Leges et Ivra P. R. Restitvit. A New Aureus of Octavian and the Settlement of 28-27 BC_J.W. Rich and J.H. C. Williams (The Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 159, 1999).pdf

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Leges et Ivra P. R. Restitvit: A New Aureus of Octavian and the Settlement of 28-27 BC Author(s): J. W. RICH and J. H. C. WILLIAMS Source: The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-), Vol. 159 (1999), pp. 169-213 Published by: Royal Numismatic Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42668496 . Accessed: 30/05/2014 04:12 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

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Leges A

New

et

P.

Ivra

Aureus Settlement

of

R.

Restitvit and

Octavian of

28-27

: the

bc

J.W.RICH ANDJ.H. C. WILLIAMS1 [plates 20-21] Aureus : 7-95g - DIVI-F-COS-V1 Obv.: IMP-CAESAR LaureateheadofOctavianr. • •ET• IVRA PR- RESTITVIT LEGES Rev. : sella curulis left on seated , holdingout scrollin right Octavian,togate, to left. on scrinium hand; ground Such in briefis thenumismaticdescriptionof an importantnewacquisition by theDepartmentof Coins & Medals in theBritishMuseum (Pl. 20, l).2 It is the firstspecimenof a previouslyunknownissue of aurei in the name of political Octavian,dated to his sixthconsulship,28 bc, a yearof significant change with regard to his public position and image. This coin is of as a new piece of evidenceforthiscrucialperiodin outstandingsignificance of the Augustanprincipáte.It is the aim of thispaper to theestablishment illustratethe importanceof this new coin, by discussingthe noteworthy featuresof its legends and iconography,and to show how it affectsthe of thepoliticalchangesthatoccurredafterthebattle historicalinterpretation of 28-27 bc. of Actiumin 31 and in particularthe settlement 1 Hereafter, in Coins BMC= H. Mattingly, otherwise unless indicated, Empire oftheRoman and with toVitellius Museum theBritish London, revisions, 1976), , vol.1,Augustus (reprinted 31bctoad69(revised Roman RIC= C. H. V.Sutherland, edn., , vol.1,From Coinage Imperial Weare stated. otherwise nos.unless istoAugustus reference London, 1984).Forbothvolumes and Meadows Andrew Robert Michael toAndrew Gurval, Crawford, Burnett, very grateful attheKoninklijk inseminars andalsotoparticipants Leiden, Penningkabinet, Millar, Fergus drafts ofthispaper. onearlier comments fortheir ofNottingham andtheUniversity 2 British assistance with thegenerous number CM 1995.4-1.1, Museum accession purchased ArsClassicaauction inNumismatica Thecoinwasfirst ofProf.M. H. Crawford. published ofitstwosidesappearonthe 5 (25February 1992),lot400.Colourenlargements catalogue discussion Statutes ofM. H. Crawford 1996).Fora brief (2 vols,London, (ed.),Roman jacket andthePrincipáte seeW.K. Lacey,Augustus ofitshistorical 1996), (London, implications andCoinage inD. Sear,TheHistory Imperators: oftheRoman p.85.Thecoinisnotincluded 49-27bc(London, 1998).

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170

J.W.RICH AND J.H. C. WILLIAMS AUTHENTICITY

AND CONTEXT

The appearance of a unique and hithertounknown coin bearing so dramaticallyon one of the most importanteventsin Roman historymay ofthecoin has indeedbeen seemalmosttoo good to be true.The authenticity R. but his have littlecogency.3Thereare Martini, by arguments challenged in fact no valid reasons for doubting the coin's genuineness.Its very uniqueness tells in its favour. Forgers typicallydraw on and redeploy featuresof the knowncoinage, but the reverseof the aureus is unlikeany otherknownAugustancoin type.Yet, as thisdiscussionwillshow,thecoin numismaticand politicalcontextand helpsus fitswellintothecontemporary we alreadypossessed. Not even a to make bettersense of the information such a feat. of could have achieved forger genius Examinationof the compositionand fabricof the coin corroboratesits genuineness.Its weightis comparable to that of otheraurei of the years around28 bc, whose weightis in theapproximaterange7*75-8-00g.4Metal ResearchusingXanalysisbytheBritishMuseum'sDepartmentof Scientific has shown that the content is extremely fluorescence ray spectroscopy gold that of other analysedAugustanaurei.5Thereis highand closelysimilarto a convincingdegreeof wear on the obversearound the templesof the bust and on the most prominentlocks of hair,whilethe generalappearance of both sides shows thatthecoin has seen circulation.Microscopicanalysisof the surfacerevealedno signsof modernmanufactureor alteration. A rangeof gold and silverissueswas struckforOctavian/Augustusin the periodfromthelate 30s to 27 bc (Table 1). We mustnow seek to determine the place of the new aureus in thispatternof coin production. 3 R. Martini, 'Noteincalceadunafalsaemissione aureadiOctavianus recentemente apparsa 5 (1992),pp.94-5,and'Nuovanotaa Annotazioni Numismatische sulmercato antiquario', Annotazioni 21(1996), dell'"aureo"diOctavianus', Numismatische conferma dellafalsifità pp. isdefended Martini 'Die antike 465-7.Theaureus' against byH.-M.vonKaenel, genuineness 44 (1994),pp.1-11,atp.2. Martini's Münzblätter Numismatik undihrMaterial', Schweizer there isnoneed isthatthelegend makes nomention ofthesenate. However, objection principal oftheRoman ina legend therestoration fora reference tothesenate commemorating people's VINDEX with ISP(OPVLI) as LIBERTAT Octavian lawsandrights. R(OMANI) appears Similarly, with were minted oncistophori aswillbeargued nomention ofthesenate which, below, together ofthecoinhave 180ff. Visualexaminations thenewaureus pp.173ff., (RIC476).Seefurther whohave Michael Crawford andJohn Andrew beenconducted Kent, Burnett, Bland, byRoger itsauthenticity. allconfirmed 4 M. vonBahrfeldt, undunter während derRepublik Die römische Goldmünzenprägung 'Octavian's 184-5;C. H. V. Sutherland, goldandsilver (Halle,1923),pp. 107-16, Augustus atpp.134,140. from c.32to27bc',QT 5 (1976), pp.129-57, coinage 5 Thegoldcontent thatofbothBMC657 wasfound tobe99-8 ofthenewaureus %, while wasfound tobe were forcomparison, analysed (= RIC277)andBMC679(= RIC522),which orcorrosion. without removal ofpatina were madeonunprepared 99-6 %. Theanalyses samples Wearegrateful toMr.M. butnevertheless indicative. Theresults arethusonlyapproximate, forthisinformation. Cowell

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A NEW AUREUS OF OCTAVIAN Table

171

1

The gold and silvercoinageof Octavian/ Augustus,c.34-27 bc RIC Aug.

