Laboratory Activities Computer Engineering Drafting and Design (2) (1)

August 23, 2017 | Author: Paul Santos Nonat | Category: Etching, Battery (Electricity), Printed Circuit Board, Printmaking, Rechargeable Battery
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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES Aurora Blvd.. Cubao, Quezon City

COMPUTER ENGINEERING DRAFTING AND DESIGN

LABORATORY ACTIVITY MANUAL By: Engr. Ronnie M. Dysangco Engr. Maria Cecilia A. Venal

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Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 4 ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS ......................................................................................................................... 4 ZenitPCB Layout ....................................................................................................................................... 5 Main Menu ............................................................................................................................................ 6 Design Rule: ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Error List browser Example ................................................................................................................... 9 Component Properties: ......................................................................................................................... 9 Bottom Soldering ................................................................................................................................ 12 Net Class Color ................................................................................................................................... 13 Net Properties ..................................................................................................................................... 14 Board Outline ...................................................................................................................................... 14 ZenitPCB Libraries .................................................................................................................................. 27 Decal Library Report ............................................................................................................................... 27 ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................................. 31 Activity No. 1................................................................................................................................... 32 PCB ETCHING AND ENGRAVING ........................................................................................... 32 Activity No. 2................................................................................................................................... 35 PCB DRILLING .......................................................................................................................... 35 Activity No. 3................................................................................................................................... 38 PCB SOLDERING ..................................................................................................................... 38 Activity No. 4................................................................................................................................... 41 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND FLOWCHARTING ............................................................................. 41 Activity No. 5................................................................................................................................... 48 LED LIGHTS CIRCUIT .............................................................................................................. 48 Activity No. 6................................................................................................................................... 53 BATTERY MONITORING CIRCUIT........................................................................................... 53 Activity No. 7................................................................................................................................... 58 PIC12C508SM CIRCUIT ............................................................................................................ 58 Activity No. 8................................................................................................................................... 66 COMPLEX CIRCUIT .................................................................................................................. 66 2

Activity No. 9................................................................................................................................... 69 DC MOTOR CONTROLLER CIRCUIT ...................................................................................... 69 Activity No. 10................................................................................................................................. 72 USB INTERFACE CIRCUIT ....................................................................................................... 72

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INTRODUCTION ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS Table 1Electronic Classification Classification 1. Passive Components 2. Active Components

Description It is a classification of electronic component that is used for resistance of electrical current and storing of electrical charge through a capacitance It is classified as part of the semiconductor devices such as diode, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), Vacuum Tube devices such as Vacuum tube diode, triode, Tetrode, Pentode, etc.

Table 2 Basic Electronic Symbols Name

Actual Image

Symbol

Transformer

Resistor

Capacitor

Fuse Coil

Diode

Zener Diode

Varactor Diode

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LED (Light Emitting Diode) Transistor FET (Field Effect Transistor) Speaker

Microphone

Switch

Battery / Dry Cell

Motor

Integrated Circuit

ZenitPCB Layout It is a complete open source software for PCB lay outing for personal or semi-professional circuit development. It has a border line of 800 pins between the hobby and professional jobs and is one of the advantages of this software. It is directed to all people who want to design a printed circuit board or to students who want to create their own PCB design. The user interface in ZenitPCB has been written using the Windows standard and it has been carefully designed to enable the user to both learn the product quickly and make ZenitPCB output.

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Main Menu It contains all the headings for the main sub-menus and commands. It also contains the application menus such as File, View, Setup, etc. The menu items are:

Figure 1 Main Menu

File – It contains options to manage and save the data files.

View – it contains options to zoom in/out the board and to open a dialog bar.

Figure 1-a File Menu

Figure 1-b View Menu

Figure 1-b1 Fit Board and Fit all Elements Layers: This window displays the possible color for each layer of the layout.

Figure 1-b-2 Display Layers 6

Project Explorer: This window contains the contents of the grouped design which could either be components or nets. It is shown in Figure 1-b-3.

Figure 1-b-3 Project Explorer DRC: This window contains check boxes that enable various designer specifications. Each check indicates the status of each choice.

Figure 1-b-4 DRC

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Design Rule: 1. Electrical Elements [E-E] This design rule shows the content of the net class property that can be modified with the trace width and clearance.

Figure 1-b-4a Electrical Elements 2. Board Outline [B-E] This design rule is asking for the clearance between all Electrical Elements and Board Outline. 3. Mounting Hole [M-E] This design rule is asking for the clearance between all Electrical Elements and Mounting Holes. 4. Copper Pour [C-E]

Figure 1-b-5

This design rule is asking for the clearance between all Electrical Elements and Copper Pour. 5. Component Outline [C-C] This design rule is asking the clearance between all Components. The system uses the placement outline as references. 6. Text on Pad [T-P] This design rule is asking the clearance between all Pads and Silkscreen Text. (See Figure 1-b to 4b).

Figure 1-b-4b Component Outline

To execute this procedure go to setup on the select option. 8

Error List browser Example

Figure 1-b-4c Element to Element

Figure 1-b-4e Component to Component

Figure 1-b-4d Text over Pad

Figure 1-b-4f Net not Routed

Component Properties: This dialog contains all properties concern with the selected component, as shown in Figure 1-b-5 a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Component Location Silk Height Bottom Decal (Refer to Figure 1-b-5a) Plot Gerber Reference Edit Button

Figure 1-b-5a Component Modification Window

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Place Component: In placing the component the bin contains all imported parts from the netlist which is easier to place all parts according to the user needs. It is possible to place parts sequentially or one by one, on top layer or bottom layer. Line Offset: Offset Line gives user the opportunity to copy or move shapes horizontally or vertically as shown in Figure 1-c.

