Karpov Endgame Arsenal

August 4, 2017 | Author: stjernenoslo | Category: Chess, Chess Theory, World Chess Championships, Traditional Games, Board Games
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& EVIiENI liiK

with an Appendix by lliM Ron Henley

R & D Publishing

Copyright© R & D Publishing 1996 This is the first English language edition of

Karpov's Endgame Arsenal! by Anatoly Karpov & Evgeni Gik All rights reserved under the Pan American and International copyright conventions. ISBN


No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tapes, mechanical photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior and current written permission from the publisher.

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Anatoly Karpov & Evgeni Gik

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Diagrams created with the SmartChessTM program Cover Art:

Gary Fersrer & Jim York


Karpov's Endgame Arsenal! CDI\ITEI\IT!i



An Amazing Chess Maneuver, or the Geometry of the Chessboard


Chapter 2

Studies and the World Champions


Chapter 3

A Selection of Quartets


Chapter 4

50 Studies for the Practical Player


Chapter 5

20 Study-like Endgames


by IGM Anatoly Karpov


Karpov's Endgame Lessons by IGM Ron Henley



Karpov's Endgame Arsenal

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�--� IV

Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal

11\JTRDDUCTIDI\I Working with such compositions helps the chess player to mature his endgame technique and skill. The chess study has been the subject of many books, some of which have been printed in very large numbers. The world of compositional ideas is in reali­ ty unlimited. So it goes without saying that it is difficult to deal with all the questions that may interest a practical player in a small book such as this. That is why we have selected some themes that in our opinion are the most valuable to us all. The main theme in the first chapter is the "Reti Maneuver" which is encoun­ tered in many different endgames, espe­ cially in pawn endings. The reader will find many studies that illustrate the his­ t6rical development of this fascinating theme. There is a very close connection between praxis and composition. Many of the greatest chess players have creat­ ed studies, including - as we have said the World Champions. The second chapter is dedicated to the clever com­ positions of the " Kings." Together with studies by Steinitz, Lasker, Euwe, Botvinnik·and Smyslov, the reader will find outstanding practical examples from World Championship games, bril­ and splendid combinations liant endgame sacrifices. The third chapter contains a a rare collection of studies. A selection of Quartets - that is positions with just four pieces on the board. All important piece

Solving studies is a traditional and thor­ oughly tested way to improve as a chessplayer. It is evident that all World Champions have been interested and delighted by studies. Several of them have even created some of their own. Chess studies not only hone our ability to concentrate and think, but also pro­ vide an equally important aesthetic experience. A study - or as it's often called - a "chess poem," is deeply connected to practical play and may prove to be an instructive way to help you train. All of the studies that we have selected are in many ways similar to a normal chess game. (Chess "puzzles" are usually less related to practical play). When a commentator uses the expression a "study-like win""or a "study-like draw," then what he really is saying is that the fight featured clever ideas culminating in a brilliant combina­ tion or an extraordinary and deep maneuver which makes it possible to win or save the game. We believe that the regular practice of solving studies improves a chessplay­ er's strength on all levels as it stops you from thinking in fixed patterns and develops your eye for tactics and your ability to calculate long variations. Often the initial position in a chess study will remind you of an actual game or a com­ plicated ending. Many studies play an important role in the history and devel­ opment of endgame theory.


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal combinations will be explored. Most of these Quartets are very important both to the theory and praxis of the endgame. The fourth chapter contains a selec­ tion of studies designed to develop your skills. Included are a total of 50 studies with solutions and comments. All of these positions are miniatures (with no more than seven pieces on the board) and have been created by very famous chess composers. The fifth and final chapter features 20 of Anatoly Karpov's games, all with a strong study-like character. Karpov, co­ author of this book, comments upon some of the most interesting endgames

in his chess career. Most of these "stud­ ies" have arisen directly from tourna­ ment or match games while others have emerged during the analysis of adjourn­ ments. It only remains to say that the pre­ sent book was written for casual study and no attempt has been made to make it a tutorial with a systematic collection of material . The authors hope that all practical players will be able to find something of interest in this book.

An Amazing Chess Maneuver, or the Geometry of the Chessboard

CHAPTER ONE AN AMAZINii CHE!i!i MANEUVER, DR THE liEDMETRY OF THE CHE!i!iBDARD. Vltg71 2.d7, the two queens come into exis­ tence at the same time.

4.�f4 5.ciftg3 6.xg4 2.\t>g6 c5 3.h4!

2.!it>g7l 2.h4+? would be premature due to 2 . . . \t>xh4 3.\t>g6 'it>xg4 4.\t>f6 \t>f4.

2... 3.h4+

This was only the beginning as both sides now attempt to queen a second pawn, though the fight begins with a diametrically opposite idea!

c5 !it>xg4

(3 . . . \t>xh4 4.\t>f6 c4 5.g5)



7... 8. !it>c8 9.�b8 10.g8 d51 h5 lit>f8 h4 Draw

The black king moves - in the spirit of Reti - closer to his own pawn. But the other route didn't work either: 2 . . .'it'c4 3 .a6 :tid3 4.a7 f2 5.a8=�· fl=� 6:�a6+.

3.Wg11 (3 .a6? �d2!; 3.�g3? 'it'd4!)

lit>d4 3... lit>e3 4.a6 5.Wfl and white wins.

Previously we saw the Reti maneuver fail in the Korchnoi-Karpov game. In srudies, the idea that the superior side can prevent the key maneuver is called, Anti Reti The srudy by Rink, a classic example of the Anti-Reti theme, is followed by two more modem examples. -

lit>b3! �c31

Pogosjanz,E 1976


White wins 12

An Amazing Chess Maneuver, or the Geometry o f the Chessboard 1.g51

6.h6 7.'if;lc11

But not l .gxh5? c2 2 .'ittb 2 cl=�+ 3.'ittxcl �xh3 4.h6 �g2 5.h7 h3 6.h8=� h2 with a draw.

1 ... 2.g6 3.g7 4.g8 = � 5.� g5+

'ifild 3

and black's effort has ended in failure. In the final part of the chapter we'll look at some other pawn ending studies, but before that we will take a look at posi­ tions with some very different arrange­ ments of pieces so that the reader can see that the Reti maneuver does not only exist in pure pawn endings.

'if;lf41 'ifile3 c2 c1 = �

and white wins the queen. Not that black had anyway to outsmart his oppo­ nent: 2 . . . c2 3 .'itt b 2 �g5 4.g7 �h6 5 .g8=.§ ! winning.

We'll begin with the position that gave birth to this particular branch of theory.

Pogosjanz,E 1984

Reti,R 1922

White wins White wins

1.'if;lb3! The Reti maneuver supports black after l .'itt x a3 'ittg5 2 .'ittb3 'ittf4 3.h4 'ittx f3 4.h5 'itte4 5.h6 'ittd 3.

1... 2.'if;lxa2 3.'if;lb111

Of course the white king must partici­ pate in stopping the enemy pawns, but he does much more than that.

a21 'if;lg5

1.'if;le41 The tempting l .'dtc4 would throw away the victory after l .. .b3 2.�e4 b2 3 . .£lc3 b l =� 4 .-tlxb l + 'itta4 and no matter where white chooses to move his bish­ op - it will be stalemate!

Once again the "anti-Reti" theme tri­ umphs.

