Left Critique of Law.doc

March 11, 2019 | Author: TashuYadav | Category: Marxism, Karl Marx, Communism, Jurisprudence, Friedrich Engels
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MARXI STJ URI SPRUDENCE TUTOR:CHRI SBEHRENS STUDENT:DAVI 9 10 61 05 D RI SSTROM OM:

I nt hes o c i a lp r o d uc t i o no ft he i re x i s t e nc e ,me ni ne v i t a b l ye nt e ri nt od e fini t er e l a t i o ns ,whi c ha r ei nd e pe nd e nto ft h e i r wi l l ,na me me l yr e l a t i o nso fp r o d uc t i o na ppr o p r i a t et oagi v e ns t a g ei nt hed e ve l o pme nto ft he i rma ma t e r i a lf o r c e so fp r o duc t i o n. Thet o t a l i t yo ft h e s er e l a t i o nsc o ns t i t ut et h ee c o no mi mi cs t r uc t u r eo fs o c i e t y ,t her e a lf o und a t i o n,o nwhi c har i s e sal e g ala nd  po l i t i c a ls upe r s t r uc t ur ea ndt owhi c hc o r r e s po ndde fini t ef o r mso fs o c i a lc o ns c i o us ne s s . Kar lMar x, ,5 21 .   Pr e f a c et oA Co nt r i b ut i o nt ot h eCr i t i q ueo fPo l i t i c a lEc o no my 1

Ma r x i s tj ur i s pr u de nc epo s i t st ha tl e g alr e l a t i onsa r ede t e r mi mi ne db yt hee c onomi cba s eofpa r t i c ul a rki ndso f s oci et yand modesofpr oduc t i on. Ma r x i s tt ho ug ht ’ spr i ma r yf o c usr e s t so npo l i t i c a le c o no my mya ndt he 2

c o r r e s p ondi ng po we we rr e l a t i o nswi t hi ns o c i e t y ,pr o vi di ng t hemo s te x t e ns i v ec r i t i quet o da t eo fl i b e r a l t r a di t i o nonwhi c hma ma nyofo url e g alpr e s uppos i t i o nsa r ef ounde d.Tot hi se n d,t hi se s s a ye x ami ne sl a w,i t s s t r uc t ur e , mo t i v at i o na ndc o ns e q ue nc e sf orj us t i c ea ndr i ght sf r om aMa Ma r x i a nj ur i s pr ude nt i a lpe r s pe c t i v e .

MARXISM AND LAW Yo uri d e a sa r eb utt h eo ut g r o wt ho ft h ec o nd i t i o nso fy o urb o ur g e o i sp r o d uc t i o na ndb o ur g e o i sp r o p e r t y ,j us ta sy o ur  j ur i s pr ude nc ei sb utt hewi l lo fy o urc l a s sma d ei nt oal a wf o ra l l ,awi l l ,who s ee s s e nt i a lc ha r a c t e ra nddi r e c t i o na r e d e t e r mi ne db yt h ee c o n o mi mi c a lc o nd i t i o nso fe x i s t e n c ei ny o urc l a s s . Kar lMar x,Th ,2 4. eCo mmu ni s tMa n i f e s t o

La wi sno to fc e nt r a lc o nc e r nt oMa r x i s t sj ur i s pr ude nt i a l i s t s ,a sl a wi nt hec a pi t a l i s tmodeofpr o duc t i oni s s e e na sa ni ns t r ume nto fc l a s soppr e s s i onpe r p e t ua t e da sac o ns e q ue nc eofi t spa r t i c ul a rhi s t or i c a l ,s o c i a l a nde c o no m mi i cs t r u c t ur e s .I nde e d,wi s h i ngt oa v oi dl i be r a lpr e di s p os i t i ont o w wa a r d sl e g alf e t i s h i s m m, ,Ma r x i s t s deny t hedegre eofi mport ancej ur i sprudencet ypi cal l yaffordsl aw i n anal ysesoft hecomp mposi t i on and de t e r mi mi na t i onofs o c i a lf o r ma ma t i ons . 3

