Kiln-Operation KURT PERAY

April 21, 2018 | Author: Ali Hüthüt | Category: Combustion, N Ox, Materials, Chemistry, Energy And Resource
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Operation KURT PERAY...

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE GENERAL KILN SECTION 1 Description of Main Kiln Sste! "# $ Kiln Operation Priorities "% & Kiln Sste! Sta'ilit "( # Main Para!eters) Tren*s an* A'sol+te ,al+es "- % Main Para!eters to Control an* E.al+ate Kiln 1& ( ,aria'les /0ic0 t0e Operator Cannot Control 1%  ,aria'les /0ic0 t0e Operator Can Control 1% - Kiln Li!itation Factor 1( 2 Kiln Operation Tar3et 1 1" Opti!i4ation of Kiln Sste! 1- 11 List of Most Fre5+ent Factors /0en Kiln Operation Is not Satisfactor 12 1$ List of Tpical Kiln Operation Pro'le!s $" 1& 60at to Loo7 for 60en Loo7in3 Insi*e a Kiln $1 1# Kiln 8psets $ 1% Kiln Cclin3 $- 1( 9o/ to Brea7 a Ccle in a Kiln $2 KILN EMERGENC: CONDITIONS SECTION 1 Re* Spot on Kiln S0ell &" 1- Ra/ 8n'+rne* Fee* in Clin7er Cooler &1 12 Lar3e Rin3 Bro7en Loose in Kiln &$ $" B+rnin3 ;one Dan3ero+sl 9ot && $1 S+**en S0arp Raise in Bac7 En* Te!perat+re &# $$ Blac7 S!o7e E!ission fro! Kiln Stac7 &% $& Distorte* Fla!e S0ape &(

$# Loss of Section of Refractor Linin3 & $% Cooler Dri.e or Clin7er Con.eor Stoppe* & $( Re* Clin7er at Cooler Disc0ar3e &- $ Rapi* Rise of Te!perat+re in Coal Sste! &2 $- Po/er Fail+re #" $2 A C0ain Fire #$ &" 9ea. Rain or T0+n*er Stor! #& &1 S+**en 9i30 Positi.e Press+re #& &$ O.er0eate* Kiln Bearin3 ## && Kiln 9a4ar*o+s Con*itions ## KILN OPERATION SECTION &# Kiln Operation Tec0ni5+es # &% B+rnin3 ;one E.al+ation #- &( Kiln Sta'le Te!perat+re Profile #2 & Tar3et Set Point an* Operation References %" &- Bac7 En* Te!perat+re Control %1 &2 T0e T0ree Basic ,aria'les %1 #" Tar3et Ran3e for t0e T0ree ,aria'les %1 #1 T0e T0ree Basic Con*itions %$ #$ T0e $ Con*itions %& #& Kiln Slo/ Do/n %( ## Nor!al Operation Proce*+res on S0ift %2 #% Plan of Action %2 #( O?3en Le.el in A+to!atic Mo*e (" KILN [email protected] AND S98TDO6N PROCED8RES # [email protected]+p Fla!e E?a!ple (1 #- Pre0eat or Drin3 of Refractor Linin3 ($ #2 9eatin3 to Reac0 Te!perat+re Rea* to p+t Fee* On= (& %" Fee* On (#

$# Loss of Section of Refractor Linin3 & $% Cooler Dri.e or Clin7er Con.eor Stoppe* & $( Re* Clin7er at Cooler Disc0ar3e &- $ Rapi* Rise of Te!perat+re in Coal Sste! &2 $- Po/er Fail+re #" $2 A C0ain Fire #$ &" 9ea. Rain or T0+n*er Stor! #& &1 S+**en 9i30 Positi.e Press+re #& &$ O.er0eate* Kiln Bearin3 ## && Kiln 9a4ar*o+s Con*itions ## KILN OPERATION SECTION &# Kiln Operation Tec0ni5+es # &% B+rnin3 ;one E.al+ation #- &( Kiln Sta'le Te!perat+re Profile #2 & Tar3et Set Point an* Operation References %" &- Bac7 En* Te!perat+re Control %1 &2 T0e T0ree Basic ,aria'les %1 #" Tar3et Ran3e for t0e T0ree ,aria'les %1 #1 T0e T0ree Basic Con*itions %$ #$ T0e $ Con*itions %& #& Kiln Slo/ Do/n %( ## Nor!al Operation Proce*+res on S0ift %2 #% Plan of Action %2 #( O?3en Le.el in A+to!atic Mo*e (" KILN [email protected] AND S98TDO6N PROCED8RES # [email protected]+p Fla!e E?a!ple (1 #- Pre0eat or Drin3 of Refractor Linin3 ($ #2 9eatin3 to Reac0 Te!perat+re Rea* to p+t Fee* On= (& %" Fee* On (#

 %1 Kiln [email protected]+p Proce*+res after a Bric7 o' (# %$ E?a!ple of 9o/ to [email protected] if Pre0eat is Re5+ire* (- %& E?a!ple of 9o/ to [email protected] if No Pre0eat is Re5+ire* (2 %# Kiln S0+t*o/n General Infor!ation " %% Coolin3 Proce*+res " %( Kiln Rotation Sc0e*+le 1 % B+rner Pipe an* 9oo* Protection $ %- E!ptin3 t0e Fee* fro! t0e Kiln & %2 Kiln S0+t*o/n Proce*+res for Bric7 o' an* Re* Spot & COOLER SECTION (" Cooler F+nction ( (1 Cooler Operation  ($ Cooler Controllers  (& R+le on Cooler Operation - (# Main Sensors to Control t0e Cooler Operation 2 (% Particle Si4e of Clin7er -" (( Operation of Cooler Fans -" ( Clin7er an* Air Distri'+tion -1 COMB8STION SECTION (- Fla!e -$ (2 R+les on Fla!e -% " Co!'+stion -( 1 9eat Transfer in Rotar Kiln -2 $ B+rner Pipes an* No44les -2 & F+els in Ce!ent In*+str 2$ # Soli* F+els 2# % Drin3) Grin*in3 an* Firin3 Soli* F+els 2( ( Co!parison of t0e T0ree Maor F+els 2  Co!'+stion Reaction 2

- [email protected]!'+sti'les 2- BASIC PRINCIPLES SECTION 2 Basic Principles) Sste! of 8nits 2- -" Te!perat+re Scale na -1 So!e 8sef+l Con.ersion Factors na  -$ Basic Principles) Press+re an* Flo/s na -& Basic Principles) 9eat an* Te!perat+re na -# Basic Principles) 9eat E?c0an3e or Transfer na GENERAL KILN SECTION DESCRIPTION OF MAIN KILN S:STEMS 6et Process Better 0o!o3eneit of ra/ fee* D+st pro*+ce* is appro?i!atel 1% to $" of clin7er pro*+ction D+st ret+rn to 7iln ' !eans of ,orte? at fee* location = MBt+st>= Nat+ral loa* !o.e!ent often +nsta'le an* creates � p+s0es� = [email protected] [email protected] an* [email protected] Resi*ence ti!e in to/er is fro! $ to % secon*s= Resi*ence ti!e in 7iln is appro?i!atel &" !in+tes= Fast reaction ti!e) re5+ires fast action to control t0e 7iln= A'o+t %" to 2" calcinations is *one in to/er= More sta'le t0an lon3 *r) 'eca+se calcinations is ta7in3 place in to/er= 9eat cons+!ption nears -"" 7ilocalories = ,er 0i30 secon*ar air te!perat+re especiall /it0 [email protected] nee* tertiar air *+ct= F+el ratio split 7iln  @ #") [email protected]  @ (" KILN OPERATION PRIORITIES 1= Protection of t0e personnel /or7in3 in an* aro+n* t0e 7iln sste! is a 'asic safet r+le t0at !+st 'e strictl follo/e* at all ti!es= $= Protection of t0e e5+ip!ent= Aro+n* t0e 7iln) t0e safet of t0e e5+ip!ent is !ainl relate* to o.er0eatin3 pro'le!s an* co+l* 'e a> [email protected]* of 7iln Do not e?cee* -#"oF C0ain inlet te!perat+re Do not e?cee* !etall+r3ical !a?i!+! te!perat+re of c0ain sste!= P0sical Goo* an* acc+rate fee* rate in*ication= [email protected] fee*er s0o+l* 'e linear at lo/) !e*i+! an* 0i30 fee* rate= Goo* cali'ration ' p0sical /ei30t of t0e !aterial s0o+l* 'e *one at e.er !aor 7iln s0+t*o/n= Goo* fee* an* spee* ratio= $= Sta'le D+st [email protected]*+ction to Kiln D+st collector cleanin3 ccle se5+encin3= D+st circ+it confi3+ration s0o+l* pro.i*e sta'le [email protected] intro*+ction= Monitorin3 of t0e *+st ret+rn flo/ is an a**e* a*.anta3e= If *+st /astin3 is re5+ire*) /astin3 s0o+l* 'e *one in s+c0 a /a not to +pset t0e *+st ret+rn to t0e 7iln= &= Sta'le 6ater Spra Inection in Kiln or in Con*itionin3 To/er Goo* spra inects into 3as strea!) not in !aterial loa*= Goo* re3+lation of /ater inection /it0 respect to ESP inlet te!perat+re control= = #= Goo* C0ain Sste! Desi3n Act as a 3oo* *+st c+rtain = 6et 7iln *esi3n nee*s to fa.or fa.or a 3oo* � plastic 4one� in or*er or*er to to pre.ent pre.ent rin3 for!ation= for!ation= C0ain C0ain tonna3e s0o+l* 'e 'et/een 1$ to 1# of clin7er pro*+ction for lar3e 7iln an* 1" to 1$ for s!all 7iln= Goo* c0ains s0o+l* stan* 0i30 te!perat+re so t0at in ret+rn ena'le 0i30 pro*+ction rates= %= Goo* Control of 9oo* Press+re

