Lighting Principles

February 12, 2018 | Author: shaikhsajid24 | Category: Lighting, Interior Design, Light, Electromagnetic Radiation, Optics
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Facility Management Education


Principles of Illumination



Illumination is defined as the intensity of light per unit area. When we talk of illumination, or simply lighting, we are referring to man made lighting. Daylight being excellent is not included, thus, we assume a night time condition. Electric Illumination is the production of light by means of electricity and its application to provide efficient, comfortable and safe vision. Specifically, when one speaks of lighting design, he refers to only two things. 1. The quantity of light 2. The quality of light Quality of Light – refers to the amount of illumination or luminous flux per unit area. Quantity of light ca be measured and easily handled because it deals with the number of light fixtures required for a certain area. Quality of Light – refers to the distribution of brightness in the lighting installation. It deals with the essential nature of characteristics of light. In short, quality of light is the mixture of all items related to illumination other then the quality of light which includes several elements such as: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Brightness Glare Color Psychological reaction to color and fixtures

5. Brightness ratio or contrast 6. Diffuseness 7. Aesthetics 8. Economics

Perfect Diffusion is an equal intensities of light chasing from all direction producing no shows. A single lamp will cast sharp and deep shadows. A luminous ceiling provides a satisfactory diffuse illumination and less shadows. The color of lighting and the corresponding color of the object within a space is an important consideration in producing a quality of light. There are three characteristics that define a particular coloration. They are: a. Hue – is the quality attribute by which we recognize and describe colors as red, blue, yellow, green, violet and so on. b. Brilliance or Value – is the difference between the resultant colors of the same hue, such as : white is the most brilliant of the neutral colors while black is the least. c. Saturation or Chroma – is the difference from the purity of the colors. Colors of high saturation must used in well lit spaces.

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Principles of Illumination


ESTIMATING ILLUMINATION AND BRIGHTNESS In many respect, it is more important to know luminance measurements than illumination because the eye is more sensitive to brightness than simple illumination. However, it is more difficult to measure luminance than illumination. There are three types of illumination meter, namely: 1. The Comparator type requires the operator to make a brightness equivalent judgment between the target and the background. 2. The direct Reading type is basically an illumination meter equipped with a hooded cell arranged to block oblique light. 3. The Accurate Laboratory Instrument which is unsuitable for the filed work. The quality of light or level of illumination can be easily measured or calculated with the aid of a portable foot-candle meter. Footcandle (fc) is the amount of light flux density. It is the unit of measure used when describing the amount of light in a roo and is expressed in lumens per square foot. Footlambert (fl) is defined as “the luminance of a surface reflecting, transmitting or emitting one lumen (lm) of illumination per square foot of area in the direction being viewed or the conventional unit of brightness or luminance. In the same manner, the lumens (lm) is the light output generated continuously by a standard wax candle. In our study of light, we are interested in the amount of light that falls on the area we want to illuminate. We also want to know the lumens per square foot or square meter in a space. This quantity called Light Flux Density is the common term Foot-candle (fc) represented by the formula:

Footcandle = Lumens Area ILLUSTRATION 6-1 A 40-watt fluorescent lamp 120 centimeters long produces 3,200 lumens of light in a room having a general dimensions of 10 x 20 ft. Find the illumination on the floor. SOLUTION 1. Footcandle (fc)