Figure 1-c Offset

Board Report: This part of ZenitPCB gives information about the project such as the number of components, trace width and etc. Current Capacity of Track: This feature of ZenitPCB gives information on the total Ampere a trace could carry. There are also available formulas that can be used such as Empirical, Foil Thickness and Temperature rise above ambient as shown in Figure 1-d.

Figure 1-d Current Capacity

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Setup – It contains the project options and the net class & properties as shown in Figure 1-e. Grid It is used to define the units. Basic working units can be changed between Imperial and Metric design units. The design units are stored in an internal database with a precision of 1 micron. Grids are used in ZenitSuite for defining the points or steps that items will snap to when they are placed and for visible references in the design as shown in Figure 1-e-1. Figure 1-e Set up F Option It is used to change parameters relating to several disparate functions within the system as shown in Figure 1-e2.

Figure 1-e1 Grid Settings

Figure 1-e2 Default Options

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Following Setting up: Display a. Zoom Around Component 1. Selected: to zoom components use the roller of the mouse. 2. Not Selected: When looking for the components, the workspaces use the actual view and put the component on screen center. (Refer: Figures 1-fa1fa3) b. Fill BoardOutline Used for TruePCB view with Color Layer c. OnFly Mouse over Components Used when "overfly" with mouse a component, it can be obtained by accessing the component name on status bar without selecting method. d. Print Center Sheet It is used to print the project on the center screen. e. Low Color on Pads It is used to see how the traces enter on pad. f. Zoom Effort & Pan Effort It is the way of setting the Zoom and the Pan Increment as shown in Figure 1-fb. g. Hide Refer Set the Hide/Show Reference when Zoom-Out and Zoom-In

Figure 1-fa1

Figuren1-fa2

Figure 1-fa3

h. Net Class Show Color It is very useful during the routing procedure in identifying the glance, what are the net class through different colors. Bottom Soldering Shows the portion of the board in which the holes side would be shown for soldering procedure.

Figure 1-fb Mouse and Pan control 12

DRC Set non Electrical Elements Clearance 1. Silkscreen Text to Pads 2. Component to Component ( through Placement Outline ) as shown in Figure 1-g 3. Mounting Hole to Electrical Elements 4. Board Outline to Electrical Elements 5. Fill Type Elements of Fill Type a. Fixed Pad b. Fixed Trace c. Route&Plane Obstruct d. Component Obstruct e. Fixed Hatch Color Like (for Trace) Directory

Figure 1-g Route and component Obstruct

Setting up the locations of the following as shown in Figure 1-h: Net Class ZenitPCB Layout may assign to each net, a design rule that is enclosed in the Net Class. After set the net classes, it will be saved on a setting file. The ZenitPCB Layout may be assigned to each net; a design rule is enclosed in the Net Class. Net Class width of the trace: 1. ·Min

Figure 1-h Default Options Directory Window

2. Typical 3. ·Max Save After setting the net classes, it can be used on another project without setting the NetClass. File Menu: 1. Import 2. Export Net Class Color

Figure 1-i Net Class Window

Is used to change the color of the net class connection (ratsline) during the routing which is very useful to know, at a glance, the net class through different colors. 13

Net Properties After creating the net class user can "join" each net with a class (Net Properties) as shown in Figure 1-j. Example Assign a net class to net GND 1. Find the net name GND on the list 2. Select the item (check box selected) 3. Choose the net class "GND" on the combo box 4. Then Set it. Set Dimension it is used to set all dimension items as shown in Figure 1-k

Figure 1-j Nets Property Window

Place – It contains the options to add new items as shown in Figure 1-l.

Figure 1-k Dimension Setting Board Outline Wizard To create a Rectangle or square board outline, here are the easy steps to follow: 1. Set the units (Default MM); 2. Set the Length of the board; 3. Set the Width of the board; 4. Set the distance of the MountingHole from the board edge; 5. Set the width of the board line as shown in Figure 1-l1.; and 6. Then choose the right MountingHole you need;

Figure 1-l Place Properties

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Figure 1-l1BoardOutline Wizard Polyline Draw the board outline in a standard way, insertline and arc as the shape. The modification procedure as shown in Figure 1-l2 shows the possible modification.

Figure 1-l2 Polyline 15

Shape In inserting a shape on a specific layer of the project the following are the available shapes that can be used: 1. Line 2. Open Shape ( Not Close Polyline ) 3. Close Shape ( Close Polyline ) 4. Circle Shape Edit Shape This mode is used to sequentially add shape segments into a design, either to finish off a new shape being added, or to rework an existing shape segment. Place a New Shape It contains the Place Shape or Draw Shape Toolbar, to start a particular type of shape. Pick a position and then place into Edit Shape Mode as shown in Figure 1-m.

