Korean Grammar Intermediate
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- () : (Im) thinking of doing This pattern µ -() is used with an action verb and it indicates a speaker s consideration or indecisiveness about a matter. The meaning of µ -() is similar to the pattern µ -() ¶, but µ-( µ-() expresses stronger intention of the speaker. ¶
) . : I m thinking of meeting him tomorrow. ¶
) . :I intend to meet him tomorrow.
- (/) : µis getting or is becoming + Adj.¶ The pattern µ-(/) is combined with an adjective and and it indicates the situation which describes the preceding adjective gradually changing. ¶
: It s getting cold. ¶
- : since, and now µ-- expresses an act of recollection and µ - a sense of explanation. The meaning varies depending upon the context of i ts usage. ¶
1) The first clause describes the r eason or the base of th e second clause: the second clause describe describess a result of what has been taking place in the first clause. Usually, the subject is the third person and the subject of the first clause is same as the second one. ) .
Michael studied hard and then he passed the exam. (Since Michael studied hard, he passed the exam.) 2) The first clause describes how it was previously: the second how it is now or changed since the time of the first clause. ) . ) .
: It was cold yesterday, but it s warm today. ¶
: It was windy, and it s even raining n ow. ¶
3) -(/) The first clause has already and a ctually taken place and it describes the cause of the second clause: th e second clause describes a consequence of the first clause. Usually, the speaker is the subject of the sentence and the subject of the second clause is not the same as that of the first clause. ) . : I called you, but you were not at home.
- () (): µ(one) will do«, so«¶ The pattern µ-() is a contracted form of µ - + + -- + - . When µ-() ¶ is used with action verbs, it ¶
indicates the speaker s planning or intention. If the speaker is the subject of the sentence, the speaker s will may be implied . ¶
) () . ) () !
: I'll treat you to dinner, so by all means come.
: I m coming now, so wait for me! ¶
- ()/ (): "a tendency to be a certain way" This pattern µ -()/ () is used with verbs to show inclination or a tendency of aspects or qualities. Usually, µ ' or '- is used in conjunction with µ'. '-() is attached to adjectives in the present tense and ' - ' is used with verbs. ¶
. : I'm on the short side. ) . : John is pretty brave. ) . : Mi-Na is the kind of person who reads a lot of books. )
- ()() -()(): "(regardless) whether«or, either«or" The pattern µ-()() -()() is used in paired phrases with contrastive meaning. It indicates alternative possibilities or an indirect question involving alternatives. alternatives. ¶
) . : It's up to you whether you want to come or not. ) . : I don't mind whether the person is a student or a teacher.
- ? / - ?: "Isn't it? Don't you think it is«?" The pattern '- ' is a pattern to make Negation, but if it is used as an interrogative, it can be used as a strong positive form like rhetorical questions. ' - ?' usually expresses the speaker's opinion, but '- ?' is used if a speaker wants to ask the listener's opinion. ) q ? : This Kimch'i is hot, isn't it? ? : Don't you think it is too expensive? )
- / -(/) The pattern '-' is a contracted form of ' --' and '', the form to modify Nouns. If the speaker recollects past events or asks another person of his/her experience about an action or event in the past, ' --' is used. ' -(/)' expresses the experience completed once, whereas '-' expresses r epetitive experiences. ) . : This is the bar where I went to many times. ) . This is the bar where I went to once.
- () The pattern '-() ' is used a fter verbs only and conveys the m eaning of comparison of extent, a degree or a measurement. ) . : The room was big enough for us all to go into. ) . : The man is rich enough to buy a nice car.
- ( ) The particle ' -()' connects a Noun with another Noun and it can be changed to '-/' or '-'. ) . : There are many chairs and desks in the classroom.
= . = .
- The pattern '-' is a contracted from ' - ', so it indicates indirect discourse and the conditional. ) . : If he says he is going, I'll go. ) . : If Mi-Na says she is going to eat, I'll eat.
c.f.) . : He is running now.
- (/) The pattern '-(/) ' expresses the existence of a certain state or fact. As we already studied in Novice-Korean II, the pattern ' - ' on the other hand indicates a kind of process or continuing action. action. 3
) . : Mi-Na is sitting on a chair. ) y y . : Some writing is on the blackboard.
- () The pattern '-() ' indicates sufficient value or worth. It can be ' to be well worth (doing)' or 'It is enough (to do)'. ) . : This movie is worth watching.