= Lumens Area

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Principles of Illumination

fc = 3,200 lm. = 16 footcandle 10 x 20 ft. The footcandle is an important unit of measure in calculating the desired illumination and layout of fixtures. In the absence of Tables of equivalent footcandles for a particular fixture, a rule of thumb of 10-30-50 illumination level is here presented. 10 - footcandle is adequate for halls and corridors 30 - footcandle is s sufficient for areas between work stations such as in offices other than desk areas 50 – footcandle is satisfactory on spaces where office work is done. However, providing an adequate quantity of light alone is not a guarantee for an efficient and comfortable vision. In fact, the quality of light is very important especially where difficult visual needs are required. The luminance or brightness of a diffusely reflecting surface is equal to the product of the illumination and the reflectance. Thus; Luminance = Illumination x reflectance factor or Footlambert = Footcandle x Reflectance factor ILLUSTRATION 6-2 From illustration 5-1, find the luminance if the reflectance factor of the wall is 40%. SOLUTION 1) Footlambert = Footcandle x reflectance factor = 16 x 40% = 6.4 Metric Lighting Units In English System of measure, the distance is expressed in feet and the area is in square feet. Under the Metric System (SI) the distance and area are expressed in meters and square meters respectively. Meanwhile, Lumens flux remains in Lumens but illumination of light flux is expressed in Lux. Thus:

Lux =

Lumens Area (sq.m.)

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Principles of Illumination


Medium Value Color


White Light gray Dark gray Ivory white Ivory

80-85 45-70 20-25 70-85 60-70

Pearl gray Buff Tan Brown Green

70-75 40-70 30-50 20-40 25-50

Olive Azure blue Sky blue Pink Cardinal red Red

20-30 35-40 35-40 50-70 20-25 20-40

In the metric system, Luminance or Brightness is expressed in Lambert which is defined as “the Luminance or brightness of a surface reflecting, transmitting or emitting one lumens per square centimeter. Millilambert is more conveniently used than the lambert because the value of lambers is greater than what is usually encountered.


English Length Area Luminous Flux Illumination Flux Density Luminance

Feet Square foot Lumens Footcandles Footlamberts

Metric (SI) Meter Square meter Lumens Lux Lambert or Milli-Lamberts

ILLUSTRATION 6-3 A 40 watts x 120 centimeters long fluorescent lamp produces 3,200 lumens of light in a room having a general dimension of 10 ft x 20 ft. Compute the illumination on the floor comparing the English and the Metric units.

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SOLUTION by Comparison

Light =

English 3,200 lm . . . . . . . .

Metric (SI) 3,220 lm.



10’x 20’ . . . . . . . .

10 x 20 10.76


200 sq. ft. . . . . . . .

18.59 sq.m.


3,200 lm . . . . . . . . 200 sq. ft.

3,200 lm. 18,59 sq.m


Another SOLUTION Convert :

10 feet to meter 20 . . . . . . . . . .

= 3.048 m. = 6.097 m.


3,200 3.048 x 6.097



172.19 Lux

ILLUSTRATION 6-4 Compute for the brightness of a fixture with a 1’ x 4’ plastic diffuser having a transmittance of .6 and illuminated by 2 pieces 3,200 lm. Lamp assuming 100% use of light Flux.

SOLUTION 1. Luminance = Area of diffuser

Total lumens x transmission factor


2 pcs. X 3,200 x .6 1’ x 4’


960 footlambert

2. To obtain the metric equivalent , multiply: Millilambert


Footlambert x 1.076


960 x 1.076


1,032.96 millilambert

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The Watts per Square Meter Another methods used in determining the illumination is the watts per square meter wherein the floor area is computed from the outside dimensions of the building excluding open porches. Depending upon the size of the room, colors of wall and ceiling, types of lighting unit and methods of lighting used, the watts per square meter methods may produce 50 to 100 lux which is approximately 5 to 10 footcabdles.

1. Twenty watts (20) per square meter will provide an illumination of 100 to 150 lux which is approximately 10 to 15 fc in industrial area. 2. For commercial areas, two watts *2) per square foot or 22 watts per square meter will provide from 80 to 120 lux when used with standard quality equipment. 3. Forty watts (40) per square meter provides about 200 lux which is approximately 20 fc wherein greater illumination is required. 4. Sixty watts (60) per square meter will provide about 300 lux or approximately 30 fc which is recommended for many conventional, industrials and commercial requirements. 5. Eighty (80) watts per square meter will provide from 300 to 350 lux and excess of 350 lux supplementary lighting is necessary.



