IDRS Journal No. 25, July 1997 Cover Title page
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The Journal of the
IDRS Conference, Tempe, Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . God Save the Queen (Version No. 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . William Waterhouse The Interpretation of the Ornamentation in Mozart’s Oboe Quartet K. 370 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trudy Fraase If Mozart Had Been a Bassoonist: Suggestions for a First-Movement Cadenza to K. 191 . . . James A. Grymes Double Reed Players of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketches by Gerome Brush A Comparative Examination of the Notation of Selected Orchestral Bassoon Solos . . . . . . . Mark Avery Oboists and Electronics: Embracing a New Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aaron Cohen Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travis A. Cox, Karen Hoagland, Maria Mendoza The Bell of a Bassoon Made by W. Hess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dr. Klaus Gillessen A Bassoon Part to Mozart’s Coronation Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dr. Klaus Gillesson Cartoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lauris MacKenzie, K. L. Davis-Mendez, David Riddles IDRS Honorary Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yard Sale Bassoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paul Lein Vivaldi Identification Information-Cross Reference Chart, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trevor Cramer Obituaries: Charles W.P. Cracknell, William S. Buzzard, Wilbur H. Simpson . . . . . . . . . . . . Making Modern Music in Moscow: a Travelogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dr. Jeffrey Lyman Back Issue Order Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Make UltraLyte Easy Playing Bassoon Reeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur L. Gudwin, M.D. A Nearly Foolproof Method of Forming Bassoon Reeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nicola A. Adamo The History of the Oboe Class at the Prague Conservatoire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miloslav Masier From the Past: Reprints of Double Reed Articles from Woodwind Magazine . . . . . . . . . . . The Reed Problem Letter from England Woodwind Intonation The Horrors of Bassooning The Vibrato Problem, I & II The Truth About Vibrato Bassoon and Powder Puff No. 2 Simplifying the Bassoon From Paris Paul Bunyan-Bassonist Extraordinary
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Don Christlieb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gwydion Brooke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theodor Poduus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sol Schoenbach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . George Opperman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Josef Marx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gloria Solloway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simon Kovar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ben Spieler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floyd E. Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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International Double Reed Society Membership Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bassoon Music Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ronald Klimko IDRS Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Playing “Short” High Notes on the Hautboy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bruce Haynes A Bassoon Lite, Please - Der Fickle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alan Goodman Stan the Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alan Goodman Regression Analysis as an Aid in Making Oboe Reeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Katherine Ceasar-Spall, James C. Spall Report of the Executive Secretary/Treasurer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lowry Riggins Lost Sheep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributing Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Use of the IDRS Trade Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classified Ads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertisers Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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DOUBLE REED SOCIETY
JOURNAL NO. 25, e-Edition JULY 1997 THE DOUBLE REED ISSN 0741-7659
Ronald Klimko and Daniel Stolper, Editors; e-Edition edited by Yoshiyuki Ishikawa ©International Double Reed Society Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A. - I997 Designed and Printed by Falls Printing Company Idaho Falls, Idaho U.S.A.
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IDRS OFFICERS President Yoshiyuki (Yoshi) Ishikawa College of Music: Box 301 University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0301 Bus.: (303) 492-7297 FAX: (303) 581-9307 E-mail: [email protected]
Bassoon Editor Ronald James Klimko Lionel Hampton School of Music University of Idaho Moscow, ID 83844-4015 Bus.: (208) 885-6594 FAX: (208) 885-7254 E-mail: [email protected]
1st Vice President Marc Fink School of Music: UW-Madison 455 North Park Street Madison, WI 53706-1483 Bus.: (608) 263-1900 FAX: (608) 262-8876 E-mail: [email protected]
Oboe Editor Daniel J. Stolper 1515 West Kalamazoo St. Lansing, MI 48915 Bus.: (517) 355-7727 FAX: (517) 432-2880 E-mail: [email protected]
2nd Vice President Roger Birnstingl 12 Chemin Kermerly 1206 Geneva, Switzerland Tel/Fax: 022 3474425 Past President Charles O. Veazey College of Music - UNT P.O. Box 13887 Denton, TX 76203-3887 Bus.: (817) 565-3718 FAX: (817) 565-2002 Home: (817) 565-2002
IDRS On-Line Publications Editor Yoshiyuki (Yoshi) Ishikawa E-Mail: [email protected]
IDRS WWW: HTTP://idrs.colorado.edu Librarian James C. Prodan School of Music: UNC Greensboro Greensboro, NC 27412-5001 Bus.: (910) 334-5789 FAX: (910) 334-5497 E-mail: [email protected]
Secretary Norma R. Hooks Western Maryland College 2423 Lawndale Road Finksburg, MD 21048-1401 Home: (410) 876-2171 FAX: (410) 857-9144 E-mail: [email protected]
Bassoon Chair Barrick R. Stees School of Music Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1043 Bus.: (517) 355-7663 E-mail: [email protected]
At-Large Nancy E. Goeres 100 Denniston Ave. #52 Pittsburgh, PA 15206-4042 Phone/FAX: (412) 661-3004
Oboe Chair Nancy Ambrose King School of Music University of Illinois 1114 W. Nevada Street Urbana, IL 61801 Bus.: (217) 333-3360 FAX: (217) 244-4585 E-mail: [email protected]
Cynthia Koledo DeAlmeida 2210 Almanack Ct. Pittsburgh, PA 15237-1502 Phone: (412) 369-5325 Executive Secretary-Treasurer Lowry Riggins 626 Lakeshore Drive Monroe, LA 71203-4032 Phone: (318) 343-5715 FAX: (318) 345-1159 E-mail: [email protected]
Associate Editors: Referee Board William Davis - Athens, GA David Dutton - Spokane, WA Charles Koster - San Fernando, CA David Rhodes - Waterford, Ireland Arthur Weisberg - Boca Raton, FL Wilma Zonn - Hendersonville, TN Jeffrey Lyman - Tempe, AZ
Music Industry Liaison Peter Klatt, Forrests Music 1849 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94703-1585 Bus.: (510) 845-7178 FAX: (510) 845-7145 E-mail: [email protected]
Legal Counsel Jacob Schlosser 4937 West Broad Street Columbus, OH 43228-1668 Home: (614) 262-1974 Bus.: (614) 878-7251 FAX: (614) 878-6948
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International Double Reed Society Conference 2 – 6 June • Arizona State University • School of Music • Tempe AZ 85287
Double reed artists revive our past, define our present, and shape our future. The 1998 Conference includes a special invitational series of premieres, retrospectives, experiments, and chronologies entitled Identity.
Martin Schuring, Host TEL 602 /965.3439 E-M [email protected]
Jeffrey Lyman, Co-host TEL 602 /965.3726 E-M [email protected]
Camelback Odyssey Travel supports IDRS ’98 with contributions based upon the number of participants booking with Marlene Rausch. For more information, please call her at: 1- 800/480.7947 or 602/473.2425.