9oo* press+re control is critical 'eca+se it pre.ents t0e cooler .ariations to +pset t0e '+rnin3 4one con*itions= 9oo* press+re set point s0o+l* 'e set as close as possi'le to 4ero) /0ile re!ainin3 ne3ati.e= (= Sta'le Secon*ar Air Te!perat+re T0e te!perat+re .ariations *+rin3 nor!al operation s0o+l* not e?cee* @ -%oF Goo* re3+lation of t0e cooler +n*[email protected] press+re is t0en re5+ire* /it0 a t0ic7 clin7er 'e* *ept0= T0e secon*ar air te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e as 0ot as possi'le) /it0o+t *a!a3in3 t0e nose rin3 or t0e refractor at t0e 7iln *isc0ar3e section= = Goo* Pro*+ction Le.el Lo/er li!it 8n*[email protected](" capacit 7iln ten*s to 'eco!e +nsta'le 8pper li!it Pro*+ction restriction *+e to Kiln *ia!eterH = ID fan capacitH Precipitator capacit -= Constant F+el +alit an* +antit Constant f+el 5+alit an* 5+antit to allo/ constant 0eat inp+t insi*e t0e 7iln= MAIN PARAMETERS) TRENDS AND ABSOL8TE ,AL8ES Bac7 En* Te!perat+re Set point .aries /it0 t0e 7iln pro*+ction le.el= Set point .aries /it0 t0e con*ition of t0e c0ain sste!=

A'sol+te .al+e allo/s one to *ra/ concl+sions a'o+t efficienc of t0e 7iln sste! an* t0e 7iln operation= BET tren* is i!portant for t0e 7iln operation= 6it0 t0e +se of /ater spra in t0e 'ac7 en*) t0e /ater .ol+!e /ill s0o/ t0e reactions of t0e 'ac7 en* te!perat+re= Material Te!perat+re Slo/ reaction co!pare* to 3as te!perat+re= In /et process 7iln) !aterial te!perat+re is a 3oo* in*ication of t0e 'e0a.ior of t0e !aterial in t0e c0ain sste!= C0ain Gas Te!perat+re T0is te!perat+re is 3enerall a li!itin3 para!eter for t0e 7iln operation= T0e c0ain 3as te!perat+re set point is 3enerall fi?e* ' t0e !etall+r3 of t0e c0ain sste! an* its *esi3n= A'sol+te .al+e is .er i!portant an* !+st 'e 0el* 'elo/ t0e allo/e* � T� for t0e c0ain sste!= T0e tren* is representati.e '+t 0as slo/ reactions /it0 respect to t0e 'ac7 en* te!perat+re= ,er i!portant to t0e 7iln operation in or*er to !a7e a 3oo* !aterial preparation 'efore it reac0e* t0e '+rnin3 4one= B+rnin3 ;one Te!perat+re I!portance of t0is instr+!ent is often o.eresti!ate*= Precise onl /0en 7iln con*itions are clear= T0e secon*ar air *+st infl+ence in t0e in*ication of t0e instr+!ent an* rea*in3s are in error /0en 7iln 3ets 0ot an* *+st= It !+st 'e correlate* /it0 t0e 7iln a!ps in*ication an* t0e secon*ar air te!perat+re to ens+re t0e .ali*it of t0e rea*in3= S0ell Te!perat+re I!portance of t0is instr+!ent is +n*eresti!ate*=

It is often +se* onl to *etect 0ot spots on t0e 7iln s0ell) an esti!ation of 'ric7 t0ic7ness) an* coatin3 in t0e 7iln= On 'i33er c0arts) it 3i.es a 3oo* in*ication of t0e '+rnin3 4one te!perat+re profile= It is one of t0e fastest in*ications of a slo/l !o.in3 i3nition point in '+rnin3 4one= It is a .er 3oo* in*ication of fla!e .ariations *+e to t0e '+rner pipe position) fla!e s0ape an* *irection= = A'sol+te .al+e is i!portant to *etect 0ot spots an* rin3s= Tren* in*icates c0an3es in t0e '+rner sste!) 7iln spee*) i3nition point !o.e!ent an* operatin3 con*itions /0ic0 are affectin3 t0e te!perat+re profile of t0e '+rnin3 4one= Kiln Dri.e A!ps It is t0e !ost i!portant sensor +se* to e.al+ate t0e '+rnin3 4one state= T0e r+nnin3 set point /ill c0an3e accor*in3 to t0e ra/ !aterial co!position= A!pera3e .al+e c0an3es /it0 rin3 for!ation= A!pera3e .al+e c0an3es /it0 t0e si4e of t0e clin7er= T0e a'sol+te .al+e is i!portant onl /0en a!pera3e is 0i30 = T0e tren* is a .er 3oo* in*ication of '+rnin3 4one len3t0 an* te!perat+reH t0erefore t0e a!ps s0o+l* 'e recor*e* in s+c0 a /a to 3i.e a 3oo* in*ication in its .ariations= A *rastic increase of t0e a!ps tren*) follo/e* ' a fast *ecrease is an in*ication of loss of coatin3 or a 'ro7en rin3 insi*e t0e 7iln= A tar3et a!ps ran3e s0o+l* 'e esta'lis0e* t0ro+30 /0ic0 t0is .aria'le can fl+ct+ate safel= A *rastic increase in a!ps co+l* in*icate a possi'le !ec0anical con*ition pro'le!= NO? Anal4er Essentiall it is an in*ication of t0e fla!e te!perat+re= 9i30er is t0e fla!e te!perat+re) t0e 0i30er /ill 'e t0e NO? concentration= NO? content in t0e fl+e 3ases in t0e s!o7e stac7 ori3inate partl fro! 0i30 te!perat+re snt0esis in fla!e fro! o?3en an* nitro3en= NO? le.el 0as 'een !eas+re* in t0e ran3e 'et/een %"" an* $""" pp! in t0e Lafar3e 3ro+p= NO? increase /it0 e?cess air an* is stron3l correlate* to lo/ e?cess air le.els=

At 0i30er le.els) i=e= & an* 3reater) NO? is /ea7l *epen*ent on e?cess air= Correlation 'et/een '+rnin3 4one te!perat+re an* NO? le.el is 3oo*= NO? is 3enerall) '+t not sste!aticall correlate* /it0 t0e 7iln *ri.e a!ps= NO? 3i.es a tr+er pict+re of '+rnin3 con*itions= Kiln *ri.e a!ps /ill c0an3e *+e to rin3 for!ation an* *e3ra*ation) /0ereas NO? si3nal /ill not= NO? correlates 'etter /it0 clin7er liter /ei30t t0an free li!e= NO? is affecte* ' f+el c0an3es= Nat+ral 3as fla!es iel* t0e 0i30est NO? le.el= All t0e factors 0a.in3 an i!pact on t0e fla!e te!perat+re /ill affect t0e NO? si3nal li7e t0e follo/in3 T0e secon*ar air te!perat+re) T0e pri!ar air te!perat+re) T0e '+rnin3 4one te!perat+re) C0e!ical co!position an* fineness of t0e f+el) T0e air an* f+el ratio an* T0e fla!e en.iron!ent = A 5+ic7 *ecrease in t0e NO? si3nal is an in*ication of t0e '+rnin3 4one te!perat+re *roppin3= A slo/ an* e.en *ecrease on t0e NO? si3nal is an in*ication of a slo/ coolin3 of t0e '+rnin3 4one an* is relate* to a 'a* !aterial preparation fro! t0e 7iln 'ac7 en*= On t0e a+to!atic 7iln control sste! *e.elope* ' Lafar3e) t0e pro3ra! is 3i.in3 &" of it as e.al+ation of t0e '+rnin3 4one state to t0e NO? si3nal) %% to t0e 7iln a!ps) an* 1% to t0e clin7er te!perat+re at t0e 7iln o+tlet= Secon*ar Air Te!perat+re It s0o+l* 'e 7ept as sta'le as possi'le ' t0e a+to!atic cooler control sste! = A'sol+te .al+e is not i!portant 'eca+se !ost in*ications are incorrect *+e to instr+!ent inacc+rac= Tren* is .er i!portant as it s0o/s .ariations of !aterial fro! t0e 7iln an* t0e 3as te!perat+re .ariations to t0e 7iln= T0e secon*ar air te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e as 0i30 as possi'le in respect of t0e .ario+s refractor te!perat+res in front of t0e 7iln=

9oo* Draft A'sol+te .al+e is i!portant an* is a+to!aticall controlle* at a constant .al+e = It s0o+l* 'e lo/ as possi'le = It is t0e separation 'et/een cooler an* 7iln an* it s0o+l* 'e al/as constant to a.oi* infl+ences of c0an3es in t0e cooler 3as flo/ to t0e 7iln operation= A poor re3+lation of t0is si3nal /ill in*+ce .ariations in t0e 7iln 3as flo/ an* co+l* 'rin3 t0e 7iln into cclin3= Fee* En* Draft an* ID Fan Draft Tren* an* a'sol+te .al+e 0elp to *etect '+il*@+p in t0e 7iln= T0is is a .er i!portant sensor if !an rin3 pro'le!s occ+r in a plant= Cooler E?0a+st Gas Te!perat+re Tren* /ill 3i.e o+ infor!ation a'o+t t0e te!perat+re profile in cooler 3as flo/ .ariations an* clin7er te!perat+re= A'sol+te .al+e is an i!portant li!itation for protection of t0e *+st collection sste!= T0e cooler e?0a+st te!perat+re is a !ore relia'le clin7er *isc0ar3e in*ication t0an t0e clin7er te!perat+re= Clin7er Disc0ar3e Te!perat+re Tren* 0as no i!portance for cooler operation= A'sol+te .al+e is an i!portant li!itation for safet of t0e clin7er transport sste!= Clin7er te!perat+re !eas+re!ents are 3enerall not .er acc+rate= 8n*er Grate Press+re T0e a'sol+te .al+e s0o+l* 'e !aintaine* constant /it0 a+to!atic control= T0e .al+e .aries /it0 t0e cooler 'e* *ept0 an* /it0 clin7er si4e= It !+st 'e 0el* constant in or*er to ac0ie.e a constant secon*ar air te!perat+re= Also) onl a constant air flo/ can allo/ t0e relations0ip 'et/een +n*er 3rate press+re) 'e* *ept0 an* secon*ar air te!perat+re to 'e .ali*=