Denom.

Obv.

Rev.

Date

250-63 Au/D

No legend; headofOctavianCAESAR F (r.),or c.34-28 (1.),DIVI-DIVIFinexergue; (bare)orbustofa goddess CAESAR onprow) various (263: Victory types 264-74 Au/D No legend; headofOctavianIMPCAESAR; various types c.34-28 ofa god (274:IMPonobv.) (bare)orhead/bust orgoddess on (264:Victory prow) - SAR D 543 No legend; Octavian Before 27 head, IMPabove,CAE bare DIVI•Fbelowshield around, 276 IMPon 30-25 VII;Octavian ASIARECEPTA; Quin CAESAR Victory cistamystica between two head,bare snakes 476 Cist IMPCAESARDIVI-F-COS PAX;Paxholding caduceus 28 •VI•LIBERTATIS •P•R• andstanding onparazonhead from VINDEX; Octavian, ium;snakeemerging laur. cistamystica; allin laurel-wreath 275 D CAESAR COS•VI; Octavian AEGVPTO CAPTA ; crocodile28 behind head,bare,lituus 545 D CAESARDIVIF COS-VI; AEGVPTO crocodile28 CAPTA; Octavian head,bare, below capricorn 544 Au CAESARDIVIFCOS-VII; AEGVPT crocodile 27 CAPTA; head,bare, Augustus below capricorn 277 Au CAESAR. COS-VII AVGVSTVS aboveeagle, 27 CIVIBVS-SERV oakwreath flanked ATEIS; holding branches head,bare Augustus byS-C,twolaurel behind The two largeseriesof aurei and denariiwiththereverselegendsCAESAR DIVI F ( RIC 250-63) and IMPCAESAR( RIC 264-74) sharesome dies and so mustcome fromthe same mint,but both its location and the date of the issueshave been disputed.Kraftmaintainedthatall thesecoins wereissued afterOctavian'striumphin 29.6However,mostscholarsnow hold thatthey began to be produced beforehis victoriesover Antonyand Cleopatra: it seemsimprobablethathe wouldhave issuedno newcoinageto fundthiswar, and some of the typesmay be interpretedas commemoratinghis earlier victoryover SextusPompeius.7If thisis right,theseseriescannothave been 6 K.Kraft, ZurMünzprägung desAugustus (Wiesbaden, 1969),pp. 5-25(= Gesammelte zurantiken undNumismatik Aufsätze Geldgeschichte , vol.1 (Darmstadt, 1978), pp.292-311). Seeespecially M. H. Crawford, JRS 64(1974), ThePower pp.246-7;P. Zanker, ofImages intheAgeofAugustus 'Die Münzprägung (AnnArbor, 1988), pp.40-2,53-7;D. Mannsperger,

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172

J.W.RICH AND J.H. C. WILLIAMS

producedin the East, as earlierwriterssupposed,and mustbe theworkof an Italian mint,perhapsRome itself.On theseseriesOctavian is celebrated above all as thevictoriousmilitaryleader. Some of the reversetypesallude to specifichonours and achievements,but these are not elucidatedin the standardizedlegends.Octavian keeps exalted companyhere: many of the coins in both seriesshow Octavian on one side and a divinityon the other, and severalcoins are paired, with a coin showingthe head or bust of a divinityon the obverseand a full-length figureof Octavian on the reverse matchedbyanotherwitha head of Octavianon theobverseand thegod fulllengthon the reverse.On several of these coins, particularlyin the IMP CAESAR series,Octavian is assimilatedto a divinity,withthe god's image being given his features.Thus the bust on the obverse of RIC 271-2 is probablyApollo withthefeaturesof Octavian,and thehermon theobverse of RIC 270 (PL 20, 2) and reverseof RIC 269 shows him as Jupiter,with accompanyingthunderbolt.8 The scarce denariiwhose reverseshave the legend IMP CAESAR DIVI F arounda shield(RIC 543) may also date to thisperiod,but could be earlier. Octavian's name is theregivenin its fullpre-27form,as on his coinage of 37-36 (RRC 537-8, 540). Various aurei, denarii and quinarii are dated by theirobverse legends eitherbytheseventhimperatorialsalutationof Octavian/Augustusor to his sixthor seventhconsulship( RIC 275-7, 544-5).9 These issues too are of uncertainorigin.Sutherlandascribedsome to the same Italian mintas the CAESARDIVI F and IMPCAESAR series( RIC 275-7) and declaredthemint of theremainderas uncertain(RIC 544-5). Othershave ascribedthemall to desAugustus', inG. Binder at ,vol.3 (Darmstadt, (ed.),Saeculum Augustum 1991), pp.348-99, Actium andAugustus ; R.A. Gurval, 1995), pp.363-75 (AnnArbor, pp.47-65; Sear,Imperators inKaiser isdefended unddieverlorene (n.2),pp.240-1.Kraft's byW.Trillmich, Augustus dating 1.There isnogoodreason todatetheIMPCAESAR series (Berlin, 1988), Republik pp.507,510-1 later thantheCAESAR DIVIFseries, with 'Octavian's and Sutherland, goldandsilver coinage', assumed thepraenomen RIC, pp.30-1.Dio'sstatement thatOctavian (52.41.3-4) 'Imperator' thatOctavian's to the in 29 is probably an error. Evenif Sutherland werecorrect right wasformally confirmed inthatyear, thiswouldhavenobearing onthechronology praenomen ofthecoinage, sinceOctavian haduseditonhiscoinage since38(RRC534,537-8,540). 8 Ondivine intheseseries theworks assimilation citedinthepreceding see,besides notes, withA.M. R.Albert, Das BilddesAugustus 1981), aufdenfrühen Reichsprägungen (Speyer, 55(1983),pp.563-5;J.Pollini, 'Manorgod:divine assimilation Burnett's Gnomon review, in thelateRepublic andearlyEmpire', in K. Raaflaub andM.Toher(eds), andimitation Los andEmpire: andhisPrincipáte Between (Berkeley, Interpretations ofAugustus Republic do.334-63, atoo. 349-50. Angeles. Oxford, 1990), 9 There IMPCAESAR DIVIFAVGVST isalsoa unique four-aureus obverse legend piecewith CAPTA(RIC 546),butitsauthenticity is widely COS VII, andreverse AEGVPTO legend 'I medaglioni d'orodiAugusto', AHN15(1968), doubted: seeG. Gorini, especially pp.39-61, Dio 51.25.2) forthe seventh conferred ForOctavian's salutation, imperatorial pp.54ff. ' Die (despite Akklamationen ofAlexandria on1August 30,seeL. Schumacher, imperatorischen capture derTriumvira unddieAuspicia desAugustus', Historia 34(1985), atpp.209-12; pp.191-222, andthespoliaopima'Chiron J.W.Rich,'Augustus 26(1996),pp.85-127, atpp.95-7.

