Kirana Store & Bhaaji Mandi by Saraswat Swain)
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KIRANA STORES & BHAAJI MANDIS A RESEARCH STUDY 5/10/2008 SARASWAT SWAIN
Project Report On
Kirana Stores and Bhaaji Mandis SUBMITTED TO:
ASIAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
IN THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE POST GRADUATE OF PROGRAM IN RETAIL MANAGEMENT, BHUBANESWAR
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
PROF. ASHISH MOHANTY FACULTY ASBM BHUBANESWAR
Submitted By: SARASWAT SWAIN PGPRM 1ST YEAR
REGD. NO:-PGPRM(PRIL)/07-09/60 SESSION 2007-09
PREFACE (5) STUDENT DECLARATION (6) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (7) CERTIFICATE FROM THE GUIDE (8) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (9)
CHAPTER 1: THE RETAIL (R) EVOLUTION  THE INDIAN RETAIL EVOLUTION (12) TRADITIONAL RETAIL STORES OF INDIA (12) 1. UNORGANIZED RETAILING IN INDIA (12) FAMILY RUN CONVINIENCE STORES (12) TRADITIONAL RURAL RETAIL FAIRS (13)
PHASES IN THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL SECTOR (15) DIAGRAM FLOW CHART (15)
THE ORGANIZED VS THE UN-ORGANIZED (16) RETAILERS OF THE WORLD (16) 1. A GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS (16)
PRESENT SCENARIO (17)
CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH DESIGN  INTRODUCTION (19) NEED FOR RESEARCH DESIGN (19) TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN (20) EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATIVE RESEARCH (20) DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH (20) USEFULLNESS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH (20) LIMITATIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH (21) DIAGNOSTIC STUDY (21)
TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION (22) 1. 2. 3.
TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE. PERSONAL INTERVIEWING
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION (23) 1.
FOCUS (GROUP) INTERVIEW SURVEY RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEACH
RESEARCH TACTICS (24)
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  RESEARCH TOPIC (26) OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY (26) METHODOLOGY (26) SAMPLING DESIGN (26) 1.
SAMPLE UNIT (26)
2. DATA SOURCE: (26) 3. RESEARCH APPROACH (26): 4. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: (26) 5. METHOD OF CONTACT: (26) 6. SAMPLE SIZE: (27) 7. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: (27) 8. SAMPLING PROCEDURE: (27)
METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTION (27) SCOPE OF THE STUDY (27) LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY (27)
CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY  DATA ANALYSIS OF KIRANA STORES (29) KIRANA STORE INTERVIEW QUESTION ANALYSIS (40) FRUIT & VEGETABLE MARKET ANALYSIS. (43) SUPPLIERS AND VENDORS ANALYSIS. (44) KIRANA STORE WORKERS INTERVIEW ANALYSIS. (45)
CHAPTER 5: BHUBANESWAR AT A GLANCE  INTRODUCTION (51) ABOUT BHUBANESWAR: (51) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY (51) POPULATION GROWTH (52) INFRASTRUCTURE (52) QUALITY OF LIFE (52) BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT (52) TALENT (53) ECONOMY: (53)
TRADE MARK PRODUCTS ( 55) TEXTILE HERITAGE OF ORISSA (55) ARTS AND CRAFTS OF ORISSA (57) 4|Page
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
PALM LEAF WRITING (57) PATACHITRA (57) APPLIQUÉ ART (58) CARVING (58) THE PAPIER-MÂCHÉ ART (58) METAL WORK (58) PATTA CHITRA (59) PAINTINGS (59) TRIBAL PAINTINGS (59) ROCK PAINTINGS (59) PALM LEAF PAINTINGS (60) JHOTI, CHITA, MURUJA (60)
CONCLUSION (62) BIBLIOGRAPHY (63) ANNEXURE (64)
PREFACE Dissertation for each and every student of PGPRM is an essential part of completion of the said course. Hence every student undergoes this training. The main objective of this dissertation is to expose the student to the actual environment that prevails in to today’s organizations. In this project a student watches how the theories of book are put in to the practice and how much they are suitable and useful. As per the module is concerned, I underwent the first project module at home to be carried out at the respective location and my location was Bhubaneswar. The project was to Study the functioning of the Local Kirana Stores and The Bhaaji Mandis.
STUDENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project report entitled “Study of Kirana Stores and Bhaaji Mandis” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Post graduate Program in Retail management. To ASIAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Bhubaneswar ,India, is my original work, and not submitted for the award of any degree, diploma, 6|Page
fellowship,or any other similar title or prizes.
Place: Bhubaneswar Saraswat Swain Date:
NO:-PGPRM(PRIL)/07-09/60 SESSION 2007-09
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very much thankful to my faculty guide Prof. Ashish Mohanty for his kind guidance, suggestion and patience in dealing with this project. Without his kind encouragement and
help, this project would have been incomplete. I am also thankful to Prof: S.S. Kar for his help and support.
Above all my sincere thanks to our esteemed Director Dr. BISWAJEET PATTANAIK, the Dean Mr. KALYAN SHANKAR RAY and the officials of PRIL for giving me this wonderful opportunity of doing my summer internship project in Bhubaneswar.
And at last but not the least to Almighty God for his love and grace, which is always with me.
CERTIFICATE FROM THE GUIDE This is to certify that work entitled Project title “Kirana Store and Bhaaji Mandis” is a piece of work done by Student named Saraswat Swain under my guidance
and supervision for the partial fulfillment of degree of PGPRM, Asian School Of Business Management, Bhubaneswar.
To the best of my knowledge and belief the thesis:
a. Embodies the work of the candidate himself. b. Has duly been completed. c. Fulfills the requirements of the rules and regulations relating to the summer internship of the institute. d. Is up-to the standard both in respect to contents and language for being referred to the examiner.
Signature of the Faculty Guide-
Name of faculty guide-
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Indian economy is growing, there is rapid urbanization and the disposable incomes of the peoples have increased over time, this has led to the retail revolution in INDIA, with a lot of foreign player searching for opportunity to carry out retail business in INDIA. Retail sales in real terms are predicted to rise more rapidly than consumer expenditure during 2003-08. The forecast growth in real retail sales during 2003- 2008 is 8.3% per year,compared with 7.1% for consumer expenditure. 9|Page
Modernization of the Indian retail sector will be reflected in rapid growth in sales of supermarkets, departmental stores and hypermarts. Sales from these large-format stores are to expand at growth rates ranging from 24% to 49% per year during 2003-2008, according to a latest report by Euromonitor International, a leading provider of global consumer-market intelligence. The unorganized sector has dominance over the organized sector in India, especially because of the low investment needs. In India, organized retailing is only 2% of total retailing of worth US$ 180 billion. This is playing at multiple levels. For instance, the reason for low number of discount stores in India is an effect of the dominance of the unorganized sector. The manufacturers’ have high bargaining power in the pricing of products as a result of this small scale of operation of retailers. The lobbying by the un-organized sector is also the main reason for the Government of India’s restrictions on 100% FDI in retailing in the country.
INDIA is a land of multi-culture and multi-religion where there are customers who are having there unique taste and preference. The country presently dominated by the un-organized retail sector, i.e., the local Kirana store known as the Mom and Pops store of the present. Since ages the country has been dominated by these stores who carried out their business in their own unique way. Over the time these stores have been the favorite shopping place for the consumers and had been a favorite locality hub. Many cities in India have been known for their trade mark products be it Banaras for its famous silk sarees, Kolhapur for its chappals or Agra for its traditional sweet ‘Petha’. Shops after shops in our cities are involved in selling of the same products, yet most of the shops not only survive but thrive catering to the all the population of the city. It is very much essential to understand the age old working model of these stores as these shops still function on the age old models, have their own accounting systems, logistics & supply partners, vendors & loyal set of customers. So in order to become a good retail manager we need to understand the details of these store their accounting system, their replenishment system, their manpower, their service level provided to their customers, their stock take systems their financial model , their advertisements promotion and everything for which they are successful in 10 | P a g e
this country. We can better serve our customers and reduce the gap by understanding how these stores had been successful over ages. The research has been carried out to understand the functioning of these stores. I have taken the help of both primary and secondary data. The secondary data were not that available for this kind of study so this research has maximum depended upon the primary data. The data was collected first hand at Chandrasekharpur location, covering Patia, Kanavihar, Sailashreevihar, Damana Square, Housing board and BDA colony. A questionaaire consisting of 20 questions were used to question the local kirana stores, followed by interview questions for them and similarly a set of 12 questions each were prepared for Bhaaji mandis and workers of the Kirana store along with 7 questions for the Vendors and suppliers of stocks. The interview was carried during the first and second week of the project work period of one month; the third week was dedicated to search of secondary data from the journals available in the internet and by going through several sites of interest. From the study I came to know about the working of the Kirana stores, the bhaaji mandis, fruits and vegetable market of the location. All the findings were very lucidly analyzed through the help of pie charts and graphs and represented in the form of chapters. The first chapter dealt with the Retail Revolution where necessary details has been given about the Indian retail, the evolution phases the competition and the present scenario. The second chapter dealt with the Research Design where detail theory of research has been demonstrated , types of research tools methodology etc has been described. This chapter will enable even a lay man to understand the research process. The third chapter dealt with the Research Methodology, where the methods through which the research work has been carried out is described in details. Including research topic, objective of the study, methodology, sampling design, scope and limitations of the research work. The fourth chapter dealt with the Analysis of Surveyed data. All the data collected for the specific stores and locations were analyzed and represented in simple language and graph for easy understanding. The fifth chapter dealt with a brief idea of Orissa and Bhubaneswar Its local taste, geography, demography, economy etc., from where I had carried the research work. This chapter also covers the traditional occupation, art and literature, products etc of the inhabitants of Orissa. At the end conclusion has been derived for the study and necessary suggestions given.
