# Lab Spot Speed

March 31, 2018 | Author: hasan | Category: Speed Limit, Traffic, Truck, Traffic Collision, Transportation Engineering

Spot Speed...

#### Description

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY 1.0 INTRODUCTION Speed is the rate of movement of a vehicle, generally expressed in kilometers per hour. A spot speed study is a study of traffic speed at one point or spot on a traffic way. It consists of a series or a sample of observations of the individual speeds at which vehicles are approaching an intersection or passing a point at a non-intersection location. These observations are used to estimate the speed distribution of the entire traffic stream at that location, under the conditions prevailing at the time of the study. Spot speed studies can be used to study speeds at problem locations in order to determine whether speeds are too high and if complaints received are justified, for accident analysis in order to determine the relationship of speed to accidents which may help in developing corrective measures, and for before-and-after studies in order to evaluate the effect of some change in controls or conditions. In relation with this study, there has been several complaints of vehicles speeding along the UTHM-Fujitsu section of road. This poses a danger to motorists, pedestrians and cyclists as there is a lot of activity in the area. Furthermore, there are plenty of right-turning movements along this stretch of road, with no storage lanes provided for right-turners. This is dangerous because the right-turners stop on the fast lane and have no protection. 2.0 OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study are: (a) To determine the speed characteristics of traffic at the location. (b) To justify the problem of speeding at the location.

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY 3.0

2. Forms SS1 and SS2 3. Graph Paper (3 nos) 4. Safety Vest

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY 4.0

PROCEDURE 1. The spot at which the speed data will be collected is indentified. 2. The radar gun to measure the speed of vehicles is used according to their respective vehicle class – Class 1 (Motorcycles), Class 2 (Cars), Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks), and Class 4 (Large Trucks & Buses). [Make sure that the operator of the radar gun is not seen by the motorists] 3. All speed measurements recorded in Form SS1. 4. Based on Form SS1, determine the mean, maximum and minimum speed of vehicles according to their class. Your findings are commented. 5. The data is transferred in Form SS1 to Form SS2. 6. The following are plotted: (a) Frequency Histogram (Percentage of vehicles vs. Speed) (b) Frequency Distribution Curve (Percentage of vehicles vs. Speed) (c) Cumulative Frequency Distribution Curve (Cumulative percentage vs. Speed) 7. The following speed characteristics is determined: (a) Mean speed (b) Median speed (c) Mode speed (d) 85-th Percentile speed (e) Standard deviation (f) Pace

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY 5.0

DATA ANALYSIS & RESULT Form SS1 Location: Jejantas Parit Jelutong (Ayer Hitam to Batu Pahat) Date: 10 January 2011

Time: 3.00 pm

Time (3.00 -3.15) pm

(3.15 -3.30) pm

(3.30 -3.45) pm

(3.45 -4.00) am

22 56 34 26 15 42 32 28 22 26 46 38 42 61 26 21 48 36 30 58

1 44 38 50 53 67 60 57 49 52 55 30 32 62 45 26 57 46 25 49 27

50 47 14 77 13 54 30 69 91 46 58 47 63 22 78 44 11 70 36 10

44 44 37 48 38 42 30 48 50 56 37 41 42 49 38 29 38 40 46 40

Day: Monday

Weather: Fine

Spot Speed (km/h) Vehicle Class 2 3 34 43 31 41 34 43 41 37 33 47 41 86 32 45 36 44 32 47 47 64 48 62 46 57 43 50 33 37 25 47 36 41 44 48 36 40 32 63 28 38 45 42 35 36 30 52 11 40 37 35 40 59 46 30 45 35 38 53 53 48 51 49 46 72 44 53 45 78 40 18 43 80 51 77 33 92 42 60 68 66

44 64 66 64 77 79 38 44 32 61 70 77 79 38 42 86 48 65 66 72

40 36 40 34 24 41 46 37 34 33 25 71 43 45 35 36 33 37 43 52

4 33 43 41 63 58 19 41 49 78 31 33 44 38 62 64 33 39 36 35 41

45 53 30 38 84 71 71 62 68 71 42 62 43 54 61 68 36 63 66 60

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY Number of Vehicles SPEED CLASS (km/h) 10 – 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 -39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 - 89 90 - 94

Vehicles Class 1 4 1 4 7 5 4 4 9 7 5 4 2 1 2

2

3

4

1 1 2 7 9 15 13 7 2 3 1

1

Note: Vehicles class 1:

Motorcycles

Vehicles class 2:

Cars

Vehicles class 3:

