Johannes Ockeghem.pdf

May 13, 2019 | Author: j.miguel593515 | Category: Classical And Art Music Traditions, Classicism, Composers, Musicology, Mass (Liturgy)
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Johannes Ockeghem itating his style, but also revealed some useful biographical information information about him.[6] The comment by the poet Guillaume Crétin, Crétin , in the lament he wrote on Ockeghem’s death in 1497, “it was a great shame that a composer of his talents should die before 100 years old”, is also often taken as evidence for the earlier birthdate for Ockeghem. In 1993, documents dating from 1607 were found stating that “Jan Hocquegam” was a native of Saint-Ghislain of  Saint-Ghislain in the County the County of Hainaut, Hainaut, which was confirmed by references in 16th century documents. [7] This suggests that, though he first appears in records in Flanders, he was a native speaker of  Picard  Picard..[8] Previously, most biographies surmised that he was born in  East Flanders, Flanders, either in the town after which he was named (present-day Okegem,, from which his ancestors must have come) or Okegem in the neighboring town of Dendermonde of  Dendermonde (French:  (French: Termonde), where the surname Ockeghem occurred in the 14th and 15th century. [9] Occasionally, Bavay Occasionally,  Bavay,, now in the Nord department in department  in France, was suggested as his birthplace as well. [10]

Johannes Ockeghem [1]

surname me Johannes Ockeghem Ockeghem   (also   Jean Jean de, Jan; surna Okeghem,   Ogkegum,   Okchem,   Hocquegam,   Ockother variant variant spellin spellings gs are also encounte encountered) red) egham; other

Details Details of his early early life are lacking. lacking. Like Like many composers in this period, he started his musical career as a chorister, although the exact location of his education is unknown:   Mons, Mons, a town near Saint-Ghislain that had at least two churches with competent music schools, has been suggested.[5] The first actual documented record of Ockeghem is from the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe the  Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe cathedral in  in   Antwerp, Antwerp, where he was employed in June 1443 as a “left-hand choir singer (“left-handers” sang composed music, music, “right-ha “right-hande nders” rs” sang chant). chant). He probabl probablyy sang under the direction of Johannes of  Johannes Pullois, Pullois , whose employment [11] also dates from that year. This church was a distinguished establishment, and it was likely here that Ockeghem became familiar with the English compositional style, style, whi which ch influenc influenced ed late 15th-centu 15th-century ry musical musical practice practice [2] on the continent.

(1410/1425 – February 6, [2] 1497) was the most famous composer of the Franco-Flemish the  Franco-Flemish School in School  in the last half of the 15th century, and is often considered the most influential composer between Dufay between  Dufay and  and Josquin  Josquin des Prez. Prez . In addition to being a renowned composer, he was also an honored singer, choirmaster, and teacher.



The spelling of Ockeghem’s name comes from a supposed autograph of his which survived as late as 1885, and was reproduced by Eugène Giraudet, a historian in Tours;[3] the docume document nt has since since been been lost. In 15th- Between 1446 and 1448 Ockeghem served, along with century sources, the spelling “Okeghem” predominates. singer and composer Jean composer  Jean Cousin, Cousin, at the court of Charles of Charles Bourbon in Moulins  Moulins,, now in central France. [2] Ocke Ockegh ghem em is beli believ eved ed to have have been been born born in   Saint- I, Duke of Bourbon in the singing Ghislain,, Belgium. Ghislain Belgium. His birthdate birthdate is unknown; unknown; dates as During this service he became the first among [2] Around 1452 [4] chaplains chapla ins to appear in the court records. records . early as 1410, and as late as 1430 have been proposed. to Paris where  where he served as  maestro di cappella The earlier date is based on the possibility that he knew he moved to Paris of the collegiate Binchois in Hainaut in  Hainaut before  before the older composer moved to the French court, as well as treasurer [2] churchh of St. Martin Martin,, at  Tours  Tours.. In addition to servfrom Mons from Mons to  to Lille  Lille in  in 1423.[2] Ockeghem would have to churc ing at the French court – both for  Charles VII and for Charles VII  and Louis  Louis have have been younger younger than 15 at the time. This particul particular ar [2] at  Notre Dame de Paris and Paris  and at St. speculation derives from Ockeghem’s reference, in the XI – he held posts at Notre  Spain in  in 1470, lament he wrote on the death of Binchois in 1460, to a Benoît. He is known to have traveled to  Spain chanson by Binchois dated to that time. [5] In this lament as part of a diplomatic mission for the King, which was Ockeghem not only honored the older composer by im- a complex affair attempting both to dissuade Spain from 1