SMARXI SM? WHATI

Ma r x i s tt he o r i e so fpo l i t i c a le c o no my my ,e x po unde dupo nt heno t i o nso fKa r lMa r x( 1 8 1 8 8 3 )a ndF r i e dr i c h Eng e l s( 1 8 2 0 9 5 ) ,c o ns i de rl a wa ni ns t r ume nto fc l a s soppr e s s i o nt ha tb e ne fit st her ul i ngc l a s st hr o ug h o ppr e s s i o no ft hepr o l e t a r i a t .Thec o mm mmo nl a ws y s t e mo fc r i mi na la ndc i vi ll a w,whi c hpr o t e c t sp e r s o na l a ndpr i va t epr o pe r t yr i ght s ,a swe we l la sf a c i l i t a t i ngpr e di c a bi l i t yi ns oc i a ll i f e ,i sr e ga r de da s“nomor et ha na s y s t e mo fc o e r c i o nde s i gne dt opr o t e c tb our g e oi so wn wne r s h i po ft heme me a nso fpr o duc t i o n” . 4

1

2 3 4

Ma r x ,K. ,‘ Pr e f a c et oA Co nt r i but i ont ot h eCr i t i queofP ol i t i c a lEc o nomy’i nKa r lMa r xa ndF r e d e r i c kEng e l sSe l e c t e d Wo r k s ,Mos c o w:Pr o gr e s sP r e s s , 1 9 8 95 2 1. Ba l b us , I . ,‘ Co mm mmo di t yFo r ma ndLeg a lF o r m’ m’i nRe a s o ns , C. , or o nt o:But t e r wor t hs ,1 9 7883 . Th eSo c i o l o g yo fLa w,T xi s ma ndLa w,Ox Col l i ns ,H Ma . , r f o r d:Ox f o r dUni v e r s i t yPr e s s ,1 9 8 79 8 . Ba r r y ,N A . , nI ,London:Macmi mi l l an,198953. nt r o duc t i o nt oMo de r nPo l i t i c a lThe o r y f tCr i t i que : Le Mar xi sm /Da Davi dRi ss t r om /Page1

Ye t ,de s p i t eMa r xa ndEng e l s ’f a i l ur et ode v e l o p as ys t e ma t i ca ppr o ac ht ol a w ,a ndc l a i msoff a i l ur ei n 5

Ea s t e r nEur o pea ndt heS o vi e tUni o n,Ma r x i s m’ sma t e r i a l i s te mpha s i s , pa r t i c ul a r l yc onc e r ni ngt heno t i ono f a l i e na t i o na ndi t sc o ns e q ue nc e sa so ut l i ne db yOl l ma n,   a s s i s t si t sc o nt e mpor a r ypa uc i t y . 6

7

STORI CALMATERI ALI SM HI

 Me nha v ehi s t o r yb e c a us et he ymus tpr o duc et he i rl i f e ,a ndb e c a us et he ymus tpr o duc ei tmo r e o v e ri nac e r t a i nwa y :t hi s i sd e t e r mi ne dbyt h e i rp hy s i c a lo r g a ni s a t i o n;t he i rc o ns c i o us ne s si sd e t e r mi ne di nj us tt h es a mewa y . Mar x,Th ,4 9. eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y

Thede t e r mi ni s tr e l a t i o ns h i pb e t we e nt hee c o nomi cba s ea nd s o c i a ls u pe r s t r uc t ur e ,k no wna sHi s t o r i c a l Ma t e r i a l i s m,i sfir s tde s c r i be di nTh s t or i cma t e r i a l i s mc o nt e ndst ha tt hec a t a l ys t eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y. Hi 8

 be hi nds oc i e t ale vol ut i oni smat e r i al l yde t e r mi ne d,be i ngpr e di c at e donc ont r adi c t i onsbe t we e nt hef or c e s a nd me a nsofpr oduc t i o n. As“ i ti sno tc o ns c i o us n e s st ha td e t e r mi ne sl i f e ,b utl i f et ha tde t e r mi ne s c o n s c i o u s n e s s ”,   l a wi sar e fle c t i onoft hee c o nomi cba s e ,r a t he rt ha nt her e s e r v ea sl i be r a l ss uc ha sDwo r k i n 9

woul dpr opos e.

Unde ri nc r e a s i ngi ndus t r i a l i s a t i onMa r xf or e s a wc r ys t a l l i s a t i onofs o c i e t yi nt ot woc l a s s e s ;bour ge oi s i ea nd pr o l e t a r i a t . The s er e l a t i o nsofp r o duc t i o n de v e l o pe d duet opa r t i c ul a rf o r c e sofpr oduc t i o n unde rt he c a pi t a l i s tmo deo fpr o duc t i o nt ha tc o e r c e dt hebo ur g e oi s i et oe x t r a c ts u r pl usva l ueaspr o fitf r o m t he pr o l e t a r i a t . La ws ,a sMa r xde t a i l e di nCa ,a sonee l e me nto ft hes o c i a ls upe r s t r uc t ur e ,a s s i s t e di n p i t a l f or c i ngdownwage s . 10