,ariations of t0e +n*er 3rate press+res tren* are reflecte* ' .ariations in t0e cooler 3rate spee*= 8n*er 3rate press+res to3et0er /it0 cooler *ri.e a!ps) s0o+l* 3i.e an in*ication of t0e clin7er si4e= 8n*er 3rate press+re set point s0o+l* 'e at least % inc0es in or*er to 3et 3oo* 0eat rec+peration fro! t0e clin7er 'e* in t0e cooler= O?3en Anal4er Tren* an* set point .al+e are .er i!portant= It s0o+l* 'e !aintaine* as constant as possi'le= It can s+ppl in*ications a'o+t 3eneral 7iln con*itions) '+rnin3 4one an* 'ac7 en* te!perat+re= One of t0e 'est in*ications /0en t0e 7iln is p+s0in3 to in*icate if t0e p+s0 is still on or o.er = It s0o+l* 'e 7ept as lo/ as possi'le /0en t0e 7iln is sta'le) /it0o+t 3oin3 into CO ran3e= 9o/e.er) /0en +sin3 coal or co7e) set point s0o+l* 'e increase* to o.erco!e t0e f+el 5+alit .ariations= MAIN PARAMETERS 8SED TO CONTROL AND E,AL8ATE KILN Kiln A!ps It is a .er 3oo* in*ication of t0e '+rnin3 4one state) acc+rate at -" of t0e ti!e= NO? Anal4er Nitro3en O?i*e le.el is relate* to t0e fla!e te!perat+re t0an t0e '+rnin3 4one te!perat+re= NO? .ar all t0e factors t0at 0as an effect on t0e fla!e= It is a .er 3oo* in*ication of t0e '+rnin3 4one state= F+el Flo/

It s0o+l* 'e relate* to t0e 7iln fee* rate= It s0o+l* 'e +se* as t0e !ain controller for t0e '+rnin3 4one an* t0e 7iln 'ac7 en* te!perat+re= Kiln Spee* It s0o+l* 'e relate* to fee* rate= It s0o+l* 'e set /it0 a constant fee* ratio= S!all .ariations of t0e 7iln spee* co+l* 'e +se* to control t0e '+rnin3 4one state= 9o/e.er) 7iln spee* .ariations s0o+l* 'e +se* onl after t0e f+el flo/ rate 0as 'een +se* as t0e pri!ar controller on lon3 /et an* *r 7iln= Often if o.er +se*) spee* .ariations in t0e !aterial loa*in3 of t0e 7iln an* /ill lea* t0e 7iln into a ccle= On lar3e te!perat+re .ariations in '+rnin3 4one li7e ra/ !aterial p+s0es) t0e 7iln spee* !+st 'e +se* /it0 /i*e .ariations *+e to *irect firin3 of coal) -> 9i30 le.el of .olatile ele!ents in ra/ fee* partic+larl c0lorine 2> Sste!aticall 0ot '+rnin3 1"> Ina*e5+ate c0ain sste! 11> Poor cooler 0eat reco.er *+e to cooler fan *esi3n 1$> Poor cooler 0eat reco.er *+e to e?cessi.e air flo/s) ins+fficient press+re in +n*er 3rate co!part!ents 1&> C0e!icall .aria'le ra/ !i? C&S) !ore t0an 1" points o.er a s0ift 1#> ,aria'le sl+rr !oist+re 1%> ,aria'le a**ition of [email protected] or [email protected] *+st fro! precipitator 1(> Erratic fee* rate 1> Erratic f+el rate 1-> 9i30 lea7a3e into 0oo* seal 9i30 lea7a3e into [email protected] an* *o/[email protected]!er *+ct $1> Fla!e erosion on linin3 co+l* create pre!at+re 'ric7 fail+re $$> Kiln !isali3n!ent) e?cessi.e tire clearances an* ot0er factors of s0ell *eflection $&> Bric7in3 tec0ni5+es lea* to rin3s not ti30t eno+30 $#> Lo/ sl+rr !oist+re $%> 9i30 sl+rr !oist+re List of Tpical Kiln Operatin3 Pro'le!s

1> 9eat cons+!ption 0i30er t0an nor!al Lon3 *r 9i30er t0an &=# MBt+ton Lon3 /et 9i30er t0an %=$ MBt+ton Fo+r sta3e [email protected] 9i30er t0an &=1 MBt+ton $> O+tp+t lo/er t0an no!inal an*  or stan*ar* &> Kiln is +nsta'le an* re5+ires fre5+ent !assi.e s0+t*o/ns #> Kiln is cclin3 spontaneo+sl /it0o+t an action of operator %> Kiln is o+t of *raft /it0 o+tp+t 'elo/ no!inal (> Stac7 stin7s � SO$ e!issions are 0i30 > M+* rin3 in c0ain section on /et 7iln -> [email protected] on /et 7iln 2> B+rnin3 4one rin3s 1"> Disc0ar3e en* rin3s 11> Sno/!en in cooler 1$> Fre5+ent '+rnin3 4one '+rno+ts Kiln *ri.e see!s +n*ersi4e*) 7ic7s o+t +pon [email protected]+p after a s0ort s0+t*o/n 69AT TO LOOK FOR 69EN LOOKING INSIDE A KILN

 ,ie/in3 t0e 7iln interior T0is !a so+n* so!e/0at ele!entar) '+t /e s0o+l* ne.er for3et t0at /e are loo7in3 into an e?tre!el l+!ino+s so+rce= Alt0o+30 filterin3 3lasses are +se*) t0e li30t so+rce is so stron3 t0at foc+sin3 t0e ees into it for too lon3 a ti!e co+l* ca+se partial 'lin*ness= One s0o+l* loo7 no lon3er t0an one !in+te at a ti!e into t0e fire= If lon3er .ie/in3 is re5+ire*) loo7 a si*e for fe/ secon*s occasionall to rest t0e ees= Loo7in3 stea*il too lon3 at t0e fla!e res+lts in t0e ee losin3 its a'ilit to see *etails) 0ence t0e nee* for a s0ort rest e.er !in+te or so= T0e 5+estion of /0at tpe of colore* filter 3lass to +se !+st 'e left to t0e operators= B+rnin3 /it0 a nat+ral 3as fla!e +s+all !a7es necessar a *ar7er colore* t0an oil fire /o+l* re5+ire) 'eca+se of t0e 3reater l+!inosit of t0e fla!e= As a r+le) one s0o+l* al/as +se a 3lass t0at ena'les 0i! to see +n*er an* 'e0in* t0e fla!e= Once a certain 3lass 0as 'een c0osen) t0e operators s0o+l* sta /it0 t0is 3lass at all ti!es in or*er to properl +*3e t0e '+rnin3 4one con*itions= 9o/ fre5+entl s0o+l* one loo7 into t0e '+rnin3 4oneJ T0ere is no set ans/er to t0is 5+estion= E?perience* operators so!eti!es 'eco!e [email protected]*ent an* t0in7 t0at it /o+l* 'e perfectl safe to lea.e t0e 7iln alone for perio*s in e?cess of &" !in+tes= T0is action 0o/e.er) is a3ainst 3oo* '+rnin3 practice= T0e secret of e.er 3oo* operator is 0is a'ilit to reco3ni4e a c0an3e in 7iln con*ition at t0e ti!e a c0an3e ta7es place an* not later= For t0is reason) a 3oo* operator /ill ne.er lea.e a 7iln too lon3 a ti!e +nc0ec7e*= 60en t0in3s are 3oin3 s!oot0l) t0e 7iln s0o+l* 'e c0ec7e* e.er 0alf 0o+r) /it0 !ore fre5+ent c0ec7s if a*+st!ents are 'ein3 !a*e= T0ere is no s+c0 t0in3 as operatin3 a 7iln ' t0e instr+!ent alone) as t0e instr+!ents *o not s0o/) for e?a!ple 0ea.ier an* li30ter loa*s enterin3 t0e '+rnin3 4one +ntil it is al!ost too late to !a7e t0e necessar a*+st!ent= T0e 7iln con*ition can 'e esti!ate* fro! t0e color o'ser.e* in t0e 0ottest part of t0e fla!e= Dar7 re* c0err re* [email protected]ello/ /0ite Col* @ @ nor!al 0ot An *e.iations fro! t0e [email protected]ello/ ran3e s0o+l* 'e in.esti3ate* to *eter!ine t0e ca+se an* /0en a*+st!ents nee* to 'e !a*e to t0e 7iln operation to 3et 'ac7 to nor!al 7iln con*ition=

Appearance of '+rnin3 4one Goo* or 'a* .isi'ilit Bri30t /0ite or *ar7 re* color Goo* appearance is an [email protected]ello/ color T0e 3as strea! s0o+l* 'e cal! /it0o+t 3reat t+r'+lence Appearance of coatin3 Coatin3 s0o+l* 'e3in appro?i!atel = *ia!eter of 7iln si4e fro! t0e nose rin3 Color of coatin3 tells a 3reat *eal a'o+t t0e con*ition in '+rnin3 4one as coatin3 acts as 0eat stora3e in '+rnin3 4one O.erall t0ic7ness of coatin3 s0o+l* 'e 'et/een 2 an* 1$ inc0es an* is *epen*ent of t0e tpe of ra/ !i? C0ec7 for rin3 for!ation near lo/er or +pper section of t0e 7iln If t0e s+rface of t0e coatin3 appears s!oot0) t0en t0e '+rnin3 4one in t0is area is 0ot If t0e coatin3 appears � l+!p� t0en t0e '+rnin3 4one is o7a A 'are spot /it0o+t coatin3 co+l* 'e *+e to fla!e erosion) t0ic7 'ric7 or 0i30 fla!e te!perat+re in t0is location Appearance of t0e coatin3 fallin3 off fro! t0e top of t0e 7iln s0ell Lar3e pieces nor!al Fine noo*les *rippin3 too 0ot T0e location /0ere t0e coatin3 pieces are fallin3 fro! t0e top of t0e 7iln /all) a'o.e t0e en* of t0e fla!e is 3enerall /0ere t0e ra/ loa* is= So /0ene.er t0e ra/ loa* cannot 'e seen in t0e 'otto! an* 'e0in* t0e fla!e of t0e 7iln) tr to loo7 at t0e top= Appearance of !aterial loa*

 Is clin7er 'allin3 or fineJ Is !aterial stic7J Is !aterial 0ea. or li30tJ Is !aterial !o.e!ent fast or slo/J Is !aterial cli!'in3 lo/ or 0i30 in t0e /allJ 9ar* or la4 B+s0 or narro/