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CHAPTER 1 THE RETAIL (R)EVOLUTION CONTENTS THE INDIAN RETAIL EVOLUTION TRADITIONAL RETAIL STORES OF INDIA UNORGANIZED RETAILING IN INDIA FAMILY RUN CONVINIENCE STORES TRADITIONAL RURAL RETAIL FAIRS
PHASES IN THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL SECTOR DIAGRAM FLOW CHART
THE ORGANIZED VS THE UN-ORGANIZED RETAILERS OF THE WORLD
(A GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS) PRESENT SCENARIO .
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THE INDIAN RETAIL EVOLUTION: TRADITIONAL RETAIL STORES OF INDIA UNORGANIZED RETAILING Traditional or Unorganized retail outlets are normally street markets, counter stores, kiosks and vendors, where the ownership and management rest with one person only. This sector accounts for two thirds of the market and requires low skilled labor. These are highly competitive outlets, with negligible rental costs (unregistered kiosks or traditional property), cheap workers (work is shared by members of family) and low taxes and overheads. UNORGANIZED RETAILING IN INDIA In India, the most of the retail sector is unorganized. In India, the retail business contributes around 11 percent of GDP. Of this, the organized retail sector accounts only for about 3 percent share, and the remaining share is contributed by the unorganized sector. The main challenge facing the organized sector is the competition from unorganized sector. Unorganized retailing has been there in India for centuries, theses are named as mom-pop stores. The main advantage in unorganized retailing is consumer familiarity that runs from generation to generation. It is a low cost structure, they are mostly operated by owners, has very low real estate and labor costs and has low taxes to pay. The retail stores in India essentially dominated by the unorganized sector or traditional stores have taken up 98 percent of the Indian retail market. Now stores run by families are primarily food based and the set up is as Kirana or the 'corner grocer' stores. Basically they provide high service with low prices. If the stores are not food based then the type of retail items available are local in nature. The traditional family run convenience stores can take pride in the fact that the Kirana is the most common outlet forms for the consumers. The tough competition for convenience stores are coming from organized retail stores dealing in food items, like:
Apna Bazaar Canteen stores Food World Subhiksha 13 | P a g e
Food Bazaar FAMILY RUN CONVINIENCE STORES Convenience Stores are open for long hours and is one of the formats of the Indian retail stores that cater to basic needs of the consumer. A good example of such would be Convenio. These stores are found in both residential as well as commercial markets. The food products of traditional family run convenience stores are comprised of branded as well as nonbranded items. The benefits of family run convenience stores is that they give importance to: Personal touch Facilities of credit Quick home delivery Non-food based stock comprises of multiple and varieties of local brands. The future of such stores as they face competition from organized sector, would depend on the following particulars: • • • • • •
Place and capacity Diligent area coverage Disciplined work schedule Managing turnover Revenue from assets Customer service and satisfaction
The traditional family run convenience stores serves the purpose of the housewives who definitely wants to avoid traveling long distances to purchase daily needs. The convenience factor in terms of items, among people in general can be highlighted as below: • • • •
Groceries Fruits Drug Store Necessary stationery
As such traditional family run convenience stores are here to stay and cannot be oversized by th organized retail sector besides, it represents the variety of India. TRADITIONAL RURAL RETAIL FAIRS Traditional rural retail fairs are a very big attraction to foreign tourists. We have the Pushkar fair in Rajasthan which brings in a lot of revenue both from domestic buyers and buyers from abroad. In the Pushkar fair live stock like camels, horses, cows, goats, and sheep are sold as well as 14 | P a g e
bought. A range of exotic items are also available. The traditional items here are handmade jewelry and other colorful memorabilia of Rajasthan. Traditional rural retail fairs in India deal in a good number of handcrafts items which are mentioned below: • • • • • • • • • • • •
Hand painted wooden chest drawers Wooden wall brackets Embossed wooden table Hand painted chairs in chowki Wooden corner stand Wooden Hand painted table Embossed wooden chairs Brown wooden stool Camel bone Jewelry Metal jewelry Snake charmer puppets Handmade candles
The Suraj Kund mela is also a huge galore of Indian traditional items. This fair is held at Haryana which is 8 kilometers from South Delhi. The fair has been held for the last 20 years. The fair deals in items categorized as • • • •
Indian arts Handicrafts Heritage Culture and tradition
Traditional rural retail fairs have a typical rural set up like: • • • • •
Huts of mud Thatched platforms lamps of wood String cots Plainness ground
The small thatched stores are a vibrant display of handcraft items. The focus every year is on a particular State for instance, in 2006 it was Maharashtra. The other group of items representing the Indian Subcontinent available there are: • • •
Classical Tribal art Folk art
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As such Traditional Rural Retail fairs involve credit worthy artisans and weavers of over 350 in number and they are selected from across the country. Along with the county's rich cultural heritage being showcased, the fair is open to foreign traditional goods as well. The more rejuvenating side of these fairs would be listed as under: • • • • • • • • • •
Indian Sweets Snacks Indian folk music Classical dance Bengal tiger show Elephant rides Tiger show and rides Giraffe tricks Balloon and Clay items Painting Games
Therefore, traditional rural retail fairs are a never ending occupation and the key to it lies in the originality and attractiveness of the items.
PHASES IN THE EVOLUTION OF RETAIL SECTOR
Weekly Markets, Village and Rural Melas Source of entertainment and commercial exchange
shops Neighborhood stores/convenience Traditional and pervasive reach
PDS outlets, Khadi stores, Cooperatives Government supported Availability/low costs/distribution
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department stores and shopping malls Shopping experience/ efficiency Modern formats/ international
THE ORGANIZED VS THE UN-ORGANIZED RETAILERS OF THE WORLD
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Analysis: We can see to the extent by which the Indian retail is dominated by the un-organized sector i.e. 97%
PRESENT SECNARIO The mom and pop stores are breaking down their traditional structures and morphing into mini supermarkets – allowing the consumer to ‘walk in’ and browse through their wares which was earlier not possible partly due to the store layout and partly to blame were the ubiquitous but annoying sachets hanging from nowhere blocking one’s visibility. In their new avatars the traditional grocery stores are not only adding suffixes like ‘supermarket’ and ‘super-shopé’ to their names but also creating a cleaner, more organized layout. In place of dingy store interiors and bags of grains mercilessly dumped at the store entrance one encounters neatly partitioned shelves
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with a well thought out organization of products such that you will no longer find your mosquito repellent next to your pulses. While the smaller stores are imitating store and shelf layouts from super market, the latter are taking lessons from these small guys on how to woo the elusive consumer back. Spinach – a super market in Mumbai employed some of the local vegetable vendors to stand inside the store and ‘cajole and connect with’ the consumer for whom the sterile and indifferent store ambiance was an alien concept. After all these consumers (mostly women) are used to shopping at vegetable markets, where conversations are exchanged with vendors along with money and goods.
CHAPTER 2 19 | P a g e
RESEARCH DESIGN CONTENTS INTRODUCTION NEED FOR RESEARCH DESIGN TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATIVE RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH USEFULLNESS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH LIMITATIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DIAGNOSTIC STUDY
TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION 1. 2. 3.
TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE. PERSONAL INTERVIEWING
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION 1.
EXPERT OPINION: FOCUS (GROUP) INTERVIEW SURVEY RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEACH
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RESEARCH DESIGN INTRODUCTION
The formidable problem that takes of defining a research problem is the framing of the research design, which is defined as the arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. To determine an appropriate method of enquirer for a research problem, two points must be taken into considerations. Firstly the nature of the problem and second the extent or level of existing information i.e., What is the study about? Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data is required? Where can the required data be found? What periods of time will the study include? What will be the sample design? What techniques of data collection will be used? How will the data be analyzed? In what style will the report be prepared?
NEED FOR RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Important concepts relating to Research Design Dependent and independent variables 21 | P a g e
Extraneous variable Control Confounded relationship Research hypothesis Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research Treatments Experimental units
TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN Different research design can be conveniently described if we categorize them as: Research design in case of exploratory research studies Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies, and Research design in case of hypothesis testing research studies. EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATIVE RESEARCH
Exploratory research is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge; it is similar to doctor’s initial investigation of a patient suffering from an unfamiliar malady for getting some clues for identifying it. “It is ill structured and much less focused on predetermined objectives”. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
Descriptive study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory study, as it has focus on particular aspects or dimensions of the problem studied; it is designed to father descriptive information and provides information for formulation more sophisticated studies. Using one or more appropriate methods collects data: observation, interviewing and mail questionnaire.