Figure 1-m Place a New Shape

Board Outline Wizard as shown at Figure 1-n It used to create a Rectangle or square board outline. Below are the steps on creating the said Shape: 1. Set the units (Default MM) 2. Set the Length of the board 3. Set the Width of the board 4. Set the distance of the MountingHole from the board edge 5. Set the width of the board line 6. Then choose the right MountingHole. Figure 1-n Board Outline Wizard

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Copper Pour It is used to flood unrouted areas of a PCB layout with copper usually connected to a nominated signal - typically Ground (GND) or VCC. This facility will then create voids around unconnected tracks, components, pads, etc.

Figure 1-o Copper Pour Window

Figure 1-o1 Mounting Holes Text Use Insert Text to add displayed text to a design or library item as shown in Figure 1-p Font Type: a. Simplex b. Duplex c. Triplex d. Modern Dimension

Figure 1-p Text

Insert Dimension is used to dimension items within the design, or gaps between items within the design. It is used to display (in the form of a dimension) lengths of items or points as shown in Figure 1-q.

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Figure 1-q Dimension Dimension Setup: Setting up defaults that: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Select the layer on which the Dimensions are placed (Layer) Specify the units and the number of decimal places displayed by the Dimension values (Units) Set up the appearance and size of the Dimension arrows Set up the text size and format Add Dimensions (Refer to Figure 1-q1) Before adding dimensions you need to set up the format and appearance of the dimensions: 1. Select the Dimension tab. 2. Choose Horizontal or Vertical Dimensions 3. Select First Point (This command is noted on status bar). The screen cursor shows 1st. 4. Select Second Point (This command is noted on status bar). The screen cursor shows 2nd. Figure 1-q1 Set Dimension Window

5. At the end, select the line and text position. The screen cursor shows 3rd.

To Move and Edit Dimensions (Refer at Figure 1-q2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Select Line Right Click and Move Choose the new point Click to new point Select Line On Popup Show Unit

Figure 1-q2 Move and Edit Dimension 18

Pick&Place Origin Set the origin of the Pick & Place. On this way it be can changed to XY reference, depending on the better point (fiducials, board), chosen for the PCB assembly. Mounting Hole it is use to insert a mounting hole item into a PCB design or Component footprint. A mounting hole is like a through-hole pad but is a Not Plated hole and uses a pad style, but does not have a pin number and will not be included in a PCB netlist. Slot Not Plated Slot is a linear not plated milling hole .that can define it on Padstack dialog as shown in Figure1-p. It is useful to increase the clearance on the project or for mechanical clips. Fiducial Insert a Fiducial Pad into layout. Fiducials are necessary to assemble the PCB like reference point for pick & place machines as shown in Figure 1-r.

Figure 1-q Slot Property

Place Via (Only on Toolbar) Add Vias into layout.

Figure 1-r Fiducial

1. Select from Combo box the Add Vias type. 2. Select, from "Net Name" combo box, the net or click on trace or pad to get the right net name. 3. Place the component via on project with Apply Button Figure 1-s PlaceVias

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Action - it contains the utilities for specialize tasks.

Figure 1-t Action Menu Route Trace Manual track routing in ZenitPCB has been developed for easy understanding and usage. At the same time it is extremely flexible, so there are a number of features to become familiar with. Delete All Trace Delete all trace (Fix and Unfix) and vias. High-Light Pad without Net With menu command "Highlight pads without nets" Useful on forward annotation changes Select All Components Select all components on workspace. Replace Component Replace selected component footprint, with a new one with the Figure 1-u High Light Pad same pin number. Rename Component Rename the selected component Reference. A warning is displayed if there is another equal Reference Name as shown in Figure 1-t. Delete Component Delete selected component. Figure 1-t Rename Reference Window

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AutoRename Reference Renumber Reference is used to interactively re-sequence the numeric order of the names of Components Reference. The names of items normally consist of an alphabetic prefix followed by a number. Rename adjusts the number for an item with the given prefix. Add Connection It is possible to Insert Connections directly into the layout, without necessarily having to import a netlist. Delete Connection Select a pad to detach the net. Then create a new connection in the pad. Delete All Copper Delete all copper poured. Clearly not remove the copper pour shape. Show Copper Name It can be selected to show or not, the net name about a copper Figure 1-u Show-Copper Name pours shape. The name will be showed on shape origin as shown in Figure1-u. Update Part from Library

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Import Jumpers on Project

ZenitPCB allows exporting reports into ASCII files, necessary for assembly printed circuit board. The formatting of files can be either classical (as the image) or CSV (separator).

Help - Use this menu to access the on-line help system and other support features.

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Main Toolbars

Figure 3 Draw Shape

Figure 2 Main Menu

Figure 4 Filter

Figure 5 PCB Command

Figure 7 Dimension Figure 6 Copper Pour

Figure 8 Obstruct Shape

Figure 9 Decal Type

Decal Editor Figure 10 Utility 23

Work Space Add Pad Open the "Add Pads" Dialog Insert one or more pads. Use the button "Select". The system opens the Padstack library, choose the appropriate pad. Set the Position X,Y and Angle of the pad.

Figure 11 Add PAds

Figure 12 Multiple Pads

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Copy Properties Copy the properties of selected pad into other pads when selected them.

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How to add Placement Outline Shape Select "Placement Outline" from Action->Draw or from Placement outlines Button on Draw Shape toolbar. The system uses the placement outline to check Component to Component constraint see picture below Set-Change Shape Width and Change Layer Combo box Before creating a shape, set a width of the polyline. Selecting an existing polyline, set a new value and confirm the value with the key "W".