Col l i nsc ha r a c t e r i s e st woMa r x i s ta ppr oa c he s ;c r udema t e r i a l i s m,i nwhi c hl a wi ss i mpl yar e fle c t i onoft he e c o no mi cb as e ;a nds e c o ndl y ,c l a s si ns t r ume nt a l i s m;i nwhi c hr ul e se me r g eb e c a us et her u l i ngc l a s swa nt t hem t o. 11

Thi sdi s t i nc t i o nc o nt i nue sa sa na r e ao fde b at e ,a sde mo ns t r a t e db y O' Ma l l e y ’ sa t t a c k so f

Qui nne ya ndCha mb l i s s ’c r udema t e r i a l i s tc l a i mt ha tl a wi sadi r e c tt o olo fpo we r f ulc l a s s e sorg r o ups , f a v our i ngt hemor ei nt e r a c t i oni s t ,a ndl e s sc o nfli c tp r e mi s e dt he or yo fl e gi s l a t i v ec ha ng e . 12

TheRe l a t i v e

Aut onomy Thes i si ss uch a t heor y. Cont empor ar y Mar xi s t ssuc h asMar c us e,s ugges tmec hani s ms anal ogous t ot heF  a ndVa e ma i ni ns t r ume nt soft her ul i ng c l a s spe r pe t ua t i ng a c t o r y Ac t s g r a n c yAc t sr c o ndi t i o ns r e i nf o r c i ng t hi sa r r a ng e me nt ,e s pe c i a l l yi nr e l a t i o nt ot he a l i e na t i ng na t ur eo f mo de r n t e c hnol ogi c alr a t i ona l i t y . 13

N THECAPI TALI STMODEOFP RODUCTI ON BASEAND SUPERSTRUCTUREI 5

Ca i n,M. ,a ndHun t ,A. ,1 9 7 9 , r cPr es s .  Ma xa ndEng e l so nLa w,London:Academi 6  A i e na t i o n;Ma r x’ sCo nc e p t i o no fMa ni nCa pi t a l i s tSo c i e t y Ol l ma n,B. , 1 9 76 ,l ,Ca mb r i dg e :Ca mb r i dg eUn i v e r s i t yPr e s s . 7 Col l i ns ,H. ,opc i t . ,1 0. 8 eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y Ma r x ,K. ,a ndEng e l s ,F . ,1 9 76 ,Th ,Mo s c o w:Pr o g r e s sPr e s s . 9 Ma r x ,K. ,Th ,Mo s c o w:Pr o gr e s sPub l i s h e r s ,1 9 7 64 2. eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y 10 Ma r x ,K. ,‘ Bl o odyLe g i s l a t i o na g ai ns tt heEx pr o pr i a t e d,f r o mt hee n do ft he1 5 t h.c e n t ur y :F or c i ngDo wnWa g e sb y Ac t sofPa r l i a me nt ’i nCa   6 8 6 . p i t a l ,1 9 86 11  Ma xi s ma ndLa w,Ox Col l i ns ,H. , r f o r d:Ox f o r dUni v e r s i t yPr e s s ,1 9 8 72 4 . 12 O’ Ma l l e y ,P . ,‘ The or i e so nS t r u c t ur eV er s usCa us a lDe t e r mi na t i o n’i nT oma s i c( e d. )Le g i s l a t i o na ndSo c i e t yi n  Aus t r a l i a ,Al l enandUnwi n,1980140. 13 Ma r c u s e ,H. ,One,Bo s t o n:Be a c onPr e s s ,1 9 68x v . Di me nsi onalMan f tCr i t i que : Le Mar xi sm /Davi dRi ss t r om /Page2

Muchofourl aw,s uchasCont r act ,Pr oper t yandCommer ci alLaw,i spredi cat edont heexi s t enceoft he c a pi t a l i s tmodeofpr oduc t i on. AsMa r x ’ sma j orpr oj e c twa st hec r i t i queofc a pi t a l i s m,i r r e s pe c t i v eo fa  be l i e fi nr e vol ut i on,Ma r xi s m hasagr e atde alt onot i f yusofi nourc ont e mpor ar yj ur i s pr ude nc e .Ma r xi s m pos t ul a t e st h ati nt hes o c i a lpr o duc t i on oft he i re xi s t e nc e ,pe opl e ,i nde pe nde nto ft he i rwi l l ,e nt e ri nt o de fini t er e l a t i o nso fpr oduc t i ona ppr opr i a t et oagi v e ns t a gei nt hede v e l opme ntoft hema t e r i a l sf o r c e so f pr o duc t i o n. 14

