literature review social adjustment

October 31, 2017 | Author: aahsan345 | Category: Social Capital, Psychological Resilience, Immigration, Social Network, Social Group
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Chapter 2 Literature Review

A review of previous literature and relevant studies is an essential part of any scientific inquiry as it allows for an understanding of what has been accomplished and focused on in this area, and what direction earlier research has taken. A review of the literature is helpful to the researcher in economizing efforts and enables researchers to focus on new and previously untouched avenues of research. Our research focusing on the migrants in urban environment of a large metropolitan city draws upon literature from several sources. With social capital and social adjustment being extremely diverse subjects, some of these researches may not have a direct link with our work; however we feel they are relevant to our work, as they lay the groundwork for our research. This research may not encompass all the avenues of social capital and social adjustment, but it seeks to explain a relevant portion of social capital and its role in adjustment for migrants in a metropolitan city.

Migrancy and population movements have been constant features in world history over the past five centuries (Cohen, 1995; Cohen, 1997). However, given the current shift in the global economy, coupled with political instability, famine and poverty, there has been a worldwide increase in migrancy over the past decade. Migration involves the movement of a person (migrant) across defined boundaries for a specified period of time. Kok et al. (2003) defines migration as a change of residence, accompanied by crossing one of the boundaries of a migration defining area. The border that is crossed determines whether the movement can be classified as either internal migration (crossing a border within the borders of a country) or



international migration (crossing a border between countries). According to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Migration means the population‟s movement from one administrative district to another administrative district at any time of their lives and excludes the ones moved within the current district.

A study titled “Rural-Urban Migration (A Case Study of Lahore District)” by MW Siddiqi (2004) concluded that, Pakistan like other developing countries in the region has witnessed accelerated process of urbanization. The country experienced massive urban population explosion the due to immigrants coming from India, right at its inception. A majority of them settled in the urban areas particularly, Karachi and Lahore. It was estimated that a significant number of people arrived in Lahore and other centers of Punjab. This phenomenon alone shot up the population of these cities two to three folds in a short span of time. Generally, the immigrants from the nearby rural area joined the ranks of those who were already settled there. Research has shown that when migrant networks are well-developed and accessible, migration becomes more common among households because of its reliability and efficacy (Reichert, 1981; Taylor, 1986; Massey, et al., 1987). This stresses the importance of “networks” in the process of migration, and establishes the linkage between them. The link can be described as that networks facilitate the migrants and process of migration.

Mahmud, et al., (2010) documented the article titled “Determinants of Internal Migration in Pakistan – Lesson



s from Existing Patterns” which concluded that the migration patterns in Pakistan suggest heavy concentration towards the provincial capitals, especially Punjab. This further directs the focus of our study towards provincial capital city of Lahore.

The study on “Determinants of Internal Migration in Pakistan” (Mahmud, 2002), further reports that the phenomenon of internal migration has not been comprehensively researched in Pakistan, primarily as a result of lack of data. The Population Census was conducted last in 1998, after a gap of 17 years and did not include information on the place of birth and so the direction of migration could not be accurately measured. Arif (2005) combined the information in the Census with the 2001 Pakistan Socio-Economic Survey and showed that roughly 40% of the migrants are rural to urban migrants and majority of the males (60%) cite economic reasons for migrating, whereas for females it is usually family issues like marriage. Rural-urban migrants were relatively younger and more educated than rural-rural migrants. Irfan, Demery and Arif (1983) base their study on the 1980 Population, Labor Force and Migration Survey and conclude that migration is predominantly rural-urban. Khan and Shenaz (2000) do the same using the 1996-7 Labor Force Survey (LFS) and a micro-level, human capital model to study the decision to migrate. They find that migration is mostly in the urban-urban direction, followed by rural-urban.

In the article, titled “Pakistan: Internal Migration and Poverty Reducction” by Rashid Memon (2005), the author concludes that internal migration is a fundamental demographic, social and economic feature of Pakistan, affecting up to half the population of the country. The author



reports that individuals with better education, skills and access to information are more likely to migrate, and migration is than seen as a selective rather than a random process. The economic advantage gained through migration is not necessarily restricted to the individual migrant, in fact, the financial links of individual migrants with their families are strongly maintained.

The same study further analyzes data sets obtained from The Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) 1998-99, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) 1997-98 and the Pakistan Census 1998. The data analysis shows evidence that migrant characteristics are consistent with human capital theory of migration, which suggests that younger, unmarried migrants with at least some education are more likely to migrate than older, married migrants with low level or no education. This concept, drawn upon from three sources, further defines and clarifies our target population for the study.