The usable Initial footcandle or lux is equal to the footcandle produced by the coefficient of utilization (cu). Initial was emphasized because the output of a light fixture is reduced with time as the lamp fixture becomes old and dirty. Lamp output normally drops and is termed as Maintenance Factor (mf).And to find the average maintained illumination, we reduce the initial illumination by the maintenance factor. The efficiency of a light fixture is equal the ratio of fixture output lumens to lamp output lumens. What we need is to determine a number indicating the efficiency of the fixture room combination, or how a particular light fixture lights a particular room. This number is normally expressed in decimal value called coefficient of utilization represented by letter (cu). The usable initial footcandle is equal to the footcandle produced by the coefficient of utilization (cu).

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a) Initial footcandle


b) Maintenance illumination

footcandle x cu. Area =

Lamp lumens x cu x mf Area

* Lamp lumen therefore is simply the rated output of the lamp. TABLE 6-3 COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION

Fixture Description


Efficient fixture, large unit colored room Average fixture, medium size room Inefficient fixture, small or dak room

0.45 0.35 0.25


Enclosed fixture, clean room Average conditions Open ixture or dirty room

0.80 0.70 0.60

ILLUSTRATION 6-5 A school classroom with a general dimensions o 24 x 30 ft. is lighted with 10 fluorescent of 4f 40 to T12 WW rapid start lamp. Calculate the initial and maintained illumination in footcandles (English) and Lux (Metric) assuming that (cu) is 0.35 and (mf) is 0.70.

SOLUTION – 1 ( English Measure ) 1. Refer to Table 5-3. An F 40 T12 WW watts fluorescent lamp has 3,200 lm. output. Multiply:

Lamp lumens



Initial footcandle

10 fixtures x 4 lamps per fixture x 3,200 lumens per lamp 128,000 lumens


128,000 x 0.35 24 x 30 ft.


62.22 fc x 0.70 mf

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43.55 footcandle

SOLUTION – 2 By Metric Measure (SI) Convert feet to meter:


24 ft = 30 ft. =


Lumens x cu x mf Area


10 x 4 x 3,200 x 0.35 x 0.70 7.32 m. x 9.14 m.


468.75 lux

7.32 m. 9.14 m.

Check the answer: One lux


468.75 x .09294

.09294 =

43.56 fc.

Sometimes when the size of the room and the foorcandle are given, the problem is how to find the number of lamps required in each fixture. The following example is offered.

ILLUSTRATION 6-6 An office room having a general dimension of 8 x 20 meters is to be lighted at an average maintained footcandle of 50 fc. How many 3-lamp fixture of 120 centimeters long F40 T12 WW rapid start fluorescent lamps are required assuming the cu is 0.38 and the mf is 0.75? SOLUTION 1. Lamp lumens


maintained footcandle x area cu x mf =

50 fc x (8m. x 20m.) 0.38 x 0.75


28,070 lumens

2. Each 40 watt fluorescent lamp has an output of 3,200 lumens, the number of lamps will be: Number of lamps


28,070 3,200

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8.77 lamps

3. Since there are 3 lamps for each fixture, divide: 8.77 3


2.93 say 3 lamps in each fixture.

Calculation involving a wide area is more confusing than by computing the number of lamp fixtures per bay or per row which is more meaningful and interesting. This could be done easily by using the following formula: Number of fixtures


Illumination x area . Lamp per fixture x lumens x cu x mf

This means that the area lighted by a single fixture is:

Area per fixture


lamp per fixture x lumens per lamp x cu x mf Illumination



Lumens per watt

Candle Oil lamp Original Edison lamp 1910 Edison lamp Modem Incadescent Lamp Tungsten Halogen Lamp Fluorescent lamp (including ballast losses) Mercury lamp (including ballast losses) Metal Halide lamp (including ballast losses) High Pressure Sodium Lamp