Cons equent l yt hes oci et als uper s t r uct ur e,i ncl udi ngbutnotdomi nat ed byl aw,amongst

ot herhegemoni cdevi ce s ,i sdet er mi nedbyt heeconomi cbas eandt heor gani s at i onofpoweri ns oci et y. 15

Ma r x i s tj ur i s pr ude nc ec onc e nt r a t e sont her e l a t i ons h i pb et we e nl a wa nd pa r t i c ul a rhi s t o r i c a l ,s o c i a la n d e c o no mi cs t r uc t ur e s ,s e e i ng l a w,unl i k el i b e r a lt he o r y ,a s ha v i ng no l e g i t i ma t e pr i ma c y . F r e q ue nt l y enc ount er ed l ega lrul es and doct r i ne,ar gue Gr ams c i and Al t hus s er,  es t abl i s h moder nl i ber al 16

17

 j ur i s pr ude nt i alhe ge mony . 18

ENTI FI CS OCI ALI SM SCI

Ma r x i s te pi s t e mol og y ,wi t hdi a l e c t i cma t e r i a l i s ma st hec e nt r e p i e c eofMa r x i s m’ ss c i e nt i ficc l a i m,pr oc l a i ms i nr e a ll i f e ,whe r es pe c ul a t i on e nds ,pos i t i v es c i e nc e ;t her e pr e s e nt a t i on oft hepr a c t i c a la c t i vi t y ,oft he pr act i calpr ogr es sofdevel opmentofmen,begi ns . 19

Whi l s tMar x’ smat er i al i s m doesnotr ef ert ot he

a s s umpt i o no fal o gi c a l l ya r gue do nt o l o gi c a lpo s i t i o n,Ma r xa do pt sa n undo ub t e dl yRe a l i s tpo s i t i o n,i n whi c hi de a sa r et hepr o duc to ft heh uma nb r a i ni ns e ns o r yt r a ns a c t i o nwi t hakno wa b l ema t e r i a lwo r l d. 20

These cl ai ms c ont r as twi t ht hos e ofnat ur all awyer ss uch as Aqui nas who bel i eve r el i gi on s houl d no r ma t i v e l yg ui del a w;t ho s ede s i r i ng ut i l i t a r i a nt e nde nc i e ss uc ha sAus t i na nd Be nt ha m;o ro bj e c t i v e c o ns i s t e nc ya ss o mepo s i t i vi s t ss uc ha sHa r t ,o rpe r ha psi nt e g r i t y ,a spe r ha psonl yDwo r k i nc a nf ul l y e ndo r s e . Ne v e r t he l e s s ,whi l s tde ba t ea st ot hes c i e nt i ficc r e de nt i a l sofMa r x i s mc o nt i nue ,Col l i nsc l a i ms Ma r x i s m’ sde s i r ef o rc l a s sr e duc t i o ni s mt oe x pl a i nt hedyna mi ci nt e r a c t i o nb e t we e nma na ndna t ur er i s k s mi s cons t r ui ngt hedi ver si t yofs oci alphenomenai n ordert oconfir mt he‘ r i gi ds yst emi cf r amewor kof hi s t or i c alma t e r i a l i s m’ . 21

CTATORSHI POFTHEP ROLETARI AT LAW AND THEDI

La w,mo r a l i t y ,r e l i g i o n,a r et oh i ms oma n yb o u r g e o i sp r e j ud i c e s ,b e h i ndwh i c hl ur ki na mb us ha sma n yb o u r g e o i s i nt e r e s t s . Kar lMar x,Th ,18 eCo mmu ni s tMa n i f e s t o

14

15 16 17 18 19 20

21

r lMa r xa ndF r i e d r i c hEng e l sSe l e c t e d Ma r x .K. ,Pr e f a c eT o‘ A Cont r i but i o nt ot h eCr i t i queofPo l i t i c a lEc o nomy’i nKa ,1 9 895 21 . Wo r k s Col l i ns ,H. ,opc i t . ,9 . Gr a ms c i ,A. ,Se ,London:Lawr enceandWi s hart .1971195. l e c t i o nsf r o mt h ePr i s o nNo t e b o o k s  Ma r r x,London:New Lef Al t hus s e r ,L. ,Fo tBooks, 1977114. Col l i ns ,H. , f o r dUni v e r s i t yPr e s s ,1 9 825 0.   Mar xi s ma ndLaw,Ox eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y Ma r x ,K. ,Th ,Mo s c o w:Pr o gr e s sPub l i s h e r s ,1 9 7 63 8 . Gi dde ns , A. ,Ca , p i t a l i s ma n dMo d e r nSo c i a lTh e o r y :AnAna l y s i so ft h ewr i t i ng so fMa r x ,Dur k h e i ma n dWe b e r Ca mb r i dg e :Ca mb r i dg eUni v e r s i t yPr e s s , 1 9 7 12 1. Col l i ns ,H. ,opc i t . ,4 5. f tCr i t i que : Le Mar xi sm /Davi dRi ss t r om /Page3