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USEFULLNESS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
The descriptive studies are useful in their own way: 1. They have much to contribute to the development of a young science, as descriptive information can focus directly on a theoretical point. It may be useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. “The more adequate the descriptive, the greater is the likelihood that the units derived from the description will be useful in subsequent theory building” 2. Descriptive information can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The collection of factual data increases our awareness of the relative accuracy of our measuring devices. Thus our ability to accumulate further knowledge is significantly broadened. 3. Descriptive information obtained in a research may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. 4. Descriptive studies are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action programs. LIMITATIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH The descriptive method study has certain limitations: 1. It is not applicable to problems, which cannot satisfy the required criteria mentioned earlier 2. The researcher may make description an end in itself. Research must lead to discovery of facts. 3. Although social science problems are continuous and have a past and future, the researcher may lose him in current conditions only 4. The researcher may tend to over use statistics. In making statistical analysis, its limitations should be recognized. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY Meaning This is similar to descriptive study by with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it The design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention on the following
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Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about and why is it being made?) Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques of gathering data will be adopted?) Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed?) Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and with what time period should the data be related?) Processing and analyzing the data? Reporting the findings? The procedure / methodology for conducting and controlling this project were specified as is imperative, before undertaking the project. They are as follows: DEFINE THE RESEARCH PROBLEM DEFINE THE RESERCH OBJECTIVES DEFINE THE RESEARCH APPROACH Whether the data collection method was exploratory, descriptive, and diagnostic in nature: Whether to use QUESITONNAIRE SECONDARY OR STANDARIZED DATA INTERVIEWS SURVEYS What research tactics to be employed i.e.
DEVELOP MEASURES OF INTEREST CONSTRUCT QUESTIONNIRE DESIGN SAMPLING PLAN ANTICIPATE ANALYSIS
TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION 1. Telephone interviewing 2. Mail questionnaire. 3. Personal interviewing
1. Telephone Interviewing
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It is the best method for gathering information quickly; the interviewer can also clarify questions if they have not understood. The response rate is typically higher than in the case of mailed questionnaires. 2. Mail questionnaires
It is the best way to reach the individuals who would not give personals interviews of was there is a fear that the interviewer may distort the fact. On the other hand, mail questionnaires require simple and clearly worded questionnaires, and the response rate is usually low. 3. Personal interview
It is the most versatile of the three methods. The interviewer can ask more questions and record additional observations about the respondent, such a dress and body language. Personal interviewing is the most expensive method and requires more administrative planning as it would subject to interview bias and distortion. In this study we use the method of personal interviewing to get the various information from the customers. Being the specialty goods, we select a few customers and interview them personally.
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION The project work has divided into distinct phases. First phase involved the process of primary data collection through questionnaire method and the second phase involved the process of secondary data collection, which was done by studying various books, journals and company reports required for the project work. Primary data: - Constructing a questionnaire collects primary data. In general data collection uses the process of communication or observations, a variety of other methods may also employed, such as:
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: Q.R with large samples is usually intended to generate ideas and hypothesis; it can be of different types such as: EXPERT OPINION: It involves discussion with people who have specialized into the nature of the market. 25 | P a g e
FOCUS (GROUP) INTERVIEW Group of six to ten people engages in a lengthy discussion of subjects related to research questionnaires. SURVEY RESEARCH Structured collection of data can be made directly from representative samples of respondents like: Mail interview Telephone interview Personal interview EXPERIMENTAL RESEACH The intention is to determine the effect of a change in one variable or another; this requires the researcher to introduce the change into the environment and measuring the resulting effect. Data collection Field work Data processing Data analysis Interpretations The research conducted in this case was both exploratory and descriptive in nature involving identification of problem, precise formulation of problems and alternative courses of action, in addition to describing market characteristics or function. Three distinct stages of exploratory studies typically conducted in sequence are listed below: Search for primary and secondary information sources Interviews with knowledgeable people with relevance to the topic Examination of analogous (off-beat) situation. Descriptive studies on the other hand involve description of the extent of association between two or more variables.
Secondary data: Is the data that has been accumulated by persons or agencies for purposes other than the solution of problem at hand, example journals, previous research, and papers conducted by agencies and internal information sources of the industries.
RESEARCH TACTICS TACTICS: 26 | P a g e
The plan for choosing the sample and the method of analysis must be developed. The first step is to translate the research objectives into information requirements and then into questions the respondents can answer that. Contacting the entire population would not be worthwhile from the cost benefit viewpoint. There are many ways of obtaining samples, some informal, even casual. There are several questions to be answered and a wide variability in responses. So it is necessary to obtain representative population members, who have a known probability of being in the family. on probability sampling is one in which the procedure does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item has of being included in the sample Selecting probability sample can be done on various basis such as, simple, random, systematic, and stratified or cluster sampling
CHAPTER 3 27 | P a g e
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONTENTS RESEARCH TOPIC OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY METHODOLOGY SAMPLING DESIGN SAMPLE UNIT DATA SOURCE: RESEARCH APPROACH: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: METHOD OF CONTACT: SAMPLE SIZE: SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: SAMPLING PROCEDURE:
METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTION: SCOPE OF THE STUDY LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
RESEARCH TOPIC Kirana & Bhaaji Mandi
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 28 | P a g e
study and understand the functioning of the local kirana store & also the Bhaji Mandis (Vegetable/ Fruit Markets) . To find out why these are the favorite shopping locality hub of the customers. To understand the age old working model of these kirana stores To get to know about the Store Format,Financial Model, Accounting System, Stock take Systems, Inventory Replenishment System, Suppliers & Vendors, Customer Service, Competition, Perception about Promotion & Marketing of their Stores and lastly the manpower To give suitable findings, suggestions and conclusions.
METHODOLOGY Primary Research: (Questionnaire, Interview, Observations.) Secondary Research: (Internet, Television, Newspapers, Magazines, Journals.)
SAMPLING DESIGN The tools used in carrying out research were:
1) SAMPLE UNIT:
The owners, staffs and employees of Kirana
Stores and Bhaaji mandis.
2) DATA SOURCE: ( Kirana stores Suppliers
Vendors People Newspapers
employed at the stores. Internet Television Magazines Journals) Primary data collected through the help of questionnaires and direct interview.
3) RESEARCH APPROACH: survey RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:
4) METHOD OF CONTACT: 5) SAMPLE SIZE:
locations of Chandrasekharpur area. 29 | P a g e
6) SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Judgmental sampling 7) SAMPLING PROCEDURE: A sample of 75 respondents was conversed. The questionnaire was of structured type. The method of primary data collection was undertaken through personal interviews.
METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTION The questionnaire consisted of questions, which were mostly close ended. This automatically ensured that the respondents were not respondents were not fatigued or bored while answering the questions asked. A set of 12 questions were framed to be interviewed to the owners of the store. Apart from these the store owners were questioned about their basic functioning
diagrammatically for simplicity.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is limited at Bhubaneswar city (Chandrasekharpur and Patia areas only).
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The store owners were not very open to the interview and the information presented is a result of generalization after interview and analysis of several cases. Time and money constraints are one of the major limitations of the study. Survey
( Chandrasekharpur and Patia area) and because of this the result cannot be generalized for all the areas.
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The survey is made with limited knowledge because of which there is possibility to have some errors but utmost care is taken to avoid or minimize these errors. The study contains only primary data as secondary data is not available for the said research study.
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS OF SURVEY
CONTENTS DATA ANALYSIS OF KIRANA STORES KIRANA
ANALYSIS FRUIT & VEGETABLE MARKET ANALYSIS: SUPPLIERS AND VENDORS ANALYSIS. KIRANA STORE WORKERS INTERVIEW ANALYSIS. .
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DATA ANALYSIS THE SURVEY
AREAS OF THE RESPONDENTS:
Analysis: The research has been carried out at Chandrasekharpur area at five major locations. The area covers the kirana stores located at KIITS chaak, Near Big Bazaar, Patia, The stores at Kanan Vihar , Phase-1 & Phase-2, Damana Square, Sailashreevihar and BDA colony.
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A total of 75 respondents has been interviewed , 15 each from all major 5 locations as mentioned above. Apart from this about 50 respondents were interviewed directly constituting suppliers and employees from the stores.
ANALYSIS: This graph shows that 20% people are having less than 250sq.ft.size store. Then 46% people are having 250-500sq.ft size store. Again 27% people say that they are having 500-750sq.ft size store and only 7% people are having 1000sq.ft and above size store.
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No. of stores owned
ANALYSIS: The findings says that maximum owners have only single stores accounting to around 84% rest 11% had 2 stores at separate location but all of the same format and the remaining 5% had more than two stores and they were also basically wholesale dealers from which other small retailers purchased their stocks.
100%----CASH 45%---- -CASH & VOUCHERS 2%------ CASH, VOUCHERS & CARD
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ANALYSIS: All kirana stores accept cash, out of which 45% percent accept vouchers along and 2% accept card payments and none of them accept payment through cheques.
ANALYSIS: This Graph shows that 94% of the business men are using register for keeping the records of the business. 6% are using computer for maintaining the account
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CUSTOMER ANALYSIS 1
ANALYSIS: About 60% owners recalled that per week they had less than 30 regular customers visiting their store and they were only those customers to whom they had provided credit and home delivery. So there is a great opportunity for organized retailers to increase their customer loyalty. About 19% had 30-60 regular customers per week, 15% had 60-90 nos of regular customers and remaining accounted for 5% for 5 stores. These stores were big and did most of the business, also they provided at wholesale prices to their customers. CUSTOMER SERVICE 1
Providingcredit to customers 37 49%
CREDIT PROVIDED NO CREDIT PROVIDED
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ANALYSIS: It is found that around 51% of the stores provided credit to their customers these were basically the stores dealing with staples and grocery items , they only provided credit to known customers and regular customers. Remaining small stores accounting for 49% didn’t provide any type of credit facility to their customers.