0.10 0.30 1.4 4.5 14-50 16-20 50-80 40-70 60-80 90-100

ILLUSTRATION 6-7 An entire office floor is lighted at an average maintained 538 lux or 50 fc. The floor measures 20 meters by 50 meters and is divided into bays measuring 4 m. x 5 m. Using 2-lamp of F40 T12 CW rapid start preheat lamp, find the number of fixtures required. Assume an economy grade fixture with a low cu of 0.35 and mf of 0.70. SOLUTION - 1 1. Solve for the number of fixtures per bay. Refer to Table 5-3 for F40 T12 CW = 3,150lm. No. of Fixture


Illumination x Area Lamp per fixture x lumens x cu x mf

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538 lux x (4m. x 5m.) 2-lamps x 3,150 lm. X 0.35 x 0.70 10,760 1,543


6.9 fixtures

Accept 6 pieces per bay to make it symmetrical. 6-5 UNIFORMITY OF LIGHT The purpose of footcandle lighting calculation is to determine the average illumination in a room to a working level. This working level refers to a height of about 75 centimeters above the floor being the approximate height of the table. The average illumination at the working level is directly related to the maximum spacing of the light to the mounting height ratio represented by the formula; S Mh Where: S = Spacing of light fixture M = mounting height Normally, the manufacturers provide data on spacing and mounting ratio. In the event that the manufacturers failed to provide these data, Table 5-8 is presented showing the mounting height ratio for a particular lighting conditions.


SYSTEM Direct Concentrating Direct Spreading g Direct Indirect Diffusing Semi-direct-Indirect

S/mh RATIO 0.40 1.20 1.30 1.50

ILLUSTARTION 6-8 A room with a ceiling height of 3 meters is to be lighted with directly concentrating fluorescent toffers. What is the maximum fixture spacing?

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Celing Height

Distance from wall

2.40 2.70 3.00 3.30 3.60 3.90 4.20 4.50 4.80 5.40

0.60 0.60 0.75 0.75 0.90 1.20 1.50 1.50 1.80 1.80

a. b. c. d.


General Diffusing

Maximum Mounting Spacing of Height of Luminaires Luminaires

2.70 3.15 3.75 4.00 4.50 5.10 5.70 6.00 6.60 7.20

2.40 2.70 3.00 3.30 3.60 3.90 4.20 4.50 4.80 5.40


Distance from wall

0.60 0.60 0.75 0.75 0.90 1.20 1.50 0.50 1.80 1.80

Semiconcentrating Direct

Concentrati ng Direct

Maximum Maximum Maximum Spacing of Spacing of Spacing of Luminaries Luminaries Luminaries

2.25 2.70 3.15 3.60 4.00 4.50 4.95 5.40 6.00 6.60

1.65 1.80 2.10 2.40 2.70 3.00 3.30 3.60 3.90 4.65

All dimension in meters. These spacing apply where desks and benches are next to wall, otherwise, one third the spacing between units is satisfactory. The actual spacing of luminaries is usually less than the maximum spacing to suit bay or room dimensions. For mounting height of general diffusing and direct-indirect fixtures

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0.75 0.90 1.20 1.35 4.50 1.65 1.80 1.95 2.10 2.40

Principles of Illumination

Amount of light in a room. It is not enough to know how calculate the illumination level but it is also equally important to know how to measure them in enclosed space. In measuring illumination level, the footcandle meter is held horizontally with its sensitive surface at least 30 centimeters from the body of the person holding the meter. The meter could be placed on a table and read from a distance to avoid obstruction the light. In conducting a general illumination check inside a room, the meter is held about 80 centimeters above the floor. Reading is undertaken throughout the room and the results are recorded on the plan of the room. Meter base on wall incident light reading say 70

Meter base on wall at a distance of 5 cm. Reflected light reading say 25

Reflectance of wall = 25 70

Meter is 5 cm. Away from the sample Meter reading with 900% RF sample Say 40 Reflectance of unknown surface

= 35% (approx.)