Library Manager List the system shown: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Name of the component Decal Type Description Prefix Value Price Height List of Pad Type Footprint (Decal) Preview

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ZenitPCB Libraries ZenitPCB provides more than 800 components (SMD & TH) for an immediate placement on project. Table 3 List of Components Chip Capacitor

Chip Resistor

Metal Electrode Face ( MELF ) Chip Inductor Chip Tantalum Capacitor Ceramic Flat Packs ( CFP ) Plastic Quad Flat ( PQFP ) Quad Flat Packs ( QFP ) Shrink Quad Flat Pack ( SQFP ) Plastic Leaded Chip Carriers Rectangle Plastic Leaded Chip Carriers Square Thin Small Outline (PLCC) (PLCC) Packaged ( TSOP ) Small Outline ICs ( SOIC ) Small Outline J-Lead ICs (SOJ) Small Outline Packages ( SOP ) Shrink Small Outline ICs (SSOIC) SMD Dual in Line Miscellaneous Decals Through-Hole DIPs

Through-Hole Axials

Through-Hole Radials

Transistors

Stocko Connectors

Molex Connectors

Lumberg Connectors

Miscellaneus SMD

Jumpers

Decal Library Report This is a Report overview of all decals inside libraries.

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Padstack In Padstack dialog you can create, copy or delete padstack.

Padstack Properties: 4 Types: Through Hole

Padstack with Plated Drill Through Hole.

SMD

Surface mount device Pad

Mounting Hole Fiducial

Padstack with Not-Plated Drill Through Hole. Surface mount Pad used for Pick&Place equipment. 28

Hole Type: Round Drill (Report on Through-hole Plated & Not Plated Files) Round Slotted Drill (Report on Slot Plated & Not Slot Plated) Slotted Plated: Plated or not the hole Create New Offset Pads

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Pads Properties: On the form ”Option” it is possible to set the padstak library, so it is possible to create several libraries.

.

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ACTIVITIES

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Activity No. 1 PCB ETCHING AND ENGRAVING Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to examine the different etching procedure that is faster and applicable. This experiment also provides students with knowledge and skills on command manipulation using CAD software. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Classify the procedure in designing a PCB layout; and 2.2 Compare the different techniques on removing the PCB copper from the board. 3. Discussion: Etching is a processes of using a strong chemical or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of metal surface that can create a design. In pure etching, copper, zinc or steel plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. A waxy acid-resist (Ground) is applied to a metal plate such as copper or zinc but steel plate is another medium with different qualities. There are two common types of ground: hard ground and soft ground. Hard ground can be applied in two ways. Solid hard ground comes in a hard waxy block. To apply hard ground of this variety, the plate to be etched is placed upon a hot-plate (set at 70 degrees C), a kind of metal worktop that is heated up. The plate heats up and the ground is applied by hand, melting onto the plate as it is applied. The ground is spread over the plate as evenly as possible using a roller. Once applied the etching plate is removed from the hot-plate and allowed to cool which hardens the ground. After the ground has hardened the artist "smokes" the plate, classically with 3 beeswax tapers, applying the flame to the plate to darken the ground and make it easier to see what parts of the plate are exposed. Smoking not only darkens the plate but adds a small amount of wax. Afterwards the artist uses a sharp tool to scratch into the ground, exposing the metal. The second way to apply hard ground is by liquid hard ground. This comes in a can and is applied with a brush upon the plate to be etched. Exposed to air the hard ground will harden. Soft ground also comes in liquid form and is allowed to dry but it does not dry hard like hard ground and is impressionable. After the soft ground has dried the printmaker may apply materials such as leaves, objects, 32

hand prints and so on which will penetrate the soft ground and expose the plate underneath. The ground can also be applied in a fine mist, using powdered rosin or spray paint. This process is called aquatint, and allows for the creation of tones, shadows, and solid areas of color. Soft-ground etching uses a special softer ground. The artist places a piece of paper (or cloth etc. in modern uses) over the ground and draws on it. The print resembles a drawing. Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations; these images are also called engravings. Engraving was a historically important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, and also for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines. It has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and, partly because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been largely replaced by etching and other techniques. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etching 4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2x2 PCB Chemical Solution 4 pcs. Plastic Container Permanent Marker Masking Tape Cutting Devices

5. Procedure: 1. Cut 4pcs. (1x1 inch) PCB. 2. Place the PCB in a different container. 3. Apply the surface level Ferric Chloride solution. 4. Fill out the Table 1-1. 5. Prepare 2 set of 2x2 PCB. 6. Wrap a 1 2x2 PCB using a masking tape. 7. Write “Technological Institute of the Philippines” at the top of covered copper portion. 8. Use a cutting device to engrave the words. 9. Remove all excess masking tape at the PCB. 10. Using the permanent market write the word “Technological Institute of the Philippines”. 11. Place the each PCB inside the container with copper laid up and copper lay down position. 12. Apply the best technique in Table 1-1. 13. Fill-out Table 1-2. 33

6. Data and Results: Table 1-1. Trials Time Started

1. 2. 3. 4.

Trial Leave the PCB. Leave the PCB within 5 mins. Then shake the container until all copper are remove. Shake the container in 5 mins. Then leave until the all copper are removed. Shave the container until all the copper is removed.