Vans and medium trucks

Vehicles class 4:

Heavy trucks and buses

1 2 12 12 6 2 2 5 5 3 5 1 2 1

1 1 1 8 9 11 6 4 2 6 5 5 1

Total 5 3 5 11 22 34 42 34 20 11 18 12 9 8 2 2 2

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY

Speed Class Class Class Midpoint, Frequency, (km/h) x (km/h) f 10 – 14 12 5 15 - 19 17 3 20 - 24 22 5 25 - 29 27 11 30 - 34 32 22 35 -39 37 34 40 - 44 42 42 45 - 49 47 34 50 - 54 52 20 55 - 59 57 11 60 - 64 62 18 65 - 69 67 12 70 - 74 72 9 75 - 79 77 8 80 - 84 82 2 85 - 89 87 2 90 - 94 92 2 ∑n = 240 ∑= 11215 ∑= 100

fx 60 51 110 297 704 1258 1764 1598 1040 627 1116 804 648 616 164 174 184

Percentage in Class, (%) 2.08 1.25 2.08 4.58 9.17 14.17 17.5 14.17 8.33 4.58 7.5 5 3.75 3.33 0.83 0.83 0.83

Cumulative Percentage (%) 2.08 3.33 5.41 9.99 19.16 33.33 50.83 65 73.33 77.91 85.41 90.41 94.16 97.49 98.32 99.15 99.99

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY Speed Class (km/h) 10 – 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 -39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 - 89 90 - 94 60 60

Mean speed  i.

Class Class Frequency Midpoint, x (km/h) f1 f2 f3 f4 f1.x 12 4 1 48 17 1 1 1 17 22 4 1 88 27 7 2 1 1 189 32 5 7 2 8 160 37 4 5 12 9 148 42 4 15 12 11 168 47 9 13 6 6 423 52 6 7 2 4 312 57 5 2 2 2 285 62 4 3 5 6 248 67 2 5 5 134 72 1 3 5 72 77 2 1 5 154 82 1 1 87 2 92 1 1 92 60 60 2538 2462 3145 2870

f2.x

f3.x 12

17 54 224 185 630 611 364 114 186 77

27 64 444 504 282 104 114 310 335 216 385 82 174 92

f x n

Class 1: Motorcycles

iii.

f1 2538  n1 60

Class 2: Cars

f1 2462  n1 60  41.03 km / hr

Class 3: Vans and medium trucks

f1 3145  n1 60

 42.3 km / hr ii.

fn.x

 52.42 km / hr iv.

Class 4: Heavy trucks and buses

f1 2870  n1 60  47.83 km / hr

f4.x 17 22 27 256 333 462 282 208 114 372 335 360 82

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY 6.0

CALCULATION & RESULT

(1). i.

Class 1: Motorcycles

iii.

Class 3: Vans and medium

trucks Mean speed

= 42.3 ≈ 42 km/hr

Mean speed

= 52.42 ≈ 52 km/hr

Maximum speed = 91 km/hr

Maximum speed = 92 km/hr

Minimum speed = 10 km/hr

Minimum speed = 11 km/hr

ii.

Class 2: Cars

iv.

Class 4: Heavy trucks and

buses Mean speed

= 41.03 ≈ 41 km/hr

Mean speed

= 47.83 ≈ 48 km/hr

Maximum speed = 77 km/hr

Maximum speed = 84 km/hr

Minimum speed = 18 km/hr

Minimum speed = 19 km/hr

Comment: From the data, we obtained the mean speed, maximum speed and the minimum speed for motorcycles, cars, van and medium trucks and heavy trucks or buses. We are noticed that the mean speed for class 1 (Motorcycle) is 42 km/hr, class 2 (Cars) is 41 km/hr, class 3 (Vans & medium Trucks) is 52 km/hr and class 4 (Heavy trucks and Buses) is 48 km/hr. the highest mean speed is car which is 52 km/hr. It has shown that many vehicle are obey the speed limit which is 60 km/hr. However, the vans and medium trucks have the highest of maximum speed. It was dangerous for all either motorist, pedestrians and cyclist. 48 heavy vehicles and maybe more than that was trough along UTHM – Fujitsu section of road for one hour. No protection and storage lane provides can influence the accident occur.