Bri30t or *ar7 60ite or oran3e ello/ Ero*in3 t0e coatin3 or t0e 'ric7 /all Ai!in3 0i30) lo/ or in t0e center Ero*in3 t0e !aterial loa* If f+el is '+rnin3 in s+spension or in t0e !aterial loa* Position of t0e i3nition point /0en coal or co7e is +se* T0e fla!e te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e as 0ot as possi'le as lon3 as it *oes not create pro'le!s /it0 t0e coatin3 an* t0e 7iln refractor= 60ene.er a c0an3e is !a*e on t0e fla!e s0ape) a close !onitorin3 of t0e s0ell te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e *one= Coal fla!es Coal nor!all '+rns /it0 lon3er fla!e t0an oil A coal fla!e nor!all starts at & to % feet fro! t0e '+rner tip Coal fineness to 'e a'o+t -% passin3 $"" !es0 Keep t0e coal sste! air flo/ at a'o+t " ftsec to a.oi* coal *eposit insi*e pipe) /0ile 7eepin3 pri!ar air to !ini!+! Appearance of t0e 7iln co+l* appear col* if '+rnin3 is too far= T0e clin7er co+l* 'e fine ) .er 'ri30t re* an* s0ell '+l3es an* /arps Reco!!en*e* Actions to Ta7e A> For s!all re* spot locate* in t0e +pper transition or center of '+rnin3 4one Contin+e nor!al operation of 7iln '+t

= Place s0ell coolin3 fans in t0e area of re* spot = S0orten fla!e to 'rin3 'lac7 fee* o.er area of re* spot in atte!pt to for! ne/ coatin3 = Keep /atc0in3 t0e s0ell te!perat+re tren* = Maintain nor!al '+rnin3 4one te!perat+re = C0an3e 7iln fee* c0e!istr to o'tain an easier '+rnin3 !i? B> For lar3e re* spot locate* +n*er or near a 7iln tire or in areas /ere no coatin3 is for!e* S98T DO6N KILN IMMEDIATEL: 6arnin3 8n*er no circ+!stances s0o+l* a /ater spra 'e +se* on t0e re* spot) as t0is co+l* res+lt in se.ere 7iln s0ell *a!a3e= Possi'le Meas+res to Pre.ent [email protected] occ+rrence = Ma7e s+re fla!e confi3+ration an* c0aracteristics are not ca+sin3 locali4e* coatin3 erosion or contin+o+s an* e?cessi.e o.er0eatin3 = E!plo proper refractor installation !et0o*s = Mini!i4e fre5+enc of 7iln s0+t*o/ns an* +psets = Mini!i4e fre5+enc of clin7er tpe c0an3es o.er = A.oi* � 0ar*� '+rnin3 !i?es RA6) 8NB8RNED FEED IN CLINKER COOLER In*icators = On r+s0 of ra/ fee* into an* 'eon* '+rnin3 4one = � Blac7 fee*� position a*.ance* !ore t0an = /a +n*er t0e fla!e = � [email protected]+t� in '+rnin3 4one = Re* 3rates in cooler = Rapi* rise in cooler 3rate an* clin7er *isc0ar3e te!perat+res = Cooler *[email protected]ain a!pera3e increases rapi*l Possi'le Effects an* Dan3er

= T0er!al *a!a3e to cooler 3rates an* 3rate *ri.e !ec0anis! = Fire on clin7er con.eor 'elts = E?cessi.e 0i30 te!perat+res in coal !ill air circ+it 6arnin3 6atc0 for inco!plete co!'+stion /0en .isi'ilit in '+rnin3 4one is se.erel restricte*= Actions to Ta7e First an* fore!ost) *o not /ait +ntil ra/ fee* is in t0e coolerH act /0en t0e first si3ns of i!pen*in3 pro'le!s are .isi'le in t0e '+rnin3 4one= = I!!e*iatel re*+ce 7iln spee* to !ini!+! = Re*+ce f+el an* ID fan spee* in accor*ance /it0 stan*ar* slo/*o/n proce*+res to protect t0e 7iln 'ac7 en* te!perat+re = Re*+ce cooler 3rate *ri.e spee* to allo/ !aterial in cooler !ore ti!e for coolin3 = A*+st cooler air flo/ rates to o'tain !a?i!+! coolin3 /it0o+t t0e 0oo* press+re 3oin3 positi.e = A*.ise all +na+t0ori4e* personnel to sta clear of t0e firin3 floor) cooler an* coal !ill area Pre.enti.e Meas+res to A.oi* [email protected]+rrence = Accelerate fre5+enc of .is+al o'ser.ations of '+rnin3 4one for earl *etection of i!pen*in3 cooler +psets = E.al+ate 7iln o+tp+t rates .s= capa'ilities an* 7iln operatin3 sta'ilit LARGE RING BROKEN LOOSE IN KILN In*icators = ,is+al o'ser.ations of lar3e +n7s in '+rnin3 4one = S+**en *rop in 7iln 'ac7 en* *raft = Lar3e *rop in o?3en content of 7iln e?it 3ases = 9oo* press+re ten*in3 to/ar*s positi.e si*e = S+**en c0an3e in 7iln *ri.e a!pera3e

Possi'le Effects an* Dan3ers = O.erloa*in3 cooler /it0 +n'+rne* fee* = On r+s0 of e?cessi.e a!o+nts of fee* into t0e '+rnin3 4one = Da!a3e to cooler *ri.es an* 3rates = Lar3e pieces a!!in3 cooler 0a!!er cr+s0er = Re* 0ot clin7er lea.in3 cooler Actions to Ta7e = 60en a!o+nt of fee* an* rin3 fra3!ents in '+rnin3 4one are e?tre!el lar3e = I!!e*iatel re*+ce 7iln spee* to !ini!+! = Re*+ce f+el an* ID fan spee* to 7eep 'ac7 en* te!perat+re +n*er control = S/itc0 cooler 3rate control to !an+al an* re*+ce 3rate spee* = A*+st cooler air flo/s to !a?i!+! flo/ possi'le) /it0o+t t0e 0oo* press+re 3oin3 positi.e = 9a.e personnel on stan*' to /atc0 t0e cooler an* t0e 0a!!er cr+s0er for possi'le o.erloa*in3) o.er0eatin3 an* a!!in3 Possi'le Pre.enti.e Meas+res to A.oi* [email protected]+rrence = La'orator to ree.al+ate c0e!istr of 7iln fee* for possi'le eli!ination of rin3 for!ation if no sol+tion in t0is area possi'le) t0en = Initiate re3+lar sc0e*+le to re!o.e rin3s an* 0ea. '+il*@+p ' !eans of special *e.ices *esi3n for t0is p+rpose = Initiate re3+lar proce*+res to *isplace t0e '+rnin3 4one location on a *ail 'asis B8RNING ;ONE DANGERO8SL: 9OT In*icators = Clin7er 'allin3 in '+rnin3 4one = Material loa* [email protected] = Coatin3 *rippin3 off t0e /all = Sli*in3 !olten clin7er 'e* in '+rnin3 4one = B+rnin3 4one recor*in3 te!perat+re too 0i30

= Cooler +n*er 3rate press+re too 0i30 = Material loa* t+rnin3 to li5+i* in '+rnin3 4one = ,er 'rilliant an* /0ite '+rnin3 4one Possi'le Effects an* Dan3ers = Loss of coatin3 an* t0er!al *a!a3e to refractor = Re* spot in t0e 7iln s0ell = T0er!al *a!a3e to cooler an* 7iln 0oo* co!ponents Possi'le Actions = Re*+ce f+el flo/ rate to !ini!+! +ntil sa+sa3in3 stops = Increase 7iln spee* appro?i!atel 1" rp0 +ntil sa+sa3e is 'ro7en = Pro.i*e !a?i!+! air in cooler = T0e 7iln rotation to 'e a*apte* is t0e aspect of t0e !aterial near to fall into t0e cooler= No li5+i* !aterial in t0e cooler) stop 7iln rotation if nee*e*= = Re*+ce* pri!ar air flo/) t0en as soon as t0e o'ecti.e of 'rea7in3 t0e a33lo!eration is acco!plis0e*) = Re*+ce* t0e 7iln an* ID fan spee* t0en increase f+el flo/ rate to nor!al operatin3 con*itions Pre.enti.e Meas+res = If � sa+sa3in3� is fre5+ent an* res+lt of eas@'+rnin3 !i?) 0a.e la'orator e.al+ate possi'ilit of pro.i*in3 a !i? /it0 less percenta3e of li5+i* content = Ma7e !ore fre5+ent) .i3ilant o'ser.ation of t0e '+rnin3 4one con*itions = E.al+ate fla!e position an* s0ape to *eter!ine if t0inner) lon3er fla!e is possi'le S8DDEN) S9ARP RAISE IN [email protected] TEMPERAT8RE Possi'le Reasons = Fee* s0orta3e = Co!'+stion in e?it 3as

= ID fan spee* too 0i30 = Kiln spee* too lo/ = C0ain fire Possi'le Effects an* Dan3ers = C0ain fire on /et an* *r 7ilns = T0er!al *a!a3e to 'ac7 en*) *+st collector an* [email protected] to/er e5+ip!ent = Delae* i3nition of f+el in 'ac7 en* of 7iln Possi'le Actions = I!!e*iatel *[email protected] electrostatic precipitator = I!!e*iatel re*+ce f+el flo/ rate an* ID fan spee* to o'tain less t0an "=& o?3en in e?it 3as 6arnin3 Do not c+t off f+el flo/ rate co!pletel as t0is co+l* tri33er an e?plosion= = Increase 7iln spee* an* fee* rate = 6arn personnel to sta clear of 7iln '[email protected]* = Do not open an *oors in 7iln '[email protected]* T0en as soon as t0e pri!ar o'ecti.e of 'rin3in3 t0e 7iln '[email protected]* te!perat+re +n*er control is acco!plis0e* = Ret+rn 7iln control .aria'les to nor!al to restore operatin3 con*itions = C0ec7 o+t '[email protected]* to *eter!ine if t0er!al *a!a3e 0a* occ+rre* Pre.enti.e Meas+res = Do not operate 7iln /it0o+t fee* for !ore t0an 1" !in+tes = Pro.i*e alar!s an* properl !aintain 7iln instr+!entation to o'tain /arnin3s 'efore t0e '[email protected]* te!perat+re 3ets o+t of !a?i!+! ran3e = Maintain close .i3ilance o.er co!'+stion) '[email protected]* an* flo/ con*itions *+rin3 7iln starts) s0+t*o/ns an* +psets BLACK SMOKE EMMISION FROM KILN STACK