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GOD SAVE THE QUEEN (VERSION NO. 3)
God Save the Queen (Version No. 3) By William Waterhouse London, England his is a footnote to the Trio for Oboe, Bassoon and Piano written by Jean Françaix in 1994 in response to a commission by the IDRS in conjunction with four other DR Societies. It is intended to draw attention to a musical quotation which might otherwise escape due notice. It occurs during the very last five measures of the work. With characteristic wit the composer has marked the right-hand of the piano part ‘le chant surnoisement en dehors’, which may be translated as ‘the tune surreptitiously to the fore’. In a letter dated the 11th August 1995 written to Erik Langeveld, co-host of the IDRS Conference at Rotterdam. Françaix referred to it thus: “The allusion to God Save the Queen with which it ends is a wink of the eye at my old friend Waterhouse, to whom the trio is dedicated.” For the work’s premiere in Rotterdam, the com-
stituted, from now on, my favorite version of our national anthem. He replied: “I wish to confirm that from now on there are three versions of the British National Anthem: the one that belongs to Charles, the one that belongs to Diana, and ‘la version Jean (Françaix)’. And yet nonetheless, this anthem is as indivisible as the French Republic itself — of this fact the France of today is a proof. Ah, sweet mystery of the Holy Trinity — Church of England style!” * Here are the new harmonies to which Jean Françaix has set the opening strain of God Save the Queen (known also to Americans as My Country Tis of Thee). For the actual text of his version, with its syncopated rhythms, the printed score (©1995 Schott Musik International, Mainz) should be consulted. Here to conclude with is some good news for
poser contributed the following programme note: “If people don’t like my ‘Trio pour Hautbois, Basson et Piano’, I have a scapegoat: my old friend Waterhouse from England, who pushes the European spirit so far as to play his German bassoon with a French sonority. It was he who, by dint of constant requests, persuaded me to write for a Trinity unknown to the New Testament. This combination of instruments balances better than that of violin, cello and piano. All too often the strings are drowned by Steinway power: but the oboe and bassoon can get the pianist to dance to their tune without making him draw in his claws — which most of them hate having to do. On the other hand the oboe and bassoon, being wind players, need their bars rest to enjoy the odd breather — to the delight of the pianist, who can use the occasion to let off steam. I have enjoyed manipulating my three Graces by adopting a very classical style, although I am unable to guarantee my harmonies to be entirely free of fifths and octaves … May the audience derive a similar pleasure from it!” After the show I couldn’t resist writing to the composer to tell him that his ‘wink of the eye’ con-
all fellow bassoonists. Last February, I was in Paris to view an exhibition celebrating the composer’s recent 85th birthday and to visit the Maître. To my surprise and delight he told me that he had just finished a two-movement work for bassoon and piano entitled Petite divertissement militaire. He had written it for a pianist friend living outside Paris whose American-born wife happens to play bassoon. I was able to inspect the finale, which at first glance seemed to be in much the same vein as the finale of the Trio. He had not as yet shown it to his publisher. Let us hope that in the meantime he has already done so, and that an exciting new addition to our repertory will soon be available to his many admirers throughout the world. ❖ With acknowledgements to the composer and to Messrs. Schott: translations are by the author. * O mystère anglicano-chrètien de la Sainte Trinité!
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The Interpretation of the Ornamentation in Mozart’s Oboe Quartet K. 370 (368b) By Trudy Fraase Zeeland, North Dakota
t is generally agreed that the practice of ornamentation came about through improvisation, traced as far back as the ornamental neumes of the early Medieval Ages. Neumann (1988, p. 72-73) speculates that the first ornaments were pitches a singer added to the melody of a song, thereby forming two or more pitches to a syllable; that is, a melisma. He goes on to state that “[s]uch ornamentation was ‘melodic’ in the sense that pitches were added between the regular, or structured notes of the song … Up to about 1600 all ornaments were of this ‘melodic’ kind; they decorated and enlivened the melody, but did not have any effect on the harmony.” The first “harmonic” dissonances were made by displacing “a note on a strong beat with another a step above or below, forming an appoggiatura.” From this evolved the countless varieties of ornamentation. Some of the ornamental figures were used often enough for them to be grouped into formulas, which then came to be “represented by the shorthand device of a symbol.” (Neumann 1988, p. 73). Herein begins all the trouble. Neumann (1988, p. 71) identifies three ways in which ornamentation is reflected in notation: 1) indicated by symbols, 2) written out in regular notation, 3) not notated at all. It is with the first notation of ornaments, the symbols, with which this paper is concerned. The obvious problem is, of course, how to properly interpret these symbols. Even with instructions from theorists of the period under discussion, there is still room for doubt. “Treatises give full and explicit instructions on the performance of melodic ornaments. Yet no full agreement concerning notation of performance of these figures.” (Ratner 1980, p. 196). One might question why the use of symbols remained so widespread when, even at the height of their use, there was no agreement as to their precise interpretation One theorist of the time, Schiebe, supported their use as “he had in mind that a performer who sees only the main notes (chiefly the harmony notes) of the melody written down tend to give these main notes their natural weight, and to festoon his own ornamental figuration in between with the requisite lightness
and elegance This makes everything clear, and in proper balance. But if the ornamental figuration has been fully written out by the composer, it all looks equally important to the eye, and the performer tends to play or sing the ornamental notes as emphatically as the structural notes.” (Donington 1963, p. 94). Neumann (1988, pp. 7274) looks at it with a slightly different slant. He feels that “All ornaments are born of free improvisation and as such they were born free … It is emphatically not the function of ornaments to harden, stiffen, to regularize the musical texture. An ornament that is rendered with military drill precision is a contradiction in terms.” With this view of the ornament in mind, Neumann prefers the use of the symbol because it “is not only a convenient shorthand device, but is actually a superior notational device because it allows it to assume, however subtly. ever differing shapes.” How the ornaments are to be executed then, is ultimately left up to the performer. “As with articulation, tempo, and dynamics, application of ornamentation was often dictated by personal taste.’’ (Warner 1964, p. 134) Obviously, this leads to a multitude of interpretations, none of which can be labeled incorrect as long as the character of the ornament remains clear: to decorate but not to obscure the melody, and to be delivered in a free, improvisatory fashion. As we look into the use of ornamentation in the music of Mozart, we must keep in mind that the heyday of the use of embellishments had already passed.“Free ornamentation began to lose its status as a primary element of interpretation during the second half of the eighteenth century.” (Donington 1963, p. 117). Cole (1990, p. 170) observes that “Mozart himself opposed excessive embellishment by performers” and Warner (1964, p. 163) takes a quote of Quantz; “In no event should excessive ornamentation occur.” This frees us from any sense of obligation to fill up Mozart’s music with every kind of free ornamentation applicable. A performer could feel safe with keeping his music simply decorated with only the ornaments that Mozart indicates. In doing the research for this paper, I found the topic of ornamentation to be quite large. The material could, and has, taken up several books. I
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THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ORNAMENTATION IN MOZART’S OBOE QUARTET K. 370
have therefore restricted myself to the discussion of those ornamental formula commonly found in the wind instrument solos of Mozart. Those ornaments more suited to the voice, string, or keyboard instruments will not be covered here. Let us turn first to the simplest and most common of embellishments, the Vorschlag. Simply speaking, the Vorschlag is a single ornamental pitch that precedes, and is slurred to, its principal note. I will follow Neumann’s designations of “appoggiatura” for a Vorschlag that falls on the beat, and “grace note” for one that precedes the beat. In the writings of other theorists, the terms “long” and “short” appoggiaturas have been used. In the interpretation of the appoggiatura, many theorists and performers follow the three rules established by Türk: 1) “Whenever it is possible to divide the main note into two equal parts, the appoggiatura relieves one-half.”