- (): 'because, so' The connective '-()' is used for indicating reason or cause and is attached directly to nouns. The tense and negation are not expressed with this connective. ) . : Because Anna is a doctor, she is always busy. . : The traffic is always bad on Monday mornings. )
, , , , + Negative The adverbs ', , ' are always used with the negative '- '. ) . : I am not busy. ) .: I am not very busy. ) . : I am not busy at a ll.
But especially, when the adverb '/ ' is used with '- ', this pattern indicates an uncommon state or condition. ) . = . : The weather is really hot. ) . = . : I am extremely busy.
- (//) : 'to do something in advance /preparation' The Pattern '-(//) ' which indicates an action done in preparation preparation or anticipation of later use or benefit is al ways used with verbs. ) . : I bought a ticket in advance last week.
omework in advance. . : We can take a trip together, because I did my h omework ) 4
'-(//) ' is interchangeable with the pattern '-(//) ' without a change in meaning. ) . : I bought a ticket in advance last week.
(): 'about, approximately, in degree' N + ( The number classifier classifier '' means degree, extent, grade etc. and it is used with the n oun which is preceded by numbers. ) 10 . : About 10 people will come to the party. ) 10 . : I'll be about ten minutes late to class. ) 10 . : I drank about 10 bottles of beer.
- : '(a thing) worth' The particle '-' is used always with the money classifier '-' or counting classifier '-' indicating worth or value of things. Also, it can be used with '-' indicating people's age. ) 1,000 : 1000 won clothes : One box of 10 apples ) 10 ) 5 : 5 year old kid
-(//)' : 'do something and do something' The connective ' -( '-(//)' is used when the subject subject does one action first, and then does the second action in sequence. ) . : I will go home (first), and then I will eat supper. ) . : Let's meet and talk.
The contractions of Indirect Discourse The forms of the indirect discourse, such as '- / ,-() , - ' etc., can be contracted into '-/, -(), -' in casual speech style. In the same way, the forms of '- / ,-() , - ' can be contracted into '- /, -(), -'. ) / . -> / . ) / . -> / . ) / . -> / .
' :'- to be expected that it will be -' The pattern '-() In this pattern, the word ' 't o be expected' in English, so this pattern is used for expressing the speaker's expectation ' means 'to of the events or action which will take place in the future. ) . : It is expected to rain tomorrow. ) . : It is expected that h e won't come..
The connective -() : 'while doing ...' This connective '-()' has the same function with the connective '- '. However this ending is used for indicating two simultaneous events which are done by the same person, while '- ' is used for two simultaneous actions performed by two different persons. ) . : While I read a newspaper, I also l istened to music. ) . : She talked and cried.
This connective '-' can be used when you combine two sentences which occurr continuously in indirect discourse. ) : . 1 . -> 1
Kim Young-Soo: I'm busy now. I will call you back one hour later. -> Kim Young-Soo Young-Soo told me that he will call me back one hour later.
he is busy now, and that
The connective -() : but You have already studied the connective '-' meaning 'but'. This connective '-()' is interchangeable with this '- ' without any difference in meaning. But in the casual and colloquial speech, '- ' is preferred to '-( )'. ) . I went to school early, but I couldn't meet the
) . It is hot during the day, but it is cool at night.
the ending '-' The ending '-' is used for making Nominative forms of the verb, attaching to the verb stem directly. This form is followed by the words of '(to be easy), (to be difficult), (to hope/ desire), (to want)' etc., and these mean that 'it is easy/difficult, (I) want/desire that---'. As for the form of '- () ', it is used for expressing the tendency and/or ease for doing something. '-' can be dropped optionally. ) () . It is easy to cook Bulgogi.
difficult to learn English. ) . It is difficult
) . I want Anna to come early.
The pattern '- ' '-' is attached to verbs and expresses the action which is taken to reach a certain point. In many cases, '- ' is used with ' ' and it means t o make a hearer do something. If it takes the 1st subject, it expresses the subject's subject's will. ) . If you are hungry, go ahead and eat. ) . I will study hard from now on. (I will make myself study hard from now on.)
The pattern 'V () + - ()' / 'N + -() ()' '- ' is attached to verbs and '- () ' to nouns, both of which mean 'for' in English. The second action is carried out to complete the action of the first sentence. ' ' can be used because '-' is often deleted, and ' ' can be exchanged for '' ) ? ? Do you live to eat, or eat to live? ) . I plan to make money for my family.
The pattern '- () ' '- () ' joins two facts or events which relate to each other, in order to intensify or expand the first statement. It means '«not only« but also«' in English. ) . The movie is not only exciting, but the theme is good.