(The same study further concludes that in the case of Pakistan, migrants depend on the human capital and assets. In other words, migrants depend on the social capital in order to determine the incidence, pace and direction of migration. The study further indicates that social networks are closely related to the ethnic identity. The link between ethnic preferences and migration is in fact rooted in the history of the Indian sub-continent. In nineteenth century British India, for example, certain communities of east Punjab received preferential access to land in west Punjab at the expense of local communities, because of their perceived efficiency at farming. The British had similar ideas about the communities best suited for military service, and these perceptions are to some extent still entrenched in the functioning of the state.)************WAIT COMMENT



According to a publication, Paradigm Lost: Race, Ethnicity, and the Search for a New Population Taxonomy (Oppenheimer, 1982), Ethnicity refers to "a people outside of, alien to, and different from the core population." The term minority group refers to a sociological group, such as an ethnic group, that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society.

A study, titled "The Impact of Internal Migration on Individuals and Institution in Punjab, Pakistan" by Muhammad Farooq (2006) used a t-test method for respondents from eight different villages. They reported that their economic and social position after migration improved, because of social capital, as well as other factors (such as income, educational opportunities, etc.). The study further indicated that social capital is significant for the urban and rural migrants, and the families in urban and rural communities take steps (such as education of children) to improve the social capital and elevate their position in society.

The World Bank defines the social capital as “the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions.” It reports that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable.

A report titled “Social Capital and Employment Entry of Recent Immigrants to Canada” by Li Xue (2008) focuses on explaining social capital in the context of migration. The study defines social capital as networks of social relations which are characterized by norms of trust and reciprocity (Bourdieu, 1993; Putman, Leonardi and Nanetti, 1993) and which lead to outcomes



of mutual benefit (Lochner et al. 1999; Stone et al. 2003). For instance, Coleman defined the classic concept that a social structure “facilitates certain actions of actors within the structure” (Coleman 1988, pp.98). The study concludes that social capital is vital for the economic growth and performance, and for individuals and communities development.

Further, the concept of Mitchell„s social network theory is elaborated. This concept focuses on social relationships in terms of nodes and ties. Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships between the actors. There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes. In its most simple form, a social network is a map of all of the relevant ties between the nodes being studied. The network can also be used to determine the social capital of individual actors. These concepts are often displayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines (Mitchell, 1969). In the context of migration; migrant networks are sets of interpersonal ties that link migrants, former migrants, and non migrants in origin and destination areas by ties of kinship, friendship, and shared community origin. Social network theory proposes that an individuals depends on their relationships and ties with other actors within networks. A migrants‟ networks develop rapidly because the act of migration itself generates network connections; every new migrant creates a set of friends and relatives with a social tie to someone with valuable migrant experience

The research titled “Ties That Bind:Families, Social Capital and Caribbean Second-Generation Return Migration”, by Tracey Reynolds (2008) social capital is a particularly useful in understanding migration. Social capital can be broadly defined as „the values that people hold and the resources that they can access, which both result in and are the result of collective and



socially negotiated ties and relationships‟ (Edwards et al. 2003). Social capital creates bonding networks within family and community. Robert Putnam (2000), stressed the importance of social capital in terms of its relationship to societies, communities and families. Networks of trust, values and reciprocity are significant to making family and community relationships work and sustaining the connections that bind societies together. Social capital used in this way fosters social cohesion, provides individuals with a sense of belonging and offers opportunities (Franklin 2007). Family networks comprised of ties of trust and reciprocal relationships enable social capital to be built up over time and transmitted across generations. Family bonds themselves are utilized as a social resource by individuals in the construction of ethnic identity and belonging (Reynolds 2006). Social capital when utilized, re-affirms the young people‟s membership and belonging to their ethnic identity.

The study titled, “Immigration, social cohesion and social capital” by Zetter et al, (2006) explores the interaction between migrants‟ social relationships in their community (their social capital), and the development of a stable and integrated society (social cohesion). The concept of social capital is the collection of processes by which individuals and groups invest in social relationships and share resources between themselves. The study further elaborates on Putnam‟s concept of social capital as “the crucial element in social organization”. Putnam defines social capital as the „features of social life – networks, norms and trust – that enable participants to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives‟ (Putnam, 1996).

A survey on migration and health by Institute of Sociology, Vietnam (Dang, 1998) studied the



case of migrants in Vietnam from a sociological perspective. The study concluded that social networks play a key role in assisting people to adjust in new enviornmnet, while recruitment agents or social organizations have little to no impact on adjustment.

The study “Migration of Youth to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam “ by Hong Xoan Nguyen Thi (2008) lays the foundations for a study of social capital and its importance in understanding adjustment of youth in a major metropolitan city. According to Bach et al. (1997), social networks played a vital role in migration to major city (Ho Chi Minh City) as more than 80 percent of migrants had known someone at destination prior to the move. Nearly 74 percent obtained jobs through social networks.

