John Mehegan. Jazz Improvisation 2. Jazz Rythm and the Improvised Line.pdf

October 21, 2017 | Author: Fabio Baladez | Category: Jazz, Chord (Music), Drum Kit, Harmony, Rhythm
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Download John Mehegan. Jazz Improvisation 2. Jazz Rythm and the Improvised Line.pdf...

Description

Jazz · · ImprOVisation

2~

Jazz Rhythm and . the Improvised Line By John Mehegan

Preface by Harold Arlen AMSCO '~" -

t'uBLISHING COMPANY

JAZZ RHYTHM AND THE IMPROVISED LINE

JAZZ RHYTHM AND THE IMPROVISED LINE Jazz Improvisation II John Mehegan

Watson-Guptill Publications/New York

. ~ Amsco Publications New York/London/Sydney

To Doris" Carey, and GretclLen

Copyright @ 1962 by Watson-Guptill Publications First published 1962 in New York by Watson-Guptill Publications, a division of Billboard Publications, Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10036 Exclusive distributors to the Music Trade Music Sales Corporation 24 E. 22 Street New York, N.V. 10010 Music Sales Limited 8/9 Frith Street London W1V 5TZ Music Sales Pty Limited 27 Clarendon Street Artarmon Sydney NSW 2064 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 58-13525 ISBN 0-8230-2572-1 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used In any form or by any means-graphic; electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the publisher.

14 15 16 17190 89 68

CONTENTS PREFACE by Harold Arlen INTRODUCTION

9

SECTION I - JAZZ RHYTHM Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

1 - General 2 - Tempo 3 - Melodic Time Values 4 - Harmonic Time Values

17 22

.25 40

NEW ORLEANS "Dippermouth Blues" "Mandy Lee Blues" "High Society"

41

CHICAGO "Singin' the Blues Till My Daddy Comes Home" "Sweet Sue-Just You" "Dixieland One Step" "I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate" "Jazz Me Blues"

42

SWING "Oh Lady Be Good" "Just You, Just Me" "Tea for Two" "Whispering"

43

PROGRESSIVE "I Can't Get Started" "Night in Tunisia" "Lady Bird" ("Half Nelson") "Bernie's Tune" Lesson 5 - Syncopation

SECTION

n-

44

47

TIlE IMPROVISED LINE (1923-1958)

PART I-NEW ORLEANS ""Gin House Blues" - Bessie Smith "High SOCiety" - Johnny Dodds ""Dippermouth Blues" - Joe Oliver "West End Blues" - Louis Armstrong

61

62 63

64

"M uggles" - Louis Armstrong "Basin Street Blues" - Louis Armstrong PART 2 - CHICAGO "Sweet Sue - Just You" - Bix Beiderbecke "Singin' the Blues Till My Daddy Comes Home" Bix Beiderbecke "Original Dixieland One-Step" - Miff Mole "There'll Be Some Changes Made" - Frank Teschemacher "I'm Coming Virginia" - Bix Beiderbecke "Jazz Me Blues" - Bix Beiderbecke PART 3 - SWING "Mter You've Gone" - Roy Eldridge "Sweet Sue - Just You" - Teddy Wilson "Aunt Hagar's Blues" - Art Tatum "Soft Winds" - Benny Goodman "Crazy Rhythm" - Coleman Hawkins and Bennyearter PART 4-EARLY PROGRESSIVE "Just You, Just Me" - Lester Young "I Can't Get Started" - Dizzy Gillespie "Lady Bird" ("Half Nelson") - Miles Davis "Nice Work 1£ You Can Get It" - Bud Powell "Cherokee" ("Ko Ko") - Charlie Parker "Just Friends" - Charlie Parker PART 5-LATE PROGRESSIVE "Lover Man" - Lee Konitz "All the Things You Are" - Chet Baker "Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams" - Stan Getz "I Don't Stand a Ghost of a Chance With You"-Cli£ford Brown "Opus De Funk" - Horace Silver "I've Got the World on a String" - Oscar Peterson

66 68 69 70 71 72 74 76 77 80 83 90 91 94 96 98 100 103 109 111 115 116 119 122 129

PREFACE The reader's first thought upon scanning this might well be: "Why was a song writer asked to write this preface?" Well now, if I may quote John Mehegan's inscription to me in his brilliant first volume of JAZZ IMPROVISATION "To Harold Arlen, whose tunes are a source of inspiration to all jazz men" - it would seem that there is some contingent area where song writers and jazz musicians meet to draw from a common source. Perhaps this wellspring is the blues, which, I am told, finds its home in some of my music. I am pleased to discover that at times my music may act as an emissary in the fascinating conversation which occurs between the jazz musician and his audience. Yes, I'm human enough to take pride in his inscription, but more than that it reveals the absolute truth about the collaboration of composers and improvisors. One may improvise to his heart's content, but the listener cannot fully appreciate the magic of the stylists and their improvisations unless they take flight around a theme or melody with which the listener is already familiar. Only then is their work understood, and all their flights take on a new meaning when they have a base, or perhaps I should say "bass," to depart from and come home to. It was an improvisation of a traditional vamp that was responsible for my first hit, "Get Happy." That melody has been the base for many original inventions, and I bow to the superb talents of the men in this volume who have collaborated (although they may not know it) with many a song writer in keeping their songs interestingly alive. Let no one who thinks he knoW~-«1lything about jazz improvisation or the various piano styles that have evolved through the years slough off this volume as something to rest in a dusty archive. Jazz is distinguished by its urgent vitality, and it seems to me that the author has captured this special quality of jazz by chOOSing the individualists - the innovators; for in every generation there are those who follow and the blessed few who lead. It is quite unusual to find one so devoted, knowledgeable, and unstinting as John Mehegan in his efforts to bring musical order to this most driving, unique, and universal art form so lovingly shared by so many.

Harold Arlen New York City

1962

INTRODUCTION Volume II of Jazz Improvisation deals with the schematic history of two important facets of jazz: 1. Rhythm 2. The improvised line It is in the areas of rhythm that the jazzman has achieved his most magnificent expression; it is in the improvised line that he has given this rhythm vitality and mea:ping. As the jazz musician calls forth his resources of imagination, technique, and taste to generate that elusive quality called swing, he also learns that the sum total of the resources he deals with eventually are transformed into the common denominator of all jazz rhythm. Volume I of Jazz Improvisation explored the tonal aspects of this problem. The present volume deals first with the rhythmic genesis of improvisation, and second with reproductions of outstanding recordings created by jazz musicians over the past thirty-five years. Various schematic outlines trace the evolution of jazz rhythm, harmony, and the improvised line. The subject of jazz rhythm has been of major concern to all jazzmen throughout the history of the art form. Jazzmen usually refer to jazz rhythm in all its manifestations as time. Time encompasses all of the aspects of tempo, beat, pulse, and, above all, the elusive element called swing. For one jazzman to acknowledge that another jazzman swings is to confer the highest accolade. What is swing? Tempo may be metronomically determined; pulse and meter rest within the notation of a composition; but the swing or lack of swing of a performance is very. difficult to evaluate objectively. The performance of a Bach Fugue, a Strauss waltz, a Sousa march, or a rhythm and blues recording - each can be said to swing within its own context. The problem of evaluating the swing of a jazz performance lies in recognizing the multiple levels of pulsation which must converge in the performance to create swing. MELODIC SWING: The presence or absence of swing in an improvised line is determined by the following factors: 1. Relationship of improvisi~g units (eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second notes) to the basic beat. 2. Punctuation in relation to stresses within the bar. 3. Punctuation in relation to the bar-line.

9

4. Constant transitions from unit to unit (eighth, sixteenth, eighthnote triplet to thirty-second, etc.) to sustain melodic interest. S. Direction changes within a phrase in order to avoid one-directional runs. " 6. Accent placements capable of falling at any point of opposition to the basic pulse. 7. Interesting interval textures employing all units of the interval span from the minor second t-o the major ninth. 8. . Constant tonal transitions from release (modal) to tension (nonmodal) or the opposite transition (tension to release). The resulting line, by constantly alternating between these two factors, will avoid the oppressive monotony of total release (modal) or total tension (non-modal). It is well to remember that the ear (like all sensory organs) functions on a premise of Opposition, i.e. release is non-tension, tension is non-release. One can only exist effectively by the presence of the other. 9. Constant transitions between ·tile basic quallty 'tones of a chord (root, third, fifth, and seventh) and the ornamental tones (ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth). 10. Use of sequence, retrograde motion, diminution, and augmentation to enhance musical order. 11. Use of dynamiCS in order to clearly establish the rise and fall of musical sentences. 12. Contrasting touch or tonal timbres in order to achieve an emotional palette. ((

HARMONIC SWING: The swing of a harmonic progression or chord chart can hardly be underestimated, since it is the transmission belt of any jazz performance. Harmonic swing is essentially based upon the procession of patterns appearing in a tune. (See Volume I, Lesson 62, 63, 64). These circles of fifths, diatonic and chromatic patterns have all evolved from the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic traditions and represent a distillation of the harmonic deSigns most conducive to a propelling beat. A badly organized chord chart may quite easily dispel the effectiveness of a jazz performance that might otherwise (melodically and rhythmically) possess the necessary qualifications of swing. The circle of fifllis, of course, takes precedence over either diatonic or chromatic deSigns in creating harmonic swing. The reason for this lies in a fundamental fact of all tonality namely that the basic cadence design of the circle of fifths (II - V - I) is the most effective means of establishing harmonic tension, which demands

10

an inevitable resolution. Orderly diatonic and chromatic patterns act primarily as connective material joining the circle of fifths. Chromatic harmonic designs usually possess the tension of inevitable resolution more than diatonic patterns and are often employed as "substitute" structures for the circle of fifths: For instance: Circle pattern: III - VIx - II - V - I Chromatic substitute: III - bIIIx - II - bIIx - I The subject of "substitute" chords is one that consumes the interest of many immature jazz musicians, who seem to feel that the acquisition of a few "substitute" chords will automatically transform them into developed performers. The term "substitute" as used by these people actually means the correct chords for a jazz chart, as opposed to the incorrect chords often appearing in sheet music or numerous "fake" books. This whole .idea is, of course, an illusory one that only at best can "patch up" an otherwise faltering array of resources. The only authentic "substitute" chord is the chromatic substitute for the circle of fifths (bIIIx for VIx), the so-called "augmented fourth substitute." A correct chord cannot under any circumstances be considered a "substitute" for an incorrect chord. RHYTHMIC SWING: Music theorists have usually centered their interest upon the rhythmic aspects of jazz, since they have quite correctly established that the jazzman has not been an innovator in the areas of harmony and melody. In the realm of · voicing existing harmonic materials, jazz pianists have been singularly inventive (i.e. Tatum, Wilson, Powell, and Shearing). But for the most part jazzmen have been content to borrow their tonal resources from such diverse areas as Lutheran hymns and Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps As indicated in the introductory notes to Volume I, the rhythmic engine found in all jazz, regardless of period or style, is a form of florid counterpoint involving three levels of time. Each level represents one of the three basic elements of all music:

j-

melodic time

J-

harmonic time

J - rhythmiC time

As indicated in Volume I and further explored in the present volume, the melodic and harmonic units both employ a number of variables ranging on the melodic level from .d on the harmonic level

J to} ...

11

J

from to 0-0--00 It is in the creative use of these variables that the ordinary harmonic and rhythmic resoltrces of jazz are transformed into the sensuality, the lyricism, the pathos, and the savagery of the art form. Probably the most representative point of view of the serious musician toward the question of jazz rhythm has been expressed by Igor Stravinsky· • Responding to an inquiry by Robert Craft concerning his attitude toward jazz, Stravinsky expressed an admiration tinged with affection for the virtuosity 9f jazz musicians. He also pOinted out that jazz is by far the finest form of popular musical culture in America today. One curious comment of Stravinsky's which seemed to reveal his attitude toward jazz rhythm, was his statement that jazz rhythm did not "really exist" since it possessed neither "proportion" nor "relaxation:' Actually, jazz rhythm falls into two basic segments: j,

SUPERSTRUCTURE (melodic and harmonic units and their variables) SUBSTRATUM (basic pulse or beat) Tnte, the basic pulse or beat, by definition, is without "proportion" or "relaxation;" however, the superstructure of melodic and harmonic variables is, by definition, constantly subject to the identical concepts of "proportion" and "relaxation" that prevail in serious music. The fact that these levels of "proportion" and "relaxation" are not always maintained · is part of the relentless diScipline of the art form, which, as in all art forms, takes its toll of faltering heros. This can never in any way repudiate the absolutes (relative to style and period) established by such master figures as Armstrong, Beiderbecke, Hawkins, Goodman, Tatum, Parker and Powell. This brings us to the second section of this present volume dealing with a schematic history of the improvised line. , The final and most severe commitment of the jazz musician is to "blow a line" on the changes of a tune. This line should represent an imaginative design built upon the rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic inflections implicit in the composition. Volume II will document some of the greatest lines played in the thirty-five years from 1923 to 1958. Each period produces its own monumental achievements of the improvised line, which in time become a pOint of departure for succeeding generations. For convenience, it is well to use the following period breakdown. -Igor StraVinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Igor Stravill.sky (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959).

12

ARCHAIC: 1875-1915 gospel songs work songs hollers medicine shows minstrels ragtime blues

Bunny Berigan Vic Dickenson Benny Goodman Benny Carter Johnny Hodges Coleman Hawkins Chu Berry Ben Webster Harry Carney NE\V ORLEANS: 1915-1925 Charlie Christian Louis Armstrong Django Reinhardt King Oliver Red Norvo Nick LaRocca Hershel Evans Jelly Roll Morton EARLY PROGRESSIVES: 1940-1948 Kid Ory Bud Powell Honore Dutrey Dizzy Gillespie Leon Rapallo Miles Davis Johnny Dodds Bill Harris Jimmie Noone Charlie Parker Bessie Smith J. J. Johnson CHICAGO: NEW YORK: 1925-1935 Stan Hasselgard Earl Hines Lester Young Serge Chaloff James P. Johnson Fats Waller LATER PROGRESSIVES: 1948-1958 Bix Beiderbecke Horace Silver Miff Mole Oscar Peterson Jack Teagarden Hampton Hawes Frank Teschemacher Chet Baker Pee M'tRussell Clifford Brown Bud Freeman Bob Brookmeyer Eddie Lang Lee Konitz Jimmy Harrison John Coltrane Tommy Ladnier Gerry Mulligan Tal Farlow SWING: 1935-1940 George Shearing _ Art Tatum Stan Getz Teddy Wilson Roy Eldridge Milt Jackson Instruments represented in the above outline include trumpet; piano; trombone; alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones; clarinet; xylophone; Vibraphone; and the human voice. Instruments auxiliary to the improvised line (bass, drums, etc.) and those upon which no major developments have occurred (Bute, organ, etc.) have been omitted.