Meter 5 cm. Away from wall Meter reading with sample removed say 60 = 40 x 90 = 60% (approx.) 60

Source: Building Technology (2) FIGURE 6-2 MEASURING REFLECTANCE

SOLUTION –2 1. From the following Formula, substitute value Area per Fixture

= lamp per fixture x lumen/lamp x cu x mf Illumination Page 13 of 28

Principles of Illumination

Area per fixture

= 2 – lamps x 3,150 lm. X 0.35 x 0.70 538 lux = 1,543.5 538


2.87 sq. m. per fixture

2. Therefore, the number of fixtures per bay is: 4 m. x 5m. 2.87

= 6.9 say 6 pieces per bay. for symmetry.

6-4 MEASURING FOOTCANDLE The unit measure of illumination is the foorcandle or lux in the Metric System which is frequently used when describing the 1.

Refer to Table 6-7, the mounting height ratio of a direct concentrating light is 0.40. Therefore: S = mh



Substituting given values, wherein mh is the ceiling height, S = 3.00 m.


S = 0.40 x 3.00 Spacing = 120 m. maximum side to side distance of the fixtures.

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ILLUSTRATION 6-9 A warehouse will install pendant dome incandescent lamps at a mounting height ratio of 1.50 meters. The lamp will be mounted on a grid measuring 5.00 x 5.00 meters. What is the minimum mounting height of the lamps. SOLUTION Mounting height



spacing Ratio



5.00 m. 1.50



3.30 meters

6-6 CLASSIFICATION OF LIGHTING SYSTEM Lighting system is classified into four types, namely: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Direct lighting Semi-direct lighting Semi-indirect-lighting Indirect lighting

Direct Lighting – when the light on an illuminated area is focused downward coming directly from the lighting fixture.






Semi-Direct Lighting – when the predominant light on the illuminated area is fed directly from the lighting units wherein the greater amount of light is obtained from the ceiling through reflection.

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Semi-Indirect Lighting – a lighting arrangement wherein 5% to 25% of the light is directed downward with more than half o the light focused upward and reflected from the ceiling.


Indirect Lighting – when the light is diffused and reflected from a wide ceiling area. This kind of lighting produces a soft and subdued effect due to low brightness and absence of sharp shadows,

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Percent of Distribution Upward Downward 1-10 90-100 10-40 60-90 40-60 40-60 60-90 10-40 90-100 1-10

Types of Ilumination Direct Semi-direct General diffusing Semi-Indirect Indirect


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Principles of Illumination

CHART ESTIMATING LIGHTING LOAD AND ILLUMINATION LEVEL CALCULATED FOR A FAIRLY LARGE ROOM 6-7 STREET LIGHTING The Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers instituted guidelines for adequate and acceptable illumination of the streets in order to promote safety. This concept was brought about by the continuously safety. This concept was brought about by the continuously increasing number and speed of motor vehicles using the roads. The Philippine Electrical Code Committee prepared the guidelines for a standard practice on design of street lighting installation recommending the proper quantity and quality of light for traffic routes.

Definition of Terms Lighting Installation – is defined as the whole of the equipment provided for lighting the roadway comprising the lamps, luminaries, means of support and electrical installations including other auxiliaries. Lighting System – refers to an array of luminaries having a characteristics of light distribution. Luminaries – is a housing for one or more lamps comprising a body and any refractors, diffuser or enclose associated with the lamps. Road width – is the distance between the edges of the road curbs measured at right angles to the length of the roadway. Outreach – is the distance measured horizontally between the outer of the column or wall face or lamp post and the center of the luminaries. Overhang – is the horizontal distance between the center the center of the luminaire and the surface of the roadway. Spacing - is the distance between the successive luminaries in an installation. Maximum Light Utilization – In order to attain the maximum utilization of light from the fixtures, the luminaries should be mounted under the following specifications. Roadwidth 1.50 to 3.00 meters 3.00 to 9.15 meters 9.15 to 15.25 meters

Outreach .60m. 1.60 m. 3.00 m.