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A NEW AUREUS OF OCTAVIAN

173

the East.10These coins commemoratespecificachievementsof Octavian/ Augustus,not onlyby theirreversetypesbut also by explicitlegends.Most celebratethe conquest of Egyptor recoveryof Asia throughthe defeatof Antonyand Cleopatra. However,one issue of aurei, dated to his seventh consulshipin 27 bc ( RIC 277, Pl. 20, 3), is an immediatecelebrationof the honoursconferredin Januaryof thatyearfollowingthepoliticalsettlement of 28-27. Its reversefeaturesthename Augustus,thelaurelbrancheswhich wereto flankthedoor ofhishouse and theoak crownwhichwas to be placed above it, accompaniedby thelettersSC, indicatingthatthesewerehonours conferredby a senātusconsultum. The words CIVIBUSSERVATEIS included in theobverselegendallude to theexplicitreasonforthegrantof thecrown: theoak or civiccrownwas a military distinction grantedto a soldierwho had saved thelifeofa fellow-citizen, references and thefrequent and bothliterary in of the crown the later show that the crown over depictions coinage Augustus'door was accompaniedby an inscriptionbearingthe words OB CIVIS SERVATOS ('for savingcitizens').11 The characterof thetypesand legendsof thesedated issuesand especially theabsenceoftheovertassociationof Octavianwithdivinities, whichwas so markedon theCAESARDIVI F and IMPCAESAR series,may reflectthenew mood of the post-waryears 29-27, in which,as will be discussed below, was seekingto makeitappear thattraditionalrepublican Octavian/Augustus wayswerebeingrestoredand to givehis own supremacya republicanguise. However,divineassociationswere not whollyabsent,merelymore subtle: thename Augustushad a more thanhumanaura, and on RIC 277 the oak wreathis carriedby Jupiter'seagle.12 In additionto the Roman denominationsof the period,a large issue of was struckforOctavian at a mintin the province cistophorictetradrachms of Asia, perhaps at Ephesus (PL 20, 4). 13 Some traditionalfeaturesof cistophori,as firstestablishedunder the Pergamenekingsand maintained underRome, stilloccuron thisissue,notablythecistamysticawithitssnake. However,in otherrespectsthe typesand legendsare Roman in character. Octavian'snameand titulature is givenin extendedformulation:thefullpre10E.g. desmonnaies romain deVempire BMC,pp.105-7;J.-B. , Giard, Mattingly, Catalogue vol.1,Auguste issueswiththecrocodile reverse andthe (Paris,1976), pp.41-4.Thevarious CAPTA comefrom thesamemint, legend AEGVPT(O) surely paceSutherland. 11Ovid, Trist. Val.Max.2.8.7;RIC29-30, 3.1.47-8; 40,75-9,323,419,549,etc.Ingeneral onthehonours of27seeRG34.2(cited Power below, ,pp.89-100; p. 190-1);Zanker, ofImages J.W.Rich, Cassius Dio, TheAugustan Settlement {Roman History 53-55.9) (Warminster, 1990), references. On theciviccrown as a reward forAugustus andother pp. 148-9,withfurther saviours seeA.Alföldi, Der Vater desVaterlandes imrömischen Denken (Darmstadt, 1971), S. Weinstock, DivusJulius 163-74. pp. 46-79; (Oxford, 1971), pp. 12Forthe associations ofthenameAugustus seeOvid,Fasti1.607-12; Suet. supra-human 7.2;Floras4.12.66;Dio 53.16.8. Aug. 13RIC 476= RPC2203= C. H. V.Sutherland, TheCistophori ofAugustus (London, 1970), GroupI (nos.1-72;pls.1-2,15-17).

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J.W.RICH AND J.H. C. WILLIAMS

27 formof thename,IMPCAESARDIVI F,is followedby COS VI, datingthe coins to 28. These coins celebratetheendingof thewar againstAntonyand of Peace on the reverseand by the Cleopatra both by the personification remarkablephraseLIBERTAT1S P(OPVLI)R(OMANI) VINDEX('champion of the libertyof the Roman people'), appended to the obverselegend,which will be discussed furtherbelow. Although the heads of divinitieswith Octavian's featuresin the IMP CAESAR series(RIC 270-2; PL 00, 2) wear laurelwreaths,thesecistophoriare thefirstcoins to portrayOctavianin his own personwearingsuch a wreath.Octavian had been grantedthe rightto wear a laurelwreathsome yearsearlier,but its appearancehereforthefirst time on the coinage suggestsa specificreferenceto the triple triumph celebratedby Octavian on 13-15 August of the previousyear.14 Both thewreathedhead and otherfeaturesof thePAXcistophoriecho and make a riposteto two large issues of cistophoristruckforAntonyin c.39. One of theseshowsAntonyon theobversëand Octavia on thereverse(RPC 2201; PL 20, 5), whiletheotherhas a double portraitofAntonyand Octavia on the obverse (RPC 2202; Pl. 20, 6); on both the traditionalDionysiac featuresofcistophorihave beenelaboratedin honourofthe'new Dionysus'. Octavian's head on the obverseof the PAX cistophoriis whollysurrounded by an extendedlegend,as Antony'shad been, but, whereasmost of the Antonianlegendwas takenup by his designateconsulships,theirplace on Octavian'sissueis takenbythephrasecelebratinghisdefeatof theAntonian threat.The long-robedDionysus on the reverseof the double-portrait Antoniancistophoriis replacedbyOctavian'slong-robedPax. The Dionysiac whichhad been a traditionalcistophoricfeaturewas used as an ivy-wreath cistophori.This encirclingborderon theobverseof Antony'ssingle-portrait is echoed by theencirclingwreathon the reverseof thePAX cistophori,but that wreath is composed not of ivy but of laurel, emblematicboth of Octavian's victoryand of Apollo, associated with the victorythroughhis withtieActiumtemple.On bothhis cistophoriAntonywearsan ivy-wreath ribbons.Octavian too wears such a wreath,not of ivybut of laurel.15 witha denariusin the The new aureushas one pointof strikingsimilarity IMPCAESARseries: on thereverseof RIC 270 (Pl. 20, 2) Octavianis shown togateand seatedon a curulechairin a pose verylike thaton thereverseof our aureus. However,its closestaffinity by faris neitherwiththisdenarius 14Forthedateofthetriumph seeInscr. Ital.vol.13.1,pp.345,570(= EJ,p. 50).Octavian in40andtheright crown towearthelaurel as a triumphator thesamerights hadbeendecreed in36(Dio 48.16.1, towearitatalltimes 49.15.1). 15SeeSutherland, Dionysos. , pp.88-9,112;D. Mannsperger, 'Apollongegen Cistophori 80(1973), RollealsVindex zuOktavians Numismatische Libertatis', pp. Gymnasium Beiträge with discussion ofOctavian/ Fora sceptical 381-404. relationship ApolloseeGurval, Augustus' andAugustus Actium (n.7).