Time Finished

Total Time

Table 1-2. Engraving and Etching Procedure Time Started Time Finished Total Time

Procedure 1. Copper Up Dip 2. Copper Dip Down 7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 2 PCB DRILLING Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to practice the student’s ability in PCB drilling process. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on PCB Lay outing. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Show competency on drilling standard and procedure in designing a PCB layout; and 2.2 Illustrate the effect of drilling standard in developing a circuit design. 3. Discussion: Drilling Holes through a PCB are typically drilled with small-diameter drill bits made of solid coated tungsten carbide. Coated tungsten carbide is recommended since many board materials are very abrasive and drilling must be high RPM and high feed to be cost effective. Drill bits must also remain sharp so as not to mar or tear the traces. Drilling with high-speed-steel is simply not feasible since the drill bits will dull quickly and thus tear the copper and ruin the boards. The drilling is performed by automated drilling machines with placement controlled by a drill tape or drill file. These computer-generated files are also called numerically controlled drill (NCD) files or "Excellon files". The drill file describes the location and size of each drilled hole. These holes are often filled with annular rings (hollow rivets) to create vias. Vias allow the electrical and thermal connection of conductors on opposite sides of the PCB. When very small vias are required, drilling with mechanical bits is costly because of high rates of wear and breakage. In this case, the vias may be evaporated by lasers. Laser-drilled vias typically have an inferior surface finish inside the hole. These holes are called micro vias. It is also possible with controlled-depth drilling, laser drilling, or by pre-drilling the individual sheets of the PCB before lamination, to produce holes that connect only some of the copper layers, rather than passing through the entire board. These holes are called blind vias when they connect an internal copper layer to an outer layer, or buried vias when they connect two or more internal copper layers and no outer layers. The hole walls for boards with 2 or more layers can be made conductive and then electroplated with copper to form plated-through holes. These holes electrically connect the conducting layers of the PCB. For multilayer boards, those with 3 layers or more, drilling typically produces a smear of the high temperature decomposition products of bonding agent in the laminate system. Before the holes can be plated through, 35

this smear must be removed by a chemical de-smear process, or by plasma-etch. The de-smear process ensures that a good connection is made to the copper layers when the hole is plated through. On high reliability boards a process called etch-back is performed chemically with a potassium permanganate based etchant or plasma. The etch-back removes resin and the glass fibers so that the copper layers extend into the hole and as the hole is plated become integral with the deposited copper. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printed_circuit_board#Drilling Table 1. Electronic Symbols hole on board Description

Number of holes

R- Resistor

2

L-Inductance

2

C- Capacitance

2

D-Diode

2

T- Transformer

6

F-Fuse

2

Q- Transistor

3

TP- Test Point

2

J- Jumper

2

Possible Image

4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

2x2 PCB Chemical Solution Plastic Container Permanent Marker Masking Tape Mini drill Sand paper

5. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Design a two PCB Layout at the 2x2 PCB shown at Figure 2-1 using a masking tape Engrave the Copper Layout. Dip the PCB at the Ferric Chloride Solution to remove excess copper at the board. Wash the PCB using running water. 36

5. Use a mini drill to put holes on the copper side of the first PCB. 6. Wipe the PCB using the Sand paper. 7. Use a mini drill to put holes on the board side of the second PCB.

Figure 2-1 8. Attach the PCB at Data and Result 6. Data and Results: PCB Drilled in the Copper Side

PCB Drilled in the Board Side

7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 3 PCB SOLDERING Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to practice the student’s ability in PCB drilling process. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on PCB Lay outing. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Show competency on drilling standard and procedure in designing a PCB layout; and 2.2 Illustrate the effect of drilling standard in developing a circuit design. 3. Discussion: Safety precautions 1. Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. They are very hot (about 600°F) and will give a nasty burn. 2. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. Never put it down on the workbench, even for a moment! 3. Work in a well-ventilated area. The smoke formed as melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Avoid breathing it by keeping the head to the side of, not above. 4. Wash both hands after using solder. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. Preparing the soldering iron 1. Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in. Set the knob on the soldering iron station to a starting level of 4. The iron will take a few minutes to reach its operating temperature of about 600°F. 2. Dampen the sponge in the stand. It should be damped, not dripping wet. 3. Wait a few minutes for the soldering iron to warm up. Check if it is ready by trying to melt a little solder on the tip. 4. Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge. This will clean the tip. 5. Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron. This is called 'tinning' and it will drastically help the heat to flow from the iron's tip to the joint. If it seems to be taking a long time for a joint to heat up it is most likely because the tip is not tinned. Inserting the component Bend the leads of the component to fit in the holes in the board if necessary. 1. Insert the component into the board. IMPORTANT make absolute sure that the components are 38

placed correct location and in the correct orientation. Some of the components must be soldered in a certain orientation in order to function. 2. If possible, bend the leads of the component outward once they are inserted into the board. This will keep the component from falling out if you turn the board upside-down.