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joining an alliance with England and Burgundy against France, and to arrange a marriage between  Isabella I of Castile and Castile  and Charles, Duke of Guyenne (the brother of king Louis XI).[5] After the death of Louis XI (1483), not much is known for certain about Ockeghem’s whereabouts, though it is known that he went to  Bruges  Bruges and  and Tours, and he probably died in the latter town since he left left a will there. An indication indication of the renown in which Ockeghem Ockeghem was held is the number of laments written on his death in 1497; among the most famous of the musical settings of these many poems is  Nymphes des bois  by  by [5] Josquin des Prez.


Some of his works, alongside compositions by his contemporaries, are included in  Petrucci  Petrucci's 's   Harmonice mucollection of music to be sices odhecaton (1501), the first collection published using moveable type. [13]

Dating Ockeghem’s works is controversial, as there are almost no external references allowing precise dating, excepting of course the death of Binchois (1460) for which Ockeghem Ockeghem composed composed a motet-chanson. motet-chanson. The  Missa Ca is almost certainly an early work, since it follows on  put  is an anonymous English mass of the same title dated to the 1440s, and his late masses may include the  Missa Ma maistresse and  Missa Fors seulement , in view of both his Ockeghem probably studied with Gilles with  Gilles Binchois, Binchois , and at innovative treatment of the   cantus firmus  ,  and his tenleast was closely associated with him at the Burgundian denc dencyy to write write more more andmor and moree homo homoge geneo neous us textur textures es later later [5] court. court. Since Since Antoine  Antoine Busnois  wrote a motet in honor in his life. of Ockeghem sometime before 1467, it is probable that Ockeghem used the  cantus firmus  technique  technique in about half those two were acquainted as well; and writers of the of his his masse masses; s; theearlies theearliestt of these these massesuse massesuse headhead-mot motif ifss time often link Dufay, Busnois and Ockeghem. Although at the start of the individual movements, a practice which Ockeghem’s musical style differs considerably from that was common around 1440 but which was archaic afof the older generation, it is probable that he acquired his ter around mid-century. [5] Two of his masses,  Missa Ma basic technique from them, and as such can be seen as a maistresse and  Missa Fors seulement , are based on chandirect link from the Burgundian style to the next genera- sons sons he wrot wrotee hims himsel elf, f, and and use use more more than than one one voic voicee of the the tion of Netherlanders, such as Obrecht as  Obrecht and  and Josquin. chanson, foreshadowing the parody the  parody mass techniques mass  techniques of


Music Music and and infl influen uence ce

the 16th century. In his remaining masses, including the Missa Mi-mi ,  Missa cuiusvis toni , and  Missa prolationu prolationum m, no borro borrowe wedd materi material al hasbee has beenn found, ound, andthe worksseem worksseem [5][14] to have been freely composed. Ockeghem would sometimes place borrowed material in the lowest voice, such as in the   Missa Caput , one of three masses written in the mid-15th century based on that fragment of chant from the English  Sarum Rite. Rite.[5] Other characteristics of Ockeghem’s compositional technique include his liking for varying the rhythmic shape of voices, voices, so as to maintain their independence. independence.[2]

An illuminated opening from the Chigi the  Chigi codex  featuring  featuring the Kyrie the  Kyrie  Missa Ecce ancilla Domini of Ockeghem’s  Missa

A strong stronginfl influen uence ce on Josq Josquin uin des Pre Prezz and the subseq subsequent uent generati generation on of Netherl Netherlande anders, rs, Ockegh Ockeghem em was famous amous throughout Europe for his expressive music, although he was equally renowned for his technical prowess. [6] Two of themos the mostt famous amous contrapuntal contrapuntalach achie ievem vements entsof of the 15th century century includ includee the astonish astonishing ing Missa prolationum, which consists entirely of  mensuration canons, canons, and the 'Missa cuiusvis toni', designed to be performed in any of the different modes ferent  modes,, but even these technique-oriented technique-oriented masterpieces demonstrate his insightful use of vocal ranges and uniquely expressive tonal language. [15] Being a renowned bass singer bass  singer himself, his use of wide-ranging and rhythmically mically active bass lines sets him apart from from many of the other composers in the Netherlandish Schools. Schools.

Ockeghem Ockeghem was not a prolific composer, given the length of his career and extent of his reputation, and some of his work was lost. Many works works formerl formerlyy attributed attributed to Ockeghem Ockeghem are now presumed to be by other composers; Ockeghem’s total output of reliably attributed compositions, as with many of the most famous composers of the time time (suc (suchh as Josqu Josquin) in),, hasshrunk hasshrunk with with time. time.[5] Surviving, in  Tours,, France. To commemorate his reliably-attributed, works include some 14   masses (inmasses  (in- Ockeghem died in Tours death,  Josquin des Prez composed Prez  composed the motet  La déplocluding a Requiem a  Requiem mass),  mass), an isolated Credo ( Credo sine death, Josquin ration de la mort de Johannes Ockeghem , a setting of the

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3.1 3.1

3.4.2 3.4.2

Three Three voic voices es

1.  Aultre Venus estes 

Mass Masses es

2.  Au travail suis  (attrib:  (attrib: possibly by Barbingant by  Barbingant))

1.  Missa sine nomine

3.  Baisiés moy dont fort 

2.   Missa sine nomine  (incomplete: only Kyrie, Gloria and Credo exist)

4.  D'ung aultre amer 

3.  Missa Au travail suis 

5.  Fors seulement contre

4.  Missa Caput 

6.   Fors seulement  l'attente  l'attente

5.  Missa cuiusvis toni 

7.  Il ne m'en chault plus 

6.  Missa De plus en plus 

8.  La despourveue et la bannie

7.  Missa Ecce ancilla Domini 

9.  L'autre d'antan

8.   Missa Fors seulement  (has not survived complete: only Kyrie, Gloria and Credo remain)

10.  Les desléaux ont la saison

9.   Missa L'homme Missa  L'homme armé 

11.  Ma bouche rit 

10.  Missa Ma maistresse  (only Kyrie and Gloria extant) 11.  Missa Mi-mi  (also  (also known as the  Missa quarti toni ) 12.  Missa prolationum 13.  Missa quinti toni  14.   Missa pro defunctis  (Requiem) 15.  Credo sine nomine  (Mass section)

12.  Ma maistresse 13.  Prenez sur moi  14.  Presque transi  15.  Quant de vous seul  16.  Qu'es mi vida preguntays  17.  Se vostre cuer eslongne

3.2 3.2 3.2.1

Mote Motets ts Marian Marian antiphon antiphonss

1.  Alma Redemptoris Mater 

18.  Tant fuz gentement resjouy 19.  Ung aultre l'a 3.4.3

Three Three or four voices voices

2.  Ave Maria 1.  J'en ay dueil 

3.   Salve Regina 3.2. 3.2.2 2

Othe Others rs

3.4.4 3.4.4

Four Four voic voices es

1.  S'elle m'amera/Petite camusette

1.  Intemerata Dei mater  (possibly  (possibly written 1487) [16] 2.  Ut heremita solus 

4 3.3

Reco Record rdiings ngs

Motet-c Motet-chan hanson son •

1.  Mort tu as navré/Miserere  (lamentation on the death of Gilles of Gilles Binchois, Binchois , probably written in 1460)

  Flemish Masters  Masters ,

Virginia Virginia Arts Recordi Recordings, ngs, VA04413, performed performed by Zephyrus by  Zephyrus.. Includes the Ockeghem  Alma Redemptoris mater , the Obrecht Missa Sub tuum presidium , as well as motets by Willaert, Clemens Clemens non Papa, Josquin, Mouton, and Gombert.

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 “Missa Cuiusvis Toni”, æon, ÆCD 0753 (2 CDs2007), performed by Ensemble Musica Nova, Lucien Kandel; First recording of the four versions. Ed. Gérard Geay.

• •

 “Missa prolationum”, agogique AGO 008, Ensemble Musica Musica Nova, Nova, Luci Lucien en Kandel. Kandel. Ed. Gérard Geay. Geay.