13

That this list of the melodic giants of jazz is incomplete is immediately obvious to even the casual reader. Most people naturally feel that anyone they like is very good and a candidate for the jazz Valhalla, but the exigencies of history are fortunately a little more demanding, primarily because in retrospect the contribution is distilled from the performance. The average listener is rightfully concerned with the immediate performance and has little patience or interest in the eventual, dry summingup. The author is solely responsible for the arbitrary selections herein, and he feels that the reader rightfully deserves some explanation of the pitfalls, whimSies, and, above all, prejudices of the author. First, it is believed in this quarter that the lyrical line abounding in sensitive melodies and harmonic inflection, in addition to that elusive element swing, is the most demanding, most rare, and most important element in jazz. Respectfully excluded are all types of styles based upon slurs, growls, wa-waing, honking, or slap-tongue. Furthermore, styles employing in an essential way the use of plungers,haU-valve, mutes, or hats expressing some degree of bathos, onomatopoea, or some such figures of musical speech, have been omitted on the grounds of being either too specifiC or too topical. Many melodic instruments upon which jazz can be played have been ignored on the basic grounds that no major achievement has been initially presented on such instruments and also on the further basis that just as there are major and minor figures in jazz, so there are major and minor instruments, and major figures tend to play major instruments probably because they offer a wider spectrum of sound and emotion. In the labyrinthian maze of the jazz discography, which had its inception in 1921 and has flourished into a multi-million dollar industry, the historian faces a tremendous task of ferreting out some continuity of development in the art form. Who are the major figures, the minor figures, the innovators, the consolidators, the creators, the contributors, the popularizers, the recreators? What is the mainstream; which are the tributaries? Where are the lines of influence? For one thing, the lines of influence crisscross from one instrument to another: Louis Armstrong to Earl Hines; Benny Carter to Teddy Wilson; Art Tatum to Charlie Parker; Charlie Parker to Bud Powell; Horace Silver to Chet Baker. Actually, new, fresh, completely original ideas in any art form are extremely rare. In a sense, the entire history of jazz could probably be summed up with three names: Armstrong, Hawkins, and Parker. But this would telescope the entire history of jazz to a dusty litany of unrelated «g'Iants" • With the spate of reissues in recent years, precious 78's and even cylinders and piano rolls have been faithfully re-recorded on LP's which re14

moves living moments of jazz history from archives and collections, making them available for the general public. Many apocryphal figures come to mind who could never be recorded and whose art remains a legend Buddy Bolden, Porter King, Emmet Hardy, and Tony Jackson. Others like Freddie Keppard, Bunk Johnson, Alphonse Picou, and Larry Shields, who were recorded long after their prime, remain shadowy figures of a dim past. Still other tragic figures like Leon Rappalo, Joe Smith, Bix Beiderbecke, Hershal Evans, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, and Wardell Gray were stilled by permanent illness or untimely death. Important contributors or consolidators like Henry "Red" Allen, Sidney Bechet, Charlie Shavers, Buck Clayton, Harry Edison, Lucky Thompson, Orner Simeon, Zoot Sims, Sonny Stitt, Jess Stacy, Bobby Hackett, Shorty Rogers, John Lewis, Frankie Newton, Joe Sullivan, and Mary Lou Williams have been excluded due to the exigencies of space. Although it is a truism that a creator is seldom if ever excelled by one of his diSciples, the very term "creator" is open to question. By definition a creator must transcend (Parker, Mole, Armstrong), consolidate (Peterson, Wilson, Noone), alter (Silver, Davis, Konitz), or even demolish (Powell, Young, Eldridge) previous levels of expression. Each creator does not arbitrarily choose the role to be followed; rather this role is assigned by history. At the same time no creator alone can make his achievement; he is constantly aided by figures of probably less stature who often pOint the way toward a new imaginative level. From this point of view, the sum total of these minor figures is extremely important and refutes the myth of the solitary "cultural hero." To assume that the best of jazz has been captured on records is, of course, ridiculous; and the painful remembrance which we all have felt of past, lost. moments only pOints up the inescapable silence of history. Like any art form, jazz displays an inevitable dialectic toward more comprehenSive modes of expression - but it is also well to keep in mind that any invidious comparisons in which one period (either the earliest or the latest) is chosen as an absolute of expression in distinction to another period, or all other periods, is to miss completely the intrinsic worth of every period. It must be remembered that each line chosen is a fair representation of the finest conception for that particular period, and in no way is to be deemed a series of progreSSive steps from bad to good or inept to skilled. The obvious extension and refinement of skills and techniques must be thought of as representative of a comparable progressive extension of feeling and thinking on the part of the successive generation of people who listened to this music.

15

H a King Oliver chorus seems archaic and limited to a modem listener, it is well to remember that Charlie Parker would have appeared as incomprehensible emotionally and intellectually to the audiences atChleago's Lincoln Gardens in 1928. This is the natural evolution of any art form, and if the art form possesses an intrinsic worth, eac~ period should retain some permanent value relative to all periods besides its absolute value to its own particular space-time. In other words, Armstrong's "Potato Head Blues" should and does possess a universality for all periods. This universality will probably never completely recapture the excitement of the moment of creation, but some permanent verity must always reside in Louis' achievement. Here, then, is a book which permanently records the evolution of the improvised line and the history of jazz rhythm with the hope that future generations may find here knowledge to aid them in their efforts toward continuing and deepening the jazz art. .

JOHN-MEHEGAN

16

SECTION

I

Jazz Rhythm LESSON

1. General

All jazz involves three levels of time (rhythmic pulsation) played simultaneously against each other. It is the constant conflict of these three time levels and their superimpositions which results in the endless tension present in jazz. The idea of rhythmic "counterpoint" is, of course, present in all music (Western and Eastern), so that this fact alone would not account for the unique qualities associated with jazz. However, jazz deals almost exclusively with a specific relationship of time values which immediately distinguishes it from a large segment of other musical forms. This specific relationship of time values can best be expressed through their application to melody, harmony, and rhythm. As a general statement, it can be said that all jazz from 1900 to the present day has employed the following ratio of time values: 1. A quarter-note pulse. the rhythmic unit, representing the rhythmic center of gravity of any jazz performance. 2. A slower set of time values representing the harmonic unit (half...note) . 3. A-tftticker set of time values representing the melodic unit (eighthnote). In Lesson 34 of Volume I, we learned that the melodic unit employs variables ranging from eighth-note to thirty-second-note. This range was incomplete and was established for study purposes. The following outline illustrates the variables for the three basic units which have been employed through the years from New Orleans polyphony to modem jazz. ELEMENT

VARIABLES

UNIT

Melodic

eighth-note

0,

J, J,

Harmonic.

half-note

J,

0,

Rhythmic

quarter-note

OQ,

none

~,

'3'

'3'

~ ~, ),

00-0-0

17

j

In the above outline, dotted values are assumed to be included; syncopation will be discussed in a later lesson. As we trace the history of jazz, we find that the rhythmic unit has

seldom if ever varied through the course of some sixty years. We will also discover in.this and succeeding lessons that the harmonic and melodic variables have gradually expanded through the years from the complex to the more complex. It is also apparent that the rhythmic «assignments" for certain jazz

instruments· have drastically changed -- some -to the point of altering the role of the instrument from one level of time to another; INSTRUMENT

BEFORE

NOW

Piano

rhythmic

harmonic

Bass

harmonic

rhythmic

Guitar

rhythmic

melodic ana/.,9r rhythmic

Drums

rhythmic

melodic and/or rhythmic

RHYTHMIC SUPERIMPOSITION

As the range of variables has increased on the melodic and harmonic levels, so also has the superimposition of these units and their variables, one level over another. The idea of rhythmic superimposition has always existed in jazz and can even be found in examples of archaic folk idioms. For instance:

Fig. 1.

Melodic Superimposition

J J J J J J J J

BarmoD1c UD1t

II

Rhythmlc UD1t

18

V

4 4

Fig. 2. 3

3

3

3

Melodic Superimposition

J J J JJ J J J JJ JJ

Harmonic Unit

n

12 8

v

Rhythmic Unit

These functional superimpositions have existed in jazz and pre-jazz for probably 75 years. The first example is common to nearly all boogiewoogie; the second is common to archaic folk guitar and remains the rhythmic staple of rock and roll. Sometimes the superimposed factor is the rhythmic unit (quarternote), which may appear on either the melodic level (especially Armstrong and Beiderbecke) Fig. 3; or on the harmonic level (especially TatumWilson swing bass) Fig. 4. Fig. 3.

Rhythmic Superimposition

J.

Melodic Unit_ Harmonic Unit

n

v

t

- Rhythmic Unit

In Fig. 3 the rhythmic superimposition over the melodic unit was employed by Armstrong and Beiderb~cke to build the rhythmiC tension later to be released into the eighth-note melodic unit. It is of course apparent that the major superimpositions in rhythmic units have been melodic over ·harmonic (Fig. 1 and 2) and in relation to 19

the piano the gradual transition from a rhythmic to a harmonic and finally, a melodic instrument. Melodic over rhythmic has played a major role in the emergence of modem drumming (e.g. the drum solo). The necessary "static" value of the harmonic unit has resulted in few displacements to the other levels. Fig. 5 is a broad outline of the essential displacements of each level. Fig. 4. Melodic UDlt

J J J J J J J J

Rhythmic Superimposition

J

J

BarmoDlc UDlt

n

V

J

Rbythm1c UDlt

Fig. 5. Superimposition Chart Melodic over harmonic: Boogie-woogie (Fig. 1) 12/8 time (rock and roll) (Fig. 2) Modem solo piano Locked hands New Orleans clarinet obligato Left hand arpeggiation Banjo Melodic over rhythmic: Wood block or cymbal Drum solo Rhythmic over melodic: New Orleans - Chicago "ride out" (Fig. 3) Rhythmic over harmonic: Guitar Ragtime Swing bass "Walking" bass lines ErroIl Gamer (left hand "strumming" in quarter-note units)

20

(Swing Bas.)

t 4 4

The device of superimposition of one level over another raises the question as to what is a melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic instrument. Although each instrument in a jazz group (except the drum) is concerned with harmonic materials, there actually is no such thing as a harmonic instrument in jazz (the exception might be the New Orleans trombone). In each case the harmonic materials are transformed into melodic or rhythmic elements. In essence, all factors ultimately emerge as rhythmic. The follOWing designations indicate the roles of the basic jazz instruments in the history of jazz: NelD Orleans: Melodic: cornet (1) Melodic-Harmonic: clarinet comet (2) banjo· Harmonic: trombone Rhythmic-Harmonic: piano tuba-bass Rhythmic: drums

-The banjo represents a curious anomaly of factors: It is essentially a "harmonic" instrument it utilizes "melodic" units)J, yet it is traditionay considered a component of the "rhythmic" section ~

d'

Chicagot: M~lodic: trumpet Meloooo ), a certain pulsation rate must be maintained in order to achieve any urgency. On the other hand, the use of quick harmonic units ( tJ tJ ~ ~ ) would neceslSarily mean some moderation in tempo in oraer for the perfo~er to ·'realize"· each chord.

J J.I

The following outline illustrates the history of tempo in jazz from the early Twenties to the present day. In each case the metronome marking (mm) refers to the rhythmiC unit (quarter-note). These estimates are based on arbitrary samplings and indicate only the general trends.

New Orleans Groups Average- rom -

J

(1920-1928 ) -.-:. 166.7

=

Tempo span

104 -

Aver:rge mm -

J

Tempo span -

J=

= 179 108 --'-

J=

264

(1924-1940 )

New York Swing Bands Average rom -

J

= 213

Tempo span -

J

-

Progressive Groups

Tempo span -

248

(1924-1930)

Chicago Groups

Average mm -

J=

80-J =324 (1942-1960 )

J J

= =

184.5

44-

J =360

Many conclusions can be drawn from the above outline:

23

Tempo averages gradually increased until the Progressive period when a noticeable decline occurred. There were many reasons for this decline in the Forties. a) More complex harmonic materials b) Growing emphasis on mood and formal structure c) A probing of the "slow sound barrier" (below mm; -= 1(0) to hitherto unheard areas (rom ~ - 44) d) General abandonment of the eighth-note as the sole improvising unit with an accompanying exploration of the sixteenth-note triplet and thirty-second-note at slower tempi; trend toward introspection e) The "fast sound barrier" ( ~ -= 3(0) has maintained to some extent, but the average drops because of the slow tempi. (Note: the fastest recorded solo known to the author is "Indiana" by Oscar Peterson (~- 360 ) Contrary to popular opinion, Chicago jazz was not much faster than New Orleans jazz; the tradition from Chicago to Swiftg is much more accelerated. The tempo spans of the New Orleans and:-Ghicago groups are fairly similar. The explanation of the "fast" Chicago myth may lie in the fact that the levels of mUSiCianship in the Chicago groups were uneven and the slower efforts have not withstood the ravages of time, whereas the "enthusiastic" quicker tempi have survived. · This dictum would of course exclude Beiderbecke, Trumbauer, Lang, and "Miff' Mole. It is doubtful if the modem tempo span of ;.., 44-360 can be broadened. Below mm~ -44, "swing" becomes questionable; above mm ~ -360 would seem to tax human limitation and probably also the possibilities of "swing."