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A NEW AUREUS OF OCTAVIAN

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norwiththeAEGVPTOCAPTA denariiwhichshareitsdatingto 28 (RIC 275, 16 545), but withthe PAX cistophoriof the same year (PL 20, 4). On the aureus as on the PAX cistophoriOctavian's name and titulature whichoccursnowhere appearsas IMPCAESARDIVI F COS VI, a formulation featurewhichthe Another Table the of in the else 1). period (see coinage themfromall the which and the aureusshareswith distinguishes cistophori is shownwearing Octavian is that issues otherapproximately contemporary same is of the a laurel-wreath. Moreover,thewreath type,withtie-ribbons, wornby the echoes whichon thecistophori,as was notedabove, ivy-wreath of similarityis the Antony on his cistophori.17Another notable point on thecistophoriin thecontinuationof unusuallyexplicitpoliticalreference, ATIS P R VINDEX)and on theaureusin thereverse theobverselegend(LIBERT legend. Furtherdistinctivefeaturesmay be observed in the portrayalof Octavian's head on the aureus and on the PAX cistophori,which,like the laurelwreath,markthemout bothfromotherissuesof thesame periodand and the hair fromlatercistophori.On both the neck is ratherstrangulated, around the nape of the neck is showncurlinground in six, simpleinwardcurvinglines projectingout from under the wreath-tiebehind the ear. issues the head extendsup to the fieldWhereason all othercontemporary as on on small,leaving these, border, Antony'scistophori,itis comparatively a gap betweenthe top of the head and the beaded border,filledon the cistophoriby the continuationof the legend. betweenthe new aureus The cumulativeforceof thesevarious affinities and the PAX cistophorimustput it beyonddoubt thattheywereproduced at the same Asian mint.This is not the onlyinstanceof joint concurrently and local coinage in the East. The practiceprobably Roman of striking under Antony:aurei and denariiwereissued in his name in the East began at about thesame timeas thecistophoridiscussedabove, and it seemslikely thattheaureiand denariiRRC 527-8 wereproducedat thesame mintas the cistophori,probablyEphesus.18Jointstrikingoccurredagain c. 19 bc, when 16Thisaffinity nn. andbyMartini auction intheoriginal noted wasalready (above, catalogue 2-3). diesonthePAXcistophori vanesbetween Thelength ofthetie-nbbons (see¡Sutherland, shoulders toOctavian's extend (e.g.BMC691),buton Cistophori, pls.1-2):onsomediesthey Octavian asontheaureus. areshorter, onourplate, illustrated suchasthespecimen they others, a cameo, British Museum recent onanother laureate alsoappears (GR1996.6-12.1): acquisition himfullwhich shows ofOctavian's inthedevelopment portrait-style, early belonging probably manner. ForthisseeW.-R. inthesacrificial andcovered face,withhisheadbothwreathed no.A27,pl. Severus bisAlexander vonAugustus Kameen 1987),pp.169-70, (Berlin, Megow, 26 (1996),pp. Museum British ofAugustus', 'A cameoportrait Magazine 22.4;S. Walker, forthisinformation.) toSusanWalker 18-19.(Wearegrateful 18SeeRFC,pp.368,377,noting ofOctaviaon the between theportraits thesimilarities andanEphesus Antonian RRC527,thesingle-portrait Antonian aureus (RPC2201), cistophori the inAsiamayhavetaken atRPC, p.368,aureiminted bronze {RPC2574).Asis suggested for issuesofgoldearlier cities, chiefly Ephesus, byvarious produced placeoftheoccasional

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J.W.RICH AND J.H. C. WILLIAMS

an issue of aurei and denarii has obverse dies plainly engravedby the As we have engraversof a substantialissue of cistophorifromPergamům.19 alreadynoted,some of the otherissues of Roman denominationsproduced in thesame periodas thenew aureusmayhave been mintedin theEast.20So too may some other uncertainissues with the name Augustus in their As die-countsshow,thecistophoriwereproducedon a muchlarger legend.21 scale than the denarii,let alone the aurei.22Thus it is not particularly thata singlespecimenshould have come to lightof a previously surprising unknownaureus mintedin the East. betweenthereverseof thenewaureus,mintedin Asia, and The similarities the denarius RIC 270, now generallyheld to have been mintedin Italy, remain puzzling. The explanationmay simplybe that the denarius was already in circulationand its reversewas used as a partial model by the engraversof the aureus. Anotherpossible solutionwill be suggestedbelow. THE REVERSE TYPE AND LEGEND While the obversetypeand legendof the new aureus exhibit,as we have thePAXcistophori,thereverseis withits stable-mate, seen,close similarities and This remarkable type legendmust now be examinedin more unique. detail. Octavianis shownon thereversewearinga toga, thatis, in civiliandress, and seated on a curule chair {sella curulis),the prerogativeof the higher He holdsa scrolland at his feetthereis a scroll-case{scrinium). magistrates.23 Only rarelyin his coinage is Octavian/Augustusshownin a toga. Some coins showing him togate and seated on a curule chair nonetheless commemoratemilitaryvictory,namelythe denariusRIC 270 (PL 20, 2), whichhas alreadybeen noted and will be discussedfurther below,and two issues of aurei and denarii from the Lugdunum mint. These celebrate underAugustus'auspices: successeswon by Tiberiusand Drusus fighting in C. Bayburtluoglu 'Hellenistic whichsee G.K.Jenkins, (ed.), goldcoinsof Ephesos', 21(1978-80): 183-8. Anadolu Festschrift Akurgal (= Ankara, 1987), pp. 19See C. H. V.Sutherland, aureiand denariiattributable to themintof 'Augustan RN15(1973), andRIC,pp.36-7.Theaureianddenarii: RIC511-26. Pergamům; pp.129-51, - RPC 2216-20 = Sutherland, The cistophori: RIC 505-10 , GroupVII (nos. Cistophori 446-588). 20RIC275-7,543-5;above,atn.9. A particular forAsianminting is the candidate likely of27bc,both ofthehonours conferred inthesettlement aureus RIC277: itscommemoration with theaureus and anaffinity onthereverse andinthefinal legend, suggests partoftheobverse oftheprevious thecistophori year. 21RIC 536-42, also472-5.SeeRPC.p. 368. 547-8;perhaps 22Sutherland diesfortheissues ofc.19as cistophori theknown obverse 71,denarii reports aurei10:RIC, p. 36;cf.RPC, pp.7,368. 18, 23Onthesignificance Sella chairs seeT. Schäfer, andiconography ofcurule Insignia: Imperii in andmore römischer Curulis undFasces. ZurRepräsentation (Mainz,1989), briefly Magistrate Kaiser unddieverlorene (n.7),pp.427-40. Augustus Republik