3 ... 4.h4 5.h5

'if;lf4 'if;lxf3 'if;le4




Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal b2 2.'dd5 3.Jdc3 �b3 4.�d3 c4+ 5.�d2 and white wins . Achontov,V 1950

In the following diagrammed position, the natural l . . .al={{ would allow white to save himself by throwing in 2.Acl +! (But certainly not 2.g8=�? Jle2+ 3 .'it'f5 Ad3+! 4.Wf4 �d4+ 5.Wf3 Jle4+ winning a queen.) 2 . . . �xcl 3.g8=� Jle2+ 4.Wf5! Ad3+ 5.Wf6! This explains why black first gives a check.

Kuznezov,A/Ryzkin,B 1984

Draw l.h6! 2.h7 3.�c71

�f6 �g7 Black to move, Draw

(a Ia Reti...)

3... 4.�d6!

b4 'dc3!


On 4 ...b3 the king has time to support the g6-pawn after 5 .'ifi'e7! b2 6.h8={{+ 'it'xh8 7.'ifi'f7 bl =� 8.g7+. Now the white majesty changes his travel plans.

5.�c51 6.�b41 7.�a3

2.�h411 If first 2.�f4? then 2 ... al =� 3.Acl + 'it'c2! 4.g8=� �d4+ 5.Wf5 Jld3+ 6.'it'e6 (6.'it'g5 \'ifgl +) 6. . .Jlc4+ and black is winning. The alternative 2.'ifi'g5 looks tempting hoping for 2 . . . a l =� 3.Ac l + ! �xcl 4.g8=� �gl + 5 .'ifi'h6 �xg8 stalemate. But black mJ.y play more precisely: 2 ... a l =E!! and at the end of the line men­ tioned above white will find a square on h7. If 2 .Wg3 (hoping for 2 . . . a l =E! 3.Jlcl +! E! >d3 .£le3 1...


The best try to cut off the king.

3.�xe3 4.�d3 5.�c2 6.�b2

�xh6 �h7 t'rxg6

A simple draw follows 4 .. .c5 c3)

7... 8.�xc6 9.�d51 10.�e61 ll.f7 12.f8 t'1 =


a5 a4 a3 a2 al = � Draw

Karpov's Endgame Arsenal And the pawns promoted at the same time. Another important line was: 7 . c5 8.�c6! c4 9.�d5! c3 10.'it1e6! c2 l l .f7 c l =� 1 2.f8=� Draw. .

Naturally this was only half a Reti maneuver, but anyway it made the study significantly more beautiful. Seven years after Reti created his masterpiece a new one was discovered which had direct relation to our theme.


Asaba,A 1974

Sarytschev,A/Sarytschev,K 1928

White wins Draw

An interesting version of the anti-Reti theme.

l.�c811 A fabulous move! The white king walks

�xf2 �f3

away from the enemy pawn instead of starting to chase it directly. But not for long.

3.gxe21 And not 3.E!d3+ �f4 4.E!d4+ 'it1f5 5.E!d5+ �e6!

3... 4.h4

1... 2.�d71 3.�d61 4. �e51 5.�d4

�xe2 �d31

The black king is trying to operate on two fronts at the same time. But in this case its too much for one king.

�c2 5.h5 6.�a31 �c3 b4+ 7.h6 8.�a41 b3 9.h7 b2 10.h8 = ttf+ and white wins

b5 b4 .Q.f5 .Q.c8

And the king is inside the square of the pawn. One may find an analogy between the classical Reti position and the Sarytschevs'. The first features an "unstoppable"' pawn far from the enemy king. Seen from a purely aesthetic point of view this is a nuisance.



An Amazing Chess Maneuve r, or the Geometry of the Chessboard 4... 5.�d4 6.�e4 7.�f4

In the latter the white king stands next to the black pawn but is unable to stop it with ordinary means - l .'iti'd6 JlfS 2.�c5 Jlc8 3.'iti'b6 'iti'e4 4.'iti'a7 bS etc. The initial maneuvers here are of great aes­ thetic value. In both studies, the king shows superb maneuverability and a deep awareness of the geometry of the chess­ board. Themes that Reti refined during the same year with studies involving king, bishop and pawns.

.Q.e8 �b7 �c7 Draw

Pogosjanz,E 1984

Reti,R 1928

Draw This position bears some resemblance to Reti's second classic study from 1928 (one pawn versus three), but it has addi­ tional nuances.

1.f61 Draw

2.�xh6 3.�g71 4.�f6 5.�e5 6.�d6! 7.c7 8.c8 = � 9.�d51

Here too the white king finds salvation, though the Sarytschevs' version looked more impressive.

1.�e71 2.�d61


(2.'iti'f6? g4 3 .e7 JlbS)

2... 3.e7


(3.'iti'c5 g3 4.e7 �S!)

3.. . 4.�c51


A simple draw would be l ...gS 2.'iti'xh6 g4 3 .'iti'g7 g3 4.'iti'xf7 g2 S.'iti'e7 g l =ti' 6.f7.

�b6 f5 f41 f3 f2 fl = � �f6+ Draw

This may seem only slightly different


from the original, but there are other and no less interesting sublines: 2 . . .'iti'b8 Now 3.'lfi>g7 is losing to 3 .. .f5 4.'it'f6 f4 S.'lt>eS f3 6.'it'd6 'iti'c8! but white has an

Attacking the bishop makes it possible for the king to move inside the square of the g-pawn.


Karpov 's Endgame A rsenal wonderful resource in: 3.'it'h5!! �c7 4.'it'g4 'it'xc6 5.�f5 with a draw. This unexpected maneuver with the white king 'it'h5-h6-h5 is equivalent to the moves 'it'd7-c8-d7 - a study containing two ideas in one - that of Reti and that of the Sarytschevs. A marvelous synthesis.

Five moves and three pieces were added to the famous srudy, and so the popular position suddenly comes about in the process of the game. Thanks to the Sarytschevs it's easy to find 'it'd7-c8, but in this srudy his theme has been hidden away. A very interest­ ing version of the classic srudy.

The International Grandmaster of Chess Composition E. Pogosjanz enhanced these classics in his work "Schaffen Dutzende Werke." The next srudy he created with a very original prelude. The second srudy was another he enriched with new ideas. The first position unites different types of com­ position.

Pogosjanz,E 1994

Pogosjanz,E 1984

White wins l..§.d1 +I But not l .'it'h2? Ae5! with a draw.

b2 «it>c3

An Amazing Chess Maneuve r, or the Geometry of the Chessboard 8.g4 would lose to 7 . . . 'i!ixc4 8.'it>f3 �d3! 9.a4 c4 10.a5 c3 l l .a6 c2 1 2.a7 cl ='ltr 1 3.a8='ltr 'ltrhl + .


2.a711 A distraction to prevent 2 . . . �c6.


An Ama zing Chess Maneuver, or the Geometry o f the Chessboard 2... 3. ct;xf711


�e thematic false track was beautiful :::>a: 3.�xh7? fS 4.�g6 f4 S.�fS (5.�f6 �b8! was another detail) 5 . . .f3 6.�e6 f2 -.c7 fl=� 8.c8=� �h3+, Anti-Reti, and ::xecuted in the style of Duras!



.-\.nd we have finally arrived at Sinar's :Josition.

4.ct;g71 .;.nd the king can begin his magic.