CUSTOMER SERVICE 1
ANALYSIS: It is found that 55% of the kirana stores provided homedelivery to their customers in their locality only till a distance of maximum 4 kms the remaining 45% accounted for not providing any type of home delivery. They insist on providing better price than those providing home delivery for the products.
ANALYSIS: No store does maintain any customer record unless they provide credit to the customers. It accounts for 51%, maintaining records of their customers to whom credit has been provided and the rest are not maintaining any type of records.
ANALYSIS: Almost all corresponding to 92% of the stores entertain returns from the customers where as the rest never accept returns.
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MANPOWER STRENGTH 1
ANALYSIS: Coming to the manpower strength it is seen that most kirana owners(around 68%) managed their store with 1 to 3 store manpower, this is due to reduction of manpower cost so that more profit can be generated. Around 24% had 3 to 5 employees working , basically these store owners had more than two stores and the remaining had 5 and above nos. of manpower.
MANPOWER STRENGTH 2
ANALYSIS: About 77% of the owners had their employees other than their family members where as the remaining had their family members involved. Family members involved where the risk of business was more like where more administration was required, and the case where the business was big in size. 38 | P a g e
STOCK TAKE SYSTEM:
ANALYSIS: No stock take procedures are carried out in the store.
STOCKS CARRIED BY STORE 1
ANALYSIS: It is seen that most of the stores carried an average stock level of 2000-4000 i.e, the variety or skus which accounted for approximately 43%. 27% of the retailers stocked less than 2000 stocks these were basically small stores . Few retail stores carried 4000-6000 stocks , around 20% and remaining big stores carried above 6000 skus around 11% approx
PURCHASE FREQUENCY OF KIRANA STORE 100%----AS WHEN REQUIRED 43%---- - -DAILY & WHEN REQUIRED 33%------ WEEKLY,DAILY & WHEN REQUIRED 39 | P a g e
14%------ MONTHLY WEEKLY, DAILY & WHEN REQUIRED ANALYSIS: It is found that all stores purchased their stocks as when required, apart from this 43% purchased their stocks on daily basis but not monthly or weekly, 33% purchased their stocks weekly or daily or as when required but not monthly lastly 14% purchased their stocks monthly as well as daily as well as weekly and when required urgently. The stores who had purchased their stocks on monthly basis had go-down facilities to store their stocks. They go for purchasing in bulk so that they can sell the stocks at very competitive pricing than others and these were the stores that provided stocks at wholesale prices to the customers and other small stores even.
Customer RecordMaintenance 37 49%
38 51% RECORDS MAINTENANCE NO RECORDS
ANALYSIS: No store does maintain any customer record unless they provide credit to the customers. It accounts for 51%, maintaining records of their customers to whom credit has been provided and the rest are not maintaining any type of records.
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ANALYSIS: It is seen that almost 88% of the store owners didn’t had go-downs whereas 12% of the store owners had go-down facilities and these were the store those purchased their stocks on bulk and on monthly basis so that they can provide at better prices to their customers.
ANALYSIS: Only two store out of the sample had their own vehicle (3 –wheelers) the remaining 97% of the store owners had two wheeler rather than 3-wheelers.
SUPPLIERS AND VENDORS:
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ANALYSIS: Almost 64% of the store owners purchased their stocks from suppliers, 20% of the stocks were purchased from wholesalers the remaining purchased their stocks from the retailers. It is seen that majority of the store owners purchased their stocks from suppliers as they provided stocks at lower price and a better bargain. These were majority of comparatively bigger store in terms of stock level and area of the store. Smaller stores purchased their stocks from the wholesalers, these were also basically the bigger stores that provided stocks at wholesale prices. Lastly the remaining small stores often purchased their stocks from retailers if there is better discount provided by retailers and also purchases done on day to day basis required purchase from retailers.
ANALYSIS: It is seen that almost all suppliers provided delivery of purchased stocks, only when purchased in bulk. Remaining told that they were not provided home delivery by their suppliers as their purchased quantity was less.
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COMPETITION ANALYSIS 1
ANALYSIS: Here 59% of the owners believe that organized retailers like bigbazaar are able have greater sales due to the discounts provided by them so they think that giving more discounts can help them fight competition with such retailers as though its not possible for them to provide as they never purchased in bulk so they cant provide discounts. The remaining 41% were not agreed and told that quality of the good must be good as they feel that discount is provided on inferior quality products only.
COMPETITION ANALYSIS 2
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ANALYSIS: The above pie-chart shows that about 59% of the store owners think that they can fight competition with other big retailers like bigbazaar by providing huge discounts where as 29% think that they can do good business and fight competition by providing good customer service like credit, home delivery, returns etc., the remaining 12% agrees on providing more benefits.
PROMOTION AND MARKETING:
ANALYSIS: Apart from the advertisement during their launch date none of the stores had ever advertised their stores in the later part of business. Nor they have carried out any type of promotions in their store ever till date.
QUESTION ANALYSIS 1) BENEFITS: According to the store owners they have provided few benefits which can be summarized below. 1) Discounts on bulk purchase. 2) Freebies as when comes with the products. 3) Home delivery of the stocks for a maximum distance of 4 km in the current locality only. 4) Provided credit to regular customers.
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5) They accept vouchers as when provided by their customers, they charge some more percentage over the vouchers.
2)UNIFORM PRICE MAINTENANCE: They sell their products depending upon the price at which they have purchased from the suppliers and after keeping their margins and profits, at retail price and they can even lower the price depending upon their purchase type. They can give more discounts on marked price if the stocks are purchased in bulk in a fairer price from the supplier. There is no such body governing the pricing of stocks across all the competitor stores, they can sell as per their choice, the competiton only is dependent upon customers, as customer prefers those shop where pricing is more better and cheaper so each store try to provide the best price over other competitors. Whenever there is a price change of the same products the store owners sell the old as well as new stocks in the same price or updated price depending upon the stock level and even following FIFO method the old priced stocks are sold first and then the new stocks are put to sell. If the price has been lowered the supplier is bound to sell the older stocks in the same lower price.
3) BUSINESS ASSOCIATION AND FUNCTIONING OF SUCH ASSOCIATION: All the stores are a part of the business association or puja association prevailing in their area. These associations are responsible for carrying out festivals, tournaments, sports, competition etc in their area. They even collect money for carrying on these events from the store owners. If there are any disputes occurring between stores then they are put forward in the association and there they are resolved by the head members of the association. They even determine whether a new store can be opened by a person in those areas or not, and they put forward al their rules and regulations to be followed by new store owners. Maximum of the store owners don’t play any type of role in those associations when asked. 4)DEMAND AND SUPPLY: The store stocks its products as per the demand of the customers and feedback given from the customers for example if a customer looks for a particular variety
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again and again then they go for keeping stocks in their shelves and this all depends upon the judgment of the store owner. The store owner even takes order from the customer about new products and procures them for the customer. The store owners also keep variety in accordance with their competitors store.
5) STOCK REPLENISHMENT: The stock is replenished through feedback from store employees and by seeing the stock position at the shelves. The stock required are indented from the respective supplier over phone or through representatives. The stocks as required is received by the store from the supplier with the invoice, the stocks are checked physically and displayed in the shelves the supplier is then paid as per the terms and agreement with the supplier.The payment can be either in cash or credit terms. The suppliers are providing credits up to 3-4 lacs maximum as told by the store owner, these has to be resolved within a month or so. 6) PHYSICAL COUNTING FOR THE STORE: No such physical counting is done at the store level by the store owners. The store owners had full faith on the employees and gave them all responsibility for the stocks at the store level. They are fully responsible for the stocks their merchandizing and their replenishment. 7) FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING: No financial accounting done at the store level. Only records of sales and in-warded stocks amount is maintained in registers. They are maintaining separate registers for maintaining sales records one for sales tax and other for their original records. 8) PAYMENTS TO VENDORS: Most of the stores made payments instantly to their vendors on receive of stocks or purchase of stocks. Some of the store purchased stocks on credit and made their payments after a month or two. The vendors provided credit of 3-4 lakhs per month to their retailers. 9) FIGHTING COMPETITION WITH OTHER STORES: For fighting competition with other store the store owners commented on the following: a) Good customer dealings is mostly required to attract customers to the store. b) Service and the assurance of ready to help will help retain the customers. c) Apart from this providing discounts also helps retain customers. d) Providing other services like order over phone calls and home delivery facility required to attract customers to the store. 46 | P a g e
10) WAYS THROUGH WHICH A COMPLETELY NEW BUSINESS CAN BE SUCCESSFUL: On discussion with several stores the following point came in to light.. a)Excellent customer dealings and care. b) Uniform and low prices on key products enables the customers to think that the products are available in cheap. c) Providing home delivery and taking orders over phone would help a lot. d) Providing a good environment where stocks are displayed neat and clean in the shelves. e) Keeping all latest products present in the market and making them available all the time in the store shelves. f) Advertisement of some kind for the store like leaflet insertion in local paper etc . g) Take appropriate feedback from the customer and make the required products available to them in the correct time. 11) MEASURES TO REDUCE PILFERAGE: There is no method or measures taken by the store to avoid pilferage according to them the store employees keep an eye over the customers and the store is always manned by the owner, and since the customer totally depends upon the sales person for the stocks so the pilferage is absent, only the loss due to transport is there. This is taken aught most care while handling stocks during the loading and the unloading process. The vendor is responsible for all received damaged stock by the store, which in case found is returned to the vendors. 12) SELECTION OF PEOPLE : The owners select their work force from known personal background; they select faithful people from their own village or near their residential place. They employ people after knowing their complete family history and background. They provide food for the day and several other benefits to make them work to their fullest.