In*icators = Co!'+sti'les in e?it 3ases = O?3en in e?it 3as too lo/ = Fla!e e?tin3+is0e* for poor i3nition con*itions = B+rnin3 4one te!perat+re too lo/ = E?cessi.e f+el rates an*or ins+fficient 7iln *raft Possi'le Actions = I!!e*iatel *[email protected] electrostatic precipitator = I!!e*iatel re*+ce f+el flo/ rate = Increase ID fan spee* to o'tain a> ;ero co!'+sti'le in e?it 3as '> O?3en 'et/een "=$ an* a !a?i!+! of "=% in e?it 3as = After 'lac7 s!o7e 0as cleare*) !aintain t0e lo/ o?3en4ero co!'+sti'les for at least 1" !in+tes 'efore restorin3 7iln .aria'les to nor!al Pre.enti.e Meas+res = I!pro.e control o.er fla!e an* firin3 con*itions = Ma7e fre5+ent) .i3ilant o'ser.ation of f+el flo/ rates) 3as analsis) fla!e an* 7iln *raft con*itions *+rin3 7iln starts an* +psets DISTORTED FLAME S9APE In*icators = Irre3+lar an* +n+s+al fla!e s0ape = Fra3!ente* fla!e /0ere part of fla!e i!pin3es on linin3 near 7iln *isc0ar3e area Possi'le Effects an* Dan3ers = Inspect '+rner pipe for *a!a3e or pl+33e* circ+it = If fla!e is erratic an* se.erel i!pin3es +pon linin3 near t0e 7iln *isc0ar3e area S0+t*o/n 7iln i!!e*iatel

= If fla!e is onl sli30tl *istorte*H a*+st '+rner position an* pri!ar air flo/ = C0ec7 s0ell te!perat+re on 7iln scanner = Sc0e*+le a '+rner pipe repairs for ne?t 7iln s0+t*o/n Pre.enti.e Meas+res = Fre5+ent .is+al inspection /0en loo7in3 insi*e t0e 7iln = Re3+lar inspection an* !aintenance of '+rner pipe *+rin3 eac0 prolon3e* 7iln s0+t*o/n = I!pro.e protection Pre.enti.e Meas+res = Kno/ at /0at a!pera3e t0e cooler *ri.e is li7el to fail an* pro.i*e alar! for o.erloa* = A*+st 7iln para!eters 'efore cooler can 'eco!e o.erloa*e* at t0e ti!es /0en 0ea.ier fee* loa* is o'ser.e* in t0e '+rnin3 4one RED CLINKER AT COOLER DISC9ARGE In*icators

= 9i30 *ra3 c0ain a!ps = S+**en *rop in +n*er 3rate press+re = E?cessi.el 0i30 +n*er 3rate press+re = Cooler *ri.e a!ps an* clin7er 'e* *ept0 too 0i30 = Cooler loa*e* /it0 coatin3 an* rin3 fra3!ents = Sno/!an for!ation at cooler inlet Possi'le Effects an* Dan3ers = T0er!al *a!a3e to cooler co!ponents = T0er!al *a!a3e to clin7er transport e5+ip!ent Possi'le Actions = I!!e*iatel !a7e a .is+al c0ec7 of t0e cooler to *eter!ine reason for re*@clin7er *isc0ar3e If cooler 3rate o+t) s0+t*o/n 7iln If cooler o.erloa*e*) re*+ce 7iln spee* to !ini!+! an* re*+ce cooler 3rate *ri.e spee* to allo/ !ore ti!e for coolin3 = Increase air flo/ into cooler = Acti.ate /ater spra at cooler *isc0ar3e an* rero+te clin7er to pre.ent *a!a3e to con.eor 'elts Pre.enti.e Meas+res a> On fre5+ent 3rate fail+res = In.esti3ate for possi'le fa+lt 3rate installation !et0o*s ' !aintenance *epart!ent = In.esti3ate 5+alit of 3rates an* 'olts +se* '> On fre5+ent [email protected]*e* loa*in3 of cooler 'e* = In.esti3ate possi'le cooler *esi3n c0an3es = In.esti3ate possi'ilities for eli!ination of stala3!ite for!ation at cooler inlet c> On fre5+ent o.erloa*in3 of cooler *+e to +psets = Slo/ *o/n 7iln spee* 'efore ra/ fee* enters cooler or cooler can 'eco!e o.erloa*e* /0ile in stora3e = Keep coal !ill *[email protected]!p c0+te clear = Pro.i*e coal !ill sste! /it0 a+to!atic [email protected]?tin3+is0in3 *e.ices = Do not operate coal !ill a'o.e pre*eter!ine* safe te!perat+re for an 3i.en tpe of coal PO6ER FAIL8RE Possi'le Effects an* Dan3ers = 6arpin3 of 7iln s0ell = T0er!al *a!a3e to '+rner pipe) instr+!entation an* e5+ip!ent at 7iln *isc0ar3e area

= On [email protected]* 7ilns) settle!ent of 3ro+n* coal in coal sste! t0at co+l* lea* to a fire an*or e?plosion Possi'le Actions = I!!e*iatel start a+?iliar po/er 3enerator an* pri!ar air fan = Retract '+rner pipe an* protect T, !onitor in 7iln 0oo* = Start = t+rn on 7iln not later t0an 1" !in+tes after t0e po/er fail+re = If a.aila'le) close fee*@en* *a!per !an+all to pre.ent 0ot 3ases fro! escapin3 fro! 7iln ' nat+ral *raft Po/er Fail+re Main Proce*+res = Start 3enerator or a+?iliar *ri.e = If it is rainin3) carr o+t = t+rn as *escri'e* pre.io+sl = Close 7iln '[email protected]*) ID fan *a!per) or precipitator inlet *a!per if po/er fail+re is of lon3 *+ration = Keep pri!ar air fan r+nnin3 to cool *o/n t0e '+rner pipe 1#&"oF to 1#"oF O?3en Percenta3e 1=$ @ "=- "=# to $=" T9E T9REE BASIC CONTROLS = F+el flo/ to t0e '+rner = C0an3e in t0e 7iln spee* = C0an3e in t0e spee* of t0e ID fan T0e operator nee*s to +se one or all of its t0ree controllers to 7eep t0ese .aria'les insi*e t0eir li!its= T0e operator !+st 'e alert an* correct an o+t of ran3e con*itions as soon as it reac0es t0e li!its of tolerance=

Correction s0o+l* 'e !a*e pro!ptl) '+t care !+st 'e e?ercise* to a.oi* o.erreactin3 as t0is co+l* lea* t0e 7iln to an +pset= T9E $ CONDITIONS Beca+se an of t0ese .aria'les can 'e /it0in) 'elo/ or a'o.e t0e allo/a'le ran3e) t0ere are $ possi'le con*itions t0at /ill 'e enco+ntere* ' t0e operator= T0ese are s0o/n 3rap0icall in t0e follo/in3 fi3+re= Note t0at a case n+!'er 0as 'een assi3ne* to eac0 con*ition as an ai* to i*entification= T0is c0art s0o+l* 'e +se* ' t0e operators to +n*erstan* t0e lo3ic of 3oo* 7iln operation proce*+res /0ere t0e [email protected]* Te!perat+re) t0e B+rnin3 ;one Te!perat+re an* O?3en le.el /ere all ta7en in consi*eration in or*er to !a7e a lo3ic correction to an o+t of ran3e .aria'le= Case Con*ition Action to 'e ta7en Reasons 1 B;T lo/ O? lo/ BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl lo/) c> increase ID fan spee* *> increase f+el rate a> to increase B;T an* BET '> to !o.e O? percenta3e into ran3e c> to raise BET an* O? *> to raise B;T an* O? into ran3e $ B;T lo/ O? lo/ BET OK a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce f+el rate c> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to raise B;T '> to raise O? percenta3e into ran3e c> to !aintain BET & B;T lo/ O? lo/ BET 0i30 a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce f+el rate c> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to raise B;T '> to increase O? c> to re*+ce BET # B;T lo/ O? OK BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl lo/) '> increase ID fan spee* c> increase f+el rate a> to raise 'ot0 B;T an* BET '> to raise BET an* O? c> to raise B;T % B;T lo/ O? OK BET OK 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/ an* O? is in lo/er part of ran3e) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce f+el rate c> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to raise B;T '> to raise O? c> to !aintain BET

60en B;T is sli30tl lo/ an* O? is in 0i30er part of ran3e) *> increase f+el rate *> to raise B;T ( B;T lo/ O? OK BET 0i30 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce f+el rate c> re*+ce ID fan spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl lo/ an* O? in 0i30er part of ran3e) *> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to raise B;T '> to raise O? c> to lo/er BET *> to re*+ce BET an* raise B;T  B;T lo/ O? 0i30 BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce ID fan spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl lo/) c> increase f+el rate a> to raise 'ot0 B;T an* BET '> to !aintain BET  c> to raise B;T an* lo/er O?  BET= BET s0o+l* 'e risin3 also) if not 7eep increasin3 f+el rate an* ID fan spee* - B;T lo/ O? 0i30 BET OK 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce ID fan spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl lo/) c> increase f+el rate a> to raise B;T '> to !aintain BET= If O? is still a.aila'le after t0is !o.e) increase f+el also c> to raise B;T an* lo/er O? 2 B;T lo/ O? 0i30 BET 0i30 60en B;T is *rasticall lo/) a> re*+ce 7iln spee* '> re*+ce ID fan spee* c> increase f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl lo/) *> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to raise B;T '> to lo/er BET an* O? c> to raise B;T an* lo/er O? *> to raise B;T an* re*+ce BET  O? 1" B;T OK O? lo/ BET lo/ a> increase ID fan spee* '> increase f+el rate a> to raise BET an* O? '> to !aintain B;T 11 B;T OK O? lo/ BET OK a> *ecrease f+el rate sli30tl a> to raise O? 1$ B;T OK O? lo/ BET 0i30 a> re*+ce f+el rate '> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to increase O? '> to lo/er BET an* !aintain B;T 1& B;T OK O? OK BET lo/ a> increase ID fan spee* '> increase f+el rate a> to raise BET '> to !aintain B;T 1# B;T OK O? OK BET OK None) 0o/e.er *o not 3et o.erconfi*ent 1% B;T OK O? OK 60en O? is in +pper part of ran3e)