LESSON

3. Melodic Time Values

As previously indicated, the melodic instruments (trumpet, clarinet, saxophone) have from the beginning enjoyed the most freedom in terms of rhythmic units (eighth-note - thirty-second-note). The following outline illustrates the over-all development of the melodic time unit in the improvised line: UNIT RANGE

Bessie Smith

0

to

"King" Oliver

0

to

Louis Armstrong

Roy Eldridge Be~~y Goodman

...

Cha.r:u.--'Parker Dizzy Gillespie

J J }J }

j

rh

to

~

to

~

to

~

This outline reveals the gradual abandonment of the "vocal" line improvisation in favor of the "instrumental" line. The quarter-note unit appearing in each unit range represents the superimposition of the rhythmiC over the melodic (see Fig. 3, Lesson 1). Fig. 1 illustrates a schematic outline of the improvised line from Bessie Smith to Hampton Hawes, employing the ~ternal 12-bar blues. It will be noted that several of the soloists (especially · Young and Davis) indicate a reaction against the generally expanding 1evels of virtuosity. These solos represent an interpretive attempt to explore new levels of harmonic and melodic inSight, areas of equal importance. The varying signatures are all applicable to the figured bass appearing at the bottom.

25

Pick-up bar Bessie Smith

fl

Bartl

I

~

I

l

fJ

"King" OUver

.

II

I

-

'*--'*

!

r

!

fl Ki~ Ory

-

~

! Louis Armstrong

fl

I

.!l

2

....

. - .,.

!.

fl Ja~k Teagarden

~

I

~

fJ Lester Young

-

- ,

Benny Goodman

fJ

~

-

-

1

~

Dizzy Gillespie

~

I

I

!.

fJ

b. _ _ _

I

I.

--

--:

fl Horace Silver

.. ...

= qi- bi'*lj1t

~

:j

...

fl Hampton Hawes n

!

n

26

-

_I

-

--

_I

-

I! fl Miles Davis

I!

-

3 CharUe Parker

fl

I!

..

~11

I

..... v

:;J. ..

v 1+6

~J

~

..

"*

3_

.,;

. ::::--

...... -

Barf2 Bessie Smith

~I

Barla

~

.

I

LL r1

-

~V_

@ ''KIng'' OUver ~ I ~

-XIL

[email protected]

~

-

"

-

I

Kid Ory ~ I

r

-

3

.I.

[U~ l':: [T

Ie

,

Louis Armstrong ~

-

.I.

-x .1L

@

I

-"J

'I

l'

1

#~

~

-

..

....1:1 -"- r\.~ Lt, ~

V

Benny Goodman

fI

~~

I

'I"'l

-

'1-

'1-~

I

fli

III

,

..-

I!J

-

,I

-.1

....... , -

CbarUe Parker

Ie Miles Davis ~

-

fl -"-

--.

@

IVx

>-

-

- ,-

• I

-

.. . I

>~

::-

::-

3

-,

..-...-t

1J

I

--J 3

I

-

IeHampton •Hawes ~

-

Horace , Silver

~

--........

3

rU ~

~

1

i

]I

~

if" •

-

1

Dizzy Gillespie

.

?

-

Lester Youug

IL

[l

~

,

!J ~

3

.3..

-

~

~

-

..

-.t____V""""

I

~ Jacrk Teagarden

@

= =

'1,,-?

if"·

qv.

::-

• 1+6

D~_

.. 27

lIarH Bessie Smith fl· L ~

•lar

1

..h

It

"King" OUver

-

~I ~IL

I

!t! KidOry

fI

I

, fI

-""

-

-

--

Louis Armstrong I

~ !'!>~

LL

It! 1'\ .Ta~k..

v~ -....

t

~.

.

-"LL "

It! Benny Goodman ~

"""-,,,""

It........

,./It

~

~

I

-

.......

LlJ !'!> ~ lL

It!

I

a

Lester Young

-

13. IL

')

Dizzy Gillespie fI I

~

!'!>.

It!

I

--

..........

I

,

I

J

d~

fl CharUe Parker !'!>.

it·

I'

,-

-:>

.

-

...... __

3

Mlles Davl. ~ '!'!>.

[email protected]~

a fL

Horace Sliver I

13.

IL

1)

q.'

~~

a Hampton ~e.

3

fL

IL



28

v;_/-

it ...



Barts Be.ale Smith

hi

''King'' Ollver

11

I

-

-

KidOry

I

I

11 I IL

e;

--

-

f} ~. Armatroq

gilA.

~-

3

-

.,-

.

-,-",,-

/-;

[email protected]!

L....

I

I

Lester Young Jot_

'"

-

T

@!.

~ Dizzy GUleaple

n

I

I

. '" Hampton ~we.

IVx

-

..= _=.. -

.. 29

Barf6 Bessie Smith fl I

---

.

Barf7 I

v•

~

r~

.-

L

-

I

I

fl Ki~ Ory

3

I~

...!:-* Louis Armstrong f) I

- v.

---- -

11

Benny Goodman

fJ I~

I""

,.. '-'

-- .

.".

n.

~

~ -~

1

-~

.......

.,;

~.

-

r

.~ i~

lJ:"",,-

b~ Ifl

-

;>

I

.,

-

l

Lester Ywng f}

?;

,

-

Teagarden

I~

=

#~

r-r~

~

I~ f} Ja~k

~

"':

"King" Oliver fl I

iJ.•

I,r--

~

.

ft

...

-

-

I~

Dizzy Gillesple fl I

-~.

.!)

-

CharUe Parker f)

I

-.,

I~

-~ fi Miles Davls

&::I..

--.

fl Ho~ace Sllver

@

fl

V"

Hampton Hawes

_

~

= = _ " 1= :j

-

-D"'~I.~ii

I

~

-

-

iJ.

11. ;;;:.

-

-,

~

-

I

1

I

IVx

30

Y

.--

--

r

!)

,...,.

~~

----*_'1

--.--,,--

I

I

Ji I~

~

1+6

..

.. :j= = "1

- it· • I

!>

-~

Barts Bart9

Bessie Smlth

r. ,

~

.



I~

r.

"King" OUver I

I

-

-

-,..;

-



.....

I

r~ fI Ki,d Dry

__4

I~

r.

Louis Armstrong I

r. J~k Teagard~n

--

r.

-

3

...

-

I .....-.. I • Benny _ Goodman

r

-i

I

-

-

3

I

..........

-~

tf* ..

I~

= ii=__ -~

11

1

...

i~

i

~

q.....

-

.

11"

~

r. Lester Young I~

......-..

I

-

I

Dizzy

fI

I

I.;~_.

~t



--

__~ff. -

~~

r. ~

CharUe Parker

-

......iiI

-

......

111

=-

.-

_. ,.."'::-.-1...,...,,..._.

_ . ,..

LL

II

~

~ -v--,:

-

-=

-

'1""·

-:~

r. Miles Davia

..

.....-II!

~

fI Ho~ace Silver

@

fI

=

TV·

=>

ntawes

....

.

@

'10

n

.......-t

I

v 31

Bar flO

Benie Smith

LlJI !J ~

''King'' OUver 1

-

.. .. *'---

~

~

...L

~ I'} K1~ Dry

@!.

..

V

-,J

-

Louis Armstrong "l l

*~

@.

Jack Teagarden

I"l

!l

I

• Benny Goodman

L

~



@.

~

=

~

!:

-

r-

L

-,j

;f*. . . _...-..

qll.

-,j---..

-

~

@!. ~. Lester

3

Young

I

@!.

Dizzy Gillespie I'}

CharUe Parker

-

3

I

I!

I

.

-

3

_~_

II'}



_ L.._

-.,-

~ v-

@!.

l:'*

~.G*b*

I"l Miles Davia

\! Horace Silver ~

I

@!.

:>

-

f\ Hampton Hawes

-

@.

II

32

v

V"

..

..

-

v-r

-,j

~

..

~

.-

Bar III Bess1e Smlth ~.

J

I

--~ Oliver

~

fI

J

I~

~ K1~ Dry ~

~V._

fI

Lo:us ".:. -

••

Jack Teagarden

I

f)

-

-

1

-

3

,

-Y Benny Goodman

I~

D*

3

'-e

-

~

.

~.

3

v

Jf*

".

~ i

~

fI Lester Young

I~

-

-

t

-

-

tt·

I

I

-

-

Dizzy Glllesp1e f) I .

------

II! ~

fI Charlie Park

,

~

.. tt ..

*Lo\"

~

"..,J'''

fI Miles Davis

I~

-

I ~

I~

Horace Silver I

-

Y

V.

i

V.

i

.,

I

.-

. 1+6

VI

~

IIiiiiiiQIII .

V.

...

fI Hampton Hawes

~

.. .-

.

t-

-

----33

Bar'12 Be88ie Smith

fl

Barfl

I

''Klng'' OUver ,., I

--

~

"-

.,;;-

--..

I

!.

--- -

-

~

Kid Ory •



Louis Armstrong



fli 14I!

..

I



-

~

• P.

3 Jack Teaprden {t 1

-

~

!.

,..

i

,

BeDDy GoodmaD

ft-

• ~

- -.

.. .,.

~ C

~.

="

- .-.

41!

fl Lester Young LI:

~

r

I

Dizzy Gillespie ~

!.

I

-.

!.

r

CbarUe Parker ~ ~

I~

~ ~~.""F:iEi ... . v~.'I-ui-tit - ff-'l 1I~

fl Miles ~v1a

~

~

-, - . ' -

x

Horace Sliver fl t

...J fl Hampton Hawes

~

34

-

D

-

-

I!.

I!

-

-

#i

= i

~ ~

I- ~!3=t .? ~

~

--i:"

v

&8

-v-

.

-

POLYPHONY In jazz, the ternl polyphony usually refers to the superimposing (see Lesson 1) of the melodic unit over the harmonic unit to form a countermelody, obligato, or ornamentation to the melodic voices or melody. The classic prototype of this device is, of course, the clarinet obligato found in the New Orleans ensembles: ________________________________ Cornet 1 --------------__________________ Cornet 2 (obligato) --_-------------- _______________ Clarinet obligato In general, the superimposed melodic unit in New Orleans polyphony is of a quicker value than the prevailing melodic unit. This would be true of both the comet 2 obligato and the clarinet obligato.

CHICAGO POLYPHONY

Chicago polyphony is more florid than its New Orleans antecedent and is usually held up to question for its disorderly ebullience. This is a judgment beyond the scope of this text, although it should be noted that the rampant individualism of the Chicago ensembles was an inevitable re~ult of the expanding concepts .of melody, harmony, and rhythm. Also, it should be remembered that the art form had to move toward more person.iI ar~as of expression and eventually escape from the prison of New Orleans' rOf~alism. Armstrong himself, in the "Hot Five" and "Hot Seven" recordings, was a leading figure in this movement.

35

NEW ORLEANS

J.

Rbythmic-Melodic Cornet I

Melodic-EburD1onlc Cornet n

Clarinet

n n_J J. j) mnmn J J J J nm J nnn mnJ J

J

nJ

S

Banjo

EburD10nlc Trombone

Rhytbmlc-Barmonlo PlanO

Tuba

Melodic-Rhytbmlc Wood Block

Snare Drum

o

J J J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

t

J

t

J

t

J

t

n

nJ

3

J JJJ J nJ

., ))mn

nJ

J

Rhytbmlc Ba88

Drum

Snare Drum

The appearance of the snare drum in both categories is to account for the qUicker values (press-rolls, etc.) and the rhythmic pulse of quarternotes. The accented quarter-notes on beats 2 and 4 will be treated in the section dealing with syncopation.

36

t

CHICAGO

J J:;J J

n~

Melodio Trumpet

~

Jlelodio-BarmODio ClarlDet

mnmm ~~)), , ))

Saxophone

Trombone

P1aDo (R. B. )

llh1thm1c-Barmoll1o

P1aDo (L. B. )

BuJo, QIltar

Baa., Tuba

~ 3

~

3

3

JJ JJ ~ n J J,-~ J J J J J J J J J J J:;J J

n~J

J J

J J

~

~

~

J J J

~

J ~

rn~ ~

J

., j,

m.

,j,JJJJ

n

~

J

~

J

~

~

J

Bhythmio

SDareDram

Baa. Dram

Low-Boy

37

SWING Melodic

Brus. Reeda

Ilelodic-~oD1c

Brus. Reeda (rlffa)

~c-BarmoDlc

Piano

Oultar

Baas

J

.,j,n~

J'

-t

J J J

~

.,

J

J J J

J J 3

Melodic-~c

Cymbal

Tom-Tom

Hi-Hat

llhythmic

J J

JVJn_J

-

~

J

.,.;,nJ

J

J ~

J

~

~

J J

J

J

~

J

3

::;-:J J

::;-:JJ

-

3

m~

nJ nJ J ~ J J J J J J J J J nJJJJ , J mJ J mJ

-

~

m

J

~

J J J

~

J

~

Cymbal

~

Baas Drum

J

B1-Bat

SaareDrum

~

~

J J J J

m

~

~

~

~

J

~

~

J

~

J

~

J

~

J

~

J

The appearance of the Hi-Hat cymbal in both categories refers to the similarly dual role of the snare drum.

38

m 3

PROGRESSIVE

Saxophone, Trumpet

j"

, j,~""

UnisOD

J

n..J

Melodic

m~

~.

,j)

jj,JJ_JJ~J_JJ

Melodic-Harmonic Piano

Rhythmlo-Harmonio Bass

Melodic-Rhythmio Cymbal

J

mJ

3

m

SDIU'e

n_J

~

-J

Bass Drum

J

~

~

n

Bi-Hat

J

mJ

j)

3

3

mJ r-;: nJ J ~ J

J

mJ

, .b...J

~

mJ

it

The major developments indicated by this outline are as follows: NEW ORLEANS TO CHICAGO:

1. The abandonment by the trombone of the only pure harmonic role in jazz and its emergence as a melodic-harmonic instrument. 2. The introduction of the saxophone as a major jazz instrument. 3. The emergence of the piano as a major melodic-harmonic instrument.