FRUIT & VEGETABLE MARKET ANALYSIS: The fruit and vegetable market sets at Damana Square every week on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. All the vendors of 47 | P a g e
Damana market were a part of Damana Gopinath Vaboshaya Sang,( business association).They mostly purchase the stocks from farmers at Barang, UNIT1 and UNIT 4 market or mandis. On asking few questions the following fact came in to light. The interview covered the several aspects and basically the functioning of the bhaaji mandis.The findings are as described below. 1) PURCHASE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: Most of the owners purchased their stock from the sabji mandis. The fruits and vegetables coming from several places like Andhra Pradesh, are unloaded at these places known as mandis, the vegetable vendors purchase their stocks from them at best bargain prices either in group or alone, the more bulkier the purchase the best price they obtain and more is their profit margin. Secondly most of the vendors were farmers and they grew their own vegetables in their fields like cabbage, carrots, potatoes, tomatoes green leafs etc. They then get them for sale at the weekly market themselves. Some of the vendors purchased their stocks from the farmers directly in cheap and they sell them at the weekly markets.
2) FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE: The vendors purchased their stocks directly from the mandis. The vendors obtaining stocks from the farmers had deals with them and make the payments only after they have had their sales. The stocks are purchased weekly for three or Four days in week, depending upon the market setup.The vendors who had their vegetable kiosks at their own place had to purchase daily depending upon their sales. 3) TRANSPORTATION FACILITY: The vendors after purchasing their stocks carried them to the market place either by bi-cycles or trolleys and few vendors had their own auto vehicles(three wheelers) other big vendors had trucks. 4) ASSOCIATION : The vendors had vegetable association at their local market place. The association helped them maintain uniform pricing and resolved all conflicts arising in case during the business. The association also collects the rents from the respective area of business and provide them with place, electricity and also helped them with financial support. 5) RENT: The vendors paid a rent ranging from Rs 200/- - to 1000/- inclusive of electricity. 6) DEALING WITH STOCKS: The left out stocks are either sold out at heavy discounts or are taken back to be sold at the respective kiosks or cabins at
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their own location or places.The stocks are preserved either in deep refrigerators or preserved by sprinkling with water on regular basis. 7) PRICING: The vegetables are priced commonly and standardized depending upon the association. The vendors can sell at the std price or lower depending upon the quality and the demand of the stocks. The stock are often sold at heavy discounts resulting in loss sometimes. 8) DISCOUNTS: the vendors also provide discounts to the customers provided the customer has shopped the entire range of vegetables from a single vendor. The discounts are also sometimes provide exclusively to known customers or regular customers. It is quite uncertain in nature. 9) OTHER ENGAGEMENTS: Apart from the weekly markets most of the vendors had their own shops at few locations at their home place. They get the leftover stocks fro the market place to be sold at their respective store or cabins or pull carts. 10) STORING OF STOCKS: Almost all vendors had rooms at their houses to store their vegetables/fruits. Few others did business after purchasing stocks and ended their stock at last in huge discounts at the end of the day. 11) QUANTITY OF PURCHASE: The quantity of purchase of stocks depended upon the business type and the business strength of the vendor. The vendor those who had shops at their location often purchased stocks on bulk for the entire week and sold them at weekly market and their respective store. Others who did not had stores managed to purchase lesser quantity enabling them for profit for a single day.
SUPPLIERS AND VENDORS ANALYSIS. 1) MAJOR CLIENTS: All the suppliers/vendors had their major clients at their close local locations or city or places. The suppliers had their clients at far locations in other cities by places. 2) DISTANCE FOR ORDER/DELIVERY: The order has nothing to do with the distance. The suppliers take order from far of places but store delivery is only subjected to the business area or city only, the home delivery is provided only for bulk purchase of stocks in huge/large quantities. The delivery is free of cost and is sometimes included in the product purchase price/cost.
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3) ORDER PLACEMENT FROM CLIENTS: They take order over telephone for bulk. For FMCG stocks they send their vehicles with people to the stores from where they give the delivery and take orders. The orders are generally for a weeks time so the lead time varies from day to week. 4) HELP DURING PROMOTIONS: The suppliers only help their clients if they provide a specific target of sales for the supplier products. The suppliers do provide discounts or commissions over quantity purchase during the promotion period. But the suppliers for most of the time abide by the promotions from the manufacturer or the industry, as they provide on their products. The suppliers also sets special commission on products that they needed to push more in to the market, or the products that they had purchased in bulk from the manufacturer. 5) SPECIAL OFFER GIVEN: Discounts on purchase of quantity as set by the suppliers. Quantity free with purchase / order of a said quantity by the clients. Special commissions on specific products. Free gifts and accessories like display racks, standies, backlit displays are provide to the stores. 6) CREDIT FACILITY: The suppliers provide credit facilities to their regular clients only and those who had sound business and store. The only provided credits to known customers with whom they shared good relationship. 7) STOCK PURCHASE: They purchased their stocks from manufacturers and even farmers for staples and harvested products. They had tie-up with manufacturer to lift stocks in the required quantity either weekly or monthly basis as when required.
WORKING PROCESS: The store raises a requirement to the vendor, the vendor prepares the documents for the transaction .The vendor prepares the invoice and the bill for the desired stocks and loads them to the delivery vehicle from the go-downs to the location. The store receives the required stocks checks them as per the physical quantity is concerned and carries out the payment procedures as required. The payment is done either in a weeks time or a months time as per the understanding between the vendor and the kirana store.
KIRANA STORE WORKERS INTERVIEW ANALYSIS.
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DURATION OF WORK:
ANALYSIS: It is seen that 25% of the workers have worked less than 1 year in this field and are new to retail store. 37% Of the workers have worked for 1-2 years followed by 27 % for 2-3 years and only 11% for more than 3 years. It is found that majority of the workers have worked for 1-2 years.
LIKING TOWARDS WORK:
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ANALYSIS: It is seen that 68% of the workers enjoys the work they do and 32% would like to change the job as they did it only due to compulsion. 3)
ANALYSIS: It is seen that42% of the workers under matriculation, 35% of the workers are till matriculation with 20% intermediate and rest 10% are graduate. It is seen that most of them are under matriculation.
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ANALYSIS: It is seen that 80% of the workers did not had any specific timing of work they had to open the shop in the morning till last. About 20% of the workers worked from 9:00 am to 10:00 pm , timing was maintained.
OFF DAY DURING WEEK:
ANALYSIS: It is seen that 19% of the workers were given off where as 46% were not given any off day 23% were given off only on special cases and 12% could take off as they liked. 6)
JOB ROLE IN STORE:
ANALYSIS: The workers were responsible for display of the stock, cleanliness of the store and stock as well, proper sales and service to customers, feedback regarding stocks and they also coordinated with suppliers for the stock replenishment. 7)
PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE: 53 | P a g e
ANALYSIS: Almost all the workers had sound product knowledge of the store stocks the fast moving and slow moving as well. They also had remembered the pricing of each and every product and if there was any confusion they got it cleared from the store owner or the supplier also. 8)
KNOWING REGULAR CUSTOMERS:
ANALYSIS: Around 64% of the worker knew about their customers by name face and address.where as 23% of the workers did not remembered their customers, and remaining 13% of the customers knew customers from the records of credit. EXTRA SERVICE: 9)
ANALYSIS: They provided credit, home delivery, knew their demand, procured products from suppliers on demand, provided all required stocks at better price and discounts, sometimes provided gift to the customers. They provided helping hand during loading purchased stock on customer vehicles etc. 10)
ANALYSIS: Most of the customers were male who purchased groceries for their house followed by females and students who liked to purchased for their homes. 11)
REQUIREMENT OF ADVERTISEMENTS:
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ANALYSIS: 71% of the workers believed in word of mouth advertisement, 9% believed in advertisements through leaflets as these were cheaper, 4% agreed to take the help of local tv and newspaper and 16% said that no advertisements were required for their store . 12)
TARGETS FOR THE DAY:
ANALYSIS: 47% of the workers or sales person were given amount wise targets for the day and week as well, they are provided incentive on achievemet of their weekly targets. 29% of the workers were given target quantity wised for which they had to sell specific quantity of the products of the store, remaining 24% of the workers worked without targets. 13)
TIMILY SALARIES AND INCENTIVES:
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ANALYSIS: 67% of the workers were not given salaries in time or beginning of month were as 33% were happy of getting salaries in time with proper benefits and incentives, most of workers were also provided home and fooding for the day.