Ma r x i s ms a w de v e l o pme nto ft her e l a t i o nsofpr oduc t i o n di a l e c t i c a l l y ,a sb ot hi ne v i t a b l e ,a nd c r e a t i ng hos t i l i t y . Ac c e l e r a t e db yi nc r e a s e dc l a s sc ons c i ous ne s s ,a st hec ont r a di c t i onsofc a pi t a l i s m pe r f or a t et he  bour ge oi she ge mony ,i ne vi t abl er e vol ut i onandadi c t at or s hi poft hepr ol e t ar i atwoul df ac i l i t at e“s oc i al i s e d pr oduc t i onuponapr edet er mi nedpl an. ”

22

Gi v e nt hes c i e nt i ficn a t ur eo fHi s t o r i cMa t e r i a l i s m,a ndupo n

r e c o gni s i ngt her o l et hes t a t eandi t sl a wss uppl y ,t hepr o l e t a r i a twi l ls e i z epol i t i c a lpo we ra ndt ur nt he me a nso fpr o duc t i o ni nt os t a t epr o pe r t y ,t he na c c o r di ngt oMa r x i s tj ur i s pr ude nc e ,“ Ass o ona st he r ei sn o 23

l ong e ran yc l a s st obehe l di ns ub j e c t i o n;a ss o ona sc l a s sr ul ea ndt hei ndi vi dua ls t r uggl ef ore x i s t e nc e… ar ere moved,not hi ngmorer emai nst oberepres s ed. ”

24

COMMUNISM AND THEEND OFLAW Theme a ni ngo fh i s t o r y ,t ha tma n ’ sde s t i n yl i e si nc r e a t i o no faCo mmuni s ts o c i e t ywhe r e“ l a w wi l lwi t he r a wa y” ,a sme ne x pe r i e nc eahi ghe rs t a geofbe i nga mo unt i ngt ot her e a l i s a t i o noft r uef r e e dom,wi l la f t e r 25

t r a ns i t i ont hr o ughS oc i a l i s m,bea c hi e ve d. USTI CEAND RI GHTS  J

Co mmuni s ma b o l i s h e se t e r na lt r u t h s ,i ta b o l i s h e sa l lr e l i g i o n ,a nda l lmo r a l i t y ,i ns t e a do fc o ns t i t ut i ngt h e mo nane w b a s i s . eCo mmu ni s tMa n i f e s t o Kar lMar x,Th ,24

Ma r x i s ma r g ue st he r ei snoa bs o l ut ec onc e p to fj us t i c e ,j us t i c ebe i ngde pe nde nto nt her e q ui r e me nt sofa gi venmodeofpr oduc t i on. Luk e sc l a i msMa r xb e l i e v e sj us t i c e ,“ Do e sno tpr o vi deas e to fi nde pe nde nt 26

r a t i o na ls t a nda r dsbywhi c ht ome a s u r es o c i a lr e l a t i o ns ,b utmus ti t s e l fa l wa y si nt ur nb ee x pl a i ne da s a r i s i ngf r o ma ndc o nt r o l l i ngt hos er e l a t i ons ” . 27

Ma r x i s m be l i e v e st ha tr i ght sa r es i mpl yabour g e oi sc r e a t i on,a ndt ha tj us t i c ei ss o me t hi ngonl yt her i c hc a n a c h i e v ei nc a pi t a l i s tmo de sofpr oduc t i o n. Ana t o l eFr a nc e( 1 8 94 )e n c a ps ul a t e dt hi sdi s t i nc t i onb et we e n f or ma la nds ubs t a nt i v ej us t i c ease nt i t l e me nt ,dr a wi nga t t e nt i ont o“ t hema j e s t i ce ga l i t a r i a ni s m oft hel a w, whi c hf or bi dsr i c ha ndpo ora l i ket os l e e punde rb r i dg e s ,t obe gi nt hes t r e e t sa ndt os t e a lb r e a d. ”  Fo r mal 28

 j us t i c ease nt i t l e me ntt he r e f or eal l owse qualoppor t uni t yt ot hei ndi vi dualwi t houta nyr e f e r e nc et ot he une qua la bi l i t yt ous ei t ,wi t hr i ght sonl ybe i nga nt i s o c i a l i s ti fi ndi vi dua l sar et a ke nt obe“ i nhe r e nt l ya nd i r r e de ema bl ys e l f i nt e r e s t e d. ”