BET 0i30 a> re*+ce ID fan spee* 60en O? is in lo/er part of ran3e) '> re*+ce f+el rate c> re*+ce ID fan spee* a> to re*+ce BET '> to raise O? c> to lo/er BET an* !aintain B;T 1( B;T OK O? 0i30 BET lo/ a> increase ID fan spee* '> increase f+el rate a> to raise BET '> to !aintain B;T an* re*+ce O? 1 B;T OK O? 0i30 BET OK a> re*+ce ID fan spee* sli30tl a> to lo/er O? 1- B;T OK O? 0i30 BET 0i30 a> re*+ce ID fan spee* sli30tl '> re*+ce f+el rate sli30tl a> to lo/er BET an* O? '> to !aintain B;T 12 B;T 0i30 O? lo/ BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> increase ID fan spee* c> re*+ce f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) *> increase ID fan spee* a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3 B;T '> to raise BET an* O? c> � *o � *> to lo/er B;T an* raise BET  O? $" B;T 0i30 O? lo/ BET OK 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> *ecrease f+el rate c> increase ID fan spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) e> increase ID fan spee* a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3 '> to lo/er B;T c> to increase O? an* !aintain BET *> to lo/er B;T an* raise O? $1 B;T 0i30 O? lo/ BET 0i30 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> re*+ce f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) c> *ecrease f+el rate a> to lo/er BET an* a.oi* o.er0eatin3 '> to lo/er B;T an* increase O? c> to lo/er B;T) BET an* increase O? $$ B;T 0i30 O? OK BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> increase ID fan spee* c> re*+ce f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) *> increase ID fan spee* a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3 '> to raise BET c> to lo/er B;T *> to raise BET an* lo/er B;T $& B;T 0i30 O? OK BET OK 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> *ecrease f+el rate c> increase ID fan spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) *> re*+ce f+el rate a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3 '> to lo/er B;T c> to !aintain BET *> to lo/er B;T $# B;T 0i30 O? OK 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3  lo/er BET

BET 0i30 '> *ecrease f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) c> *ecrease f+el rate '> to lo/er B;T c> to lo/er 'ot0 B;T an* BET $% B;T 0i30 O? 0i30 BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> increase ID fan spee* 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) c> increase ID fan spee* a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3 '> to increase BET an* lo/er B;T c> to raise BET  lo/er B;T $( B;T 0i30 O? 0i30 BET lo/ 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> increase ID fan spee* c> *ecrease f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) *> re*+ce f+el rate a> to a.oi* o.er0eatin3 '> to !aintain BET c> to re*+ce B;T *> to lo/er B;T $ B;T 0i30 O? 0i30 BET 0i30 60en B;T is *rasticall 0i30) a> increase 7iln spee* '> *ecrease f+el rate 60en B;T is sli30tl 0i30) c> *ecrease f+el rate *> *ecrease ID fan spee* a> to lo/er B;T an* BET '> � *o � c> to lo/er B;T *> to lo/er BET NOTE A If t0e  O$ increase* *+rin3 t0is a*+st!ent) *isre3ar* it +ntil te!perat+res are 'ro+30t +n*er control= KILN 8PSET CONDITIONS � SLO6 DO6N Kiln cannot operate in a sta'le con*ition at all ti!es an* it /ill e.ent+all 3et col*er= So!eti!es 0ea. r+s0 of fee* !i30t en* +p too far +n*er t0e fla!e = Operator !+st t0en *eci*e if 0e /ill 'e a'le to control t0e 0ea. fee* loa* onl ' increasin3 t0e f+el flo/) or if 0e nee*s to re*+ce t0e 7iln spee*= T0e *eter!inant factors to 'e consi*ere* are t0e o?3en le.el) '[email protected]* te!perat+re) !o.e!ent of t0e fee* r+s0) an* con*itions in t0e cooler= Ass+!in3 t0at it is i!possi'le to !aintain t0e sa!e 7iln spee*) t0e operator !+st *eter!ine 0o/ !+c0 t0e 7iln spee* can 'e slo/e* *o/n *epen*in3 on t0e !a3nit+*e of t0e p+s0=

Onl e?perience can tell t0e operator 0o/ !+c0 t0e 7iln 0as to 'e slo/e* *o/n= In t0ose cases t0e follo/in3 r+les appl all t0e ti!eH = 60en in *o+'t) t0e 7iln spee* re*+ction s0o+l* 'e 3reater t0an re5+ire*= T0is /ill 0elp to o.erco!e t0e pro'le! faster= = Ne.er allo/ t0e ra/) +n'+rne* fee* to enter into t0e cooler) e.en if it !eans t0at t0e 7iln !+st 'e stoppe* an* rotate* on = t+rn or t0e a+?iliar *ri.e= As soon as t0e 7iln 0as 'een slo/e* *o/n) t0e operator !+stH = Tr to 7eep t0e '[email protected]* te!perat+re /it0in accepta'le li!its .ariation = = C+t *o/n t0e f+el flo/ to !aintain t0e o?3en le.el a'o.e "=% an* to 7eep '[email protected]* te!perat+re insi*e t0e li!it ran3e= = E.al+ate t0e cooler con*itions) 3rate spee*) 3rate te!perat+re) inlet te!perat+re of 3ra.el 'e* collection sste! an* secon*ar air te!perat+re= = Often) t0e cooler /ill 0a.e to 'e s/itc0e* on !an+al !o*e to protect it to 'eco!e o.er0eate* as often re3+lation of cooler are !a*e for s!all .ariations onl= As t0e 7iln is on slo/ spee*) it is necessar to *eter!ine /0en t0e spee* can 'e increase* 'ac7 a3ain= In t0at case) t0e o?3en le.el is t0e !ain factor to loo7 at= Tr to 7eep t0e sa!e .al+es on t0e f+el flo/ an* ID fan spee* in or*er to o'ser.e t0e O$ .ariations= 60en O$ le.el increases) t0e '+rnin3 4one is /ar!in3 +p= = As soon as t0e o?3en le.el start to increase) increase t0e 7iln spee* slo/l i=e= @ & rp0 if t0e '+rnin3 4one is still *ar7 an* .er *+st=

= O'ser.e t0e reaction of t0e O$ le.el if it 7eeps on raisin3= = If so) increase 7iln spee* ' & rp0 at e.er 1" !in+tes) an* 7eep on increasin3 as lon3 as t0e o?3en le.el *oes not *rop= = Keep f+el flo/ al/as one step a0ea* of nor!al operation le.el) ) an* ID fan spee* accor*in3l= = Stop increasin3 7iln spee* appro?i!atel 1 = to $ 0o+rs after initial slo/ spee* in or*er to o.erco!e an +pset in t0e !aterial loa* of t0e 7iln create* ' t0e spee* .ariation= = Restart increase t0e 7iln spee* after reception of !aterial fro! slo/*o/n is o.er= = Kiln spee* increase s0o+l* 'e re*+ce* aro+n* -" re.s as /e are 3ettin3 near f+ll pro*+ction = 8s+all) t0e 7iln s0o+l* 'e 'ac7 in f+ll pro*+ction a'o+t # 0o+rs after t0e slo/*o/n /as !a*e= Slo/*o/n E?a!ple re.s t0 F+el flo/ ID fan spee* O$ Operation -( 2& 1"$ !&0 %&" rp! 1=% Nor!al (( $ -% !&0 acc= O$ le.el "= Slo/*o/n &( #" %" !&0 acc= O$ le.el "= slo/*o/n

NORMAL OPERATING PROCED8RES ON S9IFT Ta7e O.er of S0ift ' Operators C0ec7 = ,is+al inspection of '+rnin3 4one) loo7 for *ar7 loa* = O?3en le.el an* tren* = [email protected]* te!perat+re an* tren* = Kiln a!ps an* tren* = NO? si3nal an* tren* = Kiln spee* = Kiln fee* in*icator = Secon*ar air te!perat+re an* tren* = Clin7er loa* on 3rate in cooler = Cooler fans +n*er 3rate press+re = Kiln *raft an* 0oo* press+re = Gra.el 'e* filter or DC te!perat+re = 6ater spra an* precipitator T0en an e.al+ation of t0e 7iln an* '+rnin3 4one state nee* to 'e *one in or*er to co!pare act+al settin3s /it0 t0e tar3et .al+e an* li!it ran3es esta'lis0e* 'efore= 6ait at least &" !in+tes 'efore c0an3in3 an .al+es) +nless t0ere is an e!er3enc con*ition in or*er to e.al+ate if t0e 7iln is /ar!in3 +p) coolin3 *o/n or sta'le= PLAN OF ACTION

If t0e '+rnin3 4one is 0ot an* t0e 7iln is sta'le = Decrease f+el flo/ ' & = T0en *ecrease ID fan spee* to 7eep t0e sa!e O$ le.el = 6ait appro?i!atel $" !in Start pri!ar air fan /it0 *a!per close* > Install torc0 +n*er '+rner pipe -> Set nat+ral 3as to o'tain appro?i!atel 1& !&!in A*+st pri!ar air *a!per) pri!ar an* secon*ar 3as press+re) an* ID fan *a!per for 'est fla!e possi'le 11> If fla!e 3oes o+t) !a7e s+re to p+r3e t0e air insi*e t0e 7iln 'efore an atte!pt to tr li30tin3 +p a3ain