39

4. Abandonment of the wood-block; introduction of both the "ride" cymbal and the Low-Boy cymbal. S. Partial abandonment of group polyphony and emergence of the hero-improvisor. CHICAGO TO SWING

1. Development of brass and reed sections playing in ensemble. 2. Quarter-note unit adopted by bass (Wellman Braud). 3. Introduction of the Hi-Hat cymbal. 4. Introduction of the melodic-rhythmic figure on the "ride" cymbal and the Hi-Hat cymbal. S. Abandonment of the banjo; introduction of the guitar. 6. Introduction of accented 2 and 4 beats on Hi-Hat cymbal and "ride" cymbal. SWING TO PROGRESSIVE

1. Return to small-group polyphony with homophonic ( unison) innovations. 2. Development of melodic-harmonic role of the piano. 3. Emergence of the bass as the sole rhythmiC instrument. Appearance of the bass as an important solo instrument. 4. Melodic-rhythmic innovations of drums which ceased to be the primary rhythmic instrument.

LESSON

4. Harmonic Time Values

The history of jazz hannony concerns the dynamiC changes effected on three levels: 1. The rhythmic procession of the chord qualities. 2. The expanding quality system joined with an equivalent expanding chromaticism. 3. The gradual abandonment of an inversion system based on the biad in favor of a root-position seventh-chord concept.

40

The following bass lines are representative charts of the New Orleans. Chicago. Swing. and Progressive periods. T indicates a triad (root, third, fifth. ) NEW ORLEANS

"Dippermouth Blues"

I T I IVx I I T I Ix I IVx I IVx I I T I I T I V I V I I T I I T I I DIPPERMOUTH BLUESUsed by permission of the copyright owner INTERNATIONAL MUSIC, INC., 745 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

"Milenburg Joys" •



4





IT I IT I IT I IT I IT I IT I va I va I va I va I va I •

4

4

va I va I va I IT I IT I IT I IT / IT I IT I Ix I Ix I IV T I IV T I IV T I #IVo I VI 2 I VIx I I1x I V I I T I I T I I MILENBERG JOYS - by Walter Melrose, Leon Roppolo, Paul Mares, "Jelly Roll" Morton Melrose Music Corp. Used by permission.

"Mandy Lee Blues"

VIx I VIx I IIx I I1x I V I V I I T I I T I Vlx I VIx / I1x / IIx I ....

bVlx I

VI 2 Vlx I I1x V / I VIx I I1x V / I T 1/

,

MANDY ~iUES - by Walter Melrose & Morty Bloom Melrose Music Corp. Used by permission.

"High Society" /I

/.

I

4

I T I I T I I T I I T I I T I I T I I T I I 'I' VI a bIllo I V 8

/

V I IT I IT I lIlt I I1x I V I V I IT / IT I IT I IT / IT / I T I I T i l T I IV T I IVx I IT / Vlx I IIx / V I I T I I T I IT

I

IT II

HIGH SOCIETYUsed by permission of the copyright owner INTERNATIONAL MUSIC, INC., 745 Fifth Avenue, New York Ciry.

41

CHICAGO

"Singing The Blues" pick-up

#10 I I II I V I 1+ e V I I + e #10 I II I V I I +e I I + II I IIIx I IIIx I VIx I VIx I IIx I VI IIx I V I V I II I V I I+e I 1+ 8 I

#10 VIx I III VIx I II VIxlS• I II I IV+8 I #IVo I III I VIx I IIx I V I I+e I I+e II SINGIN' THE BLUES TILL MY DADDY COMES HOMECopyright 1920 by Mills Music. Inc. Used by permission.

"Sweet Sue" pick-up ,

m

,

e

8

blIIo I I II lIef> II I V IS V I II lIef>. I V IS VII I I I + e I I + e I 1/

I

I

·

e

8

I + 8 I I + 8 III bill I II lIef> I I V IS V I II II ef> I I V IS V I I + e I I + II I I + 8 I I + 8 I I + 8 I III I 11Ief>

'"

f

•I

8

VIx I II I II I lIef> I

V III bl I I II lIef> II I V IS8 V I II lIef> II I V IS8 V I 1 + 8 I IVx I

1+ 8 I 1+ 8 II SWEET SUE - JUST YOU -,- Words by Will J. Harris).. Music by Victor YOUDg COPYRIGH1' MCMXXVIlI by Shapiro. Bernstein & u>. Inc. Copyright Renewed MCMLV and Assigned to Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc. Used by permission of Shapiro. Bernstein & Co. Inc.• 666 Fifth Avenue. New York 19, N. Y.

"I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate"

VI• V I VI• V I 1+ 8 VI. I 1+ 8 #10 I VI• V I VI• V I I+e I





1 + e #10 I V I V I V I V I 1 +. I Ix I IV + e #IVo I VI I VIx I IIx V

I 1+ 8 VIx IIIx V I 1+ 8 II

I WISH I COULD SHIMMY LIKE MY SISTER KATE-Armand Used by special permission of copyright owner Jerry Vogel Music Company, Inc., New York 86, N. Y.

42

J.

Piron

"Jazz Me Blues"

I I + 6 VIa I I VIx I I1x V I I + 6 I 2 I VI VI 2 I bVo I V I +8 I 1+ 8 VI 2 I 1+ 8 VI a I I VI I I1x V I 1+ 8 12 I VI VI 2 I bVo I V I + 6 II (Break) V I Vo I V I V II ( Chorus) Vlx I Vlx I I1x I IIx I V I V I I + 6 I I + 6 I Vlx I Vlx I IIx I IIx 11+ 6 I IIIxS I VI I Vlx I IIx I V I 1+ 8 I 1+ 8 II (Verse)

I + 6 VI a

4.

JAZZ ME BLUESCopyright 1921 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Renewed and assigned to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Used by permission.

SWING

"Oh, Lady Be Good" 4.

4.

I IVx I 1 I #10 I II I V I I + 8 VI/II V / 1 Ix 3 I IVx I I / #10 I II I V I I + 8 I Ix I IV + 8 / #IV0 I VI a / I I VI I 4. I1x I II I V I I Ix S I IVx I I I #10 I II I V I I + I I + 8 I I

I Ix 3

8

OH, LADY BE GOODCopyright 1924 by New World Music Corporation Used by permission.

"Just You, Just Me" 4.

I II I V / Ix I IV + IVm + I VI V I I + 8 I I + 8 1111/> S I Vlx I II I V I Ix I IV + 8 IVm + 8 I VI 2 V I I + 8 1111/> S

/

VIx

6

6

2

4.

4.

1+ 8 I Ix I Ix I IV+8 I bVlIx I 1+ 6 I IIIxs VI / IIx I V / 4-

I 1111/> 8

l VIx I II I V I Ix / IV + 8 IVm + 8 I VI 2 V I I + 8 II

JUST YOU, JUST ME - Lyric by Raymond Klages - Music by Jesse Greer © Copyright 1929-Copyright Renewal 1957 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., New York, N. Y. All rights controlled by Robbins Music Corporation, New York. Used by permission.

43

"Tea For Two" (Ab)

II V I II V I I VI 2 I I II V I II V I I VI:I I I

(C)

6

15

II II

bIllo I II V I II V I I I I II

blllo I II V I II V I 1 + II II

( Ab ) V I II V I II V I 1 VII I I (Ab)

II 15

bIllo I II V I II V I nlef> I

,

VIx I II bllo I II Vlx I #10 II I bVef> IVm + II I VI a blllo I II V I 1+ 11 I 1+ 11 II

(Ab) TEA FOR TWOCopyright 1924 by Harms. Inc. Used by permission.

"Whispering'"

1+ 8 I 1+ 8 I bVm I VlIx I 1+ II I 1+ 11 I bVllx · 1 VIx I IIx I IIx I V I V I I + II I III bIllo I II I V I I + II I L ~ I bVm I VlIx I 1+ 11 I 1+ 11 I

bVIIx I VIx I IIx I IIx I V ( ·V I II I v,a I 1+ 11 I 1+ 11 II

WHISPERING - Words and Music by John Schonberger, Richard Coburn. Vincent Rose @ Copyright 1920-Copyright Renewal 1948 Miller Music Corporation, New York, N. ~. Used by permission.

PROGRESSNE

"I Can't Get Started" ( C)

I VI I II V I VIIm I1Ix bVIIm bIlIx I VI

( C)

I VI I II V I a I IIIx b II Vlx b II I

IIxb

II

IIx

bVI blIx I

V b I I I VI I II V I

(C) VIIm IIIx bVIIm bIlIx I VI IIx bVI blIx I I VI I II VIa I (C) 1+ 8 #1 I 1+ 8 I II

(D) II V I bVef> IVo I III II I I 1+ 11 II

n

(C)

II V I bVef> IVo I III bIIIx I Ih blh I I VI I

(C)

VlIm I1h bVIIm bIlh I VI Ih bVI blix I I VI I II v,a II ( C)

( Coda) 1I1ef> I VIx b 15 I lief> I V b 15

I CANT GET STARTEDCopyright @ 1935 by Chappell & Co. Inc. Used by permission.

44

lIb

I

I I bI II

V I

"Night In Tunisia" ( c ) bIIx I 1 I blIx

I I I bIIx I I VI I II blIx I 1 + e I blIx I (c) I I blIx I I I bIIx I 1 VI I II blIx I 1+ ell (f) II I V I (f) I+e blIx I I+e II (Eb) II I V I 1 IV II (c) II V I (c) blIx I 1 I blIx I I I blIx I 1 VI I II blIx I 1+ ell ( c ) (interlude) II I II I blIx I blix I I I 1m I IVx b I I IVx b II I I (Eb) VIx b II I Vlx b II I IIIx I IlIx I I (break) I I I I I / 1 I I -note -note - break may ·b e optional two or four bars. NIGHT IN TUNISIA - by Frank Paparelli, John "Dizzy" Gillespie Copyright MCMXLIV by LEEDS MUSIC CORPORATION, 322 West 48th Street, New York 36, N. Y. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

"Lady Bird"

( C) I I VI I IVm I bVIIx I 1 I VI I I

I V I I I I II (C) VI I Ih I II I IVo I III bllIx I II blix I I I VI I IVm / (C)

bVIIx

I I I VI I I

(.Ab) II

I V I I I I II (C) VI I IIx I ( C) II I b1Ix I I +. I 1 +. I I (Ab) II

LADY BIRD (HALF NELSON) Used by permission of Savoy Music Company, Newark, New Jersey.

"Bernie's Tune" (d) l..f 1 I 111m I bVIx I II I V I 1+ e I 1+ e I I I I I 111m I (d) ' bvtt-I II I V I I+ e I 1+ 6 II (Bb)

(Bb) 1+ 1 VI

I II blIx I

I +. VI

I II blIx I 1+ e VI I II bIIx I I + 6 VI II (d) II blIx I

(d)

I I I 111m I bVix I II I V I 1+ 8

I

/

1+ 8

II

BERNIE'S TUNECopyright 1953·1954-1955 by ATLANTIC MUSIC CORP., by arrangement with SKY VIEW MUSIC CORP. Sole Selling Agent: CRITERION MUSIC CORP., R.K.O. Bldg., Radio City, New York 20, N, Y. International Copyright Secured. Used by permission.

45

THE NEW ORLEANS-CHICAGO TRANSITION

1. Abandonment of the triadic system in favor of seventh chord concepts. This meant a transition from a harmonic system composed of the follOwing factors: to one composed of: maior triad maior added sixth chord minor triad dominant seventh diminished triad minor seventh dominant seventh diminished seventh The hill-diminished chord appeared for the first time in this transition but was sparingly employed only in the second inversion. 2. A strong development toward the use of inversions can be explained by an emerging modal scale and arpeggio ·concept increasingly employed by tuba and bass players. 3. A general abandonment of the basic 0 - 0 New Orleans Chicago himnonic unit in addiharmonic unit in favor of the basic 0 tion to the occasional use of the emerging harmonic unit. .

J

4. Abandonment of the IIx (the New Orleans preparation for V) in favor of the natural diatonic U (minor). S. Chicago use of III and IIIx usually not present in New Orleans style. 6. Some expanding use of keys. The C, G, F, Bb, Eb spectrum of New Orleans jazz was extended to Ab, Db, and D in the Chicago period.

THE CHICAGO-SWING TRANSITION 1. The emergence of chromatic harmony in the extended use of such non-diatonic factors .as bVIIx, bVm, bV4>, bUIx. 2. Partial disappearance of the x : inversion. All root pOSition dominants prepared by the minor or half-diminished chord a perfect fifth above. Initial use of the ~ inversion. 3. Initial appearance of the major seventh chord and the root-position half-diminished chord - the final emergence of the sixty chord system. 4. Appearance of modulation in the jazz bass line. S. Elementary twelve key facili~. 6. Consolidation of the

46

0,

J harmonic unit.

7. Appearance of the professional songwriter, a specialized craftsman challenging the performing cliches of the jazz musician. THE SWING-PROGRESSIVE TRANSITION 1. Appearance of advanced twelve key facility. 2. Further exploration of the

Junit at tempos exceeding mm-200.

3. Initial exploration of the minor scale-tone seventh chords (see Lesson 65, Volume I). 4. Full development of the half-diminished (the sensual seventh) chord (see Lesson 4). 5. Total disappearance of the triadic inversion accompanied by a general adoption of the circle of fifths. 6. Appearance of bIIx (modem variant of the Neapolitan Sixth) as a substitute chord for V. 7. Expanding vertical concepts of harmony utilizing polytonal structures. 8. Exploration of the

Jharmonic unit.

Post-bop explorations of non-diatonic and asymmetrical resources have not in general been consolidated into any permanent achievement justifying inclusion here. This is not to dismiss these endeavors, but simply to state a general position of this text to deal only with enduring diatonic development~ conceived in 4/4 time.

LESSON

5. Syncopation

Jazz syncopation may be sub-divided into the following categories: 1. Simple syncopation involving accent only. 2. Compound syncopation involving notation (tied notes and rest values) and accent.

