# LAB 2 Report

November 26, 2018 | Author: Nora Guzman | Category: Stiffness, Accelerometer, Experiment, Motion (Physics), Classical Mechanics

Lab 2...

#### Description

Mechanical Vibrations (MEE 321)

SDOF Free Vibration of Cantilever Beam Date: 05 March 2014

PERFORMED BY  NORA GUZMAN SOLAMAN MASON ZAK WHITMAN

AND SUBMITTED BY NORA GUZMAN

MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Objective

Analyze the free vibration of a SDOF free vibration cantilever beam. To obtain the natural frequency of the cantilever beam and the damped frequency, and accelerometer is used. The accelerometer will help obtain the experimental results of the cantilever vibration. The natural and damped frequency obtained experimentally will be compared to the frequencies obtained theoretically. Theory

A cantilever beam can be analyzed as a spring mass system with a single degree of freedom. It is considered a single degree of freedom due to it only moving in one coordinate. The equation for natural frequency is the following, where k eq is the stiffness of the beam, and meq is the equivalent mass of the beam.

   In order to find the natural frequency and damped frequency of the beam, a measure of stiffness is needed. The equation for the stiffness of a cantilever be am is obtained from basic strength of materials concepts. Where E is the modulus of elasticity, I is the moment of inertia, and L is the effective length of the cantilever beam.

  MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Usually mass is ignored and taken as being equal to zero. By ignoring mass, only approximate solutions can be obtained. To obtain more exact results ordinary differential equations that govern the motion of the cantilever beam can be used. This method is called continuous system dynamics. The total mass of the beam and block where m block is the mass of the block and m beam is the mass of the beam is:

    No damping will be applied to the cantilever beam during free vibration, but in real world scenarios, damping from the surroundings will be taken into considerations. The damped frequency can be obtained from (ωn), the natural frequency, and the damping ratio (ζ).

     By analyzing displacement over time of a SDOF damped system, δ can be obtained to be used in the equation for ζ. In the following equation x1 is the measure of amplitude near time t1 and xn+1 is the measure of amplitude near time to tn+1 and τd is the period of a damped frequency.

      By algebraically manipulating the equation for δ we can then obtain a value for ζ.

  

 √ 

Now that the value for the ζ is known it can be used to find the theoretical damping frequency of the cantilever beam system. ζ is expected to be less than one, which is true of MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

vicious damping. The damping and natural frequencies are expected to be about the same  because ζ is less than one. Equipment

Qty Device

Serial #

1

Laptop

292348

1

Power Cord

N/A

1

NI 9234

292390

1

NI USB-9162

292393

1

USB-B Cable

N/A

1

Unidirectional Accelerometer 107440

1

Microdot to BNC Cable

N/A

1

Amplifier

N/A

1

BNC Cable

N/A

1

Clamp

N/A

1

Aluminum Beam

N/A

1

Aluminum Block

N/A

2

Screws

N/A

1

Ruler

N/A

1

Micrometer

N/A

1

Scale

BJ101060

1

Beeswax

N/A

1

Tape

N/A

MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

1

Hex Driver

N/A

1

Flash Drive

N/A

Set-Up Procedure

1. Take mass measurements using the scale. a. Measure the mass of the block with the screws.  b. Measure the mass of the beam. c. Measure the mass of the accelerometer. 2. Find dimensions of the beam a. Using the ruler measure the width of the beam.  b. Using the ruler measure the total length of the beam. c. Using the micrometer measure the thickness of the beam. 3. Assemble the cantilever beam with the block 4. Clamp down the cantilever beam to the edge of the table. 5. Using the ruler measure the effective length of the beam. 6. Attach the accelerometer using beeswax, making sure that the arrow is pointing the vertical direction. 7. Wire the microdot cable to the BNC cable. Wire the BNC cable to the amplifier. Set the gain to one on the amplifier. 8. Connect the BNC cable to the NI 9234 DAQ. 9. Plug the NI USB-9162 to the computer with the USB-B cable. 10. Open Lab view on computer.

MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Experimental Procedure 1. In LabView Open a Blank VI and save as Lab 2. 2. Create a time domain graph, and a frequency domain graph. 3. Connect output from the DAQ assistant into the time do main graph. 4. Select a spectral measurement and connect that output to the frequency domain graph. 5. Select the appropriate channel in the DAQ assistant properties. 6. In the DAQ assistant properties set enough samples for 10 seconds. 7. Pull the beam, wait a second or two and press run in labview to begin recording samples. 8. Analyze the spectral graph to obtain values for the natural frequency. 9. Analyze the time domain graph to obtain values for x1, t1 near the beginning of the sample time, and x2, t2, near the end of the sample time.

MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Data

Description Mass of Masses Plus Screws Mass of Beam Mass of Accelerometer Width of Beam Thickness of Beam Total Length of Beam Effective Length of Beam

Trial f d +/x1 +/t1 +/xn+1 +/tn+1 +/τd

MEE 321

Hz Hz V V sec sec V V sec sec sec

1 3.600 0.010 0.047 0.005 1.050 0.010 0.032 0.005 9.750 0.005 0.280

Table 1 Equipment Measurements Value 76.30 37.40 04.10 03.3 .1 33.1 33.0

Unit g g g cm cm cm cm

Table 2 Experimental Data 2 3 3.600 3.600 0.010 0.010 0.550 0.225 0.005 0.005 0.490 1.260 0.010 0.010 0.358 0.122 0.005 0.005 9.200 9.400 0.005 0.005 0.290 0.280

4 3.600 0.010 0.210 0.005 1.160 0.010 0.103 0.005 9.310 0.005 0.280

5 3.600 0.010 0.540 0.005 1.510 0.010 0.251 0.005 9.380 0.005 0.280

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Fig. 1 Block diagram

Fig 2. Front panel displaying time domain graph (left) and frequency domain graph (right).

Fig 3. Time domain and frequency domain graph modified to obtain experimental values Calculations

MEE 321

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Example calculations from Trial 1

            √  √  )))      )))    √    =

=31.07

=

=.012

=

=.0019

=

=

=22.61

%error= exp-theory/theory=22.61-14.23/14.23=59% Results The natural frequency and damped natural frequency obtained approximately the same. The experimental damped frequency is much higher as can be seen in Table 3. This yields a high percent error.

Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Avg

MEE 321

Table 3 Experimental and Theoretical Results ζ ωn (rad/s) ωd (rad/s) ωd (rad/s) Experiment Theory Theory Experiment 0.0019 14.24 14.23 22.62 0.0022 14.24 14.24 22.62 0.0034 14.24 14.24 22.62 0.0038 14.24 14.24 22.62 0.0038 14.24 14.24 22.62 0.0030 14.24 14.24 22.62

ωd % error 59% 58.8% 58.8% 58.8% 58.8 58.84

SDOF Free Vibration Cantilever Beam

Questions 1. See Data fig.1 and fig. 2 2. See Data 3. It was unnecessary to use the micrometer to measure the width or length of the beam. This was because the micrometer is mean to measure very small, closer to one-hundredth of a millimeter. 4. Calibration of the accelerometer was unnecessary because it directly measures displacement of the tip of the beam. 5. The oscillation of the beam can be used to calibrate the accelerometer using the displacement. 6. The accelerometer is able to output a wave function based on the displacement caused by  pulling on the beam. This wave output is proportional to the amplitude. 7. The beam behaves with viscous damping. The decay is gradual and ζ