2) “When the main note is dotted, the appoggiatura relieves two-thirds of it, and the main note one-third.”
3) “If the main note is tied to another, shorter note, the appoggiatura relieves the whole value of the main note.” (Hamilton 1930, pp. 17-18).
Hamilton says exceptions to these rules are made if it would interfere with the desired harmonic or rhythmic progression. Here too, he cautions: “All three rules, indeed, should be interpreted in the light of the performer’s artistic sense.” Quantz, C.P.E. Bach, and Leopold Mozart supplemented these rules with one more about an “overlong” appoggiatura “that takes the whole value of the principal note if the latter is followed by either a tie or a rest.” (Neumann 1988, p. 93)
Many other theorists support this method of interpreting appoggiaturas for Mozart. Dannreuther (1895, p. 95) advises the performer: “In case of doubt, sing or play the main notes of the entire phrase without ornaments, but in full tempo. Then insert the sign where it seems wanted, and interpret as you are told - e.g. in Leopold Mozart’s Gründliche Schule.” Ratner (1980, p. 201) feels that “ … Türk’s recommendations regarding tempo, articulation, accent, and dynamics are valid generally for the music of his time.” Does this imply acceptance of his recommendations for ornamentations also? In applying these rules to W.A. Mozart, some writers believe the rules of Leopold Mozart, which agree with Türk’s, can be applied to the music of his son. “Mozart’s ornaments are based mainly on the practice of his father, Leopold Mozart (1719-1787), as set forth in the latter’s Gründliche Violinschule, published in 1756.” (Hamilton 1930, p. 5). “There is no evidence which could lead one to believe that W.A. Mozart departed from his father’s practices as regards the rendering of ornament.” (Dannreuther 1895, p. 95) Neumann takes a firm stand against this assumption. “In a very extensive search I found out … that Mozart followed the ‘half-a-binary’ rule only for appoggiaturas before the relatively short (a quarter-note or less) principal notes; that he did not honor the ‘two-thirds of a ternary’ rule; that with regard to the ‘overlong’ pattern I had found only two instances out of countless thousands that would apply to be a rest and not a single one that would apply to a tie.” (1988, p. 93). He suggests that the “overlong” manner was going out of style or that Mozart was leaning toward Italian ways. Neumann also disagrees with the rules set down by Türk whether applied to Mozart or not. “Türk shows his pedantry by not taking into account the need for music to breathe and not be shackled by a mechanical beat.” (1986, p. 15). There are variations and differences to Türk’s rules by his contemporaries. For example, “C.P.E. Bach tried to establish the rule that the small note should represent the true value of the appoggiatura … a practice which was not however, invariably followed.” (Hamilton 1930, p. 17). The theorist Geminiani gave the auxiliary note over half the length of the principal note.
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Neumann still councils for flexibility and resists the application of set rules for the execution of this ornament. The symbol of an appoggiatura, he feels, “invites greater dynamic and rhythmic flexibility than would a regular note.” (1986, p. 6). He suggests the possibility of slight variations in length. The quarter-note symbol, for example, would stand for a mostly-long appoggiatura and will be held for approximately (not exactly) the value of a quarter-note (1986, pp. 32-33).
Special mention must be made of the rhythmic figure eighth and two sixteenths preceded by a grace note. Beyschlag (1953, p. 196) asserts that as with Haydn and other composers of this era, the notation is always realized as four sixteenths, end of discussion. Hamilton (1930, p. 17) evidently agrees as he lists that solution under the first rule of Türk (see illustration 1). Neumann calls this equalization, and concedes that it probably applies in most cases for Mozart. However, he feels there is still and area of ambiguity. He quotes Quantz as saying the appoggiatura must be played in the time of the preceding note.
C.P.E. Bach and Agricola, he notes, both call for short appoggiaturas, that is, no equalization. Even Türk seems to call for short appoggiaturas except when the figure grows out of a sequence of sixteenths-notes, in which case one should play them as equal with an accent on the appoggiatura (Neumann 1986, pp. 81-84). Neumann seems to carry no strong preference for the realization of this figure, and rather just sums up the choices available to the performer (1986, pp. 88-89). The main variations to be considered are 1)
evenly spaced notes with the first one emphasized beyond its normal metrical stress (which is probably what Pleyel had in mind); 2) in slow tempos, and mainly for the scale formula [a descending or ascending pattern], a slight lengthening of the Vorschlag note (which is what Steglich had in mind); 3) the shortening of the appoggiatura in the sense of Hiller, Lasser, and Türk; 4) once in awhile grace notes in the sense of Dannreuther, Döbereiner, and, presumably, Peter. Certainly soloists can use their inherently greater freedom of execution to vary the rendition of the formula in one of these ways when the musical context favors such adjustment. The most difficult problem of the use of the grace note, or short appoggiatura, is in deciding when its use is necessary. Here C.P.E. Bach advocated the practice of using a small note of low value (such as a sixteenth or thirty-second note) to indicate a short appoggiatura. It was later improved by adding a dash through the stem of the small note. However, when his device was first coming into use, the supplementary dash was often left out, thereby making it difficult to determine whether a long or short appoggiatura was intended (Hamilton 1930, pp. 22-23). Another factor causing difficulty is discussed by Neumann (1986, p. 65). “In his early years, Mozart was often casual in choosing the value of his Vorschlag symbols. With maturity Mozart became more circumspect about his Vorschlag notation, but never fully consistent.” Neumann (1986, pp. 40-58) lists several situations in which the Vorschlag should probably be treated as a grace note. One very important consideration is that a characteristic rhythm not be disturbed by ornamental additions. Such cases require the grace note realization to keep the integrity of the rhythm. He feels that groups of three in binary meter are probably in the greatest need of preserving the characteristic rhythm. Upward leaping instrumental Vorschläge will generally be grace notes but will occasionally need appoggiatura treatment as suggested by the context. Vorschläge usually get grace note treatment when they appear before a staccato note or when they rise a halfstep to the main note (and are written as a sixteenth or shorter). Two or more repeated notes, each of which are preceded by a Vorschlag which rises by a half-step almost always should be a grace note. Along the lines of the characteristic rhythm situation is that of syncopation, which also needs to preserve its
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THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ORNAMENTATION IN MOZART’S OBOE QUARTET K. 370
integrity (i.e. grace note treatment). Especially important are the rhythms dotted-eighth, sixteenth, eighth in 3/8 or 6/8 time, and the anapest figure below.