CHAPTER 5 CONTENTS
BHUBANESWAR AT A GLANCE INTRODUCTION ABOUT BHUBANESWAR: GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY POPULATION GROWTH INFRASTRUCTURE QUALITY OF LIFE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT TALENT ECONOMY: TRADE MARK PRODUCTS TEXTILE HERITAGE OF ORISSA ARTS AND CRAFTS OF ORISSA PALM LEAF WRITING PATACHITRA APPLIQUÉ ART CARVING THE PAPIER-MÂCHÉ ART METAL WORK PATTA CHITRA PAINTINGS TRIBAL PAINTINGS ROCK PAINTINGS PALM LEAF PAINTINGS JHOTI, CHITA, MURUJA
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INTRODUCTION ABOUT BHUBANESWAR: Once the capital of ancient Kalinga, the city has a long history and is today a center for commerce and religious activity. However, the modern city of Bhubaneswar was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. It became the modern capital of the state of Orissa in 1948, a year after India gained its independence from Britain. Before Bhubaneswar, Cuttack was the capital of Orissa until 1947. Both Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are known as the "twin cities" of Orissa. With its vast variety of Hindu temples, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as the temple city of India. SL NO. 1 2 3 4
DATA: AREA ELEVATION DISTRICT POPULATION
135 SQ KM 108 FT, 33M KHURDA 800,000, (2005 ESTIMATE) 4900/ KM SQUARE 57 | P a g e
GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY: Bhubaneswar is situated between 21° 15' North Latitude 85° 15' Longitude and at an altitude of 45 meters above sea level, the average temperatures range between 15 °C in the winter to a maximum of 40 °C to 45 °C in the summer. The south-east monsoons appear in June. The average annual rainfall is 150 cm, most of which is recorded between June and October. This large variation in temperature is because extensive development and the accompanying loss of forest cover in North India provides no hindrance to the heat and cold waves which sweep that region every year. Bhubaneswar is located on the eastern coastal region of India within the picturesque backdrop of its fringe areas. Nandankanan- the famous wild life sanctuary with the largest population of white tigers is located towards the northern side of the city. The rivers, Kuakhai & Daya(which carries many a historic tale in its fold) flows on the eastern and southernmost fringe of the city. The western fringe area is surrounded by a forest range with its rich ecological bio-diversity. Geographically, the city forms part of the mid-coastal plane of Orissa with an average elevation of 45 meters above the mean sea level. More interestingly, the city is centrally located between the two metropolises i.e Kolkota and Chennai being connected by East coast Railway and National Highway No.5. The city is well connected by rail and air with Delhi and other state capitals. Khurda town is located in between 200-12' North Longitude and 850-37' East Longitude. Four major roads namely, National Highway No-5 and 224, State Highway-13 and No-27 make the town accessible to important places of the town. From physiographic point of view, Khurda forms part of the North-Eastern hilly tract. The extreme part is occupied by Barunei hill range. Jatni town is located in between 200-10' North Latitude and 850-45' East Longitude. It is connected to Bhubaneswar and Cuttack by both rail and road. Population Growth As per the 2001 census, Bhubaneswar is classified as a Class-I town, where as Khurda and Jatni are classified as Class-III towns of the state. As per the present census, this urban complex constitutes 11.79% of the total urban population of the state. As of India's 2001 census, Bhubaneswar has a population of 647,302. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. The city has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Ten percent of the population is under 6 years of age.
Infrastructure Second planned city in the country Excellent air, road and railway connectivity 58 | P a g e
Availability of plug and play space Attractive land rates Abudant power supply Great connective on demand data communication bandwidth Quality of Life A city with cosmopolitan culture and safe living environment Quality education centers with top-notch schools and college Excellent residential facilities within 5 kms of the work place Pollution free environment and very economical real estate String of efficiently managed hospitals Most economical capital in mainland India in terms of cost of living Living conditions with excellent ambience compared to Metros Recreational facilities including parks and entertainment outlets Star hotels,restaurants,discos,shopping malls pubs and cafes Pristine beaches, waterfalls and abudant weekend getways Business Environment IT majors in Bhubaneswar include the big shots like Infosys, TCS, Wipro, Satyam and many more Unprecedented level of FDI and domestic investments in steel and mining and petrochemical sector POSCO setting up a Steel plant in Orissa - the Largest FDI in the history of India Active industry assosiations like CII and UCCI Condctive and peaceful industrial climate Excellent banking facilities Stock exchange and online trading counters Talent Bhubaneswar-boasts of tech and B-Schoo ls ranked among Top 50 More than 18,000 Engg.,MCA & MBA graduates pass out every year Most preferred IT destination for talent in the entire eastern region Reputed corporate houses regularly recruit software personnel through in campus placements at a large number of capuses Lower wages compared to other tier-II cities Attrition rate of IT personnel lowest in the country Good number of goverment supported institutes imparting BPO/ITES training
ECONOMY: With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 90s, Bhubaneswar received large investments in the fields of telecommunications, IT and higher education, particularly engineering. The city accounts for almost all of the IT revenue of Orissa and is one of the fastest growing regions in India in this sector. Higher Technical Education is also a big market. The city is home to around 30 engineering colleges (as of 2007) and the number is growing every year. Around 20000 engineers graduate with the Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) degree every year. The city is also home to many tutorials and 59 | P a g e
coaching institutes who prepare students for various entrance exams. The large density has earned the city the sobriquet of "Kota of the East". Retail and Real Estate have also emerged as big players. Although the first shopping mall only opened in 2004, the response was positive enough for three more shopping malls to open up in the city. Large corporations like DLF Universal and Reliance Industries have entered the real estate market in the city. Despite this rapid growth, a large number of the populace live in slums and are below the poverty line. Migration from rural areas has led to the growth of slums which are a major challenge to the city's growth. The slum dwellers work as auto rickshaw drivers or small vendors but this is not true for everyone. A lot of them are unemployed and are being drawn into crime. Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fastest growing IT hub in India. The Govt has provided with adequate land for the development of IT parks like Infocity 1 & 2. The Info City Bhubaneswar was conceived as a five star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create high quality infrastructure facilities for setting up Information Technology related industries. While Infosys and Satyam Computer Services Ltd. have been present in the city since 1996-97, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) and Wipro Technologies have acquired land in Infocity recently. This has earned the state capital in eastern India the unique distinction of having the presence of the big four i.e. Infosys, Satyam, TCS and Wipro. NetHawk has opened its research and development center in Bhubaneswar since April 2005. MindTree is also allotted 30 acres of land to start its business. On 5th Nov 2007 IBM announced its planning to kickstart its SME operation in Bhubaneswar. In ASIC and Chip Design, ASIC Architect Inc and Perfectus Technology Inc are some of the popular international companies operating from Bhubaneswar. Silicatec is the VLSI training institute in the city. Other major IT companies including Hexaware Technologies, Ramtech Systems etc have also finalised plans for starting operations at Bhubaneswar.
The real estate market in Bhubaneswar is taking giant leaps today, it's because investment is coming in with IT gaining a firm footing in the capital to lay the foundation for growth in the near future. Most big IT majors like TCS, Infosys and Wipro have entered the city to tap into the city's trained manpower. One hears that real estate major DLF is also looking at developing an IT Park on 54 acres of land which will house 60 | P a g e
other IT companies like Accenture and IBM as well. Posco is another driver here. As disposable incomes and incomes in general have gone up over the years, there is better demand for retail and higher-end residential spaces. Rahul Saraf, MD, Forum (a Kolkata-based company), recalls that when they started operating Bhubaneswar's first mall, also called Forum, about four years ago, they faced a problem of handling the kind of footfalls they were getting. "Sometimes people would treat the airconditioned mall as a picnic spot while there were others who even walked in with their tiffins to have lunch in the mall's atrium," he says. Thankfully, the situation today is quite different. Forum has managed to organise footfalls and even launched small format stores in the mall which didn't do too well initially, but are now making progress in terms of sales. Abhijit Das, regional director at property consultants Trammell Crow Meghraj, informs that there are 4-5 malls being planned in the city, most of them in the newly developing Chandrashekharpur area. The upcoming suburbs in the city include Chandrashekharpur in the north, Khurda, Jatni, and Choudwar towards the south, and along CuttackBhubaneswar Road which is on NH-5. Development (another Kolkata-based company), coming up in the Jaidev Vihar area en route to Infosys City. Over the last two years, rates in the city have increased at least four-fold. "There is demand for high-end residential property in the city, most of which is coming up towards the new IT developments taking place near Chandrashekharpur. If, for instance, the demand today is for 100 homes, the supply is lagging far behind at only 10-12 at the moment," he says. For some Kolkata-based companies, Bhubaneswar is almost like an extension of their home ground and makes an attractive investment alternative. No wonder that apart from just Big townships, though, still haven't hit the Bhubaneswar market. "One of the reasons for this is that local builders do not have the strength to invest Rs 200-400 crore in a project. Land acquisition too is a big problem in the city. Being the capital, 70 per cent of the land here belongs to the state government. There is a mad 61 | P a g e
rush for the balance 30 per cent of which 50 per cent has already been developed. TRADE MAARK PRODUCTS In order to start the study one should know the trademark products of the state or the city, described here is a brief information about the heritage of Orissa that will give an idea about the taste of the consumers and would answer the question as to why Orissa is famous for tourists who visit this place from world wide foreign places. We will come to know some of the major occupations and world famous products only available at Orissa.