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28 29

Enge l s , F . ,So ,Mo s c o w:Pr o g r e s sPubl i s h e r s :1 9 5 47 9. c i a l i s m:Ut o pi a na ndSc i e n t i fic I bi d. ,7 3. I bi d. ,7 3. eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y Ma r x ,K. ,Th ,Mo s c o w Pr o gr e s sPr e s s , 1 9 7 65 1 . Wa c k s ,R . ,ur ,Lo ndo n:Bl a c k s t o nePr e s s ,1 9 8 71 7 5 .  J i s pr ude nc e  Ma xa ndMa r xi s ms Luk es , S . ,Ma r x i s m,Mor a l i t ya ndJ us t i c e ’i nPa r k i ns o n,G . , r ,Cambri dge:Cambri dgeUni ver s i t y Pr e s s ,1 9 821 97 . nt r o duc t i o nt oMo de r nPo l i t i c a la ndSo c i a lTho ught Gambl e,A A . , nI ,Hampshi r e:Macmi l l an,1987101. Ca mpbe l l ,T . ,us ,London:Macmi l l an,1988189.  J t i c e f tCr i t i que : Le Mar xi sm /Davi dRi ss t r om /Page4

Mar xi s tdi s put eoverhow r i ght sand j us t i cewi l loper at ei n pr act i cear eans wer ed by t hemat er i al i s t pr o pos i t i o nt ha tt he“ di s t r i b ut i o no fb ur de nsa n db e ne fit ss ho ul dno tb et a k e ni na c c or da nc ewi t hab oo ko f r ul e s ,b uti nt hel i ghtoft heobj e c t i ve sofs o c i a lpol i c y . ”

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Ca mpb e l ldi s t i ng ui s h e sb e t we e nS oc i a l i s ta nd

Bour g eo i sRi ght s ,a r g ui ngt ha ta ni nt e r e s tba s e dt he or yofr i ght s ,r a t he rt ha nt hec ont r a c tb a s e d no t i ons s uchasPas hukani s ’i ncor por at ed i n hi sc ommodi t y exc hanget heoryofl aw ,   a l l o w pr o t e c t i o no ft he 31

i ndi vi dual,   t he r e b yne g at i ngt hel og i c a lc o nne c t i onbe t we e nr i ght sa ndj us t i c e . 32

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NS UMMARY I

Ma r x i s tj ur i s pr ude nc ea ndMa r x i s tc r i t i que so fl a w pr o vi dei n va l ua bl ec h al l e ng e st oourt hi nki ngaspe opl e unde rl a wi nal i be r a lde moc r a t i cs o c i e t y .Thi se s s a yi so nl yt hebr i e f e s tofi nt r o duc t i onsi nafie l dr i c hwi t h r eflec t i onsconce r ni ngt heas s umpt i onsweconst r ucti nt oourl aw. Whet heryou acc eptt hecl ai msofi t s doc t r i ne ,i t si nflue nc eons h api ngt hes o c i e t ywel i v ei ni smo r es i gni fic a ntt ha nmos to fusr e a l i s e .