Finally, when it appears the main note itself is an appoggiatura to another note, the grace note realization for the small note is probably safe. Outside of such specific cases, Neumann has some general advice to help determine the use of short or long appoggiatura (1986, pp. 62-69). “Whenever an appoggiatura would obscure rather than embellish the underlying melody, we should substitute a grace-note, since a melody has a right to its basic integrity … The greater the disparity between the value of the symbol and that of the principle note, the more the scales are weighted toward grace-note intention … Generally we find many more instances in which a Vorschlag is rendered shorter than its denomination than the opposite.” Other theorists have a few guidelines also. Donington (1963, p. 148) quotes Wolf in his Unterricht of 1787 “[Short appoggiaturas appear only before short notes, when] the main note itself loses almost nothing at all.” Dolmetsch lists two situations which require a short appoggiatura (1946, p. 104). “An appoggiatura to a note of the shortest value used in the piece or passage where it occurs must be played very short … An appoggiatura to a note forming a discord with the bass, augmented fourth, diminished fifth, seventh, second, etc. must be played very short or else the discord will be changed into a concord, and the harmony spoiled.” Beyschlag (1953, p. 204) claims that there is no short appoggiatura in Mozart as he feels they did not come into use until after his death. The other argument regarding the short appoggiatura is whether it should occur on the beat or as a pre-beat figure, and whether the stress should occur on the main note or the grace note. As stated earlier, Neumann prefers the pre-beat realization because it is described as light and the principal note accented. He feels that the figure can be light and on the beat in slow tempos, but that it becomes impractical in faster tempos (1986, pp. 8-9). He also notes that the theorist Milchmeyer in 1798 favors the
pre-beat as he illustrates the performance of a grace note preceding three eighth notes as being realized before the beat (1986, pp. 11-12). Dannreuther (1895, pp. 63-64) notes that Leopold Mozart emphasized that “short appoggiatura indicated by small semiquavers are to be played as quickly as possible.” Later Dannreuther states that the stress is on the main note. This does not give us a definite indication of pre-beat or on-the-beat placement, however. Donington (1963, p. 194) is a hard-core advocate of on-the-beat playing for all ornaments: “We have no such excuse for taking these ornaments before the beat, or for beginning them before the beat, since all the authorities appear to assume that they fall on the beat, and a number of them, including J. A. Hiller (Anweisung zum Violinspielen, 1792), J.H. Knecht (Methodenbuch, early 19th cent.), and I. Pleyel (Méthode de pfte., early 19th cent.) actually state the fact.” Hamilton (1930, p. 23) can also be counted among the on-the-beat advocates: “It is important to observe that throughout the classic period the short, as well as the long appoggiatura, takes its time from that of the main note, which is slightly shortened in consequence.” Cole (1990, p. 173) tends toward Neumann’s interpretation of the figure but asks an open question: “In his eagerness to combat the rigidity of the on-beat advocates, has Neumann tilted the balance too far in favor of pre-beat execution?”
One special case in the Vorschlag ornamentation is the cadential formula with the Vorschlag before the fifth of the dominant. Neumann is the only one to really discuss this as a separate case and he feels either long or short treatment will do (1986, p.76). “For this formula the NMA [Neue Mozart Ausgabe] often suggests the grace note, often the appoggiatura, and the former, it would seem, more frequently. Both will be generally possible and it will be well to alternate their use.” The slide is a series of two or three notes in succession that lead up or down to the main note. Here again the problem lies in the prebeat, on-the-beat debate. Hamilton (1930), p. 59), in his definition of a slide indicates his onbeat preference: “In the slide (German “Schliefer”), two quick notes lead up, or (less frequently) lead down the main note, from
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which their time is taken [emphasis mine].” Dolmetsch (1946, p. 243) admits to some discrepancies but prefers the on-beat: “In all the examples of slides we have seen so far the ornament is played in the time of the principal note. This rule, however, was not followed by everybody. There always were some who played the graces before the notes to which they belong, in opposition to the practice of the great masters.” Neumann (1986, pp. 97-98) admits to the popularity of the on-beat slide but again advises the use of a little lee-way. “With the advent of the gallant style and the spread of the on beat principle for ornaments, German treatises usually transcribed the symbol in the Lombard style … Mozart uses the Lombard type, always written in regular notes, fairly often. The written-out form of the Lombard slide is never replaced in analogous spots by symbols, and this along
suggests a difference in meaning. Yet there are some cases where a Lombard interpretation of the symbol makes good sense.” Neumann names one specific exception to the Lombard rhythm: “A staccato mark over the principal note invites the anapest lest the sharpness of articulation be blunted.” With the trill the argument rages over whether it should begin with the main note or the upper auxiliary note. Only two of the sources for this paper take the hard-line position that it must always begin with the upper tone. One is Dannreuther (1895, p. 63), who takes his position from Leopold Mozart, whom he says emphasizes that “All shakes, even the shortest transient shakes, start with the upper-accessory.” The other is Dolmetsch (1946, p. 180) who finds his evidence in John Quantz’s “Versuch” of 1752. “Every shake begins with an appoggiatura which is before its note and is taken from above or below.” Dolmetsch (p. 158) himself states that “the shake is closely allied to the appoggiatura from above. It can be used in the same places, the latter often serving as a preparation to it.” Some writers merely state the ambiguity of the situation but give no help to the performer in determining which to use. “The trill could be short or long, begin on the upper or lower notes, and carry an additional ornamental turn either at its beginning or at its end.” (Rather 1980, p. 197). Beyschlag (1953, p. 204) says that if Mozart followed the maxim of his father, the trill begins
on the auxiliary note, but that Wolfgang was not always so fussy with it. Donington will admit that “as early as Daniel Gottlieb Türk (Klavierschule 1789) we find a hint that exception to the uppernote start occurred, though he does not show any such exception in his examples.” He will even go so far as to observe: “The trill was not again, in short, what it had previously been in the sixteenth century: a primarily melodic ornament. As such, it should perhaps more logically have a main-note start [emphasis mine]; but this is not a pressing necessity, as the upper-note start is for a harmonic trill.” Donington hastily assures us though, that the upper-note start is standard until the second quarter of the nineteenth century, especially for the works of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert (1963, pp. 191-192). “Mozart’s trill, following long-standing Italian tradition, is essentially a main-note trill. This is true to the point where one can say that the first [choice] for Mozart’s trill should be the start with the main note.”: so says Neumann (1989, p. 185). He is, of course, always flexible: “There are, however, contexts that favor the start with the upper auxiliary … I suggest leaving out the trill and asking yourself if a short appoggiatura or a grace note could be profitably added to the unadorned note. If so, then the trill could be sensibly rendered accordingly.” Neumann does give more specific examples of when a main-note trill is preferable, but we will come to those shortly. Hamilton is perhaps the performer’s best guide other than Neumann, for the specific instances that call for a main-note or uppernote trill (1940, pp. 48-49). During Bach’s time and up to about 1800, trills began regularly on the auxiliary note … Important exceptions to this rule, however, occur (a) when the trill begins a composition or section of it abruptly; (b) when it follows a staccato note or rest; (c) when the main note is a prominent note of the melody, such as one which occurs after a downward leap; (d) when the main note is preceded by the note immediately below or above.” If the trill is preceded by an appoggiatura, or by the note above slurred to the main note, the trill begins as though the preceding note were tied to it.