Orissa being a land of multi-heritage is a state having a sound culture and tradition. Bhubaneswar is the capital of Orissa. All these famous places are not far away from Bhubaneswar. Textile Heritage of Orissa Textile heritage of Orissa reflects the true artistic capabilities and superior craftsmanship of Orissa. Drawing heavily from the motifs replete in tribal culture and its association with nature and Orissa's famous temple architectural style, the textiles and handlooms of Orissa have entered the living rooms of people from as far as US and Poland. Popular with tourists and locals for its ethnic look and tribal feel Handlooms of Orissa are mainly available in cotton and silk though the colors, patterns and methods of weaving differ for the two textured materials. The cotton fabrics with heavy drapes are woven of fine cotton threads tightly held together. The fabric is flannel like to touch for its soft wooly weaving, unlike the luster of precious stones and metals of the silk fabrics. Orissa's Bomkai threadwork features ornate borders and heavily embroidered drapes with touches of Ikat work in some instances and are popular with tourists and locals for their ethnic feel and tribal look. With motifs drawn from the Shakti cult predominant in Orissa's tribal and rural culture for centuries and colored in the subtle hues predominate in nature, The double-sided Ikat designs, woven in colored, silver and gold 62 | P a g e
threads, common in Sambalpur textiles and handlooms, and the gold embroidered fabrics from Sonepur are other popular buys on your tour to Orissa. Orissa silk handlooms and textiles are handspun fabrics with a metallic luster that is alluring for even a discerning shopper. Heavy embroidery on borders and elaborate designed drapes available with Ikat's geometric patterns and Bomkai's subtle colors are charms that are hard to resist. Tusser silk is another member of Orissa's famed textile heritage. Made from non-mulberry silk, it makes you want to reach out for your wallet and empty all its contents. Though the textile heritage of Orissa is best seen in its sarees, these fabrics can be easily adapted to make suits, carry bags, cushion covers etc. Imagination is the only limiting factor when it comes to shopping for Orissa textiles and handlooms. The distinctive style of Applique embroidery is a specialty of the ' Darji ' (Tailor) community of Pipili, Puri district, Orissa. Originally used in festivals now find a way into our home too. The Craft involves embroidering and stitching of small pieces of colored cloth with motifs of flowers, animals, village scene and traditional designs on to a larger base cloth. The cloth used for patch as well as base is cotton with different color combinations. The usual appliqué patchwork items are Garden Umbrellas, Wallets, Wall Hanging, lampshades, Pouches & Bags. Appliqué & Patchwork has been diversified into many utilitarian item like bed sheets, cushions covers file folders etc. Applique trade has turned out to be the trade which has employed largest number of rural women artisans of orissa.
Garden Umbrella Lampshades
Wall Hangings Hand Bags
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Orissa treasures an opulent artistic heritage that has specimens from the temple architecture as well as the edifices. Skillful artists and craftsmen of Orissa still maintain their native art by continuously processing it to adapt to a changing taste. Be it the applique artists of Pipli or the stone carvers of Orissa, imperious progeny of artist hands carve the magnificent patterns and designs on Orissa's most renowned temples. The hereditary skills of artists has bequeathed traditional Orissan arts and crafts like weaving of Ikat, Bomkai and Sambalpuri Sari. Stone carving, applique and embroidery are equally famous, silver filigree work, palm leaf incised design, metal work, lacquered craftsmanship all have acquired a unique place world wide. A visit to the Raghurajpur artists' village and Pipli, near Puri, is definitely a revising experience. Palm Leaf Writing The ancient art of palm leaf writing still survives in Oriyan houses or in a temple. Religious texts, horoscopes traditionally written on palm leaves are still in practice. Palm leafs are considered so auspicious that printing of New Year cards and wedding invitations and important text on palm leaf is still popular in Orissa. Patachitra The word patachitra is reclaimed from the Sanskrit word pata, usually means a cloth piece, Chitra means painting or picture. Lot of craftsmen skill and hard labor is required to execute fine patachitra. Puri famous for its temple and beach preserves its traditional art form. In the famous splendidly carved Jagannath temple, an annual ceremonial has given rise to a new art form. Paintings made on specially treated cloth or patas are made by the painter and hung inside the sacred compound of the temple. Patas creation of a specific school of painting has given rise to totally a new creation- Patachitra. It is accomplished by the artist using varied colors, sometimes in red, black, yellow, white and indigo blue. Raghurajpur and Dandshahi villages are famous for their age-old art and paintings. These patachitras are of great demand in India as well as in other countries. Tourists to Puri carry back home these exquisite patas or patachitras as mementos and gifts. Appliqué Art 64 | P a g e
Like patachitras, appliqué work in Orissa also originated as a temple art. The artisans of Pipli - a village 40 km from Puri have their mastery in applique art. Besides Puri, appliqué work is also practiced in Chitki, Barpali, and a couple of other places. Colored cloth, are stitched in shape of animals, birds, flowers and beautiful wall, garden or beach umbrella, a lamp shade and much more hangings are made. Saris and other attires are designed with appliqué work, which is gaining lot of popularity in international market. Tiny mirrors are stick or stitched by thread embroidery to create a remarkable work of art. Colors like red, yellow, white and black are mainly used, in applique work whereas green has also been added in recent times. Carving Dating back to the Kalinga School, Puri has conserved a marvelous heritage of carving. Craftsmen at Puri use soft soapstone and hard kochila to carve temple sculptures. The craftsmen of Khandapara in Puri are proficient at carving plates, bowls, flowerpots and other decorative articles from a creamy white wood. Known as Sholapith work, the carved articles, if left in natural off-white, look like ivory. Besides this other decorative items and animal and bird toys extensively carved out of wood, and painted wooden masks, are just awe-inspiring. The Papier-mâché Art The papier-mâché art of Puri, Chikti Barpali, Parlakhamedi (Ganjam district), and a few villages around Cuttack has bizarre visages. This art of Orissa is also quite famous worldwide. The special feature of papiermâché toys - they have movable limbs and nodding heads that requires specific skills. Metal Work Places like Behrampur, Tarva, Chandanpur, Phulbani, and Kantilo are the main hub of unique metal craftsmanship. Families in these towns are specialized in producing a diverse variety of brass and metal craft objects that showcases immense talent and workmanship. Elegant craft of silver filigree work is also practiced in Cuttack. Silver is extended and drawn into fine wires and foils forming into ornaments. Cuttack is also well known for its horn work. Buffalo and cow horns are used by experienced artisans to produce elegant, exotic jewelry and other decorative items. 65 | P a g e
Patta Chitra Besides mural paintings, we get miniature paintings, which are called patta chitras. Pattas are now used as wall hangings. The subject matter of Patta paintings is limited to religious themes. The stories of Rama and Krishna are usually depicted on the pattas. "Rasa Lila", "Vastra Haran", "Kaliya Dalan" are some of the recurring themes of Patta art. Patta chitras of Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra, the Navagrahas and the deities are also famous. In some parts of Orissa, during marriage ceremonies, Patta chitras of Durga and Mahadeva are used. The present generation of patta painters paint in the style of the oleography on the walls of big temple. The Patachitras are paintings on cloth. In the absence of paper, cloth gives an extended smooth surface and is easily transported. Patta paintings are so called because they are executed on silken hand woven both. They are painted with bright colours and possess a charm peculiarly their own.Their pictorial conceptions, their unique painting technique and line formations together with colour schemes make them a remarkably original art form that is distinct from any other school of painting either in or outside India. Paintings Orissa has an age old tradition of Painting which stretches from the prehistoric rock shelters to the temples and mathas of this century. Out of these the traditional painters , the tribal painter , the folk and rock painters are of significance. Tribal Paintings Orissa has a rich tribal culture. The Sauras, the Kondhs and the Santals decorate their houses with motifs of flowers, birds and geometrical designs. The Saura paintings are intimately related to religious beliefs and drawn in order to appease demigods' and spirits. On the occasion of animal sacrifices, the Sauras draw ittals on their walls. The themes of these paintings are usually dream sequences. A medley of objects such as a comb or even a bicycle map figure in modem Saura paintings. The Kondh wall paintings are generally in the form of geometrical designs. Santals also paint their houses with figurative patterns. 66 | P a g e
Rock Paintings Painted rock shelters are situated in the densely wooded tracts of western Orissa. The rock shelters at Ulapgarh and Vikram Khol in Sambalpur district, Manikmada and Ushakothi in Sundargarh district, Gudahandi and Yogimatha in Kalahandi district, offer the joy of discovering a primitive culture, rare in the whole of Eastern India. There are natural rocks in these areas covered with prehistoric paintings. The Ravana Chhata Rock al Sitabinjhee of Keonjhar district contains a painting of a very high order. It depicts the procession scene of a King riding a caparisoned elephant. There are horse-riders and soldiers on the march holding shafts and banners, followed by a female attendant. This painting carries reminiscence of Aianta murals. The rock painting in these natural caves are coloured with the help of a twig of a palm tree turned into a brush by hammering its fibrous end. The paintings differ from place to place. Palm Leaf Paintings Palm leaf paintings are very ancient in Orissa. In Orissa the Palm Leaf illustrations are mainly of two types,simple engravings or illustrations in pure
The Talapatrachitras or the palm leaf engravings consist of frozen linear drawing as illustrations of manuscripts. In these engravings, colours are muted and play a very minor part. Where colours are at all applied, they are just painted either to emphasize the inscriptions, or to fill up blank space. In Orissa, manuscripts were written on palm leaves even during the Mughal period when the paper was freely available. In the limited space of the oblong palm leaf with a small width, human figures completed with details of hair style and dress, animals, flowers and trees are executed with great precision and beauty, the tool of this art is a sharp style and it needs a remarkably steady hand to be able to wield this tool on thin strip of leaf. Jhoti, Chita, Muruja
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The folk art of Orissa is bound up with its social and religious activities. In the month of Margasira, women folk worship the goddess Lakshmi. It is the harvest season when grain is thrashed and stored. During this auspicious occasion, the mud walls and floors are decorated with murals in white rice paste or pithau. They are called jhoti or chita and are drawn not merely with the intention of decorating the house, but to establish a relationship between the mystical and the material, thus being highly symbolical and meaningful.Throughout the year, the village women perform several rituals for the fulfillment of their desires. For each occasion a specific motif is drawn on the floor or on the wall. Muruja is drawn on the floor with powders of different hues. White powder is obtained from the grinding of stones, green powder is obtained from dry leaves, black from burnt coconut shells, yellow from the petals of marigold flowers or turmeric, and red from red clay or bricks. Muruja is generally used during rituals in the forms of mandalas. In the holy month of Kartik (November) women observe penance and draw muruja designs near the tulsi plant. Drawing of muruja designs needs a lot of skill and practice. The powder is held between the tips of the thumb and the forefinger, and allowed to fall delicately through them to form lines and patterns which are a delight to the eye testifying to the innate skill of the practitioners who are generally women.