4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

2x2 PCB Chemical Solution Plastic Container Permanent Marker Masking Tape Mini drill 4 pcs. Resistor (any value)

5. Procedure: 1. Design a PCB layout for Figure 3-1 using 2x2 PCB.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Figure 3-1 Resistor Connection Dip the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Remove all excess copper at the PCB. Wash the PCB using running water. Drilled the holes of the circuit design. Placed the resistor at the board. Use soldering iron and Lead wire to attach the resistors. Attached the PCB at the data and result. 39

6. Data and Results:

7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 4 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND FLOWCHARTING Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a circuit block diagram and flow chart using ZenitPCB software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on PCB Lay outing. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a circuit block diagram and circuit flow chart using ZenitPCB software; and 2.2 Design a circuit block diagram and circuit flow chart PCB layout. 3. Discussion: Block Diagram It is a kind of flowcharting that is considered as a high-level type that can quickly overview the major process steps and relationship for every component. It is a useful tool for both design and modification of the existing process or design, but it cannot cater the level of full detailed requirements for more comprehensive preparation or analysis. The block diagram shows the whole process with in the system of connecting every electronic component by showing different algorithm and projected process as shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Intel Core “2 Duo Processor Block Diagram Figure 4.2 Intel Pentium 4 Block Diagram shows the simplified version of the microprocessor block diagram in which it is not very particular with the whole process but much more on identifying the major components that will affect the whole process.

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Figure 4.2 Intel Pentium 4 Block Diagram The Microprocessor architecture also helps us on identifying the components that are connected to each part that illustrate the connectivity of each set up as shown in Figure 4.3 the CPU, Northbridge, Southbridge is considered as the major component that takes all responsibilities on connecting other peripherals with the computer system.

Figure 4.3 Computer Architecture Block Diagram

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Figure 4.4 NT50Tr Puma Block Diagram NT50Tr Puma Block Diagram by ASUS mother board shows the detailed connection of each component that affects the operation of data transmission with respect to its functionality as shown in Figure 4.4. Table 4.1 List of Block Diagram Symbols Name Symbol Use Rectangle Indication of Process Arrows Indication of Flow FLOWCHARTS It is a different shape that represents different actions or steps within the process that connects with the flow of its algorithm. It is a representation of diagrammatic illustration that shows all sequence of operation that will be perform to conclude with final solution that will be drawn in the early stages of computer programming solution. It also facilitates the communication between programmers and business people who play a vital role in the programming analysis. Some say that it is easy to develop a program in any high-level language if the flowchart is already formulated and created.

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Symbol

Table 4.2 List of Basic Flowcharting Symbols Name Description It represents the start or end Start/Terminator of the process.

Input / Output

Arrow

Decision

Connector

Process

It is used to show that the process will be executed. It is the flow control in flowcharting that indicates the end of the certain process and start of the new procedure. It sometimes called as the conditional that is typically contain the positive and negative answer on a certain question. It is used to connect a certain process for continuous procedure or process of the given flow. It is a representation that show the flow of the assign process

4. Materials and Equipment: 1. Bond paper 2. Printer 3. Computer with ZenitPCB Software 5. Procedure: 1. Open ZenitPCB software. 2. Create a New PCB file save it as Block filename. 3. Create a 59.6mm x 39.9 mm rectangle. 4. Insert a 6 mm Text as shown at Figure 4-5.

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Figure 4-5 Source Block Diagram 5. Create 3 more 59.6mm x 39.9 mm rectangle under the source. 6. Connect and label each rectangle as shown in Figure 4-6.

Figure 4-6 Resistor Connection Block Diagram

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7. Print Block and paste it at the Data and Results. 8. Create a new project save it as Flow Filename. 9. Draw a Circuit flow chart for Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7 Series-Parallel Connection 10. Print Circuit Flowchart and paste it at the Data and Results. 11. Draw the Block Diagram and the flow chart at the 1 pc. 2x2 PCB. 12. Dip the PCB at the Ferric Chloride solution inside the container. 13. Remove the PCB if there is no remaining excess copper. 14. Attached the PCB output at the data and results. 6. Data and Results: Block Diagram

Flow Chart

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Block Diagram (PCB)

Flow Chart (PCB)

7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 5 LED LIGHTS CIRCUIT Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a LED Circuit using ZenitCapture software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on Circuit Layouting. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a LED circuit using ZenitCapture software; and 2.2 Design a LED circuit connection using 2x2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 3. Discussion: The LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a semiconductor diode that emits visible light or near infra-red radiation when it is forward biased. Inside the LED is a semiconductor which is encased in a transparent epoxy resin which could be either diffused or clear lens. The LED, unlike a normal bulb, has a limited viewing angle between 30º to 90º.

Figure 5-1 LED Symbol Current Limiting Resistor for LEDs Formula when calculating the value of the current limiting resistor for the LED. ( (

)

)

Example: What would be the resistor value that can resist to a 9 volt battery to light up a LED? Resistor = (Voltage supplied - LED Voltage*) / LED Current* 48

Note: * - Different LED colour has different current requirement, which could be from 10mA to 30mA. Luxeons would be from 350mA to 1000mA. Resistor = (9 - 1.8) / 0.018 Resistor = 400 Ohm The closest value for this (Under the E12 Resistor value) would be 390 Ohms.

4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4.

2x2 PCB Ferric Chloride Solution ZenitCapture Software Plastic Container

5. Procedure: 1. Open ZenitCapture software. 2. Create a new project save it as filename: ACT5 3. Modify the respective field as shown in Figure 5-2.

Figure 5-2 Template Label a. Drawing Name: (Activity Title) b. Number: (No. of times for this Activity) c. Drawn By: (Student’s Name) d. Company: TIP-CpE 4. Create the circuit in Figure 5-3.

