.7

4.5

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.7

2nd gear (kph)

8.1

7.7

7.5

7.2

6.9

6.7

6.2

5.8

5.2

4.6

4.0

3rd gear (kph)

13.6

12.9

12.0

10.8

8.7

7.1

4th gear (kph)

22.8

19.4

13.4

MT436LP standard configuration, loaded box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application.

Dump boxes Dump box data

STD

Material density (t/m3)

2.2

Volume, SEA struck (m3)

13.0

Volume, Semi-heaped (m3)

14.8

Volume, SAE heaped (m3)

16.7

Width, dump box (mm)

3 353

Dump position: Box height, max (mm)

5 402

Tramming position: Dump box height (mm)

2 300

Dump position: Tailgate clearance (mm)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

343

109

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate net weight MT436LP............... 30 600 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 20 500 kg • Axle load, back end.........................................10 100 kg

2300

2300

Standard equipped vehicle with empty box

299 10182

5020

1730

3064

3353

3431

Left turning radius

Recommended drift size

42.5º Turning angle +/-42.5°

1676

3353

3000

3353

5000 R8571 R4372

4653 5492

• Turning radius left and right are symmetrical • Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 25 mm tyre deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 110

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Minetruck   MT5020

The Minetruck MT5020 is a fast 50 metric ton capacity underground truck, with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment for unparalleled productivity in demanding underground mines.

Features Dump box

Power frame

• Optimum box profile for clean and fast dumping

• The front axle suspension, a hydro-pneumatic system for improved operator comfort and vehicle handling

• Box support and lock for safe work under box

Operator’s compartment • Ergonomically and spacious designed compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with:

• Atlas Copco unique powertrain includes an upbox, a combined transmission and converter for improved visibility and accessibility to components

- Forward seating enclosed cabin

• Electronic transmission and engine control system for smooth and precise shifting

- ROPS and FOPS certified for maximum safety

• A high power-to-weight ratio

- Air conditioning for convenient working conditions

General

- Tilt-telescopic steering wheel

• Great serviceability with centralized service points

- Trainer seat

• Long-life roller bearing centre hinge

- Compliant with sound regulations to minimize operator’s fatigue; reduced noise level to 83 dB(A) inside the cab

• Anti skid material at service access points

- wide windows for safety and enhanced operator’s visibility - 3 point mounting points for entry and exit from operator’s compartment - Back up camera and monitor for operator assistance

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

• Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125F) • Central manual lubrication • Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well routed and protected • Improved tire life with Bridgestone • Carries the highest speed per ton

111

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Minetruck MT5020

Tyres Tubeless, steel radial, lug tread design for underground mine service

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity

50 000 kg

Motion Times Dump box: Dumping

15 seconds

Engine Cummins Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2 100 rpm Maximum torque at 1 300 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation rate Ventilation particulate index

QSK19-C650, Tier/Stage 1 485 kW/650 hp 3 084 Nm 1 274 m3/min 934 m3/min

Transmission and Converter Allison

M6610AR

Axles Kessler

106

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Suspension The suspension is a hydro-pneumatic system for improved operator comfort and vechicle handling while minimizing frame stress Individual self leveling suspension Operator’s compartment Forward facing seat Cabin ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Air conditioner Trainer seat Back up video monitor Hydraulic system Heavy duty gear type pumps Electrical system Hella projection lights Isolation switch lockout

Tyres Dimension 35/65R33* Ply rating MS * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection.

Optional Equipment

Suspension Suspension, max

Main frame Wheel chocks and chock brackets

Hydraulic system System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Filtration, return line Cylinders diameter: Two steer cylinders Two dump cylinders Two suspension cylinders

140 mm 20.7 Mpa 238 liters 4.0 micron 160 mm 177.8 mm 125 mm

Electrical system Voltage, system start & accessories Alternator, high output Hydraulic warning system

24 V 100 A Level, hyd. temp. oil

Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

644 litres 57 litres/hour 10 µm

Standard Equipment Engine Rock Tough purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with flat, round, mechanical radiator Transmission and converter Planetary, automatic 6 speeds forward/ 2 speeds reverse with integral single stage converter with automatic lock up Up box: Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Drop box: Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Axles Conventional front and rear differential Front-axle oscillating suspension “A” frame with hydraulic suspension cylinders and accumulator cushioning All wheel drive Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, spring applied hydraulic released multiple wet discs at each wheel end Hydraulic retarder

112

Fuel Anti-siphon fuel supply

Ergonomic KAB 555 seat W/retractable seatbelts System Ansul dual bottle fire suppression with Engine kill Electric hydraulic tank fill pump Dual fuel filter Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel-, transmission-, hydraulic- oil fill Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Load lights Side light opposite operator Tail and brake lights Turn signals, front and rear 24/12 V power converter Loading camera Battery heater, 120 V Block heater, 120 V Hydraulic oil heater, 120 V Engine oil heater, 120 V Fuel heater Drive train option Neutral brake apply Controls and instruments Blockout 5th and/or 6th gears Emergency steering- accumulator type Extended data gauge package Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Documentation LinkOne parts catalogue, CD Parts and service manual - plasticized Other Tool box

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0 1:5

1st gear (km/h)

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.4

6.4

6.3

6.3

6.2

6.2

6.1

6.1

2nd gear (km/h)

9.8

9.6

9.5

9.4

9.3

9.2

9.1

9.0

8.9

8.7

8.7

3rd gear (km/h)

12.9

12.7

12.5

12.3

12.1

11.9

11.7

11.6

11.4

11.3

11.2

4th gear (km/h)

19.1

18.6

18.2

17.7

17.3

17.0

16.7

16.4

16.1

15.8

15.3

5th gear (km/h)

25.4

24.6

23.8

23.1

22.6

22.0

21.5

20.7

18.9

17.3

6th gear (km/h)

37.0

35.2

33.9

32.7

31.5

27.7

16.0

18.0

MT5020 standard configuration, empty box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

20.0 1:5

1st gear (km/h)

6.5

6.4

6.3

6.1

6.0

5.9

5.8

5.7

5.7

5.6

5.5

2nd gear (km/h)

9.5

9.3

9.0

8.8

8.6

8.4

8.2

8.1

7.9

7.5

6.9

3rd gear (km/h)

12.6

12.1

11.7

11.3

11.0

10.7

10.3

9.3

8.5

4th gear (km/h)

18.2

17.2

16.6

15.9

14.3

12.4

5th gear (km/h)

23.9

22.5

21.3

17.8

6th gear (km/h)

34.0

31.0

MT5020 standard configuration, loaded box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application.

Dump boxes Dump box data

STD

Material density (t/m )

1.8

3

2.0

2.2

2.4

Volume, SEA struck (m )

26.2

23.1

20.3

18.5

Volume, Semi-heaped (m3)

27.8

25.5

22.7

20.8

Volume, SAE heaped (m3)

31.3

27.8

25.0

23.4

3

Width, dump box (mm)

W

3 400

3 200

3 200

3 200

Dump position: Box height, max (mm)

H1

7 015

6 910

6 800

6 720

Tramming position: Dump box height (mm)

H2

3 255

3 160

3 000

2 885

C

410

410

410

410

Dump position: Clearance (mm)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

113

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate net weight MT5020.................. 42 000 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 29 700 kg • Axle load, back end........................................ 12 300 kg

6915 (H1)

Standard equipped vehicle with empty box 62°

3150 (H2)

2815

13°

410 (C)

455 3515

1975

3700 5675 11220

3200 (W)

3200

Right turning radius

Recommended drift size 5930

2 000 x 45° Chamfered corner

5080

R4790

5000

5930 5080 3204

5500

R9320

Turning angle +/-42.5°

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tyre deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 114

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Minetruck   MT6020

The MT6020 is a fast 60 metric ton capacity articulated mine truck, with an ergonomically designed operator’s compartment for unparalleled productivity in demanding underground mines.

Features Dump box

Power frame

• Optimum box profile for clean and fast dumping

• The front axle suspension, a hydro-pneumatic system for improved operator comfort and vehicle handling • Atlas Copco unique powertrain includes an upbox, and a combined transmission and converter for improved visibility and accessability to components

• Box support and lock for safe work under box

Operator’s compartment • Ergonomically and spacious designed compartment for maximum safety and minimal operator fatigue with: - Forward seating enclosed cabin

• Electronic transmission and engine control system for smooth and precise shifting

- ROPS and FOPS certified for maximum safety

• A high power-to-weight ratio

- Air conditioning for convenient working conditions

General

- Tilt-telescopic steering wheel

• Great serviceability with centralized service points

- Trainer seat

• Long-life roller bearing centre hinge

- Compliant with sound regulations to minimize operator’s fatigue; reduced noise level to 83 dB(A) inside the cab

• Anti skid material at service access points

- Wide windows for safety and enhanced operator’s visibility - 3 point mounting points for entry and exit from operator’s compartment

• Maximum operating ambient temperature 52°C (125F) • Central manual lubrication • Hydraulic hoses, electric cables and hot surfaces are well routed and protected • Carries the highest speed per ton

- Back up camera and monitor for operator assistance

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

115

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Specifications

Standard Equipment

Minetruck MT6020

Tyres Tubeless, steel radial, lug tread design for underground mine service

Capacities, SAE regulations Tramming capacity

60 000 kg

Motion Times Dump box: Dumping

15 seconds

Engine Cummins Diesel Engine Power Rating at 2 100 rpm Maximum torque at 1 300 rpm MSHA Part 7 ventilation rate Ventilation particulate index

QSK19-C760 567 kW/760 hp 3 084 Nm TBA TBA

Transmission and Converter Alison

M6610AR

Axles Kessler

111

Brakes Service/Parking/Emergency

SAHR

Tyres Dimension 35/65R33* * As applications and conditions vary, Atlas Copco recommends that the user consults with tire suppliers to obtain the optimum tire selection. Suspension Suspension, max Hydraulic system System pressure Hydraulic tank capacity Filtration, return line Cylinders diameter: Two steer cylinders Two dump cylinders Two suspension cylinders

Operator’s compartment Forward facing seat Cabin ISO ROPS/FOPS approved Grammer seat with retractable seat belts Air conditioner Trainer seat Back up video monitor Hydraulic system Heavy duty gear type pumps Electrical system Hella projection lights Isolation switch lockout Fuel Anti-siphon fuel supply

Optional Equipment

105 mm

Main frame Wheel chocks and chock brackets

20.7 Mpa 238 liters 4.0 µm

Ergonomic KAB 555 seat W/retractable seatbelts

160 mm 177.8 mm 125 mm

Electrical system Voltage, system start & accessories Alternator, high output Hydraulic warning system

24 V 100 A Level, hyd. temp. oil

Fuel Fuel tank capacity Fuel consumption, full load Fuel filtration

644 litres 67 litres/hour 10 µm

Standard Equipment Engine Rock Tough purifier and silencer Dry type air cleaner Exhaust heat protection Remote engine oil drain Cooling package with flat, round, mechanical radiator Transmission and converter Planetary, automatic 6 speeds forward/ 2 speeds reverse with integral single stage converter with automatic lock up Up box: Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Drop box: Power transmitted through a 1:1 gear ratio box Axles Conventional front and rear differential Front-axle oscillating suspension “A” frame with hydraulic suspension cylinders and accumulator cushioning All wheel drive Brakes Fully enclosed, force cooled, multiple wet discs at each wheel end Hydraulic retarder

116

Suspension The suspension is a hydro-pneumatic system for improved operator comfort and vechicle handling while minimizing frame stress Individual self leveling suspension

System Ansul dual bottle fire suppression with Engine kill Electric hydraulic tank fill pump Dual fuel filter Lincoln auto lube with timer Wiggins fast fuel-, transmission-, hydraulic- oil fill Electrical system Amber strobe light - power on Load lights Side light opposite operator Tail and brake lights Turn signals, front and rear 24/12 V power converter Loading camera Battery heater, 120 V Block heater, 120 V Hydraulic oil heater, 120 V Engine oil heater, 120 V Fuel heater Drive train option Neutral brake apply Controls and instruments Blockout 5th and/or 6th gears Emergency steering- accumulator type Extended data gauge package Power unit Epoxy coated radiator Parts kit 1 000 hour consumables Documentation LinkOne parts catalogue, CD Parts and service manual - plasticized Other Tool box

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Grade performance Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

16.0

18.0

20.0 1:5

1st gear (km/h)

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.4

6.4

6.3

6.3

6.2

6.2

6.1

6.1

2nd gear (km/h)

9.8

9.6

9.5

9.4

9.3

9.2

9.1

9.0

8.9

8.7

8.7

3rd gear (km/h)

12.9

12.7

12.5

12.3

12.1

11.9

11.7

11.6

11.4

11.3

11.2

4th gear (km/h)

19.1

18.6

18.2

17.7

17.3

17.0

16.7

16.4

16.1

15.8

15.3

5th gear (km/h)

25.4

24.6

23.8

23.1

22.6

22.0

21.5

20.7

18.9

17.3

6th gear (km/h)

37.0

35.2

33.9

32.7

31.5

27.7

16.0

18.0

MT6020 standard configuration, empty box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application. Percent grade

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Ratio

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

1:12

1:10

1:8

1:7

20.0 1:5

1st gear (km/h)

6.5

6.4

6.3

6.1

6.0

5.9

5.8

5.7

5.7

5.6

5.5

2nd gear (km/h)

9.5

9.3

9.0

8.8

8.6

8.4

8.2

8.1

7.9

7.5

6.9

3rd gear (km/h)

12.6

12.1

11.7

11.3

11.0

10.7

10.3

9.3

8.5

14.3

12.4

4th gear (km/h)

18.2

17.2

16.6

15.9

5th gear (km/h)

23.9

22.5

21.3

17.8

6th gear (km/h)

34.0

31.0

MT6020 standard configuration, loaded box. NB. 3% rolling resistance assumed. Actual performance may vary depending on the application.

Dump boxes Dump box data

STD

Material density (t/m ) 3

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

Volume, SEA struck (m )

30.4

26.6

24.1

21.7

Volume, Semi-heaped (m3)

33.3

29.7

27.3

25.0

Volume, SAE heaped (m3)

36.3

32.8

33.4

28.2

3

Width, dump box (mm)

W

3 440

3 440

3 440

3 440

Dump position: Box height, max (mm)

H1

6 909

6 842

6 750

6 689

Tramming position: Dump box height (mm)

H2

3 462

3 263

3 122

2 993

C

471

471

471

471

Dump position: Clearance (mm)

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

117

UNDERGROUND TRUCKS

Dimensions and weights • Approximate net weight MT6020.................. 43 900 kg • Axle load, front end........................................ 29 700 kg • Axle load, back end........................................ 14 200 kg Standard equipped vehicle with empty box

991

13°

2829

3263

MINETRUCK MT5010

453 3514

1975

(3700)

3440

3204

5675

11227

Right turning radius

Recommended drift size

5933

5000

3394

3

5084

Turning angle +/-42.5°

79

R93

5500

R4

22

5084

2000 X 45° CHAMBER

5933

• Dimensions shown are based on standard vehicle configuration with 27 mm tyre deflection. • All dimensions are shown in millimetres. 118

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

UNITS OF VERTICAL RISE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1

2

3

4 5

6 7

9

10 11

12

13

14

ES 16

RE 15

DE G UNITS OF HORIZONTAL LENGTH

8

Grade coversion graph EN T 18

ER C P 17

19

90

20

21

GRADE CONVERSION GRAPH

119

MARKET MATERIAL

Conversion table This unit

Times

Equals

Length mm (millimeters)...................... x 0.001......................= m cm (centimeters)....................... x 0.01........................= m dm (decimeters)........................ x 0.1..........................= m km (kilometers)......................... x 1 000.....................= m in (inches).................................. x 25.4........................= mm ft (feet)....................................... x 0.305......................= m yd (yard).................................... x 0.914......................= m miles.......................................... x 1609.......................= m Power kW (kilowatts)............................ x 1 000.....................= W Horsepower............................... x 735.5......................= W Horsepower, U.K....................... x 745.7......................= W ft.lbf/sec..................................... x 1.36........................= W Btu/h........................................... x 0.29........................= W Volume l (litres)....................................... x 0.001......................= m3 ml (milliiitres)............................ x 0.001......................= l dm3 (cubic decimetres)............. x 1.0..........................= l cm3 (cubic decimetres)............. x 1.0..........................= ml mm3 (cubic millimetres) .......... x 0.001......................= ml in3 (cubic inches)....................... x 16.39......................= ml ft3 (cubic feet)............................ x 28.316....................= l Imperial gallon.......................... x 4.546......................= l U.S. gallon................................. x 3.785......................= l Ounces (Imp. fluid oz).............. x 28.41......................= ml Ounces (U.S. fluid oz)............... x 29.57......................= ml Pints (U.S. llq.).......................... x 0.4732....................= l Quarts (U.S. liq.)....................... x 0.9463....................= l yd3 (cubic yards)....................... x 0.7646....................= m3 Force kN (kilonewton)......................... x 1 000.....................= N kp (kilopond)............................. x 9.81........................= N kgf (kilogramme force)............. x 9.81........................= N Ibf (pound force)....................... x 4.45........................= N

This unit

Times

Equals

Mass (weight) g (grammes). ............................. x 0.001.................... = kg t (tonnes, metric)....................... x 1 000................... = kg grains......................................... x 0.0648.................. = g oz (ounce).................................. x 28.35.................... = g ozt (troy ounce)......................... x 31.10.................... = g lb (pounds)................................ x 0.4536.................. = kg tons (long, US).......................... x 1016..................... = kg tons (U.K)................................... x 1016..................... = kg tons (short)................................ x 907....................... = kg Speed km/h (kilometer/hour)............... x 0.2777.................. = m/s m/s............................................. x 3.6........................ = km/h mph (miles/hour)...................... x 0.45...................... = m/s mph............................................ x 1.61...................... = km/h ft/s (foot/second)....................... x 0.3048.................. = m/s ft/s (foot/second)....................... x 18.29.................... = m/min ft/s (foot/minute)....................... x 0.3048.................. = m/min Frequency blows/minute............................ x 0.017.................... = Hz kHz (kiloHertz)........................... x 1000.................... = Hz r/min (rev./minute).................... x 0.01667................ = r/s degrees/second......................... x 0.1667.................. = r/min radians/second . ....................... x 0.1592.................. = r/s Pressure bar.............................................. x 100....................... = kPa bar.............................................. x 100 000............... = Pa 2 kp/cm ........................................ x 0.98...................... = bar atm (atmospheres)................... x 1.01...................... = bar 2 psi (pounds/in )......................... x 6.895.................... = kPa psi............................................... x 0.06895................ = bar

Torque kpm (kilopondmetres).............. x 9.81........................= Nm Ibf in (poundforce inch) ........... x 0.11........................= Nm Ibf ft (poundforce foot)............. x 1.36........................= Nm

Area mm2 (square mm)..................... x 0.000001............. = m2 cm2 (square cm)........................ x 0.0001................. = m2 in2 (square inches).................... x 645....................... = mm2 ft2 (square feet).......................... x 0.929.................... = m2 yd2 (square yards)..................... x 0.8361.................. = m2 Acres ......................................... x 4047..................... = m2 Square miles............................. x 2.590.................... = km2

Equals Divided This   by    unit

Equals Divided This   by    unit

120

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

We always take a hard view on costs

Our commitment is just as strong

Working with Atlas Copco means working with highly productive rock drilling solutions. It also means sharing a common cost-cutting challenge. Like you, we are always looking for new and effective ways to squeeze your production costs – but never at the expense of quality, safety or the environment. Mining and construction is a tough and competitive business. Fortunately, our view on cutting costs is just as hard. Get your free copy of Success Stories at www.atlascopco.com/rock

Working with Atlas Copco means working with worldleading products and services. What’s more, the people you work with are also the best – committed to creating the ideal conditions for your mining and construction operations. It takes a strong will to get to the top, and a firm hand to stay there. Our commitment to supply you with the best rock-drilling solutions is just as strong. Get your free copy of Success Stories at www.atlascopco.com/rock

www.rcb2.se

Committed to your superior productivity.

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB Fax: +46 8 670 7393

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB Fax: +46 8 670 7393

www.atlascopco.com

www.atlascopco.com

Atlas Copco

Experience and Knowledge

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Committed to your superior productivity.

www.atlascopco.com

2007

Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB Fax: +46 19 670 7393

Printed matter no. 9851 6553 01a

Loading and Haulage in Underground Mining

Working with Atlas Copco means working with world-leading products and services. What’s more, the people you work with are the best – with the ability to listen and to understand the diverse needs of our customers. This approach requires experience and knowledge, presence, flexibility and involvement in their processes. It means making customer relations and service a priority. Through interaction, innovation and a continuous drive to improve the way we do things – we help our customers achieve results.

Second edition 2007 www.atlascopco.com

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