 Fabrice Fitch: Johann Johannes es Ockeghem: Ockeghem: Masses Masses and  Champion Éditeur, 1997. Models. Paris, Honoré Champion (ISBN 978-2-85203-735-9) 978-2-85203-735-9)  Jeffrey Dean: “Okeghem’s valediction? The meaning of 'Intemerata Dei mater'", in   Johannes Ockeghem: Actes du XL e Colloque international d'études  ( ISBN 2humanistes . Éditions Klincksieck, 1998. (ISBN

252-03214-6)) 252-03214-6



[1] This portrait portrait is tentativ tentatively ely identified identified as Ockeghe Ockeghem m by Reinhard Strohm, Strohm, “Portrait of a Musician”, in   Johannes  Ockegh Ockeghem: em: Actes Actes du XLe Colloque Colloque internat internation ional al des   [Tours, 1997] ed. Philippe Vendrix Vendrix d'études humanistes  [Tours,

(Paris, Klinckseick, Klinckseick, 1998), pp 167-172. [2] Brown & Stein, Stein, p61.

[3] Giraudet, Giraudet, 1885.  Les artists tourangeaux  (series:   (series:   Mémoires  de la Société Achéologique de Touraine ,  33) pp 312f. •

[4] Fitch, Fitch, p. p. 57. [5] Perkins, Grove Grove online

[6] Brown & Stein, Stein, p61-71. [7] Van Overstraeten, Overstraeten, pp 11-17 [8] Brown & Stein, Stein, p60 •

[9] Van Overstraeten, Overstraeten, pp 10 [10] Van Overstraeten, Overstraeten, pp 8-9 [11] Starr, Grove Grove online

  Martin Picker: Picker: Johann Johannes es Ockeghe Ockeghem m and Jacob Jacob Obrecht: A Guide to Research.  (Garland Composer Resource Manuals, 13.) New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1988. (ISBN (ISBN 0-8240-8381-4) 0-8240-8381-4)  Leeman Perkins: Music in the Age of the Renaissance. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1999. Howard M. Brown Brown & Louise K. Stein: Music in the Renaissan Renaissance, ce, 2nd ed. New Jersey, Jersey, Prentice Prentice Hall, Hall, 1996. Pp. 60–79.  Giulio  Giulio Ongaro: Music Music of the Renaissanc Renaissance. e. WestWestport, Connecticut, Greenwood Greenwood Press, 2003. P.32.  Daniel Van Overstraeten:  Le lieu de naissance du musicie musi cienn Jean Ockegh Ockeghem em (ca 1420– 1420–1497) 1497):: une énigme élucidée. élucidée. Annales Annales du Cercle Cercle d'histoi d'histoire re et d'archéologie de Saint-Ghislain et de la région. VI 1993. (in French)  Philippe Vendrix, dir. Johannes Ockeghem. Actes du XIe Colloque international international d'études humanistes. Centre Centre d'Etudes d'Etudes Supérie Supérieures ures de la Renaissan Renaissance. ce. Coll. Epitome musical. musical. Kincksieck, Kincksieck, 1998.   ISBN 2-252-03214-6 (in 2-252-03214-6  (in French and in English).

[12] Brown & Stein, Stein, p70. [13] Brown & Stein, Stein, p68.


Exte Ex tern rnal al link linkss

[14] Brown & Stein, Stein, p62. [15] Brown & Stein, Stein, p69. [16] Dean, p. 555.


Ref Referen erence cess • •

  Leeman Perkins: Perkins: “Johannes Ockeghem"; Ockeghem"; Pamela Starr, Starr, “Johannes “Johannes Pullo Pullois”. is”. Grove Grove Music Music Online, Online, ed. L. Macy Macy (Acce (Accesse ssedd Decemb December er 23, 2007), 2007), (subscription access)  Article “Johannes Ockeghem,”  The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , ed. Stanley Sadie.

 Ockeghem biography and discography  Free scores by Johannes Ockeghem  in the Choral the  Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Library (ChoralWiki) Free sc Free scor ores es by Jo Joha hann nnes es Oc Ockkeg eghe hem m   at at the the International Music Score Library Project  Johannes Ockeghem Home Page "Jean d'Okeghem". d'Okeghem".   Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

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