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Augustus,seated on a platform,receiveslaurelsproffered by soldiers( RIC 162-5: 15-13 bc) or a childpresentedby a barbarian( RIC 200-1 : 9-8 bc).24 Various issues fromthe Rome mintshow a togate Augustusin a civilian context.An aureus of 16 bc commemoratingthe Secular Games of the previousyearshowshimseated on a curulechairand distributing purifying suffimenta {RIC 350). A closerparallel to our aureus is affordedby denarii issued by the moneyersC. Marius and C. SulpiciusPlatorinus,probablyin 13 bc, portraying AugustustogetherwithAgrippain scenesalludingto their of the tribunicia sharing potestas. Marius shows Augustus,laureate, and his combined mural and naval crown,standingside by Agrippa,wearing each a scroll in their hands and witha scrinium at theirfeet(RIC side, holding 397, 400; PL 20, 7); Sulpicius shows them seated togetheron a rostrate tribuniciansubsellium(RIC 406-7; Pl. 20, 8).25 On the new aureus and on the denariiof Marius and Sulpiciusthe toga, all thecurulechairor tribunes'bench,thescrolland accompanyingscrinium help to convey the image of the princepsenacting the civic role of a magistrate.In employingthe magistrate'saccoutrementsto emblematic thesecoins formpartof an iconographietraditionwhichcame to full effect, developmentin Augustus' reign. In the coinage of the Late Republic, althoughthereare onlya fewdepictionsof togatemagistrates, unoccupied curulechairsappear frequently as a symbolof the power and officeof the curule magistracies.26 Sculpted togate figuresof senators and municipal magistratesseated on curulechairs,eitheras honorificstatuesor as graveFrom thesame monuments, appear fromthelaterfirstcenturybc onwards.27 period, sculpted representationsof the sella curulistogetherwith other came to playan important badgesofofficesuchas thefasces and thescrinium role in the iconographyof the grave-monuments of curule and municipal a On of such monuments for magistrates.28 group praetorsthefrontpanel of the chair is decorated with a scene showing the deceased magistrate exercisinghisjudicial functions, accompaniedby his six lictorsand a curule chair.29The praetoris usuallyshownseatedand withouta scrollor scrinium , 24Cf.H. Gabelmann, Antike AudienzundTribunalszenen (Darmstadt, 1984),pp. 118-24; A.L. Kuttner, andEmpire intheAgeofAugustus. TheCaseoftheBoscoreale Dynasty Cups (Berkeley, pp.107-10. 25Nota1995), bise Ilium as described inRIC:seeSchäfer, , pp.123-4.Cf.alsoRIC Imperii Insignia with TRPOT. 417,datedto 12bc: subsellium legend 26Schäfer, RRC 330,351 , pp. 84-99,pls. 9-12.Togatemagistrates: Insignia Imperii to sacrifice; between and corn);372/1-2 (distributing (preparing standing eaglestandard 433(theregicide Brutus as consul lictors with fasces ); accompanied by fasces). 27Schäfer, Ancestor Masksand , pp. 130,134-5,139-40;H. I. Flower, Imperii Insignia Aristocratic Power inRoman Culture 77-9. (Oxford, 1996), pp. 28Schäfer, with atpp.233ff.; fordepictions ofscrinia , pp.135ff., Imperii Insignia catalogue inassociation with curule chairs seeespecially 304-8andpls.51-4. pp. 29Schäfer, discussion atpp.150-60. SeealsoGabelmann, , nos.2,6-12,with Imperii Insignia AudienzundTribunalszenen andin general on representations ofmagistrates , pp. 155-68,