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Neumann agrees with Hamilton as to when the trills should begin on the main note, but he also adds a few other circumstances (1986, pp. 117124). Where a triadic formula or a pitch repetition is clearly thematic, the trill needs to start on the main note to maintain that thematic integrity. A scalewise melody is to be treated in the same fashion. Neumann feels that short trills that are part of a distinct melodic line need to start on the main note. This contrasts with Donington (1963, p. 193) who says that short trills or half trills start on the upper note. Neumann also notes that trill chains and trills on the leading-tone also belong on the list of main-note trills; the latter in order to bring out the tension in the pull toward resolution. He concludes this all with a bit of evidence to support his main-note preference: “There seems to be no instance of a scale leading up to the written pitch of any trill, evidence that would have suggested an upper-note start … When Mozart intended a supported appoggiatura trill (i.e. one starting with a lengthened upper note) he usually indicated his wish.” (p. 114). Nearly everyone agrees that most trills should add on the two-note suffix whenever it is easily accommodated. This suffix may or may not be written out. “A suffix written out in regular notes for the soloist need not be rendered with mechanical precision: being an ornament it may be, and often should be, done faster, as if it had been written in little notes. When the suffix is not marked it should still be added when circumstances favor it.” (Neumann 1986, p. 113). The half-trill, or short trill, according to Donington (1963, p. 193), should be unterminated. Dolmetsch (1969, p. 188) also adds that descending passages, short notes, several trills following one another, and trills that end in several short notes that serve as a termination don’t need the two-note suffix. “For ornaments, and especially for turns, there are always a number of possible solutions, and one needs to select the one that seems to be the most satisfying in a given context.” (Neumann 1989, p. 165) The turn offers the greatest freedom in interpretation. The theorists say little on the subject, or confine themselves to general guidelines, hesitating to dictate a concrete example. For instance, Dolmetsch (1969, p. 237) is content to mention the advise of Türk only as: “The quick turn begins with the principal note. It must be played as indicated (a), not as at (b).
The principal note must not be played twice in succession.” Hamilton (1930, pp. 39-43) observes that after the time of Bach, the upper of the turn is diatonic while the lower could be a half-step. Generally, the turn should be played rapidly, stoping on the last note, except in rapid tempo when the notes should all be of equal value.
When the sign is written over a note that is preceded by a rest or a staccato note, the turn begins on the main note, not the upper.
The sign written between two notes indicates an embedded turn, which is usually played with a stop on the first note, and the turn is played quickly before the next note.
Hamilton feels that the turn best begins on an inconspicuous part of the beat after a long note. And finally, he advises that: “If the first of the two notes be dotted, and followed by a note of value equal to the dot, but of different pitch, the turn should end on the dot.”
Neumann (1986, pp. 136-159) in his general guidelines mentions that Mozart often uses four little notes instead of the turn symbol. He cautions that this can be misleading “by obscuring the fact that only the first three notes are ornamental, whereas the fourth is the tail end of the principal note … as such it is often, notably after dotted notes, held longer than the first three …” He agrees with Hamilton that the first note of the embedded turn should be a sustained if possible. Also similar to Hamilton is Neumann’s assertion
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that for a binary note, the turn should go right into the following pitch whereas a dotted note will have the last pitch of the turn ending on the dot (see illustration numbers 14 and 15). As to the speed of the turn, Neumann advises: “For Mozart I would venture the suggestion that when in doubt, choose a fast rendition over a slower one … ” Neumann disagrees with Hamilton on the turn placed over a note following a rest. He feels that it is fitting for the turn to begin on the auxiliary note, although it is not to be automatically applied.
Finally, he mentions the placement of stress: “A turn that occurs in the middle of a beat can hardly every have a claim to appoggiatura function; hence it will never be accented and will generally incline to anticipation.” One may wonder at this point about the mordent, a common devise of the period and the one preceding. Mozart, however, simply did not use the mordent symbol (Neumann 1988, p. 100). Now let us apply the information gathered above to a specific work of Mozart. I chose the Oboe Quartet K. 370 (368b) written in 1781. The examples I looked at were for Oboe Solos, published by Amsco Music and copywriter 1958. The first ornamentaL figures belong to the rhythmic figuration eighth-two sixteenths.
The Neue Mozart Ausgabe (NMA) indicates in parenthesis which appoggiatura they believe should receive grace-note treatment. This is one area that they so indicate. This agrees with Neumann’s decision that this rhythmic figure should always receive grace-note realization and with the theorists (Donington and Dolmetsch) who advise grace notes for Vorschläge to short notes. As for those theorists who believe only long appoggiaturas can be used in Mozart, I honestly don’t know how it could be done. The next ornaments we must deal with are
trills. There is a quarter-note trill in measure 19 which, according to the rules of Hamilton and Neumann, can be a main-note trill because the note preceding it is an upper note leading into it.
The figure would probably be realized as in illustration 10. Also, a finishing turn would be very appropriate here. The trills in measures 21 and 23 offer a more difficult problem. As I don’t believe the repeated pitches are clearly thematic, I think the trills could be played either upper-auxiliary or main-note, depending on the facility of the performer. Personally, I prefer the upper-auxiliary for more flare.
Measures 25 and 26 contain the scale formula in the rhythmic pattern of an approggiatura proceeding and eighth and two sixteenths, with all its possible realizations. As many theorists prefer equalization, and even Neumann admits it probably applies to most cases in Mozart, I think this traditions approach could confidently be used. However, I feel that the character of this movement supports the possibility of grace-note interpretation as preferred by Quantz in illustration 6. We come at last to turn figurations in measures 31 and 32. As they follow a dotted note, we can safely use the formula given in illustration 15. Those feeling a little bolder may wish to experiment with a less rigidly rhythmical realization as Neumann suggests, keeping in mind the need for a lengthened initial and final note.