BI BLI OGRAPHY Al t hus s e r ,L. ,1 97 7,Fo r r tBooks .  Ma x,London:NewLef eSo c i o l o g yo fL a w,T Bal bus ,I . ,197 8,‘ Commodi t y For m and LegalFor m’i n Rea s ons ,C. ,Th o r o nt o : But t e r wo r t hs . Ba r a da t , L. ,1 99 1,Po ,4 t hEdn. ,Ne wJ e r s e y :Pr e nt i c eHa l l . l i t i c a lI de o l o gi e s : Th e i rOr i gi nsa ndI mpa c t Bar bal e t ,J . ,19 83 , r ,London:Rout l edgeandKeganPaul .  Ma x' sCo ns t r uc t i o no fSo c i a lThe o r y Ba r r y ,N. ,1 98 9 , nI ,2ndEdn. ,London:Mac mi l l an.  A nt r o duc t i o nt oMo de r nPo l i t i c a lThe o r y Be r g e r ,P .a ndLuc k ma nn,T . ,1 9 7 5 , monds wor t h:Pengui n.   Th eSo c i a lCo ns t r u c t i o no fRe a l i t y,Har Bl a c kbur n,R. ,( Ed. ) ,1 99 1 ,f s o.  A t e rt h eFa l l :TheFa i l ur eo fCo mmuni s m,London:Ver  Ma xa ndEng e l so nLa w,London:Aca Ca i n,M. ,a ndHunt ,A. ,1 9 7 9 , r demi cPr es s .  J t i c e Ca mpbe l l ,T . ,1 98 8 ,us ,London:Mac mi l l an. e v e nTh e o r i e so fHuma nNa t u r e Ca mpbe l l ,T . ,1 98 1,S ,Ox f o r d:Ox f o r dUni v e r s i t yPr e s s . eLe f ta n dRi g ht s Ca mpbe l l ,T . ,1 98 3,Th ,London:Rout l edgeandKeganPaul .  Ma xi s ma ndLa w,Ox Col l i ns ,H. ,1 98 2 , r f o r d:Ox f o r dUni v e r s i t yPr e s s . Conne l l ,R. ,1 97 7,Rul ,London:Cambri dgeUni ver s i t yPr es s . i ngCl a s s ,Rul i ngCul t ur e

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Ca mpbe l l ,T . ,Th ,London:Rout l edgeandKeganPaul ,198333. eLe f ta ndRi g h t s Le g a l i t y ,I d e o l o g ya ndt h eSt a t e Wa r r i ng t o n,R. ,‘ P a s huk a ni sa ndt h ec o mmo di t yf o r mt he o r y ’i nSug a r ma n,D. , , London:Aca demi cPre ss ,198343. Ca mpbe l l ,T .1 98 3,opc i t . ,1 23 . I bi d. ,1 24. f tCr i t i que : Le Mar xi sm /Davi dRi ss t r om /Page5

e Po l i t i c so fJ u r i s p r u de n c e :A Cr i t i c a lI nt r o d uc t i o nt o Le g a lPh i l o s o p h y,London: Co t t e r r e l l ,R. ,1 98 9,Th But t e r wo r t hs . Eas t on,L and K,Guddat( Eds . ) ,1967,Wr w Yor k: i t i ng so ft h eYo u ngMa r xo nPh i l o s o p h ya n dSo c i e t y,Ne Anc hor . c i a l i s m:Sc i e nt i fica ndUt o pi a n,Mosc Enge l s ,F . ,1 95 4,So ow:Pr ogr es sPres s. F ouc a ul t ,M. ,1 97 9,Di ddl e s e x :P e ng ui n. s c i p l i nea ndPuni s h Th eBi r t ho ft h ePr i s o n,Mi Fr a nke l ,B. ,1 98 3,Be ,London:Mac Mi l l an. y o ndt h eSt a t e ? ;Do mi na ntTh e o r i e sa ndSo c i a l i s tSt r a t e g i e s Fr ol ov ,I . ( e d. ) ,1980,Di s c o w:Pr o gr e s sPub l i s he r s . c t i o na r yo fPh i l o s o p hy,Mo Fromm,E. ,1973 , r k:Fr eder i ckUngarPubl i s hi ng.  Ma x' sCo nc e p to fMa n,New Yor Ga mb l e ,A. ,1 9 8 7 , nI ,Hamps hi r e:Mac mi l l an.  A nt r o duc t i o nToMo de r nSo c i a lAndPo l i t i c a lTho ught Gi dde ns ,A. ,1 9 8 1 ,Ca p i t a l i s ma n dMo d e r nSo c i a lTh e o r y ;Ana n a l y s i so ft h ewr i t i ng so fMa r x ,Dur k h e i ma n d We b e r ,Cambri dge:Cambri dgeUni ver s i t yPr es s . Gr a ms c i ,A. ,1 9 71 ,Se ,London:Lawr encea ndWi s har t . l e c t i o nsf r o mt h ePr i s o nNo t e b o o k s Ha be r ma s ,J . ,1 9 70 ,T ,London:Hei nemann. o wa r daRa t i o na lSo c i e t y Har r i s ,J . ,1980,Le ,London:But t er wort hs. g a lPhi l o s o phi e s Ke l l ne r , D. ,1 98 4 ,e mi l l an.  H r b e r tMa r c us ea ndt heCr i s i so fMa r xi s m,London:Mac Luhmann,N. ,1982,TheDi ,New Yor k:Col ombi aUni ver s i t yPr es s . ffe r e nt i a t i o no fSo c i e t y Luke s ,S. ,1 98 6,Po ndo n:Ox f or dUni v e r s i t yPr e s s . we r :ARa d i c a lVi e w,Lo Ma r c us e , H. ,1 9 7 5 ,One s t on:Be a c onPr e s s . Di me ns i ona lMan,Bo