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o = Overhang c = Clearance h = Mounting height

d = Distance spacing w = Width of the roadway or = Outreach

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Working Voltage Luminaires are properly selected and mounted on a location most feasible and effective with minimum cost. For a 230 volts system, a voltage drop of 50% is allowed although in extreme cases 15% voltage drop is sometimes tolerated. For street illumination, the following formula is adopted. E


Al x (cu x mf) wxd



Exwxd Cu x mf

Where: E = The illumination in Lux Al = Average lumens with a typical value of 20500 lumens for 400 watts 11500 lumens for 250 watts 5400 lumens for 125 watts The value of Al varies depending upon the type of lamp specified.

mf – is the maintenance factor which depends on the following: a) Maintenance practice of the company b) Operation of light sources at rate current and voltage c) Regular replacement of depreciated lamps d) Periodic cleaning o the luminaries 0.8-0.9 Page 20 of 28

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w = Width of the roadway d = Distance between luminaries cu = Coefficient of utilization which is dependent on the type of fixture, mounting height, width of roadway and the length of mast arm of outreach. TABLE 6-9 RECOMMENDED AVERAGE HORIZONTAL ILLUMINATION LEVEL, LUX

Vehicular traffic Classification Pedestrian

Very light



Heavy to Heaviest

Traffic Heavy Medium Light

(Under 150) 9.68 6.46 2.15

(150-500) 12.91 8.61 4.30

(500-1200) 16.14 10.26 6.46

(1200 up) 12.52 12.91 9.68

The values given are based on favorable reflectances for as-phalt road, the recommended illumination should be increased by 50%. For concrete road, the recommended value could be decreased by 25%. In designing street illumination, consider the modern lighting today that will not be obsolete tomorrow when the minimum light levels are raised. The increasing motor vehicle speed and the increasing congestions on the street requires higher level of highway lighting. Therefore, future needs for light should be considered in the design. ILLUSTATION 6-10 Considering the data as presented on Figure 6-7 when the night pedestrian traffic is estimated to be light and the night vehicular traffic is to be medium, determine the required lumens if the road is concrete pavement. SOLUTION 1. Referring to Table 6-10, E = 6.46 for light pedestrian medium traffic classifications. For concrete road, the reflected will be higher but let us accept the value of 6.46 lumens. 2. Determine the average pole distance E = 6.46 lumens per sq. m. w = 7.00 meters d = 50 meters mf = 0.9 cu = 0.29 (type A fixture) Al = E x w x d cu x mf Al = 6.46 x 7.00 x 50 m. 0.29 x 0.9

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Principles of Illumination

Al = 8662.83 Average lumens The mean lamp lumens of a 250 watts lamp is 11,500 lm. This is the nearest value to 8662.83 lumens. Therefore, a 250 watts lamp is acceptable. Computing for the new actual illumination E E = Al x cu x mf wxd E = 11,500 x 0.29 x 0.9 7.00 x 50 E = 8.57 lumens per sq.m. This is higher than the 6.46 recommended in Table 6-10 The road is considered as adequately lighted.

Axial Arrangement


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Classification Number Very light traffic Light traffic Medium traffic Heavy traffic Very heavy traffic Heavy traffic

Number of Vehicles per Hour Maximum Night Hour Both Direction Under 150 150 500 500 1200 1200 2400 2400 4000 over 4000

Classification of Pedestrian Traffic a. Light or No Pedestrian Traffic street in residential or warehouse areas on express or elevated depressed roadways. b. Medium Pedestrian Traffic on a secondary business streets and some industrial roads. c. Heavy Pedestrian Traffic as on business streets.



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Fixture C A B

Average Coefficient of Utilization Roadwidth 3.00 to 9.15 m. Roadwidth 9.15 to 15.25 m. 33.0% 35.0% 29.0% 34.6% 38.9% 44.0%

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Street class

Desired light level

Lamp wattage w

Type of fixture

Coefficient of Utilization

Arrangement of Luminaire

Spacing M. nominal





























5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38 3.23 3.23 3.23

250 250 125 125 125 125 125 125


31.60% 42.50% 31.60% 42.50% 36.20% 26.20% 35.60% 29.70%

Oposite Staggered Oposite Staggered Oposite Staggered Oposite Staggered Oposite Staggered Oposite Staggered Oposite Staggered One side One side One side One side One side One side One side One side

46 23 58 29 67 34 88 44 61 30 84 41 72 35 67 90 30 43 35 64 88 73

Source: Philippine Electrical Code Part 2. Residential (Roadwidth 3 to 9m.) Traffic (Roadwidth 9 to 15 m.)

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TYPE OF OCCUPANCY A. RESIDENTIAL 1. Living rooms General lighting Locally (reading, writing etc.) 2. Bedrooms General lighting Locally (mirrors, dressing tables, bed lighting) 3. Kitchen General lighting Locally (stove, dresser, table, ) 4. Hallway. Staircases, Lofts, Garages General lighting Locally (workbenches, hobby tables) B. SCHOOL 1. Nursery schools 2. Classrooms General (Elementary, High School, Lecture room) Workshop, science room Drawing rooms 3. Gymnasiums, Assembly Halls, Canteen, Corridors 4. Offices, Library etc. C. HOSPITAL 1. Doctors room General lighting Work table 2. Dispensary General lighting Dispensing table Store room 3. First Aid Department General lighting Locally 4. Laboratory Research room Work table 5. Diagnostic lighting General lighting Diagnostic table 6. Surgical Department Sterilizing room, operating theater General lighting Operating Table 7. Maternity Department Delivery bed Delivery room general Nursery 8. Dental Department Dental room, general Patient’s chair Laboratory 9. Private Rooms for Patients General


150 500-1000 150 250-500 150 250-500 150 250-500

150 250-500 250-500 500-1,000 150 250-500

150 500-1,000 150 500-1,00. 150 500-1,000 10,000-20,000 250-500 500-1,000 250-500 500-1,000 500-1,000 20,000-40,000 5,000-10,000 250-500 150 250-500 5,000-10,000 150 150

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Bed lighting 10. Kitchen, Library 11. Assembly halls, Waiting room, Corridors Hallways and bathroom D. COMMERCIAL BUILDING 1. Shops and store Large town shopping centers Shop windows, general Supplementary spot lighting 2. Others, general Supplementary spot lighting 3. Shop interior large town shopping center 4. Other places 5. Railways and Bus Station Waiting rooms, platform, lavatories and refreshment Tickets halls and office Luggage depot 6. Hotels and Restaurants Restaurant, lounge, bar, hallways, staircases Larger rooms Conference room Platform, exhibition and demonstration Kitchen Hotel bedrooms, general Bed lighting, writing desk, dressing table 7. Offices Managers room, conference room Typical pools, records and account bookkeeping Drawing offices, land registry offices, cartography Designing, Architectural and Engineering offices Decorative drawing and sketching Canteen, parlor, filling rooms 8. Storage General stores (used frequently) Factory (used frequently) Bulk storage, small items Very small items E. INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 1. Milk factory Sterilizing rooms, storage, cooling halls pasteurization Cream preparation, weighing room Sorting of bottles Bottle washing machines, inspection, filling, lab. 2. Food processing Plants and Canneries Cleaning and washing Color sorting Canning general Inspection of filled cans Sealing of cans Packing in cartons 3. Garment Factories Inspection of materials Lighting fabrics Dark fabrics Cutting and pressing Light fabric Dark Fabrics Sewing and Trimming Light fabric Dark Fabrics

250-500 250-500 150

1,000-2,000 5,000-10,000 2,500-5,000 500-1,000 250-500 150 500-1,000 250-500 150

150 250-500 250-500 150 250-500 250-500 500-1,000 over 2,000 1,000-2,000 500-1,000 150 150 150 150 250-500

150 250-500 500-1,000 250-500 1,000-2,000 250-500 1,000-2,000 250-500 150

500-1,000 1,000-2,000 500-1,000 1,000-2,000 1,000-2,000 over 2,000

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Soap Factories Boiling, cutting, manufacture of powder and flakes Stamping, wrapping and packing Textile Plants Cotton Bale breaking, mixing sorting, carding, drawing Sizing, spool winding, spinning Weaving

150 250-500

250-500 500-1,000

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