The trill in measure 55 can be either main-note or upper-note. It is not a strong cadential trill and therefore does not require an upper note. Also, it could be considered a leading-tone trill which is
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favorable to the main-note interpretation. It is for these reasons that I favor the main-note trill here; but by following the suggestion of removing the trill and playing an appoggiatura, we find that it is not out of place. The finishing turn is written out and although it doesn’t have to be in time (according to Neumann), it seems to fit so nicely.
The sequence of trills in measures 62-63 would most likely be main-note trills as they are a chain of trills, move upward in a scale-like fashion, and begin after a rest. Those that favor the upper-note start could argue for the resulting even number of notes in the figure, but I think the figure passes too quickly for that to be a significant determining factor.
The next figure in measures 84 and 87 is mentioned specifically by Neumann (1986, p. 53) as being grace notes because they rise a half-step and are written as sixteenth notes. (The dash across the stem makes it a sixteenth.)
The NMA, however does not indicate that this figure should receive short appoggiatura treatment. I lean more toward the grace note as I think treating the Vorschlag long and giving it the “half-a-binary” rule would place too much emphasis on the G sharp. Perhaps better would be to treat it as a long appoggiatura but follow Neumann’s suggestion of varying the length of the appoggiatura, giving it,
say, more or less the value of an eighth or sixteenth-note. The trill of measure 85 and 88 needs an appoggiature as it is very definitely a cadential trill. There is a case for a main note trill as it is preceded by the lower note and could be considered a leading-tone trill (leading to a false cadence). I feel the length of it, and the underlying harmonies in the strings make the upper-note trill a better choice. Here again, the termination is written in, but in small notes.
The trills in measure 112 I believe to be best rendered as main-note because they are in a chain and part of a descending scale passage. Now, I think it is most commonly done as uppernote trills, and is probably not wrong to do so. In either case, these short trills do not require a termination.
In the second movement, the first ornamental symbol we encounter in measure 11 is the cadential formula type discussed by Neumann. Although the NMA often recommends grace-note realization, here it recommends the long appoggiatura treatment. I agree, as the grace note would interrupt the slow melodious line. I usually play this as in illustration 26.
The rhythmic figure eighth and two sixteenths preceded by an appoggiatura is encountered again in measure 20. Here I favor equalization to preserve the smooth character
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of the melody and because a pattern of sixteenths has already been established. The same rhythmic figure occurs once again in measure 27. 56, and 58 would be grace notes as the figure is one in which Neumann recommends preserving the rhythmic integrity. The NMA also recommends grace-note treatment here. Measure 27 also finds a trill that can easily be played as a main-note trill. It is preceded by the note immediately below it. On the other hand, it is probably not entirely incorrect to start it with an appoggiatura, either. Once again the sensibilities of the performer will have to come into play. A cadenza is called for in the 31st measure. It is signaled by the fermata over a leading. As this paper hasn’t covered the topic of cadenzas, I will hold myself to the general principles that a cadenza should not be too long, and that it should be in the style and technical level of the rest of the movement. The third movement introduces the use of the slide in the opening measure and again in measures 17 and 25. These slides are mentioned specifically by Neumann (1986, p. 101). He feels they need to occur before the beat as the principal note is staccato. The aim is to preserve the sharpness of articulation.
We come again to the equalization verses grace note debate in measure 96 and 100. The grace-note interpretation may well be used here as there is no established pattern and the character of the movement would accommodate it. However, we may wish to keep in mind the use of equalization as this is the first chance we get to establish the meter change to alle breve. This need becomes all the more important when we consider that the piano is continuing in 6/8 time.
The turn in measure 30 follows a quarter note and so could receive the binary treatment. That is, the first note will be held, and the turn will lead straight into the next note. Again, the length of the held note, and thus the speed of the turn, can vary.
The subsequent trills in measures 97 and 101 can be main-note trills as they are preceded by the note immediately above. Once again the interpretation would probably be as in illustration 10. The chain of turns in measure 98 present a special problem. In spite of the fact that all the turns begin after a dotted note, the rapid tempo disallows any chance of prolonging the first note except in the first case, or of ending the turn on the dot. In this case we must follow the advice of Hamilton and give the notes equal value.
The turn at measure 45 is discussed by Neumann (1986, p. 159). He gives two possible solutions (illustration 30). I had been using the first one, but now I prefer the second realization. It seems cleaner. Similar turns can be realized the same way at measures 52 and 57. I believe the Vorschläge in measures 52, 54,
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The trill in measure 111, I feel, needs the appoggiatura as it definitely has a cadential feel. The two-note suffix can and should be applied here. As the next note is below the trilled note, the effect will be of a mordent rather than a turn.
musical logic, judgment, and common sense, is bound to be at best limiting, at worst misleading and disturbing.” ❖
Likewise, the trill at 150 is also cadential and should receive the same treatment. This trill also resolves downward and here the suffix is written out. The Vorschläge of measure 162 are recommended to be played long by the NMA and, of course, those theorists who traditionally call for the long appoggiatura over the short. I think such an interpretation goes against the character of the movement, and agree with Neumann. He refers to this spot (1986, p. 51), saying that two or more repeated notes, each preceded by a Vorschlag rising by a half-step should receive grace-note treatment.
While the trill in the measure following could start with the main note because of the preceding note being next to it, it would not be amiss to use the upper auxiliary to help emphasize its role as a cadence. The remaining Vorschläge to the end of the piece should best be played as grace notes to keep in the style of the rest of the movement. Also, this is again that rhythmic figure specifically mentioned by Neumann as preferring the grace note (as in illustration 31). In this case, the NMA agrees, and recommends the use of short appoggiaturas. I must close this paper with the admonition, echoed by nearly all the theorist here discussed, that the best method to decide how to execute the embellishments is for the performer to play them and to experiment with different solutions to see which best suits the individual temperament and taste. Neumann (1989, p. 159) perhaps says it best: “Any discussion of desirable performance that relies solely on theoretically grounded arguments, and fails to engage the ‘subjective’ elements of
Beyschlag, Adolf. Die Ornamentik der Musik. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel. 1953. pp. 195-204. Cole, Malcom. Rev. of Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart, by Frederick Neumann (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press 1986). Performance Practice Review. 3 Fall 1990: 170-174. Dannreuther, Edward. Musical Ornamentation (Part II). London: Novello and Company. 1895. pp. 63-95. Dolmetsch, Arnold. The Interpretation of the Music of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1946 (reprinted in 1969). Donington, Robert. The Interpretation of Early Music. London: Faber and Faber. 1963 pp. 88-219. Hamilton, Clarence. Ornaments in Classical and Modern Music. Boston: Oliver Ditson Company. 1930 (reprinted in 1976). Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1986. __ “Interpretation Problems of Ornament Symbols and Two Recent Case Histories: Hans Klotz on Bach, Faye Ferguson on Mozart. Performance Practice Review. 1 (1988): 71-106. __ “Some Problems of Mozart Ornamentation: A Response to Robert Levin” and “Ornamentation in the Bassoon Music of Vivaldi and Mozart.” New Essays on Performance Practice. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1989. pp. 155-168 and 175194. Pohanka, Jarolsav. Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke. Serie VIII, Werkgruppe 20, Abteilung 2. Kassel: Bärenreiter. 1962. Ratner, Leonard. Classical Music. New York: Shirmer Books. 1980. pp. 196-203. Warner, Thomas Everett. Indications of Performance Practice in Woodwind Instruction Books of the 17th and 18th Centuries. Diss. New York U. 1964 New York, 1965.