Ma r x ,K. ,1 9 8 6 ,‘ Bl o ody Le g i s l a t i o na g ai ns tt heEx pr o pr i a t e d,f r o m t hee nd o ft he1 5 t h. Cent ur y:For ci ngDownWagesbyAct sofPar l i ament ’i nCa pi t a l , Mos c o w: Pr ogr e s sPr e s s . Mar x,K. ,1986,Ca ,Mos c ow: p i t a l ;A Cr i t i q ueo fp o l i t i c a lEc o no my ,Vo l1 ;Th ePr o c e s so fPr o d uc t i o no fCa p i t a l Pr ogr e s sPubl i s h e r s . Ma r x ,K. ,1 9 77 ,Ec s c o w:Pr o gr e s sPub l i s h e r s . o n o mi ca ndPh i l o s o p h i c a lMa nus c r i p t so f1 84 4,Mo Ma r x ,K. , 1 9 75 ,Ea n. r l yWr i t i ng s ,London:Pengui Mar xK.and Engel sF. ,1848 , ni  Ma f e s t oo ft heCo mmuni s tPa r t y ;a ut ho r i s e dEng l i s ht r a ns l a t i o nf r o mt heMa r xEng e l sI ns t i t u t e ,Me l b our ne :I nt e r na t i o na lBo oks h op. r lMa r xa ndF r e d e r i c k Ma r x ,K. ,1 9 89 ,‘ Pr e f a c et oA Co nt r i but i ont ot heCr i t i queofP ol i t i c a lEc o nomy’i nKa ,Mosc ow:Pr ogr es sPres s. Eng e l sS e l e c t e dWo r k s Ma r x ,K. ,a ndEnge l s , F . ,1 96 5 ,Th s c o w:Pr o gr e s sPub l i s he r s . eGe r ma nI d e o l o g y,Mo f tCr i t i que : Le Mar xi sm /Davi dRi ss t r om /Page6

Ma r x ,K. ,a ndEnge l s , F . ,1 98 9 ,Se ,Mo s c o w:Pr o gr e s sPub l i s h e r s . l e c t e dWo r k s Ma r x ,K. ,1 9 02 ,Wa ,Ne w Yor k:Ne w Yor kLaborNe wsCompany . g e ,La b o u ra n dCa p i t a l Mc Le l l a n,D. , 1 9 71 , r ,London:Mac mi l l an.  Ma x’ sGr undi s s e Mc Le l l a n,D. , 1 9 80 ,Th mi l l an. eT ho u g h to fKa r lMa r x,London:Mac Mc Mur t r y ,J . ,1 9 7 8,Th wJ e r s e y :Pr i nc e t onUni v e r s i t yPr e s s . eS t r uc t ur eo fMa r x ’ sWo r l dVi e w,Ne s o r g a ni s e dCa p i t a l i s m:Co nt e mp o r a r yT r a n s f o r ma t i o nso fWo r ka ndPo l i t i c s Offe ,C. ,1 9 8 5 ,Di ,Ca mbr i dg e:P ol i t y Pr e s s . Ol l ma n,B. , 1 9 76 ,l dge:Cambri dgeUni ver s i t y  A i e na t i o n;Ma r x’ sCo nc e p t i o no fMa ni nCa pi t a l i s tSo c i e t y,Cambri Pr e s s . g i s l a t i o na nd O’ Ma l l e y ,P . ,1 9 8 0 ,‘ The o r i e sonS t r uc t ur eVe r s u sCa us a lDe t e r mi na t i o n’i nT oma s i c( Ed. )Le ,Sydney: Al l enandUnwi n. So c i e t yi nAus t r a l i a Tuc ke r , R. ,( e d. ) , 1972,Th ,Ne w Yor k:Nor t on. eMa r x En g e l sRe a d e r Wa c ks , R. ,1 9 87 ,ur ,Lo ndo n:Bl a c k s t o nePr e s s .  J i s p r ud e nc e g a l i t y ,I de o l o gya nd War r i ngt on,R. ,1983,‘ Pashukani sandt hecommodi t yf orm t heor y’i nSugarman,D. ,Le ,London:Ac ademi cPr es s . t h eSt a t e

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