1$> Don�t t+rn t0e 7iln for t0e first $ 0o+rs 1&> Start nose rin3 fan one 0o+r after t0e fla!e on [email protected] or Drin3 of t0e Refractor Linin3 General Infor!ation = T0e [email protected] perio* last aro+n* 1$ 0o+rs= A !ini!+! of - to 1$ 0o+rs is necessar = T0e reference te!perat+re *+rin3 t0is perio* s0o+l* 'e t0e 7iln fee* en* te!perat+re = T0e tar3et te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e appro?i!atel &""oC or %%oF at t0e precipitator inlet = Start 7iln rotation $ 0o+rs after fla!e on = After !a7e = t+rn e.er &" !in+tes +ntil t0e en* of [email protected] perio* If Ne/ Casta'le /as Installe* [email protected] perio* co+l* ta7e as lon3 as &( 0o+rs *epen*in3 on t0e location an* t0e 5+alit of t0e casta'le installe* an* co+l* 'e *i.i*e* in t0ree perio*s as follo/s First Perio* = For 1$ 0o+rs /it0 3as flo/ of 1& !&!in or #%" ft&!in = Do not e?cee* 1"oC or &#"oF at t0e filter inlet *+rin3 t0is perio* = T/o 0o+rs after t0e fla!e on) !a7e = t+rn e.er &" !in+tes *+rin3 t0e 'alance of t0is perio* Secon* Perio* = For 1$ 0o+rs) increase t0e precipitator inlet te!perat+re so it co+l* reac0 $&"oC or #%"oF = Ma7e = t+rn e.er &" !in+tes *+rin3 t0is perio* T0ir* Perio* = For 1$ 0o+rs) increase t0e precipitator inlet te!perat+re to reac0 &""oC or %%oF = Ma7e = t+rn e.er &" !in+tes *+rin3 t0is perio*

 9EATING General Infor!ation = T0e reference te!perat+re is t0e 3as c0ain inlet te!perat+re = T0e tar3et te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e appro?i!atel #"oC or 1"%oF lo/er t0an t0e nor!al operation te!perat+re = T0e rate of increase of t0e te!perat+re s0o+l* 'e appro?i!atel %"oC or 1$%oF per 0o+r T0e te!perat+re increase per 0o+r s0o+l* 'e *one accor*in3 to t0e follo/in3 Len3t0 of refractor installe*H Co!plete 7iln &%oC or 1""oF per 0o+r increase Repaire* '+rnin3 4one %"oC or 1$%oF per 0o+r increase Kiln rotation *+rin3 0eatin3 1> = t+rn e.er 1" !in+tes for $ 0o+rs $> Contin+o+s t+rn on a+?iliar *ri.e for $ 0o+rs &> Rotation at "=% or &" re.s for 1 0o+r #> Rotation at "= or #$ re.s +ntil 1% !in+tes 'efore fee* on %> Rotation at 1=" or (" re.s 1% !in+tes 'efore p+ttin3 fee* on O?3en le.el *+rin3 t0is perio* s0o+l* 'e 7ept 'et/een  to 1" in or*er to increase t0e 'ac7 en* te!perat+re to a.oi* t0e '+rnin3 4one to 3et o.er0eate*= B+rnin3 4one s0o+l* 'e pin7 in color= T0e cooler sste! is +s+all *o/n) lea.in3 onl t0e nose rin3 fan an* t0e pri!ar air fan r+nnin3 D+rin3 t0is perio*) it is !ost i!portant to 7eep t0e 3reasin3 sste! on t0e 7iln *ri.e r+nnin3 As soon as t0e 7iln is r+nnin3 contin+o+sl) start coolin3 fans on t0e '+rnin3 4one E?pansion of t0e Kiln an* Tire

= 9eatin3 rate in lar3e *ia!eter 7iln s0o+l* not 'e 0i30er t0an %"oC or 1$%oF per 0o+r to allo/ 'ot0 tire an* s0ell to e?pan* at proper rate = Clearance 'et/een tire an* s0ell s0o+l* 'e !onitore* *+rin3 [email protected]+p = T0e lar3er t0e *ia!eter of t0e 7iln) t0e !ore care 0as to 'e ta7en to 3et it r+nnin3 FEED ON KILN General Infor!ation = Fee* rate is appro?i!atel %" of nor!al fee* rate = Fee* rate increase of a'o+t % tons e.er 0o+r = Kiln spee* s0o+l* 'e !aintaine* at 1=" rp! or (" re.s +ntil t0e !aterial reac0es t0e '+rnin3 4one = T0e '+rnin3 4one s0o+l* 'e 7ept in place an* s0o+l* 'e pin7 /0en t0e fee* /ill 'e p+t on = D+rin3 t0at 0eatin3 perio*) t0e o?3en s0o+l* 'e 'et/een  an* 1" = Start t0e /ater spra to 7eep t0e 'ac7 en* te!perat+re at &%"oC or (("oF = Aro+n* %"oC or 1#""oF) start 7iln fee* for 1" !in+tes for testin3 = C0ec7 if an clin7er on cooler 3rate an* /0en necessar start t0e clin7er e.ac+ation sste! = Start s0ell fan /0en 7iln is t+rnin3 on contin+o+sl = Start cooler fan 1 an* $ at !ini!+! &" !in+tes 'efore 7iln fee* = 60en o+ reac0 -""oC or 1#%oF at c0ain inlet te!perat+re = Open *a!pers on precipitator =

T0is proce*+re is to 'e *e.elope* in or*er to restart a 7iln faster an* 0a.in3 less pert+r'ation in t0e !aterial loa* of t0e 7iln = KILN S98TDO6N T0ere are !an reasons /0 7iln !+st 'e s0+t*o/n perio*icall an* in !ost cases) t0e operator !+st *eci*e /0en an i!!e*iate +nsc0e*+le* s0+t*o/n of t0e 7iln sste! is re5+ire*= T0ere is often not eno+30 ti!e a.aila'le in s+c0 sit+ation to /ei30 or *isc+ss t0e !erits of a s0+t*o/n 'eca+se a fe/ !in+tes of *ela co+l* lea* to !aor e5+ip!ent *a!a3e= So clearl) an operator s0o+l* 'e f+ll traine* in /0at to *o an* /0at to *o if s+c0 sit+ation occ+rs= 6ritten stan*ar* proce*+res to co.er t0ese sit+ations s0o+l* 'e at t0e *isposal of t0e operators to allo/ t0e! to re.ie/ t0ose proce*+res perio*icall= COOLING PROCED8RES In case of a s0+t*o/n) slo/ coolin3 of t0e refractor !+st 'e ens+re*= T0e Stac7s Re3isters = M+st 'e 7ept s0+t for a s+fficient perio* of ti!e = Coolin3 sc0e*+le s0o+l* pro.i*e 3ra*+al coolin3 of t0e '+rnin3 4one refractor at a !a?i!+! te!perat+re rate of 1""oC per 0o+r For s!aller 7iln) i=e= *ia!eter Q 1& � ) !a?i!+! rate is 1""oC or $1$oF For lar3er 7iln) i=e= *ia!eter  1&� ) !a?i!+! rate is %oC or 1(oF T0e ID fanH = S0o+l* 'e s0+t*o/n i!!e*iatel as soon as fire is c+t off

= S0o+l* not 'e +se* for force* coolin3 at least for t0e first 1$ 0o+rs after 7iln s0+t*o/n = T0is is an a'sol+te !+st on lon3 *r an* /et process 7ilns e5+ippe* /it0 internal 0eat e?c0an3ers s+c0 as c0ain = T0e ID fan inlet *a!per s0o+l* also 'e close* co!pletel for at least 1$ 0o+rs D+rin3 s0ort s0+t*o/nH = T0e 7iln '[email protected]* s0o+l* 'e close* co!pletel for at least 1$ 0o+rs D+rin3 s0ort s0+t*o/nH = T0e 7iln '[email protected]* s0o+l* 'e close* co!pletel to a.oi* 0ot 3ases to escape fro! 7iln 9oo* Press+re = Flo/ a*+st!ents on t0e cooler fans 0a.e to 'e !a*e to a.oi* t0e 7iln 0oo* to 3et on to 0i30 press+re = T0e 0oo* press+re set point s0o+l* 'e set sli30tl on t0e positi.e si*e to pre.ent air fro! '+rnin3 4one to escape t0ro+30 t0e cooler e?0a+st fan KILN ROTATION SC9ED8LE T0e 7iln !+st 'e rotate* on a re3+lar sc0e*+le to ins+re +nifor! coolin3) as t0e fee* 'e* an* t0e refractor +n*erneat0 it) ta7e !ore ti!e to cool *o/n t0an t0e refractor /all e?pose* to t0e 7iln 3ases= Kiln Rotation for S0ort Maintenance Repair = t+rn e.er % !in+tes # ti!es *+rin3 $" !in+tes = t+rn e.er 1" !in+tes # ti!es *+rin3 #" !in+tes = t+rn e.er 1% !in+tes - ti!es *+rin3 $ 0o+rs = t+rn e.er &" !in+tes - ti!es *+rin3 # 0o+rs = t+rn e.er (" !in+tes +ntil t0e en* @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

If it is Rainin3) Contin+o+s rotation s0o+l* 'e *one on t0e a+?iliar *ri.e or on !ain *ri.e at !ini!+! spee* Kiln Rotation for Lon3 Kiln S0+t*o/n C+t off fee* an* p+r3e circ+it co!pletel C+t off f+el /0en sste! is p+r3e* Ti!e Stop ID fan Re*+ce air flo/ +n*er cooler

Ti!e Close ID fan lo+.ers slo/l) or e5+i.alent e5+ip!ent A*+st cooler fans to 7eep 0oo* press+re sli30tl positi.e Stop /ater spra sste! or an /ater sste! at '[email protected]* Ti!e C+t *o/n 7iln spee* at "=( rp! or &( re.s Re*+ce pri!ar air fan Re*+ce 7iln spee* to "=%% rp! or && re.s P+ll /ater spra o+t of t0e 7iln Ti!e Re*+ce cooler fans 1) $ an* & to $% of nor!al flo/ Re*+ce ot0er fans accor*in3 to 3ra.el 'e* filter inlet te!perat+re or ot0er *[email protected] *+stin3 sste! Ti!e Re*+ce 7iln spee* to "=% rp! or &" re.s 6atc0 for +n'+rne* clin7er an* sen* it to proper location Ti!e Stop coolin3 fans +n*er 7iln s0ell

 Rea*+st air flo/s +n*er cooler If possi'le) stop last fan accor*in3 to filter inlet te!perat+re Ti!e Re*+ce 7iln spee* to "=# rp! or $# re.s Ti!e Stop rotation /it0 !ain !otor Start contin+o+s rotation /it0 t0e a+?iliar *ri.e Stop e?traction of *+st on t0e precipitator or *+st collector sste! Ti!e Stop contin+o+s rotation /it0 t0e a+?iliar *ri.e Ma7e = t+rn e.er 1% !in+tes Start ID fan a fe/ secon*s Open ID fan *a!per at $% Open *oor on 7iln 0oo*

Ti!e Start ID fan a fe/ secon*s Open ID fan at % Ti!e Close ID fan co!pletel Ti!e Start ID fan at !ini!+! spee* Open ID fan at 1" Ti!e Open ID fan at &" Ti!e Open ID fan at %" Ti!e Open ID fan at % Ti!e /0ere t0e reactions of co!'+stion of t0e f+el /it0 secon*ar an* pri!ar air are ta7in3 place= Ant0in3 e?pose* to s+c0 a fla!e is 'o+n* to recei.e 0eat fro! it= Fla!e E.al+ation S0o+l* al/as 'e e.al+ate* *+rin3 sta'le 7iln con*ition Fla!e Len3t0 = Co+l* refer to t0e *istance 'et/een t0e '+rner tip an* t0e en* of t0e fla!e /0ic0 is a total fla!e len3t0 = It co+l* also refer to a *istance 'et/een t0e point /0ere i3nition of t0e f+el start an* /0ere t0e reaction of f+el co!'+stion en*s = It is *esira'le to operate a 7iln /it0 t0e fla!e as s0ort as possi'le) as lon3 as it /ill not create pro'le! in front of t0e 7iln) 0oo*) nose rin3 an* refractor

 Fla!e S0ape = Co+l* 'e lon3 an* � la4� as 0eat is release* o.er a relati.el lon3 *istance = Co+l* 'e � snapp� as 0eat is release* o.er a s0orter *istance Fla!e Direction = T0e fla!e pat0 is not a strai30t line = T0e fla!e 0as a ten*enc of lift +p/ar* to/ar* t0e top res+ltin3 in +ne.en entrance of secon*ar air) or !ec0anical con*ition of t0e pri!ar air pipe no44le = A 3oo* *irection tar3et for t0e fla!e co+l* 'e $A or $B in Fi3+re  $) or one inc0 *o/n center line an* one inc0 to/ar*s t0e !aterial loa* T0e fla!e te!perat+re is relate* to 1= +alit an* tpe of f+el +se* Gas 1-&"oC or &&$%oF F+el oil 12%(oC or &%%&oF Coal 12$oC or &%""oF $= Total co!'+stion air te!perat+re Secon*ar air te!perat+re Pri!ar air te!perat+re Air [email protected] te!perat+re &= O?3en le.el at 7iln o+tlet #= Bric7 an* coatin3 te!perat+re in t0e '+rnin3 4one Fla!e Tar3et = I3nition as 5+ic7 as possi'le = 9i30est fla!e te!perat+re as possi'le

= Len3t0 as s0ort as possi'le = As constant as possi'le = Pri!ar air flo/ !ini!+! to carr f+el in 7iln = All a'o.e co!'ine* in s+c0 a /a for not !a7in3 erosion an* *irect contact of t0e fla!e on t0e refractor S0ell te!perat+re scanner is a 3oo* in*ication of fla!e profile= Fla!e A*+st!ent Increase in pri!ar air = T0e spee* /ill increase = Te!perat+re /ill increase = T0e .ol+!e /ill 'eco!e /i*er Increase in pri!ar air te!perat+re = T0e pl+!e /ill 3et s0orter = T0e fla!e /ill 'eco!e s0orter = T0e fla!e /ill 'eco!e /i*er Increase in secon*ar air te!perat+re = T0e fla!e te!perat+re /ill increase = T0e fla!e len3t0 /ill *ecrease = T0e pl+!e /ill *ecrease Increase on t0e o?3en le.el = T0e fla!e len3t0 /ill increase = T0e fla!e te!perat+re /ill *ecrease T0e follo/in3 factors ser.e to raise t0e fla!e te!perat+re

= Increasin3 t0e secon*ar air te!perat+re = 8sin3 less pri!ar air) t0+s !a7in3 it possi'le to +tili4e !ore secon*ar air /0ic0 is pre0eate* to 0i30er te!perat+re = Pro!otin3 rapi* !i?in3 of t0e air an* f+el +pon lea.in3 t0e '+rner ' i!pro.in3 t0e *esi3n of pri!ar air pipe an* '+rner = Better ato!i4ation of t0e f+el oil ' increasin3 t0e f+el oil te!perat+re or e!ploin3 a !ec0anical *e.ice in t0e '+rner no44le to 'rin3 a 'etter ato!i4ation = B 7eepin3 0oo* press+re as close as possi'le fro! � "� in or*er to a.oi* air [email protected] in front of 7iln = Operatin3 t0e 7iln /it0 neit0er a *eficienc or e?cess of air ' !aintainin3 t0e o?3en content of not less t0an "= an* not !ore t0an &=" R+les on Fla!es a> 60en t0e pri!ar air pipe no44le 0as acci*entall 'een /arpe*) res+ltin3 in an erratic fla!e s0ape an* *irection) i!!e*iate steps s0o+l* 'e ta7en to repair t0is con*ition '> A fla!e s0o+l* ne.er 'e allo/e* to i!pin3e +pon t0e coatin3 or 'are refractor for a prolon3 len3t0 of ti!e c> A fla!e s0o+l* ne.er 'e allo/e* to stri7e too 0ar* +pon t0e fee* 'e* *> Oil '+rners or 3as '+rners s0o+l* 'e centere* /ell in t0e pri!ar air pipe in or*er t0at an e.en en.elop!ent of air aro+n* t0e f+el et ta7es place e> Fla!e *irection s0o+l* 'e a*+ste* onl /0en t0e 7iln is in sta'le operatin3 con*itions an* t0e te!perat+res) f+el press+res) an* air flo/ rates are at nor!al le.el= Fla!e *irection c0an3es can 'e ca+se* ' +n+s+al operatin3 con*itions= If an atte!pt /ere !a*e to a*+st t0e fla!e at s+c0 a ti!e) t0ere /ill !ost li7el 'e an +n*esira'le fla!e once t0e 7iln ret+rns to nor!al operatin3 con*itions a3ain f> It is 'etter to !a7e t0e *esire* a*+st!ents in fla!e *irection in se.eral s!all steps instea* of a lar3e one in or*er t0at t0e operatin3 sta'ilit of t0e 7iln is not affecte* a*.ersel 3> Once t0e i*eal fla!e *irection 0as 'een o'taine*) t0e pri!ar air pipe position s0o+l* not 'e c0an3e* +nless a *efinite reason To protect t0e pri!ar air pipe fro! possi'le *a!a3e *+rin3 a s0+t*o/n) a certain a!o+nt of pri!ar air flo/ !+st 'e !aintaine* +ntil t0e te!perat+re insi*e t0e 7iln is lo/ eno+30 t0at t0e pipe cannot 'e *a!a3e*= 8pon po/er fail+re /0en pri!ar air fan stops) t0e pri!ar air pipe !+st 'e i!!e*iatel re!o.e* fro! t0e '+rner 0oo*= COMB8STION 60at is co!'+stionJ Rapi* co!'ination of o?3en /it0 f+el res+ltin3 into 0eat F+els contains) Car'on 9*ro3en S+lf+r O?3en Co!es fro! Co!'+stion Air Car'on  O?3en  Car'on *io?i*e  0eat 9*ro3en  O?3en  6ater .apor  0eat S+lf+r  O?3en  S+lf+r *io?i*e  0eat Proper Proportionin3 of F+el) O?3en an* 9eat Perfect co!'+stion Co!'+stion air  Ne+tral co!'+stion air Deficienc of Air Inco!plete co!'+stion 9eat release* is lo/ 8nsafe operation

E?cess of Air Co!plete co!'+stion Fla!e te!perat+re *ecreases /it0 increasin3 air) lo/er f+el econo! Reco!!en*e* '[email protected]* o?3en is 1=" to 1=% Co!'+stion Air  F+el  Co!'+stion Gases Co!'+stion Air  Pri!ar Air  Secon*ar Air  Lea7a3e Co!'+stion Gases Car'on !ono?i*e /it0 inco!plete co!'+stion Car'on *io?i*e /it0 co!plete co!'+stion 6ater .apor S+lf+r *io?i*e Nitro3en fro! air E?cess o?3en Goo* Co!'+stion Re5+ire!ents Proper proportionin3 of f+el an* air T0oro+30 !i?in3 of f+el an* air Initial an* s+staine* i3nition of t0e !i?t+re Mi?in3 of F+el an* Air Goo* !i?in3 is i!portant for !i?t+re to 'e +nifor! t0ro+30o+t E.er particle of f+el !+st 'e in contact /it0 an air particle Soli*s !+st 'e p+l.eri4e* to increase s+rface area for !ass transfer Li5+i*s !+st 'e ato!i4e* Process of startin3 co!'+stion Can start at lo/ te!perat+res) '+t !a not 'e s+staine* Mini!+! i3nition te!perat+re re5+ire* for s+staine* i3nition

At t0is point 9eat fro! Reaction  9eat Lost to S+rro+n*in3s Fi?e* car'on #"" � #%"oC or) %$ � -#$oF ,olatile Matter %"" � (""oC or) 2&$ � 111$oF C  9  (&$oC or) 11"oF Co7e @ -""oC or) 1#$oF F+el oil $"" � &""oC or) &2$ � %$oF  can 'e consi*ere* i3nition te!perat+re of coal T0eoretical Fla!e Te!perat+re Tf  L9,  S 60ere Tf  Ma?i!+! fla!e L9,  F+el lo/ 0eatin3 .al+e Infl+ences an* I!pact on Fla!e Te!perat+re I!pact of O?3en content of Kiln Gases on Fla!e Te!perat+re O?3en 1 % Fla!e To $#(%oC 12(%oC

 I!pact of Secon*ar Air Te!perat+re on Fla!e Te!perat+re Sec= air To #$"oC in transport line an* in a?ial  s/irl ann+l+s if t0ese strea!s carr an f+el *+st = Kno/in3 t0e !ini!+! flo/ rates) t0e pipe si4es can 'e *eter!ine*= Bac7 Press+re Tpical .al+es for a [email protected]+it '+rnerH "" � 1""" !!9$O for a?ial air 1%" � ("" !!9$O for s/irl air ("" � 1""" !!9$O for transport air S 60ere P  press+re = Li5+i* /aste

= Coal sl+rr) etc= Gaseo+s F+els = Nat+ral 3as = Lan*fill 3ases) etc= 9eatin3 ,al+e +antit of 0eat 3enerate* fro! 1 +nit No preparation re5+ire* for firin3 Mini!+! i3nition te!perat+re
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