About the Author … The author earned a Master of Music degree from the University of Illinois in 1992 and a B.S. in music education from Dickinson State University in Dickinson, ND in 1990. She is currently teaching K-12 vocal and instrumental music in Zeeland, ND, while working on a M.S. in music education degree during the summers at the University of Illinois. This paper won the Mu Phi Epsilon Musicological Research Competition in the area of graduate papers (non-thesis) in 1992.
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If Mozart Had Been a Bassoonist: Suggestions for a First-Movement Cadenza to K. 191 By James A. Grymes Tallahassee, Florida ozart’s Bassoon Concerto in B-flat Major K. 191 (186e) is one of the most frequently performed works in the bassoon repertoire. With the recent trend towards historically informed performance, there have been several studies applying current knowledge of the performance practices of Mozart’s time to K. 191.1 Surprisingly, very little has been written on how to devise stylistically appropriate cadenzas for the concerto. Although the first and second movements of K. 191 each require a cadenza, this article will deal only with the formulation of a first-movement cadenza. Cadenzas are extended passages of virtuosic figurations based on motives from their respective movements. While cadenzas are generally thought of as having been improvised, it was apparently not uncommon for a soloist to prepare some or all of a cadenza prior to performance. Eighteenth-century composers would indicate where a cadenza was to be provided by notating a fermata over a tonic six-four chord (see Examples 1a and 1b). Cadenzas should not
be confused with Eingänge (lead-ins), which are much shorter passages comprised mainly of scales and arpeggios unrelated to the motives of the movement. The location of an Eingang was designated by a fermata over a dominant chord. Eingänge are required in the first and third movements of K. 191 (see Examples 2a and 2b).
The first movement of K. 191 is based on the eighteenth-century “concerto sonata” form, which involves an establishment of the tonic key, a departure from that key, and an eventual return to it. The structural function of the cadenza was to create harmonic tension near the end of the “recapitulation,” which was the part of the movement dedicated only to the re-establishment of the principal key. Composers would set up cadenzas by generating tension, often through a dominant pedal point, and then stopping the harmonic motion over a second-inversion tonic chord. At that point, the soloist would furnish a cadenza centered around the tonic six-four and dominant seventh chords. This continued
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emphasis on the dominant created even more harmonic tension, heightening the anticipation of the cadenza’s tonic resolution. Although appropriate cadenzas are necessary for any historically informed performance of K. 191, few musicians know how to prepare their own. Modern performers often resort to playing one of the popular cadenzas written by well-known bassoonists. These standard cadenzas eliminate the element of spontaneity that made cadenzas popular; eighteenth-century audiences expected to be dazzled by an original display of virtuosity. The modern cadenzas are also frequently inconsistent with Mozart’s style. The goal of this article is to explore the type of cadenza that Mozart himself would have prepared for the first movement of K. 191, had he been a bassoonist. The most appropriate models for designing a cadenza in Mozart’s style are, of course, the cadenzas that he wrote. In keeping with common practice, Mozart included in his scores just the introductions and conclusions of cadenzas to facilitate coordination between the soloist and the orchestra. The main body of the cadenza was to be provided by the soloist as a means of individual expression. Since Mozart would not have devised a cadenza to a concerto that he himself would not play, there are no cadenzas to any of his wind concerti, serenades, divertimenti, or other music for winds.2 The only solo concerti for which Mozart wrote cadenzas were those for his own instrument of choice, the piano. It seems odd that Mozart, whose improvisational skills are legendary, would have taken the time to write out cadenzas. After all, Mozart himself stated that when performing cadenzas, “I always play whatever comes to me at the moment.”3 This suggests that Mozart’s surviving cadenzas may have been composed for inept students and friends who could not improvise, making them poor examples of his true style. This generalization is refuted by the cadenzas for K. 271 and K. 488, which Mozart notated directly into the score from which he read during his own performances. The scarcity of copies to Mozart’s cadenzas outside his inner family circle further proves that he had written many of them for his own exclusive use. Other cadenzas were apparently intended for his sister Nannerl,4 who was an accomplished performer in her own right and was surely capable of improvising her own cadenzas. Regardless of these examples, Mozart’s extant cadenzas are undeniably the result of a deliberate compositional process and clearly represent the type of cadenza that the composer himself performed.