47

3. Multiple syncopation involving two or more levels of syncopation played simultaneously. Applied to our three units of time lowing:

(J J 1')

we derive the fol-

SIMPLE RHYTHMIC SYNCOPATION The quarter-note is the basic rhythmic unit. A bar of quarter-notes may be sub-divided into the following sub-units: down beat

down beat

up beat

up beat

The syncopated unit here is the UP BEAT ACCENT (Fig. 1), the hallmark of all jazz; the universal catalyst identifying this music in all its rhythmic, sensual, ethnic, and psychological implications. This syncopation has at times been implied (New Orleans), explicit (Chicago, Swing), or concealed (Progressive), but its presence has never and probably, as long as there is jazz, will never decline. Its essence is quite simple - the constant interruption of the eternal symmetry of one, the beginning of melody, harmony, and rhythm.

Fig. 1. fl

14!

:>

. .J

>

:>

.

~

ttt

bqI

r

!

t

Pf'

>-

J

foot beat

48

IVm

J

J

J

m .J

:t

t

:> ~mx

.J

J

:>

J

J

:>

bb:t

.

.

Dr

~

f

:> ~nx

n

J

>

J

~

J

J

I

J

J

SIMPLE HARMONIC SYNCOPATION:

Syncopation of this unit occurs only in cases of melodic or rhythmic superimposition (see Lesson 1). Without superimposition, the harmonic unit cannot be syncopated. SIMPLE MELODIC SYNCOPATION:

The eighth-note is the basic melodic unit. A bar of eighth-notes may be sub-divided into the following sub-units: on beat

J

off beat

on beat

J

J

on beat

off beat

off beat

on beat

J

J

J J

off beat

J

The syncopated unit here is the off-beat accent (Fig. 2) (see Lesson 58, Vol. I). The off-beat accents represent the syncopation of the melodic unit as the up-beat represent the syncopation of the rhythmic unit. The off-beat accent in a sense interrupts the up-beat accent which in itself is an interruption of the basic pulse (Fig. 3). The joining of these t~o levels of syncopation creates a pleasurable tension often referred to as the swing of a jazz perfonnance.

Fig. 2. ~

::>

-a

::>

::>

~

~~

f?

I

.J

.I

~

~-



-

6~B

m .I

IVm ·

.J

.J

.... • ~-

::>

~

-

~IIIx

.J

.I

.J

foot beat

~

~

~

6=:

=::

-

=::-

IJ~

==-

:>

-

-

~

~

=:.

I

0

..L

n

1

~nx

.J

.J

I

.I

.J

.J

.J

.I

foot beat

49

--

Fig. 3.

.

offbeat

>

up beat I

1

I

::>

I

.1

I

I

:>

:>

::>

.J

.I

I

J

.J

.I

.I

.1

j

foot beat

COMPOUND SYNCOPATION:

Simple syncopation occurs either on the rhythmic (

J)or the melodic

(j) levels; compound syncopation occurs only on the melodic level and

involves either the use of the tie, or the rest, or both. !llWlY involve the ~ unit or any of its variables. .Fig. 4 illustrates examples. of compound syncopation common to any jazz performance (see schematic outline, Lesson 3).

Fig. 4. ~ ~

I>

.-

-

[email protected]

::>

:>

.

t?~

(7

~J

.J

foot beat

foot beat

50

I~r

_ .H_

-

-5

-

5

:3

.J

~

3_

J'I-.i

J

"~B ~~

6

J

3

5

'I

~

t:'I

I!.

l'

0

I

.J

J

.J foot beat

MULTIPLE SYNCOPATION:

On the actual performing level, only the drummer or the pianist in a jazz group is able to execute multiple syncopation. Skill in this area is essential to any jazz instrumentalist; first, in order to execute one syncopation level while one or more levels are being simultaneously played by other members of the group; and secondly, in order to pre-hear one syncopation (to be played in the succeeding bar) while actually playing another. The basic device in this area (aside from pre-hearing rhythmic shifts, e.g., eighth to sixteenth to thirty-second, etc.) is one of maintaining the prevailing rhythmic unit while alternating .between duple and triple accents. 1. Duple (division of 2) 2. . Triple (division of 3) ... How~~ by the use of syncopation, it is possible to create a series of hybrid rhythms, which result in the following combinations: EXTERNAL PULSE

INTERNAL ACCENT

duple triple

division of 3 division of2

This is a familiar device employed by all jazz musicians. The accented sub-divisions of the eighth-note and the sixteenth-note are the usual areas of this technique. The thirty-second-note is usually treated .as an uninterruptedflorid design to effect a contrast with the interrupted eighth- and sixteenth-note.

51

TRIPLE 8/8 TIME Fig. 5 illustrates a normal duple procession of eighth-notes. Fig. 6 illustrates these tones played with an internal accent of three. This design is most effective when the accented tone appears above the two unaccented tones (Fig. 7).

Fig. 5.

..

-

--

J

J

.J

J

.J

.J

J

1

.J

J

J

J

foot beat

Fig. 6.

-

:>

-

.J

.J

.J

foot beat

Fig. 7. ~

.

~

:>

.

.J

J

>-

.J

-

>-

.J

.J

:>

I

I

I

......

J

J

.J

.J

.

»-

;::>

J

J

J

.J

J

J

foot bat

~

:::

~

;>

::>

It!.

I

J

J

foot beat

52

.J

.J

J

J

I

.J

-

>-

::>

.J

J

:>

J

DUPLE 12/8 TIME Fig. 8 illustrates the normal appearance of a bar of 12/8 time. Fig. 9 illustrates the same bar when played with an internal accent of two.

Fig. 9.

Fig. 8.

1'\ I~

~">-

J

:>

W

">

>

:>

I

.J

TRIPLE 6/16 TIME Fig. 10 illustrates the normal appearance of a group of six-sixteenthnotes in a 4/4 pulse. This unit may be played in a number of ways: 1. With an internal accent on tones 1 and 4 (Fig. 11). 2. With an internal accent on tones 1, 3, and 5 (Fig. 12). 3. With an internal accent on tones 2, 4, and 6 (Fig. 13). 4. With an internal accent on tones 1 and 5 (Fig. 14). 5. With an internal accent on tones 3 and 6 (Fig. 15). Fig. 10

Fig. 11.

Fig. 12.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

6

~ jJ]JUJI :>

Fig. 13.

r-

6 ---,

~ n~t1J

">

:>

J

foot beat

foot beat

3_

3_

3_

3

3

53

DRILL: The following rhythm series is to be practiced on any flat surface for developing facility in superimposing internal accents over external pulses:

1.

RoB.

L.B.

2.

R.B.

L.B.

3.

R.B.

JJJJJJJJ

:>

:>

:>

::>

~

~

~

~

JJJJJJJJ

:>

:>

:>

:>

~

~

:>

J

~

:>

J J J J JJJJ

:>

L.B.

••

RoB.

L.B.

J

~

RoB.

L.B.

:>

J

:>

J

L.B.

54

~

:>

:>

:>

J

J

mmmm 3

3

3

:>

:>

:>

:>

J

J

:>

J

J

mmmm 3

R.B.

:>

JJJJJJJJ

:>

I.

::>

~

:>

3

6.

:>

:>

:>

3

3

3

::>

:>

:>

::>

J

:>

J

J

:>

J

mmmm 333

7.

R.B.

3

L.B.

mmmm

3333>

8.

R.B.

:>

:>

:::»

:>

L.B.

8.

R.B.

JJJJJJJJJmJm

:>

:>

:>

:>

L.B.

10.

R.B.

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ :::»

:>

:>

:::»

L.B.

11.

12.

lLB.

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ :>

:>

~

~

~

L.B.

~

R.B.

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

L.B.

~

:>

:>

~

lLB.

L.B.

:>

~

:>

~ 6

6

6

6

13.

:>

:>

JJJJJJJJJ~JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

:>

:>

:>

:>

J

~

~

~ 55

14.

ILB.

L.IL

15.

ILB.

L.B.

US.

ILB.

L.IL

17.

R.IL

L.B.

18.

R.B.

L.B.

It.

ao.

~

~

~

JJJJJJJJ

>

::>

::>

::>

~

~

>

~

J

::>

JJJJJJJJ

::>

::>

::>

>

~

::>

~

~

~::>

J J J J J J JJ

::>

::>

::>

:>

ILB.

~

~

~

~

L.B.

JJJJJJJJ

ILIL

L.IL

56

~

>

;::.

:>

::>

JJJJJJJJ JJJJ ~

:>

::>

::>

~

~

~

::>

J

~

3

21.

L B.

3

3

3

mmmm

:>

:>

;>

>-

;>

:>

L.B.

22.

LB.

L.B.

Foot

23.

R.B.

L.B.

Foot

2••

25.

LB.

JJJJJJJJ

>-

>-

>-

;>

J J

J

J J

J J

J J J J J J JJ J J J J

J J JJ J J J J

>

d

Foot

J

L.B.

Foot

J

J

J

J

>-

>-

>-

:>

L.B.

LB.

J

>-

:>

;>

J

d J

J

JJJJJJJJ d d ;>

J

:>

>

;>

J 57

28.

1\.B.

L.B.

Foot

17.

1\.B.

L.B.

J8.

1\.B.

L.B.

J J J

58

J

J J

n

~

~

J

~

n n n n

mmmm 3----,

r - - 3---,

Foot

J J ~ J ~ ~ JJJJJJJJ J J J ~

1\.8.

:t ~=!

L.B.

1m:t:t ):t 1m:t:t ):t

Foot

J

1\.B.

L.B.

80.

~J

r-JJ r-Ji

I

29.

J.

Jm :t~1 1m ~

J

J

SECTION II The improvised line (1923-1958)

NEW ORLEANS "Gin House Blues": Bessie Smith Columbia CL 1036 Troy-Henderson "High Society": Johnny Dodds Folkways FP 57 Joe Oliver "Dippermouth Blues": Joe Oliver Riverside RLP 12-122 Armstrong-Oliver

"West End Blues": Louis Armstrong Columbia CL 853 Joe Oliver "Muggles" : Louis Armstrong Columbia CL 853 Armstrong-Hines "Basin Street Blues": Louis Armstrong Columbia CL 852 Spencer Williams

CHICAGO "Sweet Sue": Bix Beiderbecke Columbia CL 509 Victor Young "Singin' The Blues": Bix.. .Beiderbecke Col~ia CL 845 Robinson-Conrad "Original Dixieland One Step": Miff Mole Folkways FP 67 Nick LaRocca SWING "Mter You've Gone": Roy Eldridge Okeh 6278 Klenner

"There'll Be Some Changes Made": Frank Teschemacher Folkways FP 65 Overstreet ~

r F ezrr

v

m

u

~m

V

II

,Pl' ro ~ rr IJ 4J I I'I!E! r ~ Ir ntr I~ v:

v

1+6

lVx

1+6

SWEET SUE - JUST YOU- Words by Will J. Harris, Music by Victor Young COPYRIGHT MCMXXVIII by Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc. Copyright Renewed MCMLV and Assigned to Shapiro. Bernstein & Co. Inc. Used by permission of Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York , 19, N. Y.

1+6

- II

SINGIN' THE BLUES TILL MY DADDY COMES HOME

n

110

1+6

~W1'

110

BIX BEIDERBECKE

v'a

v

n

V

1+6

1+6

r 'iiOIF t6r l$l J. tJ 'tQflc~rcr¥ 1+6

~~j, J PJ

nIx

I 1J

IIx

VI

n

n

VIx

nIx

VIx

fJ J t lf~iljjJ Jd] 1~h }, J I !Ix

V

V

1+6

V

n

431

m

'no

VIx SINGIN' THE BLUES TILL MY DADDY COMES HOMECopyright 1920 by Mills Music, Inc. Used by permission.

V

V

1+6

1+6

1

ORIGINAL DIXIELAND ONE-STEP

MIFF MOLE

Break

1+6

1+6

1+6

nIx

1+6

v

v

1+6

m

~mo

VUx

1+6

II

v

1+6

1+6

nIx

nIx

IIx

1+6

IV+6

IV+6

v

1+6

1+6

, ORIGINAL DIXIELAND ONE-STEPCopyrisht 1917 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Copyright renewed and assi,gned to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Used by permission.

71

THERE'LL BE SOME CHANGES MADE

FRANK TESCHEMACHER

,~, J = ] J : ] : If r r fl:t r VIx

VIx

,...-....

'b

Frr Fr

r If r r r ( r r f Iqr , € r IIx

VIx

VIs

.....-...

.....-...

'bC E Crtl F IcFFrt: air r cr bF IIx

'b

I ~r· IIIx



'11'-

J

r

r r ( J. r

IIIx

1'1 ~

r r

F

VIx

IIx

'b

I v

r , r r!

10

,..-.

r r r lf~ II r ~

v

THERE'LL BE SOME CHANGES MADECopyright 1912 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Renewed 1948 and assigntd to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Used by permission.

VIx

#r

r

VIx

f& r r IIx

VIx

v

IIx

VIx

qr

I

VIx

--It 1! r #( ...--....I r tr

...--.... ,,c;~~ ro

~

~'

IIIx

IIIx

IIx

VIx

VIx

1+6

v

1+6

1+6

73

I'M COMING VIRGINIA

BIX BEIDERBECKE

(!)

f~ tElA

(GTr

V

t

( §l V

gE

1+6

~v4

e

.-

n

VI

b l tit ~

fb r

1+6

1+6

tt , 1+6

I,d

3

plck-up

r:r r r VlIx

r

1+6

F IF J #J. ,i> I~J

~

m+6

m+6

IE

mr1

~

~

r-=+

VIx

IV+6

fb II.J ;gO tJ) I ~

t~ J

I'~

A'an ~ ~ Fd V

~IIIx

r r t lip71 J

V

J I

IVm+6

m

3

J J ~ ijr ....-.

Ix

n

r r r

I

1+6

J J.J IJ 1+6

I'M COMING VIRGINIA - Words by Will Marion Cook - Music by Donald Heywood @ Copyright 1927 -Copyright Renewal 1955 Robbins Music Corporation, New York, N. Y. @ Copyright 1961 Robbins Music Corporation, New York, N. Y. Used by permission.