�inally we'll have a look at two interest­ ilg episodes from normal chess touma­ :nents, one from a simultaneous and the :Jther from a World Championship :natch, in which a rare form of chess­ �ard geometry became visible. The _5ames are linked in another way too real World Chess Champions were ilvolved in both games. The first example occurred at the beginning of the century and was men­ :ioned in W. Neistadt's memoirs. This happened during one of Alexander Alekhine's simuls in Moscow.

Alekhine,.A - Neistadt,W Moscow, 1914

Black had just played .£\h7-f8. Without a second of thought, Alekhine answered with: 1.e6 At first his opponent wanted to take on e6 with the pawn, but he had changed his mind when Alekhine returned to the board (the win versus the champion was so near) in favor of taking with the knight. 1 ... � x e6. Alekhine laughed and swiped the knight off the board: 2 . � x e6 . "With what should I take?" contemplated Neistadt. "Probably with the pawn." But the champion was already back (most of the games in the simul were finished by now), and black mechanically reached out for the bishop and played 2 ... A x e6. Alekhine "gener­ ously" suggested that he take the move back - an offer Neistadt declined. "Too bad," whispered Alekhine as he tipped over his king, as black wins simply after 3.dxe6 fxe6. Neistadt didn't at all understand Alekhine's request so after the simul he asked him to unlock the puzzle. "With pleasure," said Alekhine, and the pieces were set up again at the criti­ cal position. Alekhine turned to Neistadt and said: "This is a very unpleasant position for me, and I thought that you would take immediately with the pawn on e6: l .. .fxe6 2 . .£\xe6 .£\xe6 3.dxe6 �xe6 or possibly by the move-order which occurred in the game: 1 .. . .£\xe6 and then: 2 . .£\xe6 fxe6 3.dxe6 ..Q.. x e6. Both lines lead to this position. (see next diagram)


Karpov's Endgame Arsenal Tell me - why didn't you take on e6 with the pawn?" asked Alekhine. "That was my idea," answered the participant in the simul, "but then I thought: What is the difference? When I look at the position now I know that tak­ ing with the pawn would be stronger."

white king had moved towards the black pawn in the most unbelievable way, and so Alekhine had used the famous maneuver seven years before Reti made his discovery! And Alekhine didn't only let the spectators in on the clever geometrical idea but he also presented them with the refutation: 4.�g3 'it'xf6 5.�f5 .ilf5! 6.�e3 'it>e5 7.�d2 'it>d4 8.'iftcl �c3, and the white king is cut of from the border of the board. Alekhine had found the magic buried within the position! Of course, Neistadt had the simple 2 . . ..ilxe6 for the win, so the magic was only revealed because of Alekhine's wiz­ ardry.

Bronstein,D - Botvinnik,M Moscow, 1951


"Aie you sure?" Alekhine asked with a laugh. "Let's look at it for a minute!" The young man, who had beaten the Grandmaster, was confused as he didn't see how the white king possibly could get inside the square of the a-pawn in time. Alekhine smiled and moved his king - 4.�g3. Two more moves were made - 4 . . . a5 5 .�f4 a4 6.�e5!, and the player with the black pieces admitted that pushing his pawn any further would lead nowhere: 6 . . .a3 7.�xe6 a2 8.f7 with a draw. The bishop stays on the a2-g8 diagonal and after: 7.�d4 a3 8.�c3 a2 9.�b2 the king stops the pawn and the game is a theoretical draw. The spectators at the board were amazed as the discussion between the participant and the Grandmaster went on. They had the feeling that they had witnessed the birth of a miracle. The

In this position from the 6th game of the World Championship match, 57.gl? would allow black to win by using Steinitz's pattern: l . . .h2+ 2.'it>g2 (2.'it>hl �g6 3.E!d4 'it>e3) 2 . . . �hS 3.flh8 (3.f!f8 �f3+ 4.f!xf3 hl =�+ S .'ift,.hl 'ifi,.f3) 3 ... h l =�+ 4.'ift,.hl

White wins


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal �f2! 5J�f8+ ..llf3+ 6.El>d5 2 . .£) b71 c.t>e5 3 . .£)d81 g4 4 . .£)b7 c,t>d5 5.Wf4 c,t>c6 6. .£)c5 c,t>d5 7. .£)e41

2 ...f5

This cunning knight maneuver puts black in zugzwang.

The analysis shows that white even had another resource 2 ...E!c3 3.\t>d2 E!c2+ 4.\t>e3 b2 5.f3 and black cannot win.

7 ... h4 8 . .£)f6+ c,t>c4 9 . .£) xg4 c,t>b3 10. .£)e5 c,t> xa3 11 . .£)c6 and white stays on top.

3.§b6+ c.t>f7 4.§h61 f4 White would face a much more difficult task after 4 ... E! c3! as 5.f!xh5 b2 6.E!h7+ \t>g6 7.E!b7 E! c l + is unacceptable. The correct way to play would be 5.�d2! E!c2+ 6.\t>e3 b2 7.f!b6 \t>e7 8.f4! \t'd7 9.\t>d4 'lrc7 1 0.E!b3 \t>c6 l l .E!b8 E!g2 1 2.E!b3! E! xg3 1 3 .f! xb2 f!h3 1 4.\t>e5 E! xh4 1 5.E!g2! E!h3 16.'iftxf5 g3 17.f3 \t>d6 1 9.E!e2! f!hl 20.f5 E! fl + 2 1 .\t'g4 E!f2 22.E!el g2 23.E!gl with a draw.

The sixth World Champion, Mikhail Botvinnik, made a big contribution to the art of composing chess studies. Ten of his studies gained great popularity, and they were all based on practical play. Botvinnik published his first study when he was still a 1 4-year old school­ boy!

Botvinnik, M/Kaminer,S 1925

5.§ xh51 E!c3 6.§b5 f3 7.c,t>d2 §c2+ 8.c,t>e3 b2 9.c,t>f4 Etc4+ 10.c,t>e3 §c2

Draw. Euwe,M 1956

White wins 1.g4+ c,t>h4 2.A,h61 � xh6 3. �h2+ c,t>g5 4. �d2+ .£)f4 5. �dB Mate. White wins In this study white succeeds in winning despite the threatening enemy pawns.


Studies and the World Champions Botvinnik,M 1939

Botvinnik,M 1941

White wins

White wins

This position arose from an analysis of :he ending in the game Levenfish- Kotov ar the 1 1 th USSR championship. Of course white can take the d­ ?awn but it would be a blind alley: l .tff5! 'it'b6 2.'it?e5 �c6 3.'it'e6 'it'c7! -1 .'it'xdS 'it'd7 5.'it'c5 'it'c7 and black's a6pawn protects the b5 square so that after 6.d5 'it'd7 7.'it'b6 'it'd6 8.'it'xa6 'it'xd5 9.'it'xa5 xg7 'it;>g5 9.'it;>h7 .Q.b4 10.h6 etc. Or 2 .Q.f4 3.h4 .Q.g3 4.h5 .Q.f4 5.g6+ 'it;>f6 6 . .£)e51 .Q. xe5 •


(6 . . .')(e5 7.')(g7)

7.h6 and the pawn will eventually pro-

White wins


l.e7 §e4 2.§c5+ 'it;>a4 3.§f511 e2 4.§f4 e 1 t!1 5.e8 t!t+ and white

Botvinnik,M 1945




Botvinnik,M 1952

White wins 1 .'it;>f2 'it>f5 2.'it;>f3 'it;>e5 3.g4 hxg4+ 4.'it;>xg4 �e4 5.h5 f5+ 6.e3 winning.