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withthenew but on theearliestinstance(apparentlyroughlycontemporary a scrinium a scroll above and his chair is he holding standingby aureus) 30 (PL 21, 9). Later emperorsappear on the coinage in togas, seated or standing, a varietyof roles,both external(e.g. exhortingtroops,receiving performing submissionfromconqueredpeoples) and domestic(e.g. performing sacrifice, distributing largesse).However,sceneslike thoseon thenew aureusand the denariiof Marius and Sulpicius,whichshow theemperorin a legal context, do not recurafterAugustus.31 Statuesof emperorsseated and togatedid occur,thoughextantexamples are rare,in contrastboth to standingtogate statuesand to the principal seated type of imperial statuarywhich showed the emperorenthroned, draped,witha naked upper body in the mannerof a god. This type,used connotations frequently duringtheJulio-Claudianperiod,had quitedifferent fromseated togatestatues,beingmodelledultimatelyon Phidias' statueof Zeus at Olympia.32 No seated togate statue of Augustus survives,but he is shown in this fashionon one of the Boscorealecups, whose scenesmay be copied froma On one side of thecup a princeof the monumenterectedduringhis reign.33 and theirchildrento Augustusimperialfamilypresentsbarbarianchieftains a scenereminiscent of theLugdunumcoins mentionedabove. The otherside presentsAugustus as world rulerin a hybridof the civic and the divine (PL 21, 10). Augustus,wearingtunic,toga and patricianboots,sitsin a form ofcurulechair.In his lefthand he mayhold a scroll;in his righthe holdsout of provincesand a globe. To his leftMars bringsforwardpersonifications nationsto pay homage. On his rightstandsVenus, accompaniedby Amor, and beyondher Roma and the Genius of the Roman People. In her hands Venus holds a littlewingedvictory,whichshe is on the pointof placingon im römischen zu standesund J.Ronke,Magistratische Relief.Studien Repräsentation BARInternational Series 3 vols(Oxford, statusbezeichnenden Szenen 370, , 1987). 30Schäfer, Insignia andillustrated atpls. atpp.150-1, 238-41, 155-6, ,no.2,discussed Imperii unddieverlorene treatment atKaiser , pp.435-6(no.235). 22,26.2;a briefer Augustus Republik is 14kmfrom RomeandnowintheMuseoNazionale, found ontheViaCasilina Therelief, toc.30bc. datedbySchäfer onstylistic grounds 31Cf.Gabelmann, 161-2. AudienzundTribunalszenen , pp.106-10, 32On seated zurstatuarischen Studien see H. G. Niemeyer, togateimagesof emperors andEmpire Kaiser(Berlin, derrömischen , pp. Dynasty 1968), Darstellung pp.40-3;Kuttner, Portraiture intheJulio-Claudian andImperial Commemoration 37-44;C. B. Rose,Dynastie Period (Cambridge, 1997), p.75. 33On seenowtheexhaustive derivation from a monument these twocupsandtheir possible onthe ofTiberius andEmpire. Sheholdsthatthetriumph ofKuttner, depicted Dynasty study and Fordiscussion other (ad 12),as usually supposed. (7bc),nothissecond cupwashisfirst zu römischen seeH.-R.Goette, Studien ofseatedtogate Togadarstellungen catalogue figures, is thaton the ofAugustus (Mainz,1990),pp. 75-9and 104-8.Theonlyonementioned Boscoreale cup.

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theglobein Augustus'hand. Victorycarriesa longpalm branchoverherleft shoulderand withher righthand holds out a laurel wreathto Augustus. This sceneis strikingly similarto thatdepictedearlieron thereverseof the denariusin the IMPCAESARseries,to whichwe have alreadyreferred ( RIC is on the of Pl. on the Octavian 270; 20, 2): point receivingVictory;on cup thecoin he holds herin his righthand. Like the cup, the scene on the coin is hybrid.Octavianis shownin civilianmode, togateand seated on a curule chair: this,as we have seen, is unique for the IMP CAESAR seriesand the associated CAESAR DIVI F series,in whichhe is otherwiseportrayedas a heroicwar leaderand linkedto divinities.However,the divineassociations are verymuchpresenton thiscoin itself: Octavian may appear in the guise of a magistrate,but he holds a goddessin his hand, and the obverseshows a hermof JupiterwithOctavian's features. Victoryalso appears on the reversesof a numberof othercoins in the CAESARDIVI F and IMPCAESARseries,alwaysstandingon a globe and with a wreathin her righthand, and usuallywitha palm branchin her left.She appears on her own on RIC 254-5 and 268 (on the latterwith vexillum insteadof palm branch),and on the apex of the pedimentof a buildingon RIC 266. These various representations make a specificreference.On 28 afterhis tripletriumph,Octavian dedicatedan altar August29, a fortnight ofVictoryin therestoredCuria (thesenate-house),accompaniedby a statue of VictorybroughtfromTarentum,which he decked with the spoils of Egypt.The coins surelydepictthisstatue,and thebuildingon RIC 266 is to be identified withtheCuria. A copy of thestatueof Victorymay have been theengravermay have transferred it erectedon thepediment;alternatively, thereby artisticlicence.34 The Boscorealecup presentsa mythicalversionof thecompositionof thestatue,withVenusin theact ofplacingVictoryon the globe held by Augustus.35 On one level the scene on the reverseof RIC 270 is to be read as Octavian's giftof thestatueof Victoryin theCuria.36It is, commemorating in rich however, (no doubt deliberate)ambivalence.Formally,the state of on a as betokeningtheworld-ruleof Victory globewas doubtlessrepresented the Roman people, re-establishedby the victoryover Egypt.This may be 34Thededication: Inscr. Ital.vol.13.1,p. 504(= EJ,p. 51);Dio 51.22.1-2; C. J.Simpson, 'TheCuriaIuliaandtheAraVictoriae : a "politico-religious" inAugust 29bc',in imperative C. Deroux(ed.),Studies inLatinLiterature andRoman , vol.9 (Brussels, History 1998),pp. 225-30.On thestatue ofVictory seeT. Hölscher, Victoria Romana (Mainz,1976),pp.6ff. Actium andAugustus doubts theidentification ofthe Gurval, (n.7),pp.61-2,unconvincingly onthecoinswith thestatue. Theabsence ofdistinctive features suchas thesidusIulium figure tellsagainst therivalidentification ofthebuilding onRIC 266as thetemple ofDivusIulius RRC540). (contrast andEmpire Kuttner, , pp.25-6,204. Dynasty Itissurprising thatthefigure ofVictory doesnotsurmount a globeonRIC270,as onthe other coins.Theengraver theglobemerely fortechnical reasons. mayhaveomitted

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evoked on the coin, on which the figureof Victoryis turnedaway from Octavian and appears to be offeringher wreathto an unseen recipient, evidentlytheRoman people. Yet thevictoryoverEgyptwas Octavian's,and men mightnaturallyread the statueas celebratingthe victoriousleader as worldruler.37 Similarly,whilethesceneon RIC 270 depictsOctaviandressed as a magistrateand makinga donation,italso unmistakeably evokesPhidias' statue of Zeus holding Victory,which had frequentlyappeared as a Hellenisticcoin-type.38 We saw in the previoussectionthat the dated coins issued in the years in some notablerespectsfromthecoins of theCAESARDIVI 29-27 BC differ F and IMP CAESAR series: theirtypesand legendsexplicitlycommemorate specificachievementsof Octavian/Augustus,and thereare no overtdivine associations. All this is true of the new aureus, which,despite its other is in theserespectsin markedcontrastwiththedenariusRIC 270. similarities, The reverselegend,as we shall see, elucidatesthe type.Octavian appears simplyas thecivilmagistrate,and on neitherobverseor reverseis thereany hintofdivineassociation- withtheimportantexceptionofhisfiliation('son ofthediuus'). In one respect,however,thenew aureusdoes contrastwiththe otherdated coins of the period: it is the only one of thesecoins to show Octavianon both sides. Indeed,thisoccursonlyrarelyin thewholecoinage of Octavian/Augustus,and hardlyever do coins which show him on the obverseaccord himas muchprominenceon thereverseas he receiveson this aureus-a featurewhich is in subliminalconflictwith the coin's overt message. What then is the meaningof the scene depicted on the reverseof the aureus? The gesturewhichOctavian is makingwiththe scrollin his right hand is quite different fromthatof the praetorin the contemporary graverelief(PL 21, 9). The praetor is shown holding his scroll downwards, above thescrinium : theimpressionis conveyedthathe has just immediately takenthescrollfromthescrinium or is about to replaceit there.By contrast, on theaureus,thescrollis not broughtintorelationshipwiththescrinium at thefootof thecurulechair.Instead,Octavianholdsit out as thoughoffering itto an unseenrecipient.The gesturerecallsthatmade withthewreathbythe thesignificance figureofVictoryon thedenariusRIC 270. To explorefurther of thesceneand of thisgesturein particularwe mustturnto theexamination of the reverselegendLEGESET IVRA P R RESTITVIT. In its styleand contentthe legend lacks close parallels in the Roman coinage of thisor any otherperiod.No otherAugustanlegendis so explicit 37So Dio 51.22.1.The connection whenthegoldshield wouldhavebeenenhanced in27bc(RG virtues incloseproximity tothestatue wasdedicated commemorating Augustus' onthelater 34.2).Theyfrequently (RIC31-2,45-9,61-2,88-95)and appear together coinage inart(Hölscher, Victoria Romana , pp.103ff.). 38Cf.Weinstock, DivusJulius andEmpire , pp.53-6. ; Kuttner, (n. 11),pp.100-1 Dynasty

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about the constitutionalactions of the princeps.Moreover,togetherwith one Republicanand a fewlaterimperialexamples,it is one of theveryfew instancesof a Roman coin legendin the formof a main sentencewithan expressed finite verb.39 Coins of Octavian/Augustus very frequently commemoratehis achievements,either directly or, more commonly, indirectlyby allusion to the resultinghonours. However, this is the only instance on his coinage where a main sentence is used of one of his achievements.40 Leges, as used here,means the statutes,the positivelaws. The word ius, however,has a widerrangeofmeaningsthanlex, and iurahereis accordingly moredifficult to render.Sometimesiuracan be a virtualsynonymforleges; sometimesitis closerto 'justice', sometimesto 'rights'.41In whatfollowsthe phraselegeset iurawill be translated'laws and rights',but theelasticityof the conceptof iura mustbe borne in mind. The combinationleges et iura, whichhas the appearance of a customary formula,in fact seems not to be so.42 However, the words are found juxtaposed on a numberof occasions.43They also, not surprisingly, appear sometimesin tralaticianlegal formulae,44 but togetherin legal inscriptions, 39RRCAll Memmius, MEMMIVS AEDCEREALIA mid-50sBc: PREIMVS (C. FECIT);RIC Nero50and58(IANVM CLVSIT PACE PRTERRA MARIQPARTA), 289-91 etc.(PACE PRVBIQ PARTA IANVM etc.(PACE 263-71 PRTERRA MARIOPARTA IANVM The CLVSIT), CLVSIT). abbreviation RESTinthelegends ofthevarious 'restored' issuesofthelatefirst-early second centuries ad isshort forRESTITVIT, as revealed where itappears in by,e.g.,RICTitus192-4, full.Cf.alsoRICDomitian 377-83(LVDSAECFEGIT1). 115-19, 40Ablative absolute arecommonest: AEGVPTO CAPTA(RIC 275,544-6),ASIA phrases RECEPTA RECEPTIS orvariants 287-9304-5, (RIC276),SIGNIS (RIC41,58,60,80-7,131-7, ARMENIA CAPTA orvariants Aswasnoted 314-15, 508-10, 306-7, 521-6), (RIC290-2, 514-20). above(at n. 11),Augustus' civiccrown is alludedto on RIC 277bytheablative absolute CIVIBVS SERV butlateralways with theformula OBCIVISSERVATOS, which ATEIS, probably stoodontheoriginal aboveAugustus' door.Alsofound arehonorific formulae introduced by SPQRleading toa QUOD-clause thereason fortheconferment ofthehonour: RIC specifying 140-4, 358,360-2. 41Cf. LatinDictionary senses1-4, , s.u.iusfortherangeofmeanings, Oxford especially to'law',and7, 10,12-13forthewider approximating usage. 42There a number ofoccurrences. Itappears inexactly thisform atCic.De Or. are,however, Deci.Min.345.5;withac: Cic.Caec.70;Pseud.Quint. Deci.Mai. I.253,Legg.1.35;Quint. I I.1; 15.4; Juv. 2.43& 72; iura... (et): Plaut. Deci.Min. ; Quint. Ep.292,Most.126; Livy30.37.9 iuralegesque : Livy4.15.3. 331.17; 43 Cato, ORFfr.252;Lucr.5.1147; Sail.Jug. E.g. 31.20;Vitr. ; Manil.4.214;Ovid, 9.praef.2 Am.2.17.23-4, A.A.3.58,Trist. 5.7.47-8;Lucan1.176-7, 2.316;Sil.Pun.1.303;Pliny, Ep. Deci.Min.251.7,260.6,266.1,274.9;Pseud.-Quint. Deci.Mai.15.3,17.9;Stat. 8.24.4;Quint. Silv.1.4.11-12, Suet.Pratum 3.5.87-8; (p.315Roth). 44Inthese formulae their 'terms andconditions': thuslexCornelia meaning mayapproach deXXQuaestoribus Statutes to be chosen (Roman (n.2) 14),col.II, 11.7-14, apparitores by onthesameterms as before Genetivae Statutes quaestors (eoiureea lege); lexcoloniae (Roman tohavethesamestatus as those inother colonies who 25),ch.LXVI,1.36,thecolony's priests holdoffice onthebestterms iureoptima inthelexdeGalliaCisalpina (optimo lege).However, Statutes lexiusisusedprecisely tomean (Roman 28),ch.XXI,1.10,ch.XXII,1.40,theformula 'statute andlaw'(cf.ch.XXI,1.14:iurelege).

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also in more discursivecontexts.45In Cicero, the most abundant nearcontemporaryliterarysource, the two words are not uncommonlyfound together,whetheradduced as objects of the subversiveattentionsof some villainous opponent in the speeches, or as topics relevantto rhetorical, philosophicaland politicaltheoryand thepublicdutiesof theRoman orator and magistrate.46 Theyappear togetherin speechesas partof a rhetoricallist similarwords such as libertas with other , senātusconsulta, senātus along iudicia. Cicero oftenassociates lex or mores auctoritas , , foedera, , religiones in his works of or with or ius civile ius political moral philosophyas leges in importantconcepts,contrasting meaning but related in significance.47 They are centralto his conceptionof what binds citizenstogetherinto a humanecommunity.48 the overall The verb restituiimeans 'he restored', but unfortunately meaning of the legend is leftuncertainbecause of the ambiguityof the abbreviationP R. This could be completed either as the genitiveform P(OPVLI)R(OMANI) or as the dativeP(OPVLO) R(OMANO). If the genitive is adopted,thelegendmaybe translated: ' He has restoredthelaws and rights of theRoman people'. The dativewillyieldthetranslation:'He has restored theirlaws and rightsto the Roman people'. On balance the dativeversion seems the more likely,both linguisticallyand in the light of the other evidenceforOctavian'sactionsin 28-27, to be consideredin thenextsection, to thesenateand himas engagingin a processofrestitution whichrepresents people. In the ensuingdiscussionit will be assumed thatthe dativeversion of the translationis correct.However,even if the genitivewere in factthe correctform,the overallsensewould not be greatlyaltered.On eitherview thelegendimpliesthatthe Roman people's laws and rightshad lapsed and werenow revived.49 The scenedepictedon thereversetypeprovidesa visualcorrelativeforthe legend.The settingshouldprobablybe takento be a contio, a meetingof the Roman people,withOctavianseatedon theRostraor anothertribunal.The 45Cf.lexAntonia theleges Statutes deTermessibus , 19),colII, 11.17-22, concerning {Roman for term usedasa collective iusbeing RomeandTermessus, between iusandconsuetudo existing between lex, iusand senseoftherelationship iuraenjoyed thevarious byeachside.Fora fuller ofthecolonists' on thelegalrights ch.CXXXIII,11.33-38, iuraseelexcoloniae Genetivae, exh(ac) 'eaemulieres wives: iuraque I(uliae)rique parento G(enetiuae) c(oloniae) legibus rerum exh(ac)l(ege)habento omnium inhaclegescripta sunt, s(ine)d(olo) quaecumque l(ege), m(alo).' 46Cf.2 Verr. 2.46;Rab.Perd.17;Flacc.62;Red.Sen.34;Sest.56;Deiot.30;Phil.8.10,13.1; De Or.1.159, 2.68, Legg.1.17;Off.1.53,1.124. 47Legg.1.16,19,3.76; 33, 42,56;Off.1.51,2.15,3.69;Rep.1.49,3.16,3.42;N.D.2.148. 23, 48Cf.Off.1.53. 49Restituii assense defines LatinDictionary inwhat theOxford isthus usedhere (s.v.restituo) revive oruse,re-establish, backintoexistence restore, practice (aninstitution, 4a,4to bring ordini as atCic.Mur.40('equestri thebeneficiary, expressing maytakea dative etc.)',which sed etiamuoluptatem restituii nonsolumdignitatem ') and Livy3.54.7('congratulante ciuitati libertatem restitutam'). concordiamque

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as a symbolicrepresentation scrolland scrinium are perhapsto be interpreted is a moreliteralinterpretation of thepeople's laws and rights.Alternatively, as restoring possible: thescrollmay containan edictwhichwas represented theirlaws and rights.We shall see in thenextsectionthatsuch a claim may have been made for an edict known to have been issued by Octavian in his sixthconsulship(28 bc), the year to which the aureus is dated by its obverselegend. Edictswerenormallyissuedorally,beingread out at a contiobytheissuing magistrate'sherald (praeco); one or more copies were thenput on public Thus ifthescrollis takento be an edict,thesceneon thecoin may display.49a showthemomentpriorto itsbeingread out,withOctavianholdingthescroll out to the unseenpraeco. However, it is unlikelythat this was the only intended.Whetherthe scrollis takenas an edictor simplyas interpretation the a symbolof thepeople's laws and rights,we are surelymeantto identify it not merelyas a praeco but unseenrecipientto whomOctavian is offering as the beneficiary, namelythe Roman people. Octavian's gesture,as was notedabove, is similarto thatmade byVictorywithherwreathon RIC 270, and the unseen recipientis the same in each case. The typethus provides further confirmation forthedativeversionof thelegend:thesceneportrays the restorationof theirlaws and rightsto the Roman people. The reference to Octavian's sixthconsulshipon theobverselegendmakes itclearthattherestorationofthepeople's laws and rightscommemoratedon the reversetype and legend formedpart of the political settlementwhich Octavian/Augustus carried out in 28-27. We must shortlyturn to a rewiththedouble aim of elucidatingthereverse examinationof thatsettlement of the aureus and assessingits implicationsfor our understandingof the settlement itself.Beforewe do so, however,some further considerationofthe PAX cistophori(PL 20, 4) is called for. As we have already noted, the explicitpolitical referencein the title ATIS P(OPVLI) R(OMANI) VINDEX ('champion of the libertyof the LIBERT Roman people') attributed to Octavianon thePAXcistophorifindsa parallel in the no less explicitreverselegend of theircompanion piece, the new aureus. How, in the lightof the new aureus,is the titleto be interpreted? The phrase uindicarein libertatem originallyapplied to the action of the adsertorclaimingan individual'sfreedomin a legalhearingoverwhetherthat personshouldbe freeor a slave (causa liberālis).50 By thelate Republic,this phraseand cognatephrasessuch as uindexlibertatishad become clichésof politicaldiscourse.Politiciansof all persuasionsjustifiedthe use of forcein 49aTh.Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht vol.1,pp.205-6;W.Kunkel, 1887-8), (Leipzig, undStaatspraxis derrömischen 2: DieMagistratur Staatsordnung Republik. (Munich, 1995), pp. 125. 105-6, 50Oncausaeliberales seeW.W.Buckland, TheRoman LawofSlavery 1908), (Cambridge, pp.652-72.

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civildisputeson the groundsthatit was necessaryto vindicatethe freedom of the Roman people or the respublica fromtyranny(
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