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CONCLUSION Thus the complete study of the kirana store is studied in the thesis presented above. It can be concluded that the kirana shops have invested time and money ( giving credits and discounts) in using Customer insights; for their target population in their local colony. They recognized their customers by face, they know their family history, they understand the " available income" of their customer etc... It will take 69 | P a g e
some time for " organised retail" to adapt to customer scenarios for their consumers. Most people are going to Kirana stores for everyday items and on weekdays, while the same people frequent the More and Reliance Fresh kind of stores over the weekend. Indian customers are taking this as Leisure, Fun, Family level activity. Visiting organized retails are considered to be at family level. People go to the kirana shop for purchasing a single item, and in the same condition as dressed in their home outfits but they have to dress properly and would have to purchase in bulk if they visit a organized retail store like Big Bazaar, which is their present psychology. The presented study on the arts and crafts of Bhubaneswar would be helpful for a retailer to keep these type of stocks available in the store to give it more local look. The customers can be easily attracted and bonded with the store physically and emotionally also. Thus the study “Kirana and Bhaaji Mandi” gave a good insight in to the working and the functioning of these stores. Several services came in to view as can be adopted by the retailers to be more successful and develop loyal customers.
BIBLIOGRAPHY/ 70 | P a g e
WEBLIOGRAPHY MARKETING RESEARCH: BY GC BERI UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS : BY MG PARMESHWARAM.
http://www.tourismoforissa.com/orissa-cultural-tours/textileheritage-of-orissa.html http://www.pipilicrafts.com/ http://www.indiasite.com/orissa/artsandcraft.html http://www.indiatourism.com/orissa-tourism/jhoti.html Kalia, Ravi. Modernism, modernization and post‐ colonial India: a reflective essay. Planning Perspectives, Volume 21, Number 2, Number 2/April 2006 , pp. 133-156(24). Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group. Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional). Census Commission of India. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. http://www.bdabbsr.in/bdaservlets/html/abtbbsr.jsp http://www.indianmba.com/Faculty_Column/FC460/fc460.html http://www.networkmagazineindia.com/200703/coverstory01.sht ml http://business.mapsofindia.com/india-retailindustry/evolution/index.html http://business.mapsofindia.com/india-retailindustry/evolution/traditional-rural-retail-fairs.html http://www.naukrihub.com/india/retail/overview/evolution/
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ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR KIRANA STORE (Introduction: This research study is being carried out to understand the age old working model of the local kirana stores and what makes them the ultimate choice of customers. Study carried out as part of project assigned for completion of PG-Course.) OWNER’S NAME:______________________________________________________________________________________ STORE NAME:_________________________________________________________________________________________ STORE FORMAT/BUSINESS:_________________ SETUP DATE:__________________________________________________ ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________Location____________________________________________________ Interview Carried By: SARASWAT SWAIN Date: ___-04-2008
Instruction for answering: Please “tick mark” in the appropriate box and mention details wherever required. 1)
How many shops do you own currently? ANS: a) 1 [ ] b) 2 [ ] c) More than above [ ] 2) What is the current manpower strength of your store? ANS: a) 1-3 [ ] b) 3- 5 [ ] c) 5 and above [ ] 3) Are your family members involved? ANS: a) No [ ] b) Yes [ ], then how many_______? 4) How many regular customers do come for shopping at your store per week? ANS: a) less than 30 [ ] b) 30- 60 [ ] c) 60-90 [ ] d) More than 90 [ ] 5) Do you provide credit to your customers? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 6) Do you provide home delivery to your customers? ANS: a) If Yes [ ] mention distance ___________ b) No [ ] 7) Do you think giving more discount to customers will help you fight competition with big retailers like Big Bazaar? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 8) What do you think you should do to fight competition with organised retailers like BigBazaar? ANS: a) Provide more benefit [ ] b) More discount [ ] c) More service [ ] d) What else ________________________ 9) How many generic stocks do you carry in your store? ANS: a) less than 2000 [ ] b) 2000-4000 [ ] c) 4000-6000 [ ] d) Above 6000 [ ] 10) How often do you purchase your store items? ANS: a) Daily [ ] b) Weekly [ ] c) Monthly [ ] d) as when required [ ] 11) From where do you purchase them? ANS: a) Retailers [ ] b) Wholesalers [ ] c) Suppliers [ ] d) Any other [ ] 12) Do suppliers provide you stocks on credit? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]. 13) Do they provide you delivery after you purchase? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]. 14) Do you have any go- downs /storage room to keep stocks?
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ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]. 15) Do you own vehicle for transportation? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]. 16) How do you accept payments from your customers? ANS: a) Only Cash [ ] b) Cards (Debit, Credit etc) [ ] c) Cheques [ ] d) Vouchers (sodex-ho, accor etc) [ ] 17) Do you maintain any customer records? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]. 18) Do you entertain returns from your customers? ANS: a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ]. 19) Have you carried out any advertisements for your store? ANS: a) Yes [ ] Please specify _________________________________________________b) No [ ]. 20) Will you go for any type of promotion in the coming weeks/months to attract customers? ANS: a) yes [ ] b) No [ ] then why_______________________________________________________________ Your suggestions/comments, if any ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________ Thanks for sparing your precious time in filling up the questionnaire. Your invaluable suggestions/comments will certainly add value to the quality of the research study. Date: ___-04-2008 Signature: Signature: (Interviewee) (Interviewer)
INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1) What extra benefit do you provide to please your customers? please mention ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 2) How do you maintain uniform pricing for all your products? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 3) Are you a member of any type of business association? If yes what is the functioning of the association? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _
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4) Do you play any major role in the association please specify? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 5) Do you keep stocks according to the demand of the customers? How do you know the current demand of your customers? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 6) How do you replenish your stocks? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 7) Do you carry any type of physical counting? What is the process? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 8) Do you carry out financial accounting for your store? How do you maintain the records? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 9) How do you maintain your sales data? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _
10) How and on what basis do you make payment to your vendors? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 11) How do you think that you can fight competition with other shops selling the same products?
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ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 12) Please name few of your most favourite suppliers? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 13) To how many stores do you supply your products? And at which places ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 14) Please share with us 5 ways through which a completely new business in this area can be successful like your own store? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 15) What measures do you take to stop/prevent theft of stocks as well as money? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 16) How do you select people to work for your stores? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 17) Please give five ways through which you can fight competition with offers provided by Big Bazaar? ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 18) Please share some good/bad experiences with us... one each for your vendor and as well as customer. ANS__________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________
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QUESTIONNAIRE BHAAJI MANDIS
1) From where do you get vegetables/ fruits? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 2) On what basis do you purchase your vegetables/fruits? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 3) How do you get your stocks from the place of purchase to the market for selling? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 4) Are you a member of the vegetables association? What is the functioning of the association? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 5) How much rent do you pay for your assigned place in the market? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 6) How do you deal with the last stocks of the day? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 7) How do you preserve the vegetables for days? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 8) How do you fix prices for your vegetables? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 9) Do you give any discounts to the customers? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 10)Do you own any vegetable shop at your place? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 11)Where do you keep your stocks? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 12)How do you determine the quantity of purchase of vegetables for a single day?
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Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________
QUESTION SET FOR SUPPLIERS AND VENDORS Name of respondent:_______________________________________________________________ Address of the organization:_________________________________________________________ 1. Who are your major clients here? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 2. How much distance you cover for your order and delivery of your products? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________
3. How do you take orders from your clients? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 4. Do you help your clients for carrying out promotion at their stores ?
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Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 5. What special offers do you give during their promotions? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 6. Do you provide credit facility to your clients? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 7. From where do you purchase your stocks? Ans:_____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________
Date : ___ / ___ / 2008 _____________________________ ( signature )
QUESTION SET FOR STORE WORKERS Name of respondent:_______________________________________________________________
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Address of the organization:_________________________________________________________
1. For how many years you are working for this store? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 2. Do you like to work at this store? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 3. What is your highest qualification? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 4. What is timing of your duty? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 5. Do you get any off during week? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 6. What is your job role in this store? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 7. Do you have complete product knowledge? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________
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___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 8. Do you know which products are fast/slow movers? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 9. Do you know your regular customers? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 10.Do you provide some extra service to your regular customers? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 11.What customer service do you offer to your customers? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 12.Who are your main customers here? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 13.Do you think your store should go for advertisements? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 14.Do you get any targets for the day by your owner? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ 81 | P a g e
15.Do you get your salaries on time? Do you get any incentives for sale? Ans:_______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________
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