The black h-pawn will decide the game if white captures with the other pawn: 2.hxg5 h4 3.Jld6 Af5 4.g6 Jlxg6 5.f5 Jlxf5 6.'tixb3 �g2 etc.

1 ...g511 2.fxg5

l. . �e5 2.�c3 f5 3.d6! �xd6 4.exf5 gxf5 5.�d4! �e6 6.�e3 4)c2+ 7.�f4 Draw.

2 ...d4+1 3.exd4


(3.Axd4 'g3 4.g6 'it>xh4 5.�d2 �h3! 6.Af6 h4 7.'it>e2 'it>g2)

3 ... �g3 4. .Q.a3 �xh4 5.�d3 �xg5 6.�e4 h4 7.�f3 .Q.d5+ and white

Botvinnik writes that a master has to dedicate some time to solving studies as it will improve both his ability to think



Karpov's Endgame A rsenal The national Yugoslavian television company once ran an interesting beauty contest. Chess experts had selected 1 0 famous games from the 20th century and showed them to the viewers. Two million chess fans acted as a jury and as the best game of the century they picked the following duel between Botvinnik and Capablanca.

nation ended at this point. A whole dif­ ferent maner is the situation after the 33rd move by black. E. Baum gives: 34:�f7+ �hB 35 .e7 �cl + 36.'a3 6.a3 8 ...1a5 and mate next move. This leaves only 2 . . . '\t>c5 but...

After l . . .'it>f8 2.tJg6+ black loses after 2 . . .'it>e8 3.fxg7 'it>f7 4.h6 so he must play 2 . . .'it>g8 3.xg7 5 .h71 a1 = � 5.g61


Three deceptive moves in the style of Smyslov and with the terrible threat of 6.�h6!

3.§ xf61

5 ...�h1 6.Ah61

:\"ow white only has two light pieces left bur they are sufficient:


3 ... gxf6 4.�c3 d5

With a knight behind the walls and a bishop tied up, it took a lot of clever play and timing ro ensure the two pieces got it right. The initial position looked unremarkable while the final position was exceptional.

6 ...Af4 7.b8 = �+1 Axb8 Stalemate.

(4 . . . �xd8 5.b6 �c3 9.�b7 �b3 10.§a1 �c3 l l.§fl 'it;>b3 A positional draw.



Karpov's Endgame Arsenal The following composition is beyond any doubt the most popular of all of Smyslov's studies.

Smyslov,V 1938

Smyslov,V 1938

White wins 1.f5 gxf5 2 ..Q.h3 E{e8 Or 2 . . ..§ c8 3.exf5 and black's bishop is caught.



1 . .Q.f6+! exf6 2.f4 E{h8+ 3.ciflg71

It would be premature to play 3.c7 as 3 . . . ...Q.c8 4 ..Q.xf5 (4.exf5 f6) 4 . . . �e7 and black saves himself.

3.�g6 was insufficient since 3 . . . .§ xh5 4.�g7 .§gS+ 5 .�h8 �h5 6.�h7 .§g6 7 . a3 .§h6+ 8.h8!

White has to keep a move with the a­ pawn in hand since 6.a4 �g8 7 . .§d8 .§ f8 8.�c2 ...Q.g4 9.�c3 ..lle6 Ieads nowhere.

But not 5.h5 7.ciflh8 Eth6+ 8.1it>g7 E{g6+ 9.1it>h8

6 ...a4 7.1it>b2 .Q.e6 8.ciflc21

Black's rook is not about to get out so:

And black is in zugzwang.

9 ...ciflh6 Stalemate.

8 ... .Q.f5+ 9.1it>c3 .Q.e6 10.a3 The move white had kept in reserve. Now the bishop has to leave e6 after

Unlike Botvinnik, who discovered all of his studies during analyzing adjournments or other positions, most of Smyslov's studies were "homemade" creations, and he didn't differ from the true composer in this aspect. The following study is therefore an exception to the rule as it first appeared in one of the ex-Champion's matchgames and only small changes had to be made to tum it into a genuine study.

which white simply plays l l .�xc4 and wins. Nearly fony years later, Smyslov recalled the hobby from his youth and returned to creating studies. He com­ posed two "Twins" and dedicated them to the Grandmaster of chess composi­ tion G. Nadareischvili.


Studies and the World Champions Smyslov,V 1976

7 . .1lc5 e2 8. .lli2 .

5.Ciflf2 el = �+I 6.Cifjl xel Cit'e3 7.f41 Ciflxf4 8.Cifjlf2 .Q.cl 9 ..Q.h6+ and the bat­ tle between three bishops of the same color turns out in white's favor. Smys lov,V 1976

White wins l .f71 \\bite has no win after either: l ...llb4 �d3 2.�el (2.f7 ..lld2) 2 .. .f3 3.gxf3 e2 -l.f7 Af4 or l ...lle l 'it>d3 2 ..1lxh4 �d2 3 . 2el + 'it'dl 4.f7 ..lla3 S ...llc3 ..llc S! and black is saved.


A standard method to create twin stud­ ies is not just only change the color of of the pieces but also their task.

l...Aa3 2.Ag7 Losing no time on 2 ...1lb2 Af8 3.�e2 �dS 4 .lli6 �e6 S ...ll xh4 �xf7 after which the position would be a draw.

l .c61


It would insufficient to play 1 .�e6 c2 2.d6 cl =� 3.d7+ �c7 4 . .1lg3+ �c6 5 .d8=� �c4+ 6.�f5 tt'dS+ leaving white defenseless.

2 .f31 ..

Black is a astute defender who hopes to create a stalemate.


l ... c2

�aturally not 3.f8=ti' ..llx f8 4 . .1lxf8 e2+ 5.�f2 fxg2 and black is on top.

If l . ..bxc6 then 2.�e6 cxdS 3.�xd5 c2 4 . .1ld2 ..llb2 S.'it'c6.

3... Cifld3 4.f8 = At

2.Ad2 Ab2 3.d6! bxc6 4.Cifjle6

Such a modest promotion always add to the beauty of the study. 4.f8=tt' e2+ 5.�f2 (S.'g2 4Jc6 53.�f8+ winning.

Jlxg3 5 1 .fxg3 50.� xd8 52.�f8+ �g5 53. �g2


The storm that raged across the board has calmed down, and the players agreed to a draw.


A Selection of Quartets

CHAPTER THREE A !iELECTIDl\1 OF QUARTET§ �-:e fewer pieces on the board, the hap­ : :er is the chessplayer who tries to solve :.': e srudy. Most popular are Miniatures .:. which the number of pieces do not ::-xceed seven.

Iseneger,S 1951

The total number of Miniatures is �-npossible to estimate. With five pieces : :- less you'll find thousands of studies. ::our pieces is the minimal material �equired to compose something truly .:.rtistic, and studies with this number of :ieces are called Quartets. This chapter ?."ill introduce the reader to a collection :f such studies with many different :::ece configurations.

Draw PAWN VERSUS PAWN 1 .e5 �g3! 4.h5 f4.


l . f5 2.h6 f4 3.h7 f3 4.h8 = �+ 'it{gl .

V�g5 b5 2.Cif;'f4 Cif;'e2 3.Cif;'e4 Cif;'d2 4.'it{d4 Cif;'c2 5.Cif;'c5 Cif;'c3


Black is guaranteed a draw if his passed pawn can get to the seventh rank so white has to stop it from making progress. This cannot be achieved with­ out giving checks but both 5 .�g7+ 'it>fl ! and 5.�a l + 'it>g2 6.�g7! 'iftfl ! would let let go of the win as the queen can't get any closer to the enemy pawn.

It looks like black is going to save him­

self with the Reti maneuver, but no! 6.h5 and white wins as his pawn will queen with check. The next position is often a draw if the white pawn already has been promoted and black's pawn is one move from queening on the a-, c-, f- or h-file. There might even be problems if the pawn hasn't yet reached the seventh rank.

5. �g8+11 'it{fl 6. �c4+! Mission accomplished and white wins.


Karpov's Endgame Arsenal Dobias,! 1926

This is an interesting example from real life. Even Grandmasters can go wrong. This shows that a pawn-quartet endgame isn't easy at all, as the players agreed a draw after l ...f5 2.'it'b4 (for if 2 .. .f4 3.'it'c3). But the American GM play­ ing black could have won if he'd known Grigoriev's srudy.

Grlgorlev,N 1928

White wins 1.�d4! The alternative l .c3 �d6) 2 . . . �e7 3.�c2 'ittd6 4.'it>b1 'it>c5.

It is still too early to push the pawn: l .b3? 'it>e7 2.'it>b2 a4! 3 .b4 'it>d6 4.'it>a3 �c6 5.'it>xa4 lit>b6 and draw. Also l .'it>b1? 'it>e7 2.'it>a2 lit>d6 3 .1it'a3 'it>c6 4.'it>a4 Wb6 would lead to a blind alley.

1 ...a4 Or else it would be impossible to stop the white pawn after 'it>c2-b3-a4xa5.

1 ... a3 2.b31


But not 2.b4? 'it>e7 3.�a2 'it>d6 4 .1it'xa3 'ittc6 5.'it>a4 'it>b6.

The rest is well known. Seen from an aesthetic point of view both studies belong to the very classics.

2 ... citfe7 3. citfa2 citfd6 4. citfxa3 citfc6 5.citfa41 The alternative 5.'it>b4? would let go of the victory after 5 ... 'it>b6. 5 ... citfb6 6.citfb41 and white has won the opposition.

KNIGHT VERSUS PAWN The superiority of the knight versus a pawn is huge, but even the "strongest" side can only hope for a draw if all the other pieces are absent . And sometimes even that is difficult to achieve. But a

For a long time it was thought this study originated from F. Dedrle who published it in 1921 without giving any source. Later is was found in K. Tattersalls' manual from 1 9 1 0. The last pawn-quartet is a superb adaptation of the previous study and it's no less famous that the original.

rook-pawn may in rare situations cause a lot of inconvenience to its master. An example:


A Selection of Quartets Troitzky,A 1898

1.4)b4! Starting on a long journey to stop the dangerous pawn.

1 .. . h5 2.4)c61 (H)d5+ \t>f3! etc.)

2...�e4 Or 2 ... h4 3.f21 �h2 3. .£lc3 �h1 4.4)e4 �h2 5.4)d2 �h1 6.4)fl h2 7.4)g3 Mate. Grlgorlev,N 1932

Draw 1.4)f71 It would be a failure to play l .b3 4.'it>d5 ..

c3 5.'it>d4 etc.)

2.�e6+ (2.'it>c6 'it>e3) 2 ... �e3 with a draw.

MunozJ 1942

The maneuver that led to the goal in the previous diagrams doesn't work either:

1.�c6 �b2! 2.�d5 c3 3.§.b8+ �a2! and again the difference is that the king isn't obliged to stand in the way of his own pawn . . . 4.§.c8 �b2 and draw. In the next study the white monarch is even further away from the pawn but he still makes it.

White wins


A Selection o f Quartets Pogosjanz,E 1978

that this is a whole separate chapter in the endgame theory. Here a study-like position by Averbach that begins with a paradox.

Averbach,Y 1981

White wins Vit'a7 b3 2.'ifla61 Black would just succeed in getting his king to a better position after 2.'it'b6? 'it>b4 3.'it'c6+ 'it'c3.

White wins

2 ... 'ifla3 3.'iflb51 b2 The alternative 3 . . . 'it'a2 4 . .§a7+ 'it'bl 5.'it'b4 b2 6.'it>b3 doesn't help either.

To find the correct first move in this position is far more difficult than doing so in Reti's classical study. The white rook is not in a very favorable position and going for the straight-forward l .'it'e5 wouldn't work after l ...'it'f3! 2 . .§h2 e3 3 . .§h3+ 'it'f2 4.'it'f4 e2 S . .§h2+ 'it'fl 6.'it'f3 e l =c2 3 . .E!e5 '\t>d3 4.'\t>f5 e3 5.'\t>f4 e2 6.'\t>f3 etc.


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal QUEEN VERSUS PAWN

There follows an honorable sample of studies very important to this branch of endgame theory.

This endgame has been so thoroughly researched that it's difficult even to find a new and original position. If the pawn has reached the second last rank and is supported by its king, then the outcome depends on which file the pawn is on, and even this only goes for a situation where the enemy king is far way. A pawn on the b- or g-file as well as on the d- and e-file hardly ever gives any chances to make a draw. But a pawn on the a- or h-file (and also c- or f- file) gives chances for a draw because of stalemate themes. The following posi­ tions illustrate some of these themes.

Lolli,D 1763

Grigoriev,N 1932 White wins This would have been drawn immedi­ ately had the king been on b l : l .i;t'b3+ �al 2:�xc2 stalemate. But in the actual position white can exploit the fact that his king is closer to the events.

1.�b3 litld2 2.�b2 �d1 3.�f31 Intending 3 . . . cl =i;t' 4. i;t'e2 mate, so white gains time to move his king even closer to the pawn.

3 ... litld2 4.litlf2 �d1 5.�d4+ �c1 6.�b41 �d1 7.�e1 Mate. White wins

Lolli's study was refined more than 200 years later by Pogosjanz.

1.�d5+1 �e3 (l...�c3 2:�d4+ �b3 3.i;t'a l )

2.�g211 The only possible way to cut the king off from the pawn. 2 litld3 3.�g51 and white wins. ..•


A Selection of Quartets Pogosjanz,E 1981

The unlucky location o f the king limits the mobility of his queen and forces white to act very carefully. The most obvious move l ."iti'h l + would only bring in a draw after l .. .'it>b2 2."«i'b7+ 'it>cl ! 3.f6 c2 4.e5 dl 5."«i'd5+ el (much better than s . . cl 6."«i'a2 dl 7.d4 cl ="«i' 8.d3! or 5 . . . e2 6."«i'a2 d3 7."«i'b2 d2 8.d4 dl 9.d3 and in both lines white wins.) 6.-«raS+ dl 7."«i'a4 d2 8."iti'a2 c3! and draw. .

l.�h61 Only this quiet move does white any good. The stalemate theme would be visible after l ."«i'd3 c2! 2."«i'xc3. 1 .. c2 2.�c1+ winning.

White wins


Place the queen on the last rank and you'll see new and interesting possibili­ ties pop up.

l.'�·b7+1 d5 5.4Ja3 (or 5 .�f7 'it>c5 6.'it>f6 fl.e2 7.4Ja3 'it>b4 8.4Jbl fl.b2) 5 ... 'it>c5 6.4Jbl 'lt>b4 7.4Jd2 fl.e2 8.4Jbl fl.b2 and black wins.

White wins l .f!e31 .£\gl 2.�f51 Instead 2.�f4? 'it>d4 would leave white in an unusual kind of zugzwang: 3.fl.el 4Jh3+ 4.'ifi>f3 4Jg5+ 5.'it>f4 4Jh3+ with a draw.

4 ... f!f4+ 5.�g7 Etf3 6.'ifi'g6


A Selection of Quartets The knight is totally idle and easy to catch. 6.4Jb2 allows 6 ... �d5 7.lfi'g6 lfi'd4 8.lfi'g5 .§ fl ! 9.lfi'g4 .§bl 1 0.4Ja4 .§b4 etc.

Reti,R 1929

6 ... �e5 7. �g5 �d4 8. �g4 J3f1 9. .£lb2 lab1 10 . .£)a4 Etb4 and white resigned.

Pogosjanz,E 1982

White wins Vit>f4 .£lh3+ 2.�f3 .£lg5+ 3.�e31 White has accomplished his first goal it's black to move.

3 ... �c2 The job would be a bit easier to handle after 3 ... lfi'b3 4.lfi'f4 4Jh3+ S.lfi'g4 4::\g l 6 . .§f2 or 3 ... lfi'c4 4.lfi'f4 4Jh3+ 5 .lfi'e4! 4Jg5+ 6.lfi'e5! 4Jh3 7 . .§ f3 4Jg5 (7 . . . 4::\g l 8. .§e3) 8..§ f4+ lfi'c5 9 . .§f5 4Jh3 1 0.lfi'e4+ followed by l l .lfi'e3, winning.

White wins This time black's pieces may unite easi­ ly, but his king will end up in an unfa­ vorable situation. 1.lad7+1 �e6 2.13a71 .£)b6 3.Jaa6 and white wins, or 1 ... �e8 2.)3b71 and the knight is trapped.

4.Jag6 .£lf7 5.�d4 .£)d8 6.�d5 .£lb7 7.Jaa61 And the knight is caught - again. In the next example, black is able to

In the next popular study you'll find it much more difficult to outsmart the knight.

retrieve his knight from jeopardy at the edge of the board, but is unable to forge a contact between knight and king with fatal consequences.


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal Amelung, 1900

Computer, 1979

White wins

Black to move, White wins 1 ...4)e2+ 2.�d2

l.�g5 .£lf3+ 2.�g4 4)e5+ 3.�f5 4)c4

The move 2.�c2 would already allow black to make a draw.

The knight will never get in contact with its king due to 3 ... .£lt7 4.E!.d7 �g8 s.�f6 and 3 . . . b8 5.'tf;>b6 'tf;>c8 6.'tf;>c6 Now the idea behind 3 . .§f3 becomes clear - black no longer has a check with his bishop.


l.Rh2+ Kg7 2.Rg2+ Kf6 3.Rf2+ With perpetual checks. The black king can't step on the e-file due to .§ e2 and the only two alternatives would lead to stalemate as 'f3 will be answered by . . ..§g3+ and 'h3 by . . . .§h2+.

6... 'tf;>d8 7. 'tf;>d6 'tf;>c8 The other end of the board didn't offer any salvation eithe• - 7 . . .'e8 8 . .§e7+.

8.f'!.c7+ 'tf;>b8 White simply wins the bishop after 8 ...'d8 9 . .§c2 _Q,d3 1 0 . .§d2! Ag6 1 1 ..§g2! W 1 2 . .§h2 'c8 13 . .§ h8+ 'b7 14 . .§h7.

9.'tf;>c6 .Q.c4 10.�b6 .Q.b3


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal Berger,I 1889

Computer, 1979


White wins

1 .E!h7+ !it>g2 2.E!g7+ !it>h3

l. !it>b7 E!b4+ 2.!it>c6 E!c4+ 3.!it>b6 E!b4+ 4.!it>a5 E!e4 5.�d6 E!d4 6.�f6 !it>d3 7.!it>b5 !it>e3 8.!it>c5 E!f4 9.�a1 E!f8

The f-file is closed because of E!t7.

3.E!h7+ !it>g4 4.E!g7+ !it>h5 5.E!h7+ !it>g5 6.E!g7+ !it>h6 7,f!h7+ !it>g6 8.E!h6+1 !it>xh6 Stalemate.

Leaving the king behind looks risky, but there is no way in which white may take advantage of the situation. This daring defense was found by a computer and makes it significantly harder for white to win.

Place the black queen anywhere on the f-file (including f5) and the outcome would still be: Drawl

10.�d4+ lit>e2 ll.�g4+ � 12.�e6+ !it>f3 13.1it>d4 E!d8+ 14.1it>c3 E!f8 15. �c6+ !it>g4

A5 a rule a queen has vel)' little trou­ ble against a rook, but even such superi­ or firepower cannot always avoid the game dragging out. The record was found by a computer and is 31 moves when starting from the position shown in the next diagram.

The king keep going to safe squares. If the rook stands on a black square, he'll chose a white one and vice versa to pre­ vent any double check on a diagonal.

16.�g6+ !it>f3 17.�g5 The white queen goes back to simply limiting the freedom of the two black pieces so that is becomes possible to move the white king closer to the action.

Obviously we only give the main line here. The winning technique involves reducing the activity of the black pieces in order to bring the white king closer to the action.

17... E!f4 18.!it>d3 E!a4 19.�d5+ !it>f2 20.�c5+ !it>g3 21.!it>e3 E!g4 22.�h5 E!a4 23.�e5+ !it>h3 24.�e6+ !it>h4 25.�e7+ !it>g3 26.�d6+ !it>h4 27.!it>f3


A Selection of Quartets �h5 28. �d5+ �h4 29. �d8+ �h5 30.�e8+ �g5 31.�xa4 winning.

Pogosjanz,E 1960

1WO PAWNS VERSUS A SINGLE KING The following srudy shows that even with such limited material on the board, many interesting and srudy-like ideas become possible.

Pogosjanz,E 1970

White wins V�c6 �d81 Now both 2 .\t'd6 and 2.f6 create a stale­ mate. But:

2.'�d51 �xd7 3.f61 �e8 4.cifie6 �f8 5.f7 and white wins. I..asso,S 1970

White wins 1 .a61 �xa6 2.b8 = §1 A controlled promotion of the most eco­ nomical kind. The immediate 2.b8=� would be stalemate. In the next srudy, white must avoid black's attempt to create a stalemate defense - only by sacrificing one pawn can white engineer the promotion of the other pawn.

White wins


Karpov's Endgame Arsenal Trying to protect the pawns at once would be a mistake: l .'it'e2? and black can make a draw with l . ..'it'c5 2.'it'd3 'it')(b5 3.'it'c3 'it'c5.

Again - the most direct route to try and deal with the pawn won't do: l .'it'b3? (Or l .'it'a3?) l...tzle3! 2.'it'b4 tzld5+! 3.'it'a5 tzlc7 and the pawn is protected.

1.b41 \tld6 2.\tle2 \tlc7 3.\tld3 \tlb71 4.\tld4 \tlb6 s.\tlc4 \tlc71

1.\tlc31 4)e3 2.\tld41 4)c2+ 3.\tlc5 f6 5.Ae81 Even though black's king is very close to the pawn, there is no way he'll be able to stop it.

V�d6+ 'if;lc8 2.Ab7+1 This resource alone make it possible to keep the pawn and avoid stalemate. 2 'it'xb7 3.'�d7 followed by 4.c8 = '/i\'.

Gretschischnik.ov,N 1984


The next two studies are a fitting conclusion to our Parade of Quartets as they are both real works of chess art. In Frink's study, we note that black is threatening to play l . ..'iti>gl and also, that the h8 square is of the wrong color. Still white will get a new queen.

White wins


Karpov 's Endgame A rsenal l.Ae6! �e7 2.h6 �f6! 3.Af5 �f7 4.Ah71 'it?f6 5.�f4 and finally the black king is forced to leave the critical square - and white wins.


50 Studies for the Practical Player

CHAPTER FOUR 5 0 !i TUDIE!i FOR THE PRACTICAL PLAYER This chapter provides the reader with an opportunity to practice solving chess studies. We have already spoken about how important it may be to a practical player to solve positions with a very lim­ ited number of pieces. This chapter consist of miniatures, with no more than seven pieces at the most. In most of the positions - a total of 50 have been selected - you'll find sparkling ideas realized in studies with just five or six pieces. The first twelve positions are partic­ ularly interesting as you can follow how a idea in a study continuously evolves. AB the reader begins to see the idea of a study from many different points of view, he will have a glimpse into the composer's laboratory and gain an unforgettable experience. None of these themes will receive such an extensive treatment as the Reti Maneuver in the first chapter of the book, but they will be more complicated and often based upon stunning combinative motifs. During our research for this book, we turned to four celebrated Soviet Study Composers; the International Grandmasters of Chess Compositions, Genrikh Kasparian, Vladimir Korolkov, Nadareischvili Gia and Ernest Pogosjanz, and asked them if they would be so kind as to put their favorite works at our disposal. Among them were many miniatures. Our correspon-

dence resulted in 20 studies - all includ­ ed in this chapter - five from each Grandmaster. Visit this exhibition of chess art and let the masters show you their skills. Most of these studies have won prizes in major competitions. The closing part of the chapter fea­ tures studies with five pieces on the board. While the collection of Quartets in chapter three (and those in chapter one) may be regarded as nearly compre­ hensive, any attempt to include all viable themes from Quintettes would be impossible to fit into a single book. In our selection for this book, we have therefore aimed at presenting a number of the absolute pearls from this genre. Whereas Quartets mostly require an accurate and intensive analysis and so belong to the class of analytic studies, the Quintettes may seem far more artis­ tic as their solution often involve themes of great beauty and elegance. To establish whether you have found the right moves - and have solved the study correctly - just turn to the end of the chapter. But we recommend that you do not leave it at that. The studies will become of far more value to you if you first try to solve them independent­ ly before comparing your solution and notes with our answers.


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal # 1 White wins

# 4 Draw

# 2 White wins

# 5 Draw

# 3 White wins

# 6 White wins


50 Studies for the Practical Player

# 7 White wins

# 10 White to move, black draws

# 8 Draw

# ll Draw

# 9 Draw

# 12 Draw


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal * 13 Draw

# 16 Draw

# 14 Draw

# 17 Draw

* 15 White wins

# 18 Draw


50 Studies for the Practical Player

# 19 White wins

# 22 White wins

# 20 White wins

# 23 Draw

# 21 White wins

# 24 Draw


Karpov's Endgame Arsenal # 25 Draw

# 28 White wins

# 26 Draw

# 29 White wins

* 27 White wins

# 30 Draw


50 Studies for the Practical Player

# 31 Draw

# 34 White wins

# 32 White wins

* 35 Draw

# 33 White wins

• 36 Draw


Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal * 37 White wins

# 40 White wins

* 38 White wins

# 41 Draw

* 39 Draw

# 42 White wins


50 Studies for the Practical Player

• 43 White wins

• 46 Draw

# 44 White wins

• 47 Draw

• 45 Draw

• 48 Draw

10 1

Karpov 's Endgame Arsenal # 49 White wins

# 50 White wins


# 1 Platov,MIPlatov,Y 1908 The study of Barbe and Saavedra was treated extensively in the previous chapter. Positions 1-3 build on their theme - underpromoting the pawn to a rook. In # 1 , black has to first win a pawn and then sacrifice his rook for the other one. If only he could.

J.C�b41 Etf5 2.c6 Etxh5 3.c7 Eth4+ If white had begun with 1. 'it'c4 then 3 . . .f! xh2 would have achieved a draw at once. And on l .'it'd4, black would have had 3 ... f!h8 with a draw.

4. �b5 Eth5+ 5. �b6 Eth6+ 6 . .Q.d6! A moment of fun: white sacrifices his bishop in order to enter the Barbe/Saavedra position after 6. . . f! xd6+ 7.'it'b5, etc.

1.�cll Et xb5 2.c7 Etd5+ 3.�d3 Etxd3+ 4.�c2 and now follows the familiar finale:

4... E{d4 5.c8 = Etl Eta4 6.�b3 Another nice possibility existed:

l ... Etd5+ 2.�c2 Etc5+ 3.�d31 Etxb5 4.c7 EtbSI 5.cxb8 = .Q.II Bishop and knight can, as you know, easily perform a mate. (But not 5.cxb8=� Stalemate.)

# 3 Gurgenidze,D 1976 The Barbe/Saavedra Quartet only included the stalemate theme once, while study • 2 featured it twice. But in • 3 there are no less than four stale­ mates!

l.�e21 Much better than l .'it'c4? f!d2! 2.'it'c3 §d5! and white has to accept either 3.'it'c4 § d2 4.'it'c3 with a repetition of moves or 3.c8=� f! c5+! 4.�xc5 - the first stalemate.

# 2 Liburkin,M 1931 Black has the same goal as in • 1 but once again he'll be too late.

1 . . \tla5 2.�c41 .


50 Studies for the Practical Player The second stalemate was to be found

9.ftxg81 and you're back at the Liburkin srudy ( •4 after white's fourth move). Black has to be content with one of the three stalemates. In this way the old srudy became both more dynamic and refined due to its interesting beginning. In addition, a piece got locked up. A splendid example of the constant devel­ opment of themes in a study. Illustrated by some miniarures.

in 2.c8=� E! c3+! 3.�xc3.

2.. . Etd6 3 . .£Jd41

And the third was 3.c8=� E!c6+! 4.�xc6 stalemate!

3 Etc6+1 4 . .£1 xc6+ g4 3.'gS 6.E!g3+ followed by 7.E! xg2, nor 2 . . . 'it>h4 3 . f! f4+ 'it>gS (3 . . .'it>h3 4 . ..1lc4 g2 S . ..ll fl ) 4 .'it>e4 g2 S.E!f8! g l =� 6.E!g8+ and 7.f! xgl would do black any good.

l.Etg5+ h71 2.bl Ae6 3.fte5 Ac4 4.ftc51

A final trap in the style of Reti.

* 5 Kasparian,G 1978

3.Ac41 g2 4.Af11

The bishop mustn't be allowed access to dS: 4.E!e4? ..lldS S.E!eS �a4. 4....Q.e6 5.Ete5 (5.E!c2 g3 3.�e7 'it>f3.

l ... e3 2.E(a31 e2 3.E(alll �g2 On 3 . . .� fl follows 4.�a2 �f2 5.�al etc.

4.E(ell Mutual zugzwang.

l ... E(h7

4 ... �h2 5.13al A final finesse. White would lose after

White would snatch the pawn after l ...d5+ 2.'it>d6 � f5 3 ...1ld4 'it'b7 4 . ..1le5.

5 . 'it>h4? � f4+ 6.'it>g5 � e4 7.'it'f5 � e8 8.'it>f4 'it'g2.


s ... E(fl 6.E(a2 .§.f2 7 .§.al

The bishop has no choice but this retreat to meet attack with attack. That is, when the rook attacks from the h-file the bish­ op will jump to the h2-d6 diagonal. An example: 2 . . . �h2 3 ...1lg3 �d2 4 ...1ld6 and draw.

A positional draw.

2 ... E(h2 3.Ag31 13h7 4.Af2 13g7 5.Ae31 §g3 6 ..sl_f4! §g7 7.Ae3 13f7 8 . .sl_d4! E(f4 9.Ae5 E(f7 10 . .sl_d4 E(e7 l l.Ac51 A positional draw. And a stellar perfor­ mance by the bishop.

# 47 Iseneger,S 1955 A stunning achievement. The bishop is about to square off with a rook and a knight!

l.Ab5 Ete5 2.Ad3 And not 2 ...1lc4? which allows 2 . . . �e4! 3 . ..1lg8 (3 ...1ld3 �h4 4 ...Q.h7 b2 5 ..1lg7+ 'it>b3 6 ...1lg8+ 'it'a3 7 . .1lh6 'it'b2 with a draw.

l ... �dl This offers more resistance than l ...'it>d2 2 ..1lh6+ 'it'c3 3 ...Q.cl 'it>d3 4 ...1lh7+.

2.Ab3 �d2 3. .Q.a41 A very resourceful maneuver. White couldn't win with: 3 . ..1lh6+? 'it>c3 4 . ..1la4 'it>b2 5 ...Q.g7+ 'it'bl Draw.

3 ... �cl

# 48 Keres,P, 1951

On 3 . . . cl ='i£r follows 4 ...1lh6+ and on 3 . . . 'it'd3 4 ..1lh6 'it>c3 5 ...Q.cl and white wins in both lines. 4. .sl_c6! �dl (4 . . .\t>bl 5 ...Q.e4) 5.Af3+

One of the best studies by the Grandmaster of over-the-board chess. And a very important one for rook endgame theory.

But not 7 ...1lg7+ and white's effon would have been in vain after 7 ...'it>b3 8 . ..Q.d5+ 'it>a3. 7... �b3 8 .sl_e4 and the pawn has been

l .�g4



3.Ah7 E(e8 4 . .sl_g8 .£1g6 5 . .Q.f7 Draw.

�d2 6.Ah6+ �c3 7.Acl

1 14

50 Studies for the Practical Player

# 50 Dlez del Corral,I 1955 As the last representative of a miniature we'll bring a combinative study which

shows how a queen and knight can deal with a single queen (and king).

2 ... fl a4 46.c5 and white will be in zugzwang after both 48.'it>c2 'it>c4! and 48.'it>c3 b3 or 49.al (50.'it>cl .§b3!) 50 ... .§b2! 5 l ..§xa3 E!.xf2 etc.

49 ... Cifle4 50.Ciflb1 labS+ 51.Cifla1 §b2 52.§ xa3 § xh2 53.Ciflb1 §d2 54.§a6 Ciflf5 55.§a7 g5 56.§a6 g4 Stronger than 56 . . . .§h2 57.'it>cl 'it>g4 58 . .§g6! .§h5 59.'it>d2 'it>xg3 60.e4 60.f5 El.f3 6 l . f6 .§f4 nor 58.d2 .§ f3 60.f3! 67.'it'd4 (67.f7 is answered by 67. . . .§ f5 68 . .§g7 .§f4!) 67 ....§h5!! and black has won the decisive tempo. Now white has to move and after 68.f7 .§ fS 69 . .§g7 g2 70.'it'd3 .§ f4! 7l .'it'd2 'it'f2, he'll have to lay down his weapons.

6t .�dl This makes it easier for black to turn his advantage into a win. Some commentators thought that black would end up in zugzwang after 6 l . f6 'it'xg3 62 . .§h6 'ifi>g2 63.'ifi>dl g3 64 . .§g6

6I. .. �xg3 62.�el �g2 63 . .§g5 g3 64 .§h5 .

Or 64.'it'dl 'it'h3! 65.'it'el 'it'h4.

64.. .§f4 65.�e2 .§e4+ 66.4ifi'd3 4ifi'f3 67. .§hl .

The situation wouldn't change after 67.f6 .§ f4 68 . .§h6 g2 69. .§g6 'it'f2.

67...g2 68. .§h3+ �g4 69 . .§h8 .§f4 70.�e2 .§xf5 and White Resigned. A rare study-like game which surely has enriched the theory of rook endings.

# 16 Karpov,A - Kasparov,G Moscow (m/27), 1984

(analysis diagram) (But not 64.'it'el which allows 64 . . . 'it'gl 6S . .§g6 g2 66. .§h6 .§ f5 67.'it'e2 .§eS+ 68.h8 40. .§f7 .Q.e3 41.�g3 Ad2 42 . .§d7 Ac3 43.�f3 �g8 44.4.)f4 .§f5 45.�e4 §f71 46 . .§d8+ White would have had better chances in the endgame after 46.§.xf7 'iti'xf7 47.'iti'f5. Later my opponent's trainers, Dorfman and Vladimirov, published an interest­ ing analysis that shows a satisfying defensive method for black in this endgame.

The position may be regarded as histor­ ical. White can win by moving his a­ pawn one step ahead. Here is the small study that proves why this was so important. 33.a6! Ab3 (33... .ila4 34.a7 .ilc6 35J!e6 Ad5 36.1"!d6; 33 . . . 1"! b8 34.1"! xdl .ila3 35 A:lb7!) 34 . .£) xb3 .§a4 (34 . . . 1"! xb3 35.1"!e8+ and 36.a7.) 35 . .£lc5 .§a5

46 ... �h7 47. .§d3 .§e7+ 48.'it;>f3 Ab2 49 . .§b3 Act 50 . .£)d5 .§e5 5 1 . .£)f6+ �g6 52 . .£)e4 .§f5+ 53.�e2 .§e5 54..§b4 .§e7 55.§c4 §e8 56.g3 Ab2 57.�f3 .§e6 58.§c5 Ad4 59 . .§d5 Ae5 60 . .§b5 Ac7 6t . .§c5 Ab6 62 . .§c8 Ad4 63 ..§g8+ Ag7 64.h4 .§a6 65.�f4 Black unfortunately had a "desperado" rook after: 65.h5+ 'iti'xh5 66.1"!xg7 l"!a3+ 67.'iti'f4 l"!f3+ 68.'iti'xf3 with stalemate.

65 ... .§a5 66. .§e8 .§f5+ 67. 'it>e3 .§e5 68 . .§g8 .§e7 69.'it;>f4 .§f7+ 70.�g4 h5+ 71.'it;>h3 Draw Agreed.

36. .§e41 'it>f7 37..§a4 .§xa4 38.4.) xa4 Ad4 39. .£lc3 and black will Jose his bishop.


20 Study-like Endgames by Anatoly Karpov

# 19 Karpov,A Sokolov,A Unares (m/10), 1987 -

The l Oth game of the match was adjourned in this position and the analy­ sis showed that white can win in a study-like fashion.

(analysis diagram)

42.§.f31 The sealed move and also the strongest. The white rook may look misplaced, but it is in realiry in the process of attacking the black king!

First we investigated 44.4Jc7 but then we realized that black could hold the posi­ tion after 44 . . . :B.el + 45.'
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