Lab3 Air Particle

April 24, 2018 | Author: Amar Aizad | Category: Particulates, Particle, Air Pollution, Dust, Atmosphere Of Earth
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Description

LAB3: AIR PARTICLE

Table of Contents

.......................................................... ....................................... ....................................... ...................................... .................. 2 Introduction ......................................

Objectives ...................................... .......................................................... ........................................ ......................................... ..................... ............... .. 3  Apparatus  Apparatus....................................... .......................................................... ....................................... ........................................ ....................................... ................... 3 Procedure ........................................ ............................................................ ....................................... ....................................... ...................................... .................. 4 Result...................................... .......................................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ............. ........... 5 Discussion....................................... ........................................................... ....................................... ....................................... ...................................... .................. 6 Conclusion ...................................... .......................................................... ........................................ ........................................ ...................................... .................. 6 Recommendation ....................................... .......................................................... ....................................................... .................................... ............ 6 References ...................................... .......................................................... ........................................ ......................................................... ..................................... 7  Appendix  Appendix........................................ ........................................................... ....................................... ........................................ .................................. .............. ..... 8

Introduction

 Airbone particles are referred to as Particulate matters. Normally it represents a broad class of chemically and physically diverse substance. Particles can be described by sie! formation mechanism! or"anism! ori"in! chemical composition! atmospheric behavior and method of measurement. #he concentration of particles in the air varies across space and time! and is related to the source of the particles and the transformation that occur in the atmosphere.

 Airborne particles are very fine particles made up of either solid or li$uid matter that can stay suspended in the air and spread %ith the %ind. Airborne particle sie varies "reatly! and they are often measured in microns! meanin" it is so small that it cannot be seen %ith the na&ed eye. 'ources of airborne particles can be natural! such as the dust and smo&e created by volcanic eruptions and forest fires! or man(made! such as the soot from the burnin" of  coal in a po%er plant or the residual oil particles in vehicle exhaust fumes. 'cientific studies sho% that these particle pollution can cause health problems in humans and affect the )arth*s climate.

 A common measurement used for an airborne particle is micron! also called a micrometer. One micron is one(millionth of a meter +,-., inches/. Airborne dust particles are often at least 0 micron in diameter. #he particles that ma&e up fumes can be as small as 1.0 micrometers! %hile the %ater droplets in mist can vary from 2(31 micrometers in sie. 4ery small airborne particles can stay suspended in the air for years and spread over "reat distances! %hile lar"e particles usually settle on the "round after a short time. 5eneral sie fraction of particulate matters6 •

 PM 10

defined as %ell all particles e$ual and less than 01 micron in aerodynamic

diameter! particles lar"er than this are not "enerally deposited in lun". •



 PM 25

 &no%n as fine fraction particles %ith an aerodynamics diameter of 2.3 or less.

 PM 10 −25

 is a coarse fraction particles %ith an aerodynamic diameter "reater than 2.3 but

e$ual to or less than a nominal of 01 microns. •

7ltrafine particles "enerally define as those less than 1.0 microns.

8ine and coarse particles are distinct in term of the emission sources! formation processes! chemical composition atmospheric residence times transport distance and other parameter.

8ine particles are directly emitted from combustion source and are also form secondarily from "aseous from precursor such as sulfur dioxide! nitro"en oxide or or"anic compound. 8ine particles are "enerally composed of sulphate! nitrate! chloride and ammonium compound! or"anic and elemental carbon and metal.  Air pollution is a major environmental ris& to health. 9y reducin" air pollution levels! countries can reduce the burden of disease from stro&e! heart disease! lun" cancer! and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases! includin" asthma. #he Air Pollution Index +API/ is a simple and "eneralied %ay to describe the air $uality! %hich is used in :alaysia.

Table 1 Air Pollution Index (API) as Healt classifications used b! te "ala!sian #o$ern%ent&  API 1(31 30(011 010(211 210(,11 ,10(311 311<

Air pollution level 5ood :oderate 7nhealthy 4ery unhealthy ;aardous )mer"ency

'becti$es #o ma&e students understand and implement suitable method to prove the existin" of  particles in surroundin" area. #o test the $uality of air by measurin" the number of air particles from different locations. •



Aaratus 0. Double 'ided #ape 2. Rope ,. Cardboard =. 'cissor   3. 'tapler   >. ?ei"ht 9alance

Procedure

0 .

#he trap box %ith double side tape %as prepared %ith dimension [email protected] cm %idth and 0 cm len"th. #here are = trap boxes and each box %as mar& as A !9!C and D.