Mozart wrote cadenzas for over two-thirds of his piano concerti, often writing more than one per concerto. When attempting to compose a cadenza similar in style to one Mozart would have written, it would be an “act of self-deprivation” not to examine these cadenzas.5 Various studies have shown that he was extremely consistent in form, length, harmony, and in his use of motives, especially in first-movement cadenzas. These commonalties allow for speculation regarding what type of cadenza Mozart-the-hypothetical-bassoonist would have written for the first movement of K. 191. Using Mozart’s piano cadenzas as the only models would not be sufficient for devising a stylistically correct cadenza for the first movement of his bassoon concerto. Since there are many aspects of writing for the piano that simply do not apply to wind instruments, one must also examine the wind cadenzas that are extant from Mozart’s lifetime. David Lasocki, who examined two hundred such cadenzas,6 found several common features that can be applied to a first-movement cadenza for K. 191. Eighteenth-century cadenzas, including all of Mozart’s, begin on a note in the tonic triad over the orchestra’s six-four chord. This introductory note was generally written into the score by the composer. At the location of the first-movement cadenza in any scholarly edition of K. 191, the solo part includes a b-flat over the tonic six-four chord as well as another b-flat preceding it (see Example 1a). These two notes are unfortunately not often performed by modern bassoonists. Throughout the concerto, Mozart notated the bass line in the bassoon part for the tutti sections; it was customary during the eighteenth century for a soloist to also play as a member of the orchestra during these passages.7 Although most modern performers prefer to rest throughout the tutti sections, there is no justification for leaving out the two notes in measures 159 and 160. The b-flats in the bassoon part do not double the bass and therefore clearly belong to the solo part. Introducing the cadenza with an extended fermata helps catch and hold the audience’s attention. In Saggio per ben il flautotraverso (1779), Antonio Lorenzi suggested that the soloist slightly increase and then decrease the volume of the sustained note.8 This stemmed from the popular eighteenth-century ornament messa di voce, which was used on most expressive long notes. After the fermata, Mozart often notated a brief rest before re-entering with the cadenza. Other times, he connected the fermata to the cadenza through an Eingang-like transition. Milan Turkovic accom-
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plishes this by employing thematic material from the orchestral ritornelli in the introduction to his Universal Edition cadenza (see Example 3).9
Edition cadenza (see Example 5) presents the principal motive from K. 191’s first movement
(see Example 6) in a stylistically correct manner by briefly employing the motive in an ornamentThe majority of an eighteenth-century cadenza is made up of material borrowed from the movement. Theorists from Mozart’s time were very specific about the types of motives that could be used as well as how one could use them. In Klavierschule (1789), Daniel Gottlob Türk warned against the incorporation of “all sorts of ideas that do not have the least relationship to what has gone before in the composition. The result is that the good impression left on the listener by the composition has for the most part been cadenzaed out of him.”10 Mozart’s cadenzas quote only short fragments of no more than three motives. After all, the composer had thoroughly developed all of the thematic material in the movement proper. Most of Mozart’s cadenzas begin by quoting the principal theme of the movement, but not in its original harmony. He often destabilized the motive by replacing the root position triad that had initially appeared under the motive with a six-four harmony. If Mozart had presented the principal motive in its original tonic key, the dominant function of the cadenza would have been lost; if he had transposed the motive to the dominant, it would have undermined the fundamental relationship between the principal theme and the tonic key. This destabilization also heightens the musical tension, which is resolved only in the dominant-totonic progression at the very end of the cadenza. In the first-movement cadenza to the Piano Concerto in G major K. 453, Mozart borrowed the introductory material from the piano’s first solo entrance (see Example 4a). He destabilized the
harmony by replacing the original root-position tonic harmony with a second inversion tonic chord (see Example 4b). Turkovic’s Universal
ed form before promptly stressing the fifth scale degree, implying a six-four harmony. Other modern cadenzas tend to suggest a six-four harmony only through several repetitions of the bassoon’s first entrance. Türk mandated that, “No thought should be often repeated in the same key or another, no matter how beautiful it may be.”11 Motivic openings in Mozart’s cadenzas usually lead into passage-work. This proceeds directly into the middle section of the cadenza, often pausing on a dominant seventh chord before making the transition.12 The middle sections of Mozart’s cadenzas frequently employ a sequential development of the second motive from the movement. This allows the motive’s expressive effect to be transformed from an expository one, as heard in the movement proper, to a speculative one.13 To create a Fortspinnung (continuous development) effect, the motive is interrupted before it can round itself off with a cadence. Very few modern cadenzas for the first movement of K. 191 employ the second subject from the movement (see Example 7).
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IF MOZART HAD BEEN A BASSOONIST
The final sections of Mozart’s cadenzas are not as predictable as the other sections. This is because he was much freer in the construction of the concluding bars of a cadenza.14 These measures most often include a number of virtuosic runs and arpeggios that lead to the cadential trill of the cadenza. Authorities from the eighteenth century agree that a cadenza should conclude with a long trill on the second scale degree. This trill, like the introduction to the cadenza, was usually notated by the composer. Mozart’s piano cadenzas all employ a trill in the right hand over a dominant seventh chord in the left. Since wind players could obviously not simultaneously perform both functions, they played just the trill on the supertonic. Halfway through the trill, the full orchestra would enter on a dominant seventh chord.15 This was apparently so common that it was rarely notated in the score. Unfortunately, this practice has been forgotten; the chord is omitted in modern editions and is consequently not performed by the accompaniment. The final trill of any cadenza is ornamented with a two-note close (see Example 8). The note following the bar line represents the final note of the cadenza and the first note of the last orchestral ritornello.
Mozart also demonstrated remarkable consistency when it came to the length of his cadenzas. This uniformity is a result of both the limits of the dominant function and the structural level to which the cadenza belonged; a lengthy cadenza would alter the formal proportions of the movement. Mozart treated the cadenza as an important structural event, but by no means a dominating one that might be comparable to an “exposition” or a “recapitulation.”16 Baroque treatises dictate that cadenzas should only be as long as one breath. This rule does not apply to cadenzas from the late eighteenth century. In 1791, Johann Georg Tromlitz advised that contemporary performers could take a few breaths, but only if they carefully arranged the melody and figures in such a way that the continuity of the cadenza and the impetus to the final trill would not be disrupted.17 Performers of Mozart’s time were very conscientious about limiting their cadenzas to the length of only a few breaths; most woodwind cadenzas were only two to four lines long. This brevity is probably due not as much to the soloist’s need to
breathe as to a wind player’s inability to sustain interest without harmonic support. The lengths of Mozart’s cadenzas are directly proportional to the overall lengths of their corresponding movements. Ellwood Derr has found that Mozart cadenzas tend to be roughly half as long as the “development” sections of the movements for which they were written.18 The “development” section of K. 191’s first movement is twenty-seven bars long (measures 71 through 97), which would suggest a cadenza length of only thirteen or fourteen measures. While recording K. 191 on a period instrument, Milan Turkovic instinctively noted, “The extended cadenzas customary today . . . seemed out of place.”19 The cadenzas Turkovic used are similar to his Autograph Edition of cadenzas for K. 191.20 The first-movement cadenza, which is just seventeen measures long, is among the shortest of modern cadenzas for the bassoon concerto. Another problem with most twentieth-century cadenzas is their use of complicated harmonies. The cadenza’s location at the end of the movement imposes significant restrictions upon its harmonic design. In keeping with the form on which the first movement of K. 191 is based, there cannot be any harmonic excursions in the “recapitulation” section, including the cadenza, that undermine the tonality of the movement. Furthermore, harmonies that obscure the dominant function of the cadenza would weaken its final cadence. Mozart’s own cadenzas do not include any substantial modulations from the main key of the movement. They generally consist of a simple progression from the tonic six-four chord to a dominant seventh, which is resolved on the final note. This was also a structure common for woodwind cadenzas. In the few instances in which Mozart did briefly diverge from the principal key, the deviations were limited to the harmonic and modulatory intricacies of the particular movement. This is consistent with eighteenthcentury common practice. Türk advised that when performing cadenzas: In no case should one modulate to a key which the composer himself has not used in the composition. It seems to me that this rule is founded on the principle of unity, which, as is well known, must be followed in all works of the fine arts.21
An analysis of the first movement of K. 191 shows that Mozart used very simple harmonies throughout the first movement; the most complicated harmonies are secondary dominant and diminished-seventh chords. Any cadenza for this movement should not include any harmonies that are more complex.
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Of course, there is no such thing as the “ultimate cadenza.” Mozart himself demonstrated this by sometimes writing more than one set of cadenzas for a given concerto. With careful arrangement, however, one may be able to design a first-movement cadenza for K. 191 similar to one the composer might have written, if Mozart had indeed been a bassoonist.
ENDNOTES 1 See Frederick Neumann, “Ornamentation in Bