Literature Review

March 17, 2019 | Author: AravindSrivatsan | Category: Apartment, Residential Buildings, Buildings And Structures
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LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction:  An apartment, or flat, is is a self-contained housing unit that occupies occupies only part of a building. building. Such a  building may be called an apartment apartment building, especially if it it consists of many apartments for rent.  Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier owner/occupier or rented by tenants. tenants. In simple words apartment is the building in which accommodation is provided for 3 or more families living independently of one another Historical background: High-rise Highrise apartment buildings had already appeared in ancient antiquity: the “insulae in ancient Rome” and several other cities in the Roman Empire, some of which might have reached up to 10 or more stories, one reportedly having 200 stairs. In Egypt, there were many high-rise residential buildings, some seven stories tall that could reportedly accommodate hundreds of people. Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described them as resembling minarets, while Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories,  with roof gardens on the top storey complete with with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them. them. By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were r ented out to tenants. The 16th century Yemeni city of Shibam is made up of over 500 tower houses,each one rising 5 to 11 stories high, with each floor having one or two a partments. The city has the tallest mud buildings in the  world, with some of them over over 30 meters (100 feet) high. During the 19th century tenements became the predominant type of new housing in Scotland's industrial cities, although they were very common in the Old Tow n in Edinburgh from the 15th century where they reached ten or eleven storeys high and in one case fourteen storeys. Built of sandstone or granite, Scottish tenements are usually three to five storeys in height, with two to four flats on each floor. In 1839, the first New York City tenement was built, housing mainly poor immigrants. The Dakota (1884)  was one of the first luxury luxury apartment buildings in New New York City. The majority, however, however, remained tenements. Some significant developments in architectural design of apartment buildings came out of the 1950s and 60s.  Apartments were popular in Canada, Canada, particularly in urban centres like like Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal in the 1950s to 1970s. By the 1980s, many multi-unit buildings were being constructed as condominiums instead of apartments, and both are now very common. Specifically in Toronto, high-rise apartments and condominiums have been spread around the city, giving almost every major suburb a skyline The earliest apartment buildings were in the major cities of S ydney and Melbourne as the response to fast rising land values. Melbourne Mansions on Collins Street, Melbourne (now demolished), built in 1906 for mostly wealthy residents is believed by many to be the earliest. NEED OF APARTMENTS  Scarcity of land.  Higher land value  Inconveniency of services like water supply in individual level  Inconveniency of construction work in individual level.  security and privacy  Increase in population  migration to city  trend of parent-child unit eliminating the extended family concept CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH RISE APARTMENTS • Two entrances/exits, f ront ront and back • Laundry, water, heating, telephone, cable, electricity facilities common, parking, air conditioner, extra storage, garbage disposed in trash containers, provision of fire escape and lifts because of the no. of

stories • Space must be simple and universal for variety of lifestyles • Balconies for asthetic purpose , visual extention of living space, outdoor sitting area, green area, extra storage space  AMENITIES & SERVICES: PUBLIC FACILITIES: • WATER SUPPL Y • LAUNDRY AND DRIER • ELECTRICIT Y • SURFACE DRAINGE • GARBAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM • PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR LANE COMMUNITY FACILITIES: • TELECOMMUNICATION • PARK AND PLAYGROUND • MULTIPURPOSE HALL • SECURIT Y • HEALTHCARE & RECREATIONAL SP A COMMERCIAL FACILITIES:  MARKET & STORES  BANK  ENTERTAINMENT SECTOR FACTORS AFFECTING HIGH RISE APARTMENTS:  Land topography: slope – economics  Available materials/ technology: steel structure  Skilled manpower  Market situation: people to buy, available land TYPES OF APARTMENTS:  A. According to vertical movement 1.Central corridor: Most economical type of high-rise apartment. Max. Gross floor area with minimum number of of stairs and elevators. Orientation as major factor for light. 2.Point block Point block is schematically a square or near square..Apartments are planned along all sides in a ring pattern around the core. Its radial expansion is l imited. It can take many shapes (having own inherent limitations) 3.Multi core  A rhythm created with numbers of point block types. It is used to satisfy variety of factors like site condition. It provides a sense of seclusion and improved surveillance. Undeniably costlier than central corridor and point block system 4.Exterior corridor system  Apartments can have two exteriors zones due to form of access. it is Logical if use is in moderate climate as for cross ventilation. It is not an economical type of housing-each apartment carries twice the amount of corridor cost of central corridor scheme 5.Skid stop system Skip-stop- apartment have 2-3 levels with half floor differences. It is two story apartment with interior stairs. The Stair- the connector between various levels plays a relatively minor role as an aesthetic element. There is two level living space for an a esthetic pleasure.

B. According to design 1. Simplex apartments • Most common and simplest type . • All the components are in one level . • Size varies from Efficiency up to Multi-bedroom unit. • Simplex and most economic to built . • Simplified circulation. • Planning can be followed in High -rise as well as in Garden Apartment. • More floor area due to corridors and stairs. • The type is usually blend with other type 2.Duplex apartments • located on two levels. • Living, dining and kitchen on one level and sl eeping on upper level. • Separation of sleeping and living provides greater privacy . • elimination of corridor and elevator as the economic factor . • Both levels can have through ventilation . • Need of interior stair – sever problem for handicapped and elderly people. • Has more prestige and values than other. • Expensive than conventional

3.Triplex apartments • Located on three different levels.• Functions are similar to that of duplex type • Restricted to most luxurious hi -rise apartment. • Greater privacy and livability.• Interior staircase most be provided 4.Efficiency apartments • One large space-living, dining, sleeping, kitchen and toilet. • Apartment for single person, newly married couple, eld erly etc. • Referred as “STUDIO APARTMENT" when efficiency units increase. • Often less than minimum area is provided for subsidiary function s c. According to no. of bedrooms  Single  Double  3 bedroom  4 bedroom

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