The pattern '-()': -ever it is, no matter - it is The pattern '-' is used for expressing the meaning of '-ever it is, no matter - it is' in English, when it is preceded by interrogative words ( , , , , ), or an interrogative phrases ( /, , /, ) etc.. . Anyone will be fine. ) ) . Any time will be fine. ) ? Is there any problem? . No matter what kind of book it is, it will be fine. )
The Plain S peech Style 2 The basic explanation of the plain style is dealt with in the Novice Korean I, Lesson 6. In this lesson, you will meet the rest of the Plain speech style. These endings are used with people such as school juniors, or to a relatively younger person in the family by grandparents to grandsons and daughters etc.. 1.
Interrogative Forms: ''-( -()/()' ) ?
What is that?
) ()? What time did you get up?
2. Declarative forms: ''-/-/-' ) . I am going home. ) . I don't have lunch. ) . I went home early yesterday. 3.
Propositive forms: 'Prop '-' ) . Let's study now. ) . Let's leave now.
imperative forms: 'imp '-(/)' ) . Go home quickly. ) . Eat this.
The pattern '-' The pattern '-' is used as a sentence final ending ending which indicates reason or cause. ) ? Why didn't you come yesterday? . Because I had a terrible headache.
The connective '-()': the more-, the more The connective '-()' is used for indicating a progressive increase of intensity, amount or time. ) . The more I read this book, the less interesting it becomes. ) . The more I study Korean, the more interesting it seems to be.
) . The cheaper, the better. ) . (the word '-(more)' is added.) ) . (the word '(if it is cheap)' is added.)
The exclamatory ending: -/ -> -/ The exclamatory ending '-/' is used for expressing delight, wonder, astonishment or surprise in the present tense. As for the past tense, however, the pre-ending '--' is used when a speaker recalls or recollects past facts, occurrences, or experiences and is used like '-/.' such as '-, - etc.'. ) . It is hot in Korea. ) . I remember/recall that it was hot in Korea.
The connective ' -' The connective '-' is used for expressing the reason or cause, and precedes expressions of surprise such as ' / ?, .' etc,. ) ? I am surprised that you are calling me. ) . I was surprised to hear that he died.
The pattern '-/ -/': it is true« but« This pattern is used for expressing the speaker's admission to a certain truth or occurrence. The verb that is attached to this pattern is repeated in the main clause. This pattern is used mostly with the connectives such as '-' or '-()/' 'but' etc. ) . I have money, but« ) . English is interesting, but it's too difficult.
but I couldn't couldn't talk with with him for for a ) , . I met him, but
The pattern 'Interrogative + -() ' This pattern is used for expressing that the speaker can't decide a certain action. . I can't decide what I should eat. ) ( )
. I can't decide when I should go. )
The sentence ending ' -()' This ending is used for expressing a tag question for confirming the fact of a sentence. This is the contracted form of '- ()'. ) . (I'm sure that) You have said to do that. ) . Anna, you ordered that food, didn't you?
- () : maybe, it may be that This pattern '-() ' is used for expressing a speaker's uncertainty or doubt about a certain fact or event with the verbs. ) . It may not rain tomorrow. ) . He may be a teacher. . If we take a bus, we may be late. )
- () : I am afraid that ---, so ---This pattern '-() ' is used for expressing a speaker's anxiety, worry or solicitude. ) . I was afraid that it would rain, so I didn't go. ) . I was afraid that I would be late, so I took a taxi.
- () ; while doing something This connective '- ' is used for expressing two simultaneous actions performed by different subject. '-' is optional. ) u TV . While I was doing my homework, my friend watched TV. ) u . While I was talking with my friend, my bag disappeared.
': 'I heard (that) ««, is that so ? '- '- ' is used with verbs and adjectives, and is used to confirm a certain fact or event which is generally known by the public. ) ? I heard (that) you are going back to America. Is that so ? ? I heard (that) you studied hard last week. Is it right?
The pattern '- ': 'because, so' This pattern '- ' is used with verbs and other forms of indirect discourse. It indicates a stimulus to action, or something that incites or determines an outcome. ) . Because Mi-Na was crying, everybody cried. . Because Mi-Na was going, I also went. ) . Because Mi-Na said she would go, I also went.
This pattern is not used in the future tense. ) . (awkward)
-(/)Tenses in Korean are determined from the speaker's point of view. Sometimes tenses communicate certain aspects of the verb actions/ states rather than the time reference of the verb. '-(/)-' is used to convey a distant past event, which does not affect the present state any more; or it conveys a past experience of the subject. ) . Young-Su came(had come) here yesterday. , . I used to know his name, but I don't know it at present. . Mina went to the United States to study (but is now here).