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY (2). (a)

Mean speed:

f x n 11215  240  46.73 km / hr

mean speed 

(b)

Median speed:

  n    2   fL     C median speed  L   fm       240     2   122    5  44.5    34      44.21 km / hr

(c)

Mode speed:

(60 – 64) km/hr which 44 vehicles

(d)

Standard deviation:

(refer at graph 2)

2

Standard deviation  

 fx ( f x ) 2  n  1 n(n  1) 582775 (11215) 2  240  1 240(240  1)

 49.37km / hr Estimate standard deviation 

P85  P15 74.5  46.5   14km / hr 2 2

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY MEDIAN SPEED

L

Speed Class (km/h) 10 – 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 -39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 - 89 90 - 94

Lower limit (km/hr) 9.5 14.5 19.5 24.5 29.5 34.5 39.5 44.5 49.5 54.5 59.5 64.5 69.5 74.5 79.5 84.5 89.5

Class frequency, f 5 3 5 11 22 34 42 34 20 11 18 12 9 8 2 2 2

Cumulative class frequency 5 8 13 24 46 80 122 156 176 187 205 217 226 234 236 238 240

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

fL

fm

Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY MEDIAN SPEED Speed Class (km/h) 10 – 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 -39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 - 89 90 - 94 ∑n = 240

Class Midpoint, x (km/h) 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 ∑= 11215

2

x

144 289 484 729 1024 1369 1764 2209 2704 3249 3844 4489 5184 5929 6724 7569 8464 ∑= 582775

Class frequency, f 5 3 5 11 22 34 42 34 20 11 18 12 9 8 2 2 2

fx

fx2

60 51 110 297 704 1258 1764 1598 1040 627 1116 804 648 616 164 174 184

720 867 2420 8019 22528 46546 74088 75106 54080 35739 69192 53868 46656 47432 13448 15138 16928

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY 7.0 DISCUSSION From this spot speed study, we are known for traffic operation establishing speed limits, determining safe speed at approaches to intersections. The road along Batu Pahat - Kluang highway was very dangerous and must take action to avoid the accident. Looks on the finding, Mean speed, maximum speed and minimum speed of each class is determined by using form SS2. The speed limit of this two lane highway is 60km/hr. Each of the mean speed of class vehicles gives the different speed. Which the class 1 is 63 km/hr, class 2 is 74 km/hr, class 3 is 60 km/hr and class 4 is 60 km/hr. The higher mean speed is at class 2 and the lower mean speed is class 3 & 4. Based on the mean speed for class 2 that we found, it seems the speed is over the speed limit. There are cause by a few factor that can be influence such as, the road itself give the access for drive fast. Since the lane is straight then there are less of traffic lights there and the warning sign, so there is nothing to slow down the speed. Furthermore, the way of pavement there is still in good condition without any distress or deformation so there are no problem will be occurred when drive in fast. For the lower mean speed is class 3 & 4 because there are always must be take care of small vehicle like motorcycle. Like what we known, they are main factor for accident occur at there. Since that, the driver of heavy vehicles always is alert by driving carefully then slow down their vehicle speed. Base on analysis we found that the standard deviation of this road according our observation we got 16.74 km/hr, estimate standard deviation is 14 km/hr and the pace were in range 59 km/hr and 69 km/hr. The 85th percentile speed as obtained from the cumulative frequency distribution curve shown is 74.5 km/hr. It means that is a good guideline for the appropriate speed limit for that road and it indicates that the speed most of the motorists on the road to considered safe and reasonable under ideal condition. So, we must follow the suggestion that was told in comment part.

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY

8.0 CONCLUSION The objectives of this survey are to determine the speed characteristics of traffic at the location and to justify the problem of speeding at the location. From this experiment, we can be concluded that speeding is a problem at this location and may have contributed to road accidents which have occurred at this location. This is supported by the results of the finding which show that mean, median, pace and 85 th percentile speeds have all exceeded the 60 km/hr speed limit. In addition, about 27.5% of the drivers drive at speed between 59 km/hr to 69 km/hr and 85% of them drive at 74.5 km/h or below. All of this were above the maximum allowable speed and can be increased the number of an accident. In addition, 50% of the driver we detected to have driven over the speed limit.

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department :

Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY

9.0 REFERENCES

1. Traffic engineering and safety, BFC 2082 , Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 2. Nicholars J. Garber; Lester A.Hoel; Traffic & Highway Engineering (3 rd Edition), University of Virginia, 1995. 3. Paul H.wright & Radnor J.Paquette; Higway Engineering (5 th Edition), Georgia Institute of Technology, 1979. 4. Bent Tagesen; Highway Engineering & Traffic (1st Edition), Technical University of Denmark. 5. www.wikipedia.com

Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department : Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Title: SPOT SPEED STUDY