Language and Brain

November 23, 2018 | Author: Namaku Chukak | Category: Speech, Neurolinguistics, Lateralization Of Brain Function, Brain, Neurology
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language and brain...



Neurolinguistics Neurolinguists study the physiological mechanisms by which the brain processes information related to language, and ealuate linguistic and psycholinguistic theories, using aphasiology, aphasiology, brain imaging, electrophysiology, and computer modeling! In "eptember #$%$, near &aendish, 'ermont, 'ermont, a construction foreman called (hineas (! Gage was in charge of a construction crew blasting away roc)s to lay a new stretch of railway line! As *r! Gage pushed an iron tamping rod into the blasting hole in a roc), some gunpowder accidentally e+ploded and sent the threeandahalffoot long tamping rod up through his upper left chee) and out from the top of his forehead! -he rod landed about fifty yards away! *r! Gage suffered the type of in.ury from which, it was assumed, no one could recoer! /oweer, a month later, he was up and about, with no apparent damage to his senses or his speech! -he medical eidence was clear! A huge metal rod had gone through the front part of  *r! Gage0s brain, but his language abilities were unaffected! /e was a medical marel! -he point of this rather ama1ing tale is that, while language may be located in the  brain, it clearly is not situated right at the front!

Language areas in the brain -he most important parts are in areas aboe the left ear 

Broca’s area

in the illustration is technically described as the 2anterior  speech corte+3 or, more usually, as Broca0s area! (aul Broca, a 4rench surgeon, reported in the #$56s that damage to this specific part of the brain was related to e+treme difficulty in producing speech! It was noted that damage to the corresponding area on the right hemisphere had no such effect! -his finding was first used to argue that language ability must be located in the left hemisphere and since then has  been treated as an indication that Broca0s area is crucially inoled in the production of speech!It is an anterior speech corte+! (aul Broca, a frech surgeon, repoted in the #$56s that damege to this specific part of the brain wad related to e+treme difficulty in producing s

Wernicke’s area in the illustration is the 2posterior speech corte+,3 or 7ernic)e0s area! &arl 7ernic)e was a German doctor who, in the #$86s, reported that damage to this part of the brain was found among patients who had speech comprehension difficulties! -his finding confirmed the left hemisphere location of language ability and led to the iew that 7ernic)e0s area is part of the  brain crucially inoled in the understanding of speech The motor cortex and the arcuate fasciculus in the illustration is the motor corte+, an area that generally controls moement of the muscles 9for moing hands, feet, arms, etc!:! &lose to Broca0s area is the part of the motor corte+ that controls the articulatory muscles of the face, .aw, tongue and laryn+! Eidence that this area is inoled in the physical articulation of speech comes from wor) reported in the #;
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