~

J t I

c:r I

®

~& r c;J J

tJ-f J !~J 3 I j

F It

1+8

i+8

VIx

~ & r tJ r l J J 3 1fJ J1l;J II I W

~

V

~ ~, 1+8

It VI

I

·

I

,

~

~

1

.t: r ! ~E Flit: v

D

m~

V

(1' ('r

If=[~r

r ElF-

1+8

n

~ VIIx

1+8

~ VlJx

GuItar ad Ub.

~

.1 1+8

I

r;a

~ ~I

VIx

V

~

r rJ

m+8

~&,n J. I ~ tt:£r r a I r Qf nJ 11,£43 I)

IIx

un ~J J JJJ

IIx

m+8

le"r

~~

J

1+8

1+8

II

j

If]

·

v

.,

J ;J

au t=Oll 3

i JJ JI .

II

I

1+8

75

BIX BEIDERBECKE

JAZZ ME BLUES

Dx

v

IIx

Break

v

1+6

J I,m J J QJ

3

~~ t

r

J I iJ J ECr J qJ 3

VIx

VIx

] j

m4

_....

£J) .] IJ

"J

VIx

>-

Dx

3 ~

>

VI

~& qJ ;5]

j) I

IIx

1+8

~& J J J

I

II J J J IE

9-t J r

V

JAZZ ME BLUESCopyright 1921 by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Renewed and assigned to Edward B. Marks Music Corporation Used by permission.

~

E2! I~ 1+8

#J ]

rt

J 0I I,

--"

1+8

I

PART 3 Swing AFfER YOU'VE GONE

pick-up

IV

1+6

ROY ELDRIDGE

Break

Break

IVm+6

IV

IVm+6

VIx

1+6

VIx

'W'l~qn r Ie t e#n~~£J sa Ie &

*

~

t t

fVI

v

,W' f [ EPrjlPr er cpt! II,J JUS J tJ I ~

~

1+6

IVm+6

IVm+6

,W'

~

~ ~ cEr~ri Ifrt t t It 1+6

AFTER YOU'VE [email protected] Copyright 1918, Mayfair Music Corp. Used by permission.

VIx

V1x

,n [email protected] U

77

f~' r

r

at r E fi r IfJ J ]

J •

n

IVm+8

1+8

:f V, 4=ftJ

C

VI2

r"

pC

V

~

er I

V

®

tV--

t4r-

'i

(it PErei Ir rllH 1r1'\jpJ ~ ~I Break

Break . 1+8

'V' t

I~f

VI2

V- ~ r:b:.-

----

__4r.;'~

tit F= I ~ ~

'IVo

f~'

VI

lUx

.

i7V

~

,V f

Break ~

Break

---.

IV+8

b.

t t r If I r ruTt bel br [ PrJ I

IV+8

IVm+8

IVm+8

V

'~' t "~;tU Break

78

t'iJ r 'rfh9p B'reak

·

IV+'

IV+8

bJ (Ti. I IVm+8

IVm+8

1+8

VIx

II

,W' , Er &r

1+6

VIx

II

VIx

n J] Ii JJ J~C r [1 1#J181~D I

IVm+8

IIIx

1+8

......... 'W' r Pm r r Ir r r-r Ir t v

'V' f

V

1+8

~r~f ~ft It frr ef

Break

1-

t

m

'IVo

II

t

~~~

I - 1-

I

I

f~~1

Break

Break

~VIx

f:'I

f:'I

E v

r r

0

.0.

0.

I

II ~IIx

Ix

Ix

79

TEDDY WILSON

SWEET SUE - JUST YOU

~

t

..

..

I e.

..

~ . ~

~

-

}

(,

~

~

-

pick-up

.

.

.1:



.. ..,

~:I

b~

-~~

1'f

'10

fl ...

t I

-....

..

-

It

)

~

-

~

Shake

.. ..



v

..

~



-

·· ~

~ It )

~

·

q~1

..

~

~

~

I

n

.~.--

-

~

Shake



i9

~

III-

b~

I

IV

~-~



...,

~

I

!

I

,........"

---..

t

~

- -. • -4

------

i9

t,

.

~

\.

I

'IVo

_3

1

- .,.

1*-



I

1l

r

.,

.. !II-

~

- -

v- ... -

11

Shake

'10

5·1

1*-.

\



.~

~

110

• .. I

,

v~ 3

SWEET SUE - JUST YOU - Words by Will J. Harris. Music by Victor Young COPYRIGHT MCMXXVlII by Shapiro. Bernstein Be Co. Inc. Copyright Renewed MCMLV and Assigned to Shapiro. Bernstein Be Co. Inc. Used by permission of Shapiro, Bernstein Be Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York 19. N. Y.

..f 'II

v

tt___ fJ- ..

fl~

.

~~

...

I~ ~

t

~

·

.

bllt-

.

~

I

IV

m

f

I

......

I

..-

I

I

17111

~mo

,.....



~

~

l:

#~--.,....-~

~

I

'IVo

l

.-.!"

......-I. . .Q

-

Shake

Shake

I

b.. l,.

~

~

fl

3.-.111

---

[email protected]

~

~ ··

fl . ~

I



lit-

.'

t..,~ 1...



~

I..

~

Shake

ho

~

~F

~.

~,..ft~,..

• ..-

' .... h.. l.._

-"-

---

I!

~

I

·

1,.

LL

ft·

b.

f:'

(2.

(t

I

-

11' 10

Ito

n

Ie 5

81

m

IVm

~

1'\

~ w-)

~

- ....

-

t,

• ~I

.. I

~

#e ~

#~

. .. ~!

.. #~~ b.

"t·



110

t

)

~

.

-

I~

'1

~mo

.. .

.

..

...

~

fl J

I~

,.1:

~ ~~~



I

...

p",j

r.

..

-

~.

V.

..

~~..

....

------~mo

#~i

i



v:

-.,; V

t

----

~t

I

~.

--

b~,

I

11

-

'\

82

---

IV

.

~

b. ..

110

qq~,

v

)

It-

Shake

~~~

~

..

.-

11'

11'

1'\

..

.-.

IIVo



---. . ,.-...

- ""'="--.. b.. h.t!

.

ART TATUM

AUNT HAGAR'S BLUES

fl

I: I: I ~II~~ JC~

II

I

-- -

t

)~ I

~

I

CD

I

·· ·

, 4!

"I .........

"VV~~:

~9

L

II

I

t

I·.II~~ I ~-~

r-

;-

· ··

··

, .........

3

Ix

-

3

~

fl

II

t

~-

.. .

-~

Ix~9 2

Ix~9 2

h§ IVm

IVa

~

I

.-

.-~

t [! ~ ..

~

t

-=

~

-

-

i

1

!-

-

--,.

~

-• -

• f.I!-

~



v

n

v

AUNT HAGAR'S BLUES - "Based on 'Aunt Hagar's Children' by W. C. Handy, copyright 1920 by Pace & Handy Music Co., copyright renewed by W . C. Handy (also known as 'Aunt Hagar's Blues' and as 'Aunt Hagar's Children Blues'); published by joint arrangement for the United States by Handy Brothers Music Co., Inc., 1650 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. and Robbins Music Corporation, 1540 Broadway, New York 36, N. Y., and outside the United States by Robbins Music Corporarion; any matter from which is used here by permission of the proprietors."

Ll.

q..

-

,~ rrv~

I:

It

,

-



Ix

2

~

~

liS:

q!-::=.'!-

-

qbq..,

3

,

~.

J

,......,

----• -

J

I ~

,

~

~

~1"

t, v

I

L.

Ux

~!:--

-!;

~

~e _.h~ J;~

-

4!J

0 ~

t!.

I

....

-

-

:

"V __

...

;,..

"I~J

-

-

"

~~--::.~~-

V ~-

~

-

-

"I--'II,-J " I

PK

-!:

b~

.....

.....

:

,;::::i1.

~~

" ''1t·

I

Ix

84

V

.. .

-

.

IVx

V

V12

---", I

• ~

Ux

fIvo

IV



'-'

<

I

,V·'r

II'

'II

~~ );~ ~!:

I

1'11



I

~

mx

v

D

Ix2

5

IIvo

IVx

VI2

VI2

VI2

m

VI2

n

I

v

VI

v

~m

v

nx

IV

m

n

v

v

V2

I

I

~

I

I

J

I

'1

1m"3

'Ilo

I

1._.,

V

!.

i-===--:::

3

.,..

~

I II

~.

t v

Lo_

t_

3

VII

VII 11Ix

VI

11Ix'5

VI

~VI

~VIo

.,-

-I

3 VI2

~VIo

VI

VI2

~V~

Vm

Vm

.

--

...

Ill!

Ix

IVo

3

IVx

86

'IVo

'IVo ~VIx

VI2

VI2

V2

~IIo

II

5

3

5

v

II

I

Ix

IVx

Ix

87

8'fJtt"" .............................................................................................................................

........................................................................•........................................

1

Vm

1m

1

...........................................

IVx

I

I

I

.t.._\.._ .-I

iiii iiii ~~ 3

!.

,

...

,

,.

..

.

~:;:_~:~

I

-

~ of#-

.

-

-

U-.,........ ~9

I

I

.-

-

~

Coda ~

I

~

:

-=:::.---11.

D"~~~

'''-'"1

Ix~9 2

-

I

@

\

L1 ...

IVx

v~ImI

~

...

....

.

'''-'-..

:=:;:::.-1 •

I7v v~~

I

~VIx

~

II""""""

.A.

:

~

.. ~~::-:--~ ,"

~:~ ~:~

--

:li~

_l

via

J ·~=l

.......

!.

JJI

VI

V

-

... ...

-2--

W'j

~D

!

v

I

"

V

I._h. _._

~

fl I ,

'IV

~

I

V I

-..

• ~

Ix~9 2

Ix

8 va - - ---

..

I

~r===u-= ql"l---"I

~~

-e

h.

~

gt e-ft:

I

b"l_u

n

89

BENNY GOODMAN

SOFT WINDS

1+8

1+6

1+8

1+6

~mo

II

'10

V

II

~mo

V

t+8

1+8

IVx

II

SOFT WINDSUsed by permission of REGENT MUSIC CORPORATION, 1619 Broadway, New York City.

V

V

II

1+8

1+6

IVx

m

IVx

IVx

1+8

II

V

CRAZY RHYTHM

COLEMAN HAWKINS AND BENNY CARTER

v

n

v

v

1+6

1+6

1+6

1+6

1+6

VI

r-3~

@~ t t!$fttlf f - Irfff tl t frrflmnrctrrr i 3

n

.

V

1+6

1+6

1+6

1+6

1+6

V

V

1+6

@~ flfWbenrlarry~rlrqrFlautcUIc:ratrc!1 Ix

·IV

Ix

IV

.f~ aUf£CJIc:rtlUE1lr I I rtlfr£rtrbrrl 1+6

m

~ VIIx

IVm+6

VI

nx

VIx

nx

n

V

V

CRAZY RHYTHM - Meyer-Kahn Copyngnr 1928 oy Hllcms, lac. Used by permission.

91

...

Carter

I'i

.-

-

I

) Ie

I,



,..

Bawkina

-

-,-...

fl

I!

v

G)

I+e

I+e

Hawklu

,& ,fr (brjFlr R t Iyfr PrjFlr R t 1+8

1+8

1+'

I+e

1+1

1+8

1+1

V

,& ~ qrttTm;! rr f rcE r\!J JaJ fie c11 ~ ~ ~ C

V

1+8

\>5 ~ "f,'! .

I

\

I

Ix

1+8

,,~§,g'~\I1!€5. f¥~ T- ~t g !~" I I

Ix

\

\

\

\

)

II

\

IV

IV

I

I

\

\

IVm+8

,&qcJrunr In&r cTr'rll!Ect!¥Tryl¥;JJ iJqJjI m

~ VIIx

'b 92

II

V

1+8

1-

;j VI

VIx

IIx

IIx

V

V

~ BawldDa

,~§lJ nJ]D Ir E11 ~ It J cr1lYIEIrJjOJ f-I 3

1+8

1+8

~~l.)!J~)Ii3U &8

1+8

,f'rfF1ct:CJ,r [ftBJOJ

1+8

'~J

I -

1+8

'j r

o

1+8

VI

oW

V

V

J~JI

V

If rOJJlfJ9]UJJJI O:F:rcE[J1 U

V

1+8

1+8

c:r

~ IEtg ErJ rI J 'Qj I#j#J i IJ j )1 1+8

V

,~~(o"'Hrr( r jilt JIx

1+8

[14

V

I' ~lrrrF.l J11

I

J1x'

1+8

U

V

1+8

93

PART 4 Early Progressive LESTER YOUNG

JUST YOU, JUST ME

®

4V1, -

~n· 1-

r' m4

1+8

lJ J 19

n

VIx

,.--3-,

1- J J J I

v .--3 --,

r~ r

IV+6

f~'h

I,

n

IV+6

\

I Q1

,

J v

1+8

r r r ~ [email protected]

I 1

IIx

J J J,e I

p

J

n

tJ

i

tn~

,---3 --,

J~

I"

#j

Ir r VIx

3

b

1-

v

Ix

F1

r F r r r r· ~

bE

1

1+6

V

VI2

'IYo

n

:1

V

IrE r 1+8

Ix

1-

F

-

IV+8

1+6

IV+6

J]~

a

I

3---,

rr

VI

W W

Ix

v

Vl2

IIVo

VI

~Wl,

1l~

1+6

.-3 --,

r--

f

1+6

1-'

VIx

Ix

v

VI2

'IVo

1

r

~r

1-

JUST YOU, JUST ME - Lyric by Raymond Klages - Music by Jesse Greer © CopyrigJJt 1929 - Copyright Renewal 1957 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., New York N. Y. All rights controlled by Robbins Music Corporation, New York. Used by permission.

n

t

II

i ~1,~rfro fS &J ] IJ J J r J

-

v

Ix

'11 E

E EU

V12

1V+8

IV+6

r &cr eITt U r V

1+6

IIvo

- bEE 3 I, til

V12

I

tlVo

J IJ JJJ PC'I

V

~:

1+8

V

1+6

IV+G

Ix

Ix

~ ~;=

i J £0 £3 gJ } IfJ I,J %r n IkE E Ft dE 1 i W1, m J J r 1- ,c r t f; m ~' ~ W1,

IJx

V

m4

1+6

,.....-....., 1

VJx

II

V

~Ql' [H n° UI Er EJ J&Jj&J I~n'=r Ix

IV+6

1

'IVo

VI2

gdim cfr V

I

1+6

95

I CAN'T GET STARTED

DIZZY GILLESPIE

Intro

~

r-3-,

&

I

'U

fJ i1 J 3

(Eb)

I

(F)

(C)

@

~ P'¥W~"llmll~r" (C)

1+8 .