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Figure 5-3 LED Circuit Print the file and attach it at the data and results. Create a PCB design using 2x2 PCB. Etch the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Wash the PCB after etching. Place the PCB output at the Data and Results.

6. Data and Results:

PCB Design

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Hard Copy

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7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 6 BATTERY MONITORING CIRCUIT Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a Circuit Wiring Diagram using ZenitCapture software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on battery monitoring circuit design. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a Battery Monitoring Circuit using ZenitCapture software; and 2.2 Design a Battery Monitoring Circuit connection using 2x2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 3. Discussion: Electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that batteries deliver their energy as electricity (which can be converted efficiently to mechanical work), whereas using fuels in engines entails a low efficiency of conversion to work. There are many example of battery monitoring circuit in which the Zener controlled transistor shows the states of the battery. When the battery voltage is less than 11 volts, the Zener diodes ZD1 and ZD2 cease to conduct and Red LED only lights when the battery is in the low condition. If the voltage is between 12 volts and 14 volts, ZEner T1 lights an indication of normal voltage. In the case that the battery voltage exceeds 15 volts, Zener diode ZD2 also conducts and T2 forwarded bias. Yellow LED indicates the overcharging state. Figure 6-1 shows the original circuit diagram developed by http://www.electroschematics.com/4838/battery-monitor/

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Figure 6-1. Battery Monitoring Circuit by http://www.electroschematics.com/4838/battery-monitor/

4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4.

2 pcs. 2x2 PCB Ferric Chloride Solution ZenitCapture Software Plastic Containner

5. Procedure: 1. Open ZenitCapture software. 2. Create a new project save it as filename: ACT6 3. Modify the respective field as shown in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2 Template Label a. Drawing Name: (Activity Title) b. Number: (No. of times for this Activity) c. Drawn By: (Student’s Name) d. Company: TIP-CpE 4. Create the circuit in Figure 6-1.

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Print the file and attach it at the data and results. Create a PCB design using 2x2 PCB. Etch the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Wash the PCB after etching. Place the PCB output at the Data and Results.

6. Data and Results: PCB Design

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Hard Copy

56

7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 7 PIC12C508SM CIRCUIT Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a PIC12C508SM Circuit using ZenitCapture and ZenitPCB software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on PIC12C508SM circuit design. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a PIC12C508SM Circuit using ZenitCapture and ZenitPCB software. 2.2 Design a PIC12C508SM Circuit connection using 2x2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 3. Discussion: PIC12C5XX microcontroller family is consist of 8-pin, 8-bit CMOS microcontrollers. Its high performance RISC CPU has only 33 single word instructions. All instructions are single cycle except for program branches which are two-cycle. The operating speed of 4Mhz clock input for DC and a 1 μs instruction cycle is one of its features. Its high performance also covers the 12-bit wide instruction and 8-bit wide data path. The seven special function hardware registers, two-level deep hardware stack, direct, indirect and relative addressing modes for data and instruction covers the internal 4 MHz RC oscillator with programmable calibration and the in-circuit serial programming are some other features of its high-performance RISC CPU. The peripheral features are the following: 8-bit real time clock/counter (TMRO) with 8-bit programmable prescaler, Power-On Reset (POR), Device Reset Timer (DTR), Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation, Programmable code-protection, 1,000,000 erase/write cycle EEPROM data memory, power saving SLEEP mode, Wake-up from SLEEP on pin change, Internal weak pull-ups on I/O pins and many more. It CMOS technology covers the low power, high speed CMOS EEPROM/ROM Technology with full static design of wide operating voltage range with a wide temperature range from the following: Commercial: 0°C to +70°C, Industrial: -40°C to +85°C, Extended: -40°C to +125°C and a low power consumption of < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz, 15 µA typical @ 3V, 32 KHz, < 1 µA typical standby current. Figure 7-1 shows the pin diagram of PIC12C5XX.

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Figure 7-1 PIC12C5XX Pin Diagram Its application fits perfectly for personal care appliances and security system to low-power remote transmitters/receivers. The EPROM technology makes customized application program extremely fast and convenient, while the EEPROM fata memory technology allows for the changing of calibration factors and security codes. The small footprint packages, for through hole or surface mounting, make this microcontroller series perfect for applications with space limitations. Low-cost, lower-power, high performance, ease of use and I/O flexibility makes the PIC12C5XX series very versatile even in areas where no microcontroller use has been considered before. Figure 7-2 shows the block diagram of PIC12C5XX.

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Figure 7-2 PIC12C5XX Block Diagram

Reference: http://pdfdata.datasheetsite.com/pdf1/Microchip/PIC12LCE519T-04-SN.pdf

4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2 pcs. 2x2 PCB 2. Ferric Chloride Solution 3. ZenitCapture Software 4. Plastic Container 5. Procedure: 1. Open ZenitCapture software. 2. Create a new project save it as filename: ACT7 3. Modify the respective field as shown in Figure 7-3.

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Figure 7-3 Template Label a. Drawing Name: (Activity Title) b. Number: (No. of times for this Activity) c. Drawn By: (Student’s Name) d. Company: TIP-CpE 4. Create the circuit in Figure 7-4.

Figure 7-4 PIC12C55 Circuit 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Print the file and attach it at the data and results. Create a PCB design using 2x2 PCB. Etch the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Wash the PCB after etching. Place the PCB output at the Data and Results. 61

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Package ACT7. Create a Netlist PCB. Open ZenitPCB Software. Create a 50x50 mm Board Outline. Import the ACT7 components. Place the components inside the boundary as shown in Figure 7-5.

Figure 7-5 PIC12C5 Circuit 16. Print the file and attach it at the data and results. 17. Create a PCB design using 2x2 PCB.

6. Data and Results: PCB Design Figure 7-4

PCB Design Figure 7-5

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Hard Copy Figure 7-4

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Hard Copy Figure 7-5

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7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 8 COMPLEX CIRCUIT Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a Complicated Circuit using ZenitPCB software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on Complicated Circuit design. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a Complicated Circuit using ZenitPCB software; and 2.2 Design a Complicated Circuit connection using 2x2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 3. Discussion: A complex circuit is an interconnection of electrical components to form a closed electrical loop. The circuit is formed by elements such as resistors, capacitors, switches inductors and an electricity source. 4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4.

4x4 PCB Ferric Chloride Solution ZenitCapture Software Plastic Containner

5. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Open ZenitPCB software. Create a new project save it as filename: ACT8 Create the circuit at Figure 8-1. Print the file and attach it at the data and results. Create a PCB design using 4x4 PCB. Etch the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Wash the PCB after etching. Place the PCB output at the Data and Results.

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Figure 8-1 Battery Monitor Circuit 6. Data and Results:

PCB Design Figure 8-1

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7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 9 DC MOTOR CONTROLLER CIRCUIT Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a DC motor controller circuit using ZenitPCB software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on DC motor controller Circuit design. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a DC motor controller circuit using ZenitPCB software; and 2.2 Design a DC motor controller connection using 2x2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 3. Discussion: DC motor relies on the facts that like magnet poles repels and unlike magnetic poles attract each other. A coil of wire with a current running through it generates an electromagnetic field aligned with the center of the coil. By switching the current on or off in a coil its magnet field can be switched on or off or by switching the direction of the current in the coil the direction of the generated magnetic field can be switched 180°. A simple DC motor typically has a stationary set of magnets in the stator and an armature with a series of two or more windings of wire wrapped in insulated stack slots around iron pole pieces (called stack teeth) with the ends of the wires terminating on a commutator. The armature includes the mounting bearings that keep it in the center of the motor and the power shaft of the motor and the commutator connections. The winding in the armature continues to loop all the way around the armature and uses either single or parallel conductors (wires), and can circle several times around the stack teeth. The total amount of current sent to the coil, the coil's size and what it's wrapped around dictate the strength of the electromagnetic field created. The sequence of turning a particular coil on or off dictates what direction the effective electromagnetic fields are pointed. By turning on and off coils in sequence a rotating magnetic field can be created. These rotating magnetic fields interact with the magnetic fields of the magnets (permanent or electromagnets) in the stationary part of the motor (stator) to create a force on the armature which causes it to rotate. In some DC motor designs the stator fields use electromagnets to create their magnetic fields which allow greater control over the motor. At high power levels, DC motors are almost always cooled using forced air. A PIC programmer is a circuit which interfaces the PC to the microcontroller using the PC's parallel, serial or USB port. It can write data to the microcontroller and read it back for verification. The PIC programmer translates digital logic levels from the PC to suitable logic levels for the microcontroller - most levels are ok as they are, but for 'normal' (or high volt) programming of a PIC 69

microcontroller the voltage at the MCLR pin is needed. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor 4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4.

4x4 PCB Ferric Chloride Solution ZenitCapture Software Plastic container

5. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Open ZenitPCB software. Create a new project save it as filename: ACT9 Create the circuit in Figure 9-1. Print the file and attach it at the data and results. Create a PCB design using 4x4 PCB. Etch the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Wash the PCB after etching. Place the PCB output at the Data and Results.

Figure 9-1 DC Motor Circuit

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6. Data and Results:

PCB Design Figure 9-1

7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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Activity No. 10 USB INTERFACE CIRCUIT Course Code: CPE 403/CPE 304 Program: Course Title: Comp. Eng’g Drafting and Design Date Performed: Section: Date Submitted: Name : Instructor: 1. Objective(s): The activity aims to design a USB interface Circuit using ZenitPCB software. This experiment also provides students’ knowledge and skills on USB interface Circuit design. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Create a USB interface circuit using ZenitPCB software; and 2.2 Design a USB interface Circuit connection using 2x2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 3. Discussion: Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices. USB was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters) to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has become commonplace on other devices, such as smartphones, PDAs and video game consoles. USB has effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces, such as serial and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB 4. Materials and Equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4.

4x4 PCB Ferric Chloride Solution ZenitCapture Software Plastic container

5. Procedure: 1. Open ZenitPCB software. 2. Create a new project save it as filename: ACT9 3. Create the circuit in Figure 9-1. 72

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Print the file and attach it at the data and results. Create a PCB design using 4x4 PCB. Etch the PCB using Ferric Chloride solution. Wash the PCB after etching. Place the PCB output at the Data and Results.

Figure 10-1 USB Interface Circuit 73

6. Data and Results:

PCB Design Figure 9-1

7. Data Analysis:

8. Assessment Rubric:

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