2 .

)ach trap box %as %ei"ht to "et an initial %ei"ht. +?0/

, .

#he trap boxes different mar& then %as put at different placed. 2 indoor and 2 outdoor. 'ample A at livin" room! sample 9 at lab computer 2! sample C at apartment stairs and sample D at corridor.

= .

#he = trap boxes %ere placed and leave for 3 days.

3 .

#he %ei"ht %as ta&en after 3 days for each box trap to "et ? 2. Data %as recorded.

Result

'A:P) OCA#ION A +I4IN5 ROO:/ OCA#ION 9 +CO:P7#)R A9/ OCA#ION C +APAR#:)N# '#AIR'/ OCA#ION D +CORRIDOR/

INI#IA ?)I5;# +"/ 03.,3, 03.,3= 03.,3, 03.,32 03.,32 03.,30

 A4)RA5) +"/

0=.=30 0=.=32 0=.=32 03.,31 03.,30 03.,31

03.,3,

03.,32

OCA#ION 9 +CO:P7#)R A9/ [email protected]"  03.,32" B 1.=- "

OCA#ION C +APAR#:)N# '#AIR'/ 03.,>0"  0=.=32" B 1.-0 "

OCA#ION D +CORRIDOR/ 03.->0"  03.,31 B 1.>0 "

[email protected],

[email protected]

0=.=32

03.,>0

03.,31

03.->1 03.->0 03.->0

03.->0

?ei"ht of solid particle B final %ei"ht  initial %ei"ht

[email protected],"  03.,3," B 1.32 "

 A4)RA5) +"/

03.,>0 03.,>2 03.,>0

CAC7A#ION 6

OCA#ION A +I4IN5 ROO:/

8INA ?)I5;# +"/ [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]2 [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

*iscussion

#here are many composition of air particle that %e breathe every day. #hey include dust! dirt! smo&e and li$uid droplets. 'ome of them are lar"e enou"h or dar& enou"h to be seen %hile other are so small that they can only be seen by the microscope. #here are several of sources that emitted particles either natural or related to human activity. Naturals sources could come from bushfires! dust storms! pollens! and sea spray! %hile sources related to human activity include motor vehicle emission! industrial processes! unpaved roads and %ood heaters. 8rom this experiment %e obtained the result of air particles at = different locations! %hich are at the livin" room! computer lab! apartment stair and corridor. Apartment stair contain more air particles rather than location %hich is 1.-0 " compared to other location. 8rom the result %e could say that the air in is more dusty than %hich due to people %ho %al&in" upstairs and do%nstairs and could brin" in more dust %hen they accessin" the stair. ;uman %ho are exposed to the particles pollution may be affected by the number of health problems. 'ome of the example is respiratory illness. +Asthma and bronchitis/ and also cardiovascular diseases. ?hile some chemical components! particularly combustion products may lead to cancer. 8urthermore! a serious particles pollution may reduce visibility %hich affect the safety of traffics and natural landscape.

Conclusion

8rom the experiment conducted! the value of solid particle at apartment stair has more air particle than other location. #his result sho% that has more air particle in the air and more dusty. It create an uncomfortable environment area. #here are certain %ay to reduce particular matter in the air by installin" a ne% filter in the air conditioner! buyin" an ionier! a more effective vacuum or a carpet.

Reco%%endation 0. 2. ,. =.

7se the suitable material to prove the existin" of particles in surroundin" area. Place the traps more than 3 days to "et a "ood result. Place the traps at suitable place to "et a "ood result. Place at suitable place to prevent from %eather such as rain.

References

• • •

8athi ereini! Clare '.! ?isemen +2101/ urban airbone particulate matter 5ermany C.C. ee +211>/ )nvironmental )n"ineerin" Discovery += th ed/ 7nited Ein"dom  Air info no%6 ?hat is Particulate :atterF retrieved on April 3! 2103 from http6GG%%%.airinfono%.or"GhtmlGedHparticulate.html

Aendix

'A:P) A

I4IN5 ROO:

'A:P) 9

CO:P7#)R A9

'A:P) C

APAR#:)N# '#AIR'

'A:P) D

CORRIDOR

Double sided tape %as used to trap the air particles in the air.

9lue cardboard %as used as a frame to be stic& %ith the double sided tape.

'trin" or rope %as used to ti"ht and hold the cardboard to be place on certain location such as at the apartment stairs and livin" rooms.

 A picture of a complete model to use in the air particle laboratory.

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