, I (C)

VII

IVm

(Eb)

v

II

IVx

I

(Eb)

~

I

vb6

3

P¢PJ J10 Wi r Pr" 151 VI

II

UQ!I'EC~SftCFl fflJi= ;If I

11_

m

vb5

VJxI,s

mx

V

II

bIIlx

.a=ljfCl

11-'

S

I]&CqcijFG t,W V J IWtJ - IVtJ!ftrlT&dP I (C)

I

11-'

VI

" ,hi' ~r (1'--6

R

~

3

~

I CAN'T GET STARTEDCopyright © 1935 by Chappell & Co. Inc.

Used by permission.

mx

V

he 115

~mx

3 IgA j J 3 I

tJ,

VI

tl

3

(C)

11,$

(C)

1

3

1+6

(I))

~~ 114~i

II

V

V

II

3

fJJ r err lj J j

I

(D)

Ii] JJgJ

1U

~~II~ij

I

~

tt rrrJ#i.c w IqJjJO gl;trO'JJ!,JqiI;j

(C)

II

I

(0)

yj,5

II

yj,5

\'JxI,s

J i£j,

I

II

V

-; IiIx

3 3 3 ~IIIx

3

~ .lJ j ij)tld~O&Q It qJ~~r pIJ ~ j)§;j I (C)

(0)

(C)

liz

~

V~5

~1Iz

I '

VI

II

n~

\'JxI,5 '

V~5

retard

yj,5

3

3

~nM

I

97

LADY BIRD (HALF NELSON)

4 (0)

(0)

t

'I

~)

MILES DAVIS

rJ

) I J J J F EF

J] JI

I

I

I

IVm

3 I

(C)

VIIm

(AiJ)

v

II

,:sJ J#J J dr H!; Ir tf=F '=W 3

(0)

,.lhJ (0)

II&

VI

V~5

3

&J [email protected]

$J J J [email protected]:I ~

II

3

J J J IJ J &J J qJ &J ] ~

m

LADY BIRD (HALF NELSON)Used by permission of Savoy Music Company, Newark, New Jersey.

:>-

~III&

Q :>

, I,m:

·-- .

Pc J &F J

J J I] J j J @ J

-

3 ~VIII

(0)

I

, J ,J .,

(0)

r :r

J J he be

IVm

pi

J

(C)

I

(0)

VIIm

)

IIx

(C)

I

Ir 17. ;-m J

If bJ ItJ ] &F

j

3

~VIIx

! Ir

~E qr gr

E

r 4fi .r

F F

r

I

(A~)

.

I

(C)

I

v

II

I

(C)

VI

v

II

v

I

99

BUD POWELL

NICE WORK IF YOU CAN GET IT

t

o W1? p I J J j J qf~] J J Iqj mx

VIz

t ~1r'khJ J m II V

t

W1

?t&r

.,. be e j 3

Dx

~Wlf

If=f

1+6

-

iijJ 1m fijJ J allW to

~VIIx

V

D

C E r :! IIIo

II

V

3

D

VIz

hJ #J f J J S I

Dx

~

D

,

r

VI

VI NICE WORK IF YOU CAN GET ITCopyright @ 1937 by Gershwin Publishing Corporation Used by permission.

Eo E 5i

I

1

v

liT m

1+6.

~E

~

r:J

r

VI

~i-

J J iE

VIz

3 IVz

1m

Vm

m;

I

, ~l!

n ~tP IE J~ IE: r§g FTr! It r FJ fJ ~J JI VI

IIx

mx

VIx

m

VIx

V

V

IIx

V

1+8

v

n

VI

1+8

,Wl' ~ )~pgqJ dr' I~F [DVm CHit ~ /~~i 'I IIIx

VIx

IIx

V

1+8

VI

...

#! 1ftT itr tJ Iqc ~j It TiJ J] IJ JJ J ~11 IIx

~IIo

m

VI

n

v

101

, ~f

r m

11 E E Fie r r e ErE ~

t . - It . r n

VIx

n

V

I

v

'~1f ~EEqE&rhJJJIJJqJJ£J 3&JlqtJWir &0 I 1+6

. '~l,& J

~ vnx

VI

IVx

1m

JJJ L&E~F r litE eJ br ~all~E E:; &Nj I

VI

mill

Vm

Ox

3

'Wll t VI

'~l,g 1+6

m

102

to r&plrrlr I,m cr dr IrE F r r t I v

Ox

v

, £ j ] JiI>J J J 3-1{ qr VI

r1 E~E .no

Ox

n

v

~r;1 I

CHEROKEE (KO KO)

(B~)

Ix

Vm

1+6

1+6

'~' - 1,_fJ'J (B~)

CHARLIE PARKER

IV

EUa IE ern

I~ ~fr3 OUJI

t

IV

IVm

t~'rF[r8' t 1- trr;IErE,~JJJI I

~J J=~J ~ (&)

IIx

VI

~ IIx

,=J

3

]#3

3111 t

l

"JJdl

D

3

'~' J] JJqjJ as Ih&w C&r elf IlJJgoo ~

(B~)

~

1+6

~

D

VI

II

V

Vm

CHEROKEE - Words and Music by Ray Noble Copyright MCMXXXVIII by The Peter Maurice Music Co., Ltd., London, England Assigned to Skidmore Music Co. Inc., for U.S.A. and Canada Used by permission of Skidmore Music Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York 19, N. Y.

I

'QI ($)

~ #J' IV

(B~)

'~I

wqc r F:f 3

~VIIx

1

JiS J] J Jd J 1&r Ul'

IV

VI

I

- J JJ11 ~i 3J 3

J

(B~)

IVm

1

Dx

J J ~ I";Cj\R J &J Jq3 I n

Dx

- II~

(B~) ~nx

q

1+8

1+6

n

(B)

I

I

'ilf ~JjJiH91 eft ~EJ r1r ~i#i9 n I

(A)

104

n

J]J J 04"

1

~nx

I

.

I

li

ti

,V' r eieGE] eqr r liE JJq£l {J Ip' UbU!ttff l (B~)

VI

n

IIx

3

1+6

1+6

(B~)

IVm

IV

,Q' &3 J1} JJ JIj JJ J £l J] IEqc &CJ 4J qJ JI (B~)

0

-

nx

n

, Q' (B~)

o

---

ijJhtJ

--

n V

3

,W' J J J J!J r E r fO (B~)

nx

VI

I

1+6

3

Ie E r J

V

-

II

~nx

rJ ~

1

105

t~'

(e rJ r

(B~) .

IV

rl1 ,nc I.e ¥ ~e e e!r

.

t ,- , .Mc

3

IVm

'1

I

~VIIx

t~' JJSU J J J0 JJJ J U J ;1 Iehe hE f fJ ~3 "ll (BI,)

I

IIx

VI

1(B~)

IIx

n

j~ .

(B~)

n

(B~)

I

(B~)

106

IV

V

J

I

Ix

Vm

IV

IVm

(~)

~mx

(B~)

IIx

~)

1t6

VI

1

IIx

n

(8)

1t6

n

(A)

~IIx

.

n

1

1

. n

(G)

(G)

I

:1

v

n

1

(Bp) VI

107

, P' # J J. J J j ~J J I J (B~)

I

'V' tJ (B~)

JJ J J Q J J I

I

J ~J S

II OJ

- I-

~

Ix

Vm

(

rrr

IV

,W' 3qJ J~J JijJ dJIJ JJJ i J J1 IEqr ¥1 iJ ~J J I ~

~

I

-

I-

~

ps

J J

'V' J

I

v i='J

t J I,j ] ~J IJ ~J t.J

(B~)

lOB

~

J

D

ina r

!f

j)

~~

J JJ J J IJ

I -

II

JUST FRIENDS

CHARLIE PARKER

it #.n

~

j]

IV

J~ 5 j

:>-

r8 r

~VUx

3

~VUx

I

J

6jtQJtftt!C r bf tr 1

w

::>

r

>

>

j,VIx

>~

)

:>-'--'"

IV

~ 6~' ~ JQ JJ J J J -.!II! ~ = >

., J J J JI

l~lQ

1-

!f

j\JiJ ~~-;:.-I >-

j,VIx

1!#JC1 Et![rJ53j~Jjn n

3

J

V

>,.-.....

~g"

r r~ d VJ

nx

r

-

It

-

nx

n

JUST FRIENDS - Lyric by Sam M. Lewis - Music by John Klenner © Copyright 1931 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., New York, N . Y. Copyright Renewal 1959 Robbins Music Corporation, New York, N. Y. All rights controlled by Robbins Music Corporation, New York, N . Y. Used by permission.

-

, ~'hC:; N

b0§iJ itt jJ Iz' leu Mj j w. 1

~I

~~

3

~m

v

D

3 .

...



.

.

·3

, ~m~JJJjIJJJPJJjOJ r~ ~ IIIx

'~I

3

J] JIJ /JqfJqjJJqp qgp lJ J0&0) J

I .• ~

I

110

VI

D

_$I

~

1

PART 5 Late Progressive LEE KONITZ

LOVER MAN

(G)

VI

Ux

VI

Ux

v

II

It (G)

Ix

II

----(G)

--6

6

IVx

(G)

v

~VIx

I

IV

VII

lUx

....

3 (G)

VI

VI

Ux

Ux

3

,~ J#HJJti;:t q:fJ3 i §j EfJI"tf-nnQJI (G)

II

(G)

Iz

V

II

V

IVx

LOVER MAN - by Jimmy Davis, Roger Ramirez, Jimmy Sherman © Copyright MCMXLI, MCMXLII, by PICKWICK MUSIC CORPORATION, 322 West 48th Street, New York 36, N. Y. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

111

v

~VJx

(G)

I

r nih

(A)

-

n

(A)

I

(A)

---

[

3

Ft

fII J

r r r r Er I 6

V

I

(G)

nih

1(G)

v

II

~

J vn

(G)

#

6

112

VI

J J @ J #4J J ~] J #J

6

J]

J

nIx

-J

~#J J J J J J oJ (G)

3

I

6

oJ

-J J J J J -JJ J J J J-I 6

J

oJ

J

6

oJ

nx

,# J J JffJ JJ J J J J J3 J JJ] JJ J J 1JJ J I 6

A

6

6

~

6

~

6

---

~ 3 .j 3 ~ r r r r" r rog

,. ere ftC r r §J (0)

(G)

6

n

n

6

v

Ix

Ix

V

6

(0)

IVx

(0)

~VIx

.( A)

n

V

Release - last 16

,~ (A)

I

n

V

A3 J Jas .3 ~] .; ~] Jas•J JJ.~J I.; ~JJ JJ --- I

'-'"

111I

I

113

u

(0)

(0)

I

(0)

VI

v

v

u

3

lUx

VIIm

IIx

VI

(G)

u

(G)

Ix

~

(0)

~VIx

(0)

~IIx

f:\

3

v

U

IVx

,

fJ~

114

3

6

5

-

~ V

f:\

n

.-

~lf



...~ •

~

t-

CHET BAKER

·ALL THE THINGS YOU ARE

~ ij# ~)

n rrr

r rJ] fo

It r ~('o

Break

Break

VI

, ~lf r Err?: ft rIFF H FF IJ t (A~)

II

(0)

V

1+6

1+6

I

V

(E~)

VI

II

,1I l '¥ HI' I

(0)

---

I

V

IJ n JJJJ J11~9§~ IV

'~lz't fJ H JJ JIJ JJJ fJ 3)10. t (E~)

~ I

IV

1#

~ J J#1JJI

(0) V

J tid Fir ';;!liE) Ir ';;!liE)11

VI

II

V

,lIplJJJ3JUIJJ3Jr ,#flo IrOTJ~F I (0)

I

I

(E)

II

V

'~J. 8 DII~V - l ' lin J oj J3 iJ JJJ r Ell I

(E)

(A~)

,

V

(A~)

mxl5

I

VI

II

IV

IVm

~lf \IJ QJ U J IJ nJ J I o~J qJ J J n J I

(A~)

CAbJ

m

~mo

1+6

ALL THE THINGS YOU ARECopyright © 1939 by T. B. Harms Company Used by permission.

II

V

VI

WRAP YOUR TROUBLES IN DREAMS

STAN GETZ

t - J J J iJ IJ ·

3

0

2Dd Choru

'--'"

J

J

,

~

via

JJ

D

,#J.

IIx

215=

I J J-eJ 9 ~.......? ... via 3

~-r

via

VN\N

j

.~

J

3

tJ EtJ OJ) JJ J S J

mx

J 1Vbt

JJz

J

1'J~QJ

v

D

JJz

"-"'-""

IS j

-

VI

J

, J JS.sa

to S n I

J

IIx

VI

p

J ~n I J

J via

E21 IF 1+6

WRAP YOUR TROUBLES IN DREAMS (And Dream Your Troubles Away) - Words by Ted Koehler and Billy Moll, Music by Harry Barris COPYRIGHT MCMXXXI by Shapiro, Bernstein 8£ Co. Inc. Copyright Renewed MCMLVIII and Assigned to Shapiro, Bernstein 8£ Co. Inc. Used by permission of Shapiro, Bernstein 8£ Co. Inc., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.