This study further elaborates on “network theory” which suggests that interpersonal ties, (connections between people) determine the decision to migrate. Social networks between origin and destination can help to lower the cost and risk of migration. Social capital in the new city (destination) can play a significant role in migration since family and friends in urban area help potential migrants get accurate information and provide initial assistance for settlement. This helps to alleviate the risk of movement and may reduce the cost of migration. In addition to acting as informal sources of information, social networks also help migrants with other essential needs in a new environment. One of the most frequent reasons for migration to city is due to employment, and in many cases that job is obtained through recommendation of someone. This further establishes the importance of social networks in the process of migration.



Social networks play a significant role in migration (Massey, 1990; Currran and Saguy 1997) as they make migration less risky by circulating information and providing initial assistance to newcomers (Stark, 1991). In addition to support with finding employment, social networks also perform vital part in helping newcomers find accomadation (Currran and Saguy 1997). Consequently, migrants are mainly concerned with certain areas and districts where most residents are migrants.

Social networks and social capital are an essential part of life, because satisfaction with the life depends heavily on quality of social relations at home, work, and other formal and informal contacts (Mackensen 1986, Badura 1986, Curran and Saguy, 1997). Furthermore, informal social networks greatly improve quality of life (Badura 1986). Young migrants in cities are reliant on informal social networks such as family, kin, friendship for not only emotional support but also physical aspects of adjusting into the new environment. Hagan (1998) indicated that migrants with well-established networks are more likely to adopt in a new environment than those with poorly developed or not any networks. Many migrants with less or no work experience rely on social networks for employment, whereas, newcomers also receive support from family members, relatives and friends in getting accomodation and other support (Bach et al. 1997). Since government has no formal orientation or support program for migrants, most internal migrants rely heavily on the social capital and social networks to adjust in the new city.

The fact that access to employment, accomadation, and other needs is usually cared for or obtained through social networks, many migrants rarely extend their social



relationships. Many migrants limit themselves to particular social groups, and in absence of these social networks, they are aliens in the city. Social networks are also vital in a migrant's social adjustment. Cultural differences, "culture shock" and behavior that can be interpreted as unfriendly may make it hard for migrants to adjust in a new environment, but their social network can be relied upon for support. Social networks thus, are vital in promotion rural-urban movement.

The findings of this study confirm that social networks are important in providing assistance to migrants in climate of unpronounced government provision of assistance (Guest 1998, Scharping 1997). Social networks established in a particular city affect the destination and likelihood of migration.

A research paper titled “The Impact of Social Networks and Human Capital on Puerto Rican and Dominican Migrants‟ United States Destination Selections” by Jessie Rochford (2006) explains the importance of social networks for migrants. Having access to social networks, along with the size and composition of those networks are key factors influencing the decision to migrate and destination selection. Friends and family can provide critical information about how to reach a new destination, can provide a place to stay and information about job opportunities, and can help ease the newcomer‟s transition to life in the host society (Massey and Espinosa 1997; Massey et al. 1987; Massey 1990a; Massey 1990b; Choldin 1973; Boswell 1984; Grasmuck and Pessar 1991; Ebaugh and Curry 2000). The importance of social networks and the social capital is explained by the Cumulative Process of Migration theory, which argues that as a the number of linkages to the



destination rise, migration becomes a self-perpetuating process (Massey et al. 1987; Massey and Espinosa 1997; Massey 1990a; Massey 1990b).

A study carried out by Curran and Saguy (2001), titled “Migration and Cultural Change: A Role for Gender and Social Networks?” concluded that people are linked to one another through social networks. These networks contribute to migration by making it less risky for individuals by circulating information among potential migrants. Further, these networks facilitate subsequent migration as well. In addition to providing information about the new environment, people in one‟s network also offer assistance, such as helping one find a job or a place to live. This facilitates the choice to migrate, making migration progressively more likely which is what Massey refers to as “circular and cumulative causation” (Massey 1990:4).

The World Bank reports a number of methods for measurement of the social capital. Before measuring the social capital, it is important to know that the concept is multidimensional and may require incorporating different levels and units of analysis. Furthermore, according to The World Bank, any attempt to measure the properties of ambiguous concepts such as "community", "network" and "organization" are problematic. Finally, very few long-standing surveys have been designed to measure "social capital". While measuring social capital is quite difficult, it is not impossible, and a number of qualitative, comparative and quantitative research methodologies have been adopted. The paper titled, “Social Capital Initiative Working Paper No.1” by The World Bank (1998) maintains that a wide range of qualitative and quantitative approaches can be adopted for study of social capital.



Furthermore, the measures of social capital commonly adopted include “Groups and Networks”,I including group structure, membership, density, diversity, and connections to other groups. Trust is another measure of social capital, and may determine the trust within established relationships and social networks as well as the trust extended to strangers. Collective action can also be measured as an indicator of social capital, such as involvement of a local group in community activities, attending a local community event, exhibitions, etc. Social inclusion (inclusion in collective action and decision-making) is also a measure of social capital as indicated by this paper. Furthermore, the paper also considers “Information and Communication” – the ability to communicate among members of the same community, and other communities as a measure of the social capital.

It is a reality that at the end of the 20th century practically all urbanized nations have become countries of migration. Exhilarating numbers of migrants are not only from developed areas of the world but progressively more from the developing countries. It is a fact that there are numerous reasons for people to migrate. In the 15th century most of the migration was forced (slave trade), however, today„s reasons are different and more complex. Nevertheless current migration has a major impact on people„s lives, global political, and economic development (Massey et al, 1998).

Research of resilience, started in the experimental and natural sciences has moved to behavioral sciences and social sciences. The focus is no longer the individual object, it is an individual, or even group of individuals at a larger levels, within the context of community and society. As a



result, there is more focus on external factors, because they are magnified at a social level as compared on indivudal level.

In this regard, research on young respondents is carried out by Masten & Powell (2003) who maintain that youth, in behavioral capacity has more resilience as compared to others. They investigated a broad range of factors involved in young people's exposure to adversity, risk and resilience. The researchers found that in the younger age group, most respondents had displayed good competence, and some displayed better competence as respondents who were healthy and not faced with physical challenges.

Another research, discusses the three waves of research on resilience and how they developed from psychological, to behavioral, and then social basis. Instead of focusing on biology and psychology, a new paradigm has opened in behavioral sciences and behavioral studies in areas such as risk, risks factors, competence, developmental tasks, protective factors, have become key areas of resilience from a social and behavioral point of view. In this study, focus is on children, who are doing well in life despite the adverse conditions. The model of analysis is uses multivariate statistics which allows to test hypothesies across time and allows to examine risk gradients. The conclusion is that attributes of persons, relations and context emerge across the situations to associate with good adaptation. These include learning abilities, attachment system, stress response, self control, family, school, peer and cultural and societal systems.



(Competence and Resilience in Development, Ann Masten AND Jelena Obradovic, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA:2006)

The article “Resilience beating the odds” by Bartley (2003), part of WHO research, concludes that there are common factors that affect resilience. These factors include the quality of human to human relations, such as relations with family, peer groups, etc. and the quality of public service for a community. These two factors are also related to each other, good public services allow people to focus on social relationships and maintain them. Through these social relations, resilience is created, and maintained in face of adversity. Interventions are termed as “resilience enhancing services” and social workers and social work agencies makeup these. Welfare professionals have acted as friends rather than bureaucrats.

A study, titled “Characteristics of Secondary Migrant Youth”, by Salerno et al. (1998) focuses on research in an ethnically diverse group of students. This study concluded that migrant students have different needs (such as educational needs) according to their ability to learn and future aspiration in a new environment. An important phase of educational programs for migrant students must be removing the cultural shock, language problems, and other schools issues, including environmental issues, peer pressure (or lack thereof). However, despite the obstacles, migrant youth has used resilience and determination to graduate from high school with good grades. Some of the positive qualities of migrant youth are described such as family support, strong ethics, group cooperation, religious and cultural identity, respect for teachers and



other authority figures, and value of education which they cannot obtain in their original location. Some skills found in migrant youth are sense of responsibility, optimism, resilience, cooperation, and endurance. These skills are described as asset model.

A research by Soneregger et al (2004), is titled “Patterns of Cultural Adjustment Among Young Migrants to Australia” and focuses on the adjustment of migrants youth from various backgrounds to Australia. The population is more than two hundred high school students mainly made of chinese and Yugoslav origin. The method used is self-report measures and questions are made focused on socialization, self-concept, future outlook. The result is that cultural adjustment is according to cultural background, gender, age, and period of stay in Australia. The yoguslav migrants have great identifier with Australian values and norms than Chinese youth. The authors descirbe social support and bicultural adjustment as factors that make it relatively easier for youth from one group to adjust to a new environment.

The study titled “Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence” by Oddgeir (2004) defined the scales measuring resilience. The key factors affecting resilience have been identified and grouped together as Big Five. These factors are 'personal strength', 'social competence', 'structured style', 'family cohesion' and 'social resources'. By using Big Five to discriminate between well adjusted and more vulnerable people.Aall resilience factors will be high and positive with the well adjusted personality profile. Personal strength was most associated with emotional stability, social competence with extroversion and

NEXUS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT agreeableness, and social skills with family cohesion.


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