;: iJ

'J

£) ¥J I, pJO~ JO~Je~J 1-

~ ViI

mx

VIIx

,- J J J 314 vis

'J ~

~qJ+.l 15 I

V

l1 J JJ J I~\g jj 5J i~ ~ I mx

1+6

VI

iO ~ (1) iO ~ J

ItI

IIx

Vb:

y

;tfli ~ IJ 'J £Jj l.-I

IIx

via

II

Piano Chorll8

32

4th Chol'Wl

IIJ

e:J

J J ~ ~ I

1+6

IIx

t J U JJ t I

IIx

I' J ag I

#

via

II

J J J J li9 J ~ vl5

y

~I

'-"

117

,-

hE

r &F 0 Ir Fad edJ n

IIx

V'5

I

m~

, q[#J JqJ pm ~J IIIx

VIx

VIx

IJidZ1Jw PqpJ IJ t t IIx

f 1 g IJ\l ~ '--"'"

V'5

'J1 IJ J J J J J

'--"'"

J j1 f J 3 118

vI5

'31 1

vii

I

V

I

IIx

n

J____lfll

l

JJ

IIIx

IIx

lJP -0 r I

jj 1 d

I

I DON'T STAND A GHOST OF A CHANCE WITH YOU

CUFFORD BROWN

6'" jJ Jlaltbrrl~e,I"J j J J %",4Oj. aJ,9

IVm

3

~ vnx

6

m

I

I DON'T STAND A GHOST OF A CHANCE WITH YOU Academy of Music. Inc. Used by permission.

Copyright 1932 by American

119

m

I

n

I

n

v's

I

120

)mo

'10

3

m

VJx

u

1

V/'S

IVm

I

~5

121

HORACE SILVER

OPUS DE FUNK

4~! J ifJ li3 J J #3 J : Q I~ pick-up

#i qJ J ] I

t

IIvo

IV

,

IVm

3

'~' 3j~J PJqJ q3 bJ IijfJ J]1..i13 EJ I J! JJJ;J JJ I m

VI~

II

VIx

IVx

IIVo

'~' 3 jJ PJJJill fjO 33JPIJ JJS fl PJII .,

VI2

(0

,

W'

V

1+6

Tacit

'

.. '

Jl 4 J JJ J iJl 4 j) I

VI2

,w31 Vm

"-,,,

t

'

J qJ

I

'--'"

VI2 >'

IV

IV

tIVo

Y

£!1 #qU qy1t

1

>'

VI2

'~jlf] g J M-JJlb!J J! fJJ t l

Ix

VI2

.~

Tacit

. VI2

>"-

m

VI2

OPUS DE FUNKCopyright 1956 by The B. F. Wood Music Co., Inc. Used by permission.

>"-

'IVo

~~

II

..

.

VI2

.

:>

IV+8

®.

,Q' J 1+8

'IVo

:>:>

:>"-"

VI2

VI2

i~ JIiO LQ JJ} JJ11 J VI

D

V

FiD I

1- ~ 'pi

~VI

1+8

Ix

Vm

'~' &l'l'Ju r air Hd?: ' plJJS] r air ~ ~ :>

IVx

#lVo

VI2

m

IV

~mx

1

. 2 Q JJ~J F J J 1&; J JJ iJ PI nb"'J fa p U11

,~

D

V

N

VI

123

v

n

v

n

VI

1+6

,wjEJ &3 -0 J J J I~ &~ J J

t 1-

>Ix

IVx

1+6

VI

Vm

1 E~

I

r1

~~' Tr 0Fl 'P 1(1 cryJ q;hI§J Jp {i3 ~j PI lIvo

VI2

IV

m

~m

'~' p:JflJ? J J hJ IJ ~ iJd J J1 tJ~J J J;qJ n

124

v

VI2

I

@

'~' J J #J J 1~J [email protected]] J 1J J J J '-'

t

1-

>'-""

1+6

VI

II

V

1+6

J1 >'-'

Vm

Ix

,~! J J #J J IqJ 4JJ J IJ J J J It Y JP 0u81 --

IVx

,

>'-'"

'IVo

VI2

IV

m

~IIIx

~! i3 qJ J &£3 J¢II gJJJ d~l {.t J IW~ J II

V

V

1+6

1+6

VI

II

!

VI

V

125

I

'~I.1!f; t h r 1qr Er tr crtf 19E ¥rl eEr~ I ~

~

~

~

.'S ....~

,w' #i~J J 3 J J ~J PIJ J J1J V

1+6

J IiQ~J - I n

VI

V

" ~ FJ 3 Ui Ij ! #qj J ~J IJ J J ;a fJ IJ 'J I 1+6

VI

n

V

b>---"

b

~VI

1

. :>

b

.

:>

q1 i tv 11 f f ffi f I @' , ,-I bier~ p=;J-t t f I, '-F bi fGI '~' ~04 ~ ~ ~R' ~

~

~

~"..-..

Ii"-""

~

~

k""-""

3%

VI2

126

IV

3

m

~m

n

d

I)

I

, Wj

t

'IVo

I

I

I

I

II

1 d J 2Jl J IbJ J J ~ f J Jg~

IVx

~

m

VI2

7

'IVo;;:.-~

~mx

VI2

Ixg

II

.

VI2

#~J IJ J J J J J qJ I i~j #qJ qij?J-=1

IIIx:

"'--';;:.-"--'"

1+6

I

6

Drums

qJ1 14

7

@

t W'il J

6i

@Ba&S

I

IV

VI2

IV+6

II

Ix

Vm

6

Drums

VI

~ VI

;;:.-

Vm

·

'W'j:7 [email protected]#9 d J J J J IbJ 3d q3 fJ J t l Vm Ix

IVx

>"--"

'IVo

>"'--'

127

m

IV

VI2

::>

'IVo

VI2

n

~mx

::>;>

5

IV

----

VI2

IV

Ix6

VI2

m

IVm

'IVo

3

'~'jJ JJIJpJJ] iJ! J JJ;J Sa IJ JdPJ JUJ I "

I

J~--.

<

.

it·

.

(

"

1+8

:::-1 .

~

r--

>--

r--

~II;',,-,"

!-- r:,...

'11!>~ -:I

iI-

t>-..........

~~

l ::>....-

::;:-

I I

I

1/

1,1 Ix#l1

I .,~

-

~

.-

128

V

'""'

Ixbl

I

I

~

l

VI2

r--

1,1 1+8

)

'IVo

;>'-'

......

"--

I

IVx

-

3

I

~

~

n

VIx

.. i

1.1

I'VE GOT THE WORLD ON A STRING

INTRO ~VIIx

IV1' Q

OSCAR PETERSON

VIx

VIx

crEfr i Ffir WlE EFEEli ~gl 3

n~

n

m

3

~m

3

J J J J J h!U J ffJnJ.J§r n

v

n

IV"

I

r--

m

'

3 ~

, J1 ErE n

v

v

~m

v

n

a9,· VIx

~VIx

I'VE GOT mE WORLD ON It. STRINGCopyright 1932 by Mills Music, Inc. Used by permission.

129

u

,~,

v

J q]

IVx

~m

u

,,,,"

v

1+6

J J qJ :>

m

u

3

1+6

I

. 3

V

3 . VIIm

3

3

'~lf &lhS§tJ Jj#J JjjqJJ liTlr4J5JJIzJjJjl VIx

130

Ux

nx

v

n

m

1+6

n

~m

v

D

1+6

3

'

tW~f tjA1jJ'~m D

VIx

v

__

Break

3

finiS bErrltu~1 1

I~

131

m

n

n

VIx

,F v

IIx

'W1#} qF~ttfqer J FJ J S1)71) n

3

VIx

1+&

v

1+6

" j E! rfl lVx

3

6

J J ~ J j j 35 5 r r ar E 6qr I n

6

v :::-.

3

,~V eEEtq!JIfSJj ttr~t£Qjtll~EfCtI'Qqct~jjJ~aJ§jl 1+8

132

IVx

3

1+8

VUm

nIx

VJx

VJx

sva............ •.......... · .... · .. :

~_

q

~~lf quUUF rk,gr~r re lzErl ftcJltugECfCcrll Dx

Dx

pf .dr;$~ rift tiE Cf rrFFit MyqrqrlzEP&pPlfJOdjI ~m

n

~VJx

V

n

]+6

, WlfJ ~

3

mJ 423 j J1£9 dP:F gr Ft FJ I ~m

m

lVx

1+6

'Wlf

V

3

3

tu f' liE fffE rfI UI§~ Mj ~ MrI n

'~l' ~ n

n,

...-...

t# f qr V

V

VJx

1+6

®..-

r r , I(j qi r! r q, E&6 ijr I 1+6

~VDx

VJx

133

D

v

m

~mo

1+6

IVx

D

,wieft t: elx Q~' IqP- t/qJWj}jJqj3jGqlj 5jl D

3

'-!.I Vlx

mx

V

3

,Wl' ~. v11i(JSIT rl·cbfllD 50 I{JS3JdiidJJa;fZqJl I n

~m

1+6

~m

Vlx

1+6

£ 3f j J #; i§~ I m

134

1+6

v

D

f V"

v

~

mx

J

IVx

pi r tEE 'bP cr I

D

mx

.

VIx

VIx

'QV qfjqf] qffrnr b! Cr Errl br"@ .a Jj /jqJ] ~ ~~~q~ I . IIx

IIx

3

,wv ~J #J DO~D r[Ey

t; (,

v

1+6

3

I

1

n

VIx

v

CJ r n

e: r fll

V

n

VIx

F

1+6

arJff-

r :>

:>

E F~'I

v

v

135

~dlf I'F ,Jl 1+8

err ~ ~r 1'''; 'ftC F=e rl r cit J

m

IVx

D

~m

D

V ~':

. "-

,~~ ~Y1~rnJI,Jq&q"bElcr.rl",brtr~'[email protected] ~if1 V

-l ~ j

-J

W&1L ~

~

~

U§e: r Ei IrrJ GHCr :>

:>

~ VIz

1+8

:>

D

:>

b''-

e~~-~ ~~ J Gt I-d: f ;F-t;&iQI ;

~ V

3 1+8

3

IVx

3

,d1' fl'E fFJ3JJ~hrjjJy#3j11403j5JJ~_ ~m

m

'£'il

V

q

13 JJe [r r 1Z 15 t: QJJ Itf e,eprtttgRtEf&/ I

D

'WI)! J 1+8

l36

D

V H 3 P" ............................................ ,......................:

I

l F ~r

r1m ~Pr -q CJ "ebc rIF 1'( rCJ :

a

6

. 3

'V~t JJqJ j rrrbr jO&/JJ3' qjJJP~Jjbljj:aJ 1l'qr[~rEt' mx

VIx

IIx

6

IIx

6

6

6

,Wj, : 5 J J J j ] J JqJ J j &J J J J JJJJ J, J J ' 6

m

II

v

137

The Jazz Improvisation Series

1. Tonal and Rhythmic Principles

By John .Mehegan Preface by Leonard Bernstein

The fundamental musical concepts used by every great jazz musician from Buddy Bolden to Dizzy Gillespie. Here for students, professional and amateur musicians, and serious jazz enthusiasts are more than 70 lessons that define and clearly systematize the basic principles of jazz-using more than 60 jazz standards as examples: "Laura," "Body and Soul," "Spring is Here," "Stella by St?lrlight," "Autumn in New York," "Round Midnight," and others by such leading composers as Gershwin, Rodgers, Porter, Ellington and Kern. "A highly important and valuable publication,"-Leonard Bernstein in the preface. "A great book ."-Dave Brubeck. "Fulfills a desperate need."-Oscar Peterson. "A most valuable volume ."-Andre Previn. "The finest organization of jazz material that I have seen." -Bill Evans .

2. Jazz Rhythm and the Improvised Line

Preface by Harold Arlen

A brilliant analysis and schematic history of these two supremely important facets of jazz. Many figured bass lines and solos are given for dozens of well·known tunes of all periods-"High Society," "Oh, Daddy Be Good," "Just You, Just Me," "I Can't Get Started," "Night in Tunisia," "Bernie's Tune" and others-as well as 29 transcriptions of performances recorded from 1923 to 1958 by such artists as Bessie Smith , Louis Armstrong, Bix Beiderbecke, Roy Eldridge, Art Tatum, Bud Powell , Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gilles . , Miles Davis, Stan Getz, Horace Silver. "John Mehegan in this book continues the high standards of jazz teaching he has set previously in a field that needs these standards so badly."-Nat Hentoff.

3. Swing and Early Progressive Piano Styles

Preface by Horace Silver

An analysis of the great piano styles of 1936 to 1950, a period of creative ferment which saw the culmination of the rag·time tradition and its destruction and replacement by the innovations of the "bop" era . This volume examines the stylistic structure of over fifty major performances by the five greatest jazz pianists of the periodTeddy Wilson, Art Tatum , Bud Powell, George Shearing, Horace Silver~giving in unprecedented detail their extraordinary improvisations on the basic songs of the jazz repertoire. "Brings to the aspiring jazz musician a helping hand that will put him on the right track. " -Horace Silver in the preface.

4. Contemporary Piano Styles A rich, instructive survey of the history of jazz piano from 1950 to the present with clear and systematic analyses of the styles of such leading figures as Oscar Peterson, Bill Evans , George Shearing, Ahmad Jamal, Horace Silver, Red Garland, Cecil Taylor and many others. Abundant illustrations of left hand voicings, right hand modes, solo piano, comping, turn arounds, modern funky piano , harmonic distortions , modal fourths , minor blues, and modal fragments enable the student to apply modern devices to his personal style .

John Meheaan, jazz pianist, teacher and critic, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, and first

played the piano at tne age of five. His distinguished career as a jazz educator began in 1945, when he became Teddy Wilson's assistant at the Metropolitan Music School in New York. The following year, he was appointed head of the school's jazz department. In 1947, Mr. Mehegan was named jazz instructor at the Juilliard School of Music. He taught privately for over 25 years. He also taught at the Yale School of Music. Mr. Mehegan's unmatched contribution to the literature of jazz includes not only his major series on jazz improvisation, but a unique series of jazz instruction books for elementary and secondary school students, entitled The Jazz Pianist. From 1957 to 1960, he was jazz critic for The New York Herald Tribune. He was a contributor to such magazines as Downbeat, Metronome, and The Saturday Review, and a reviewer for Jazz magazine. >ISBN 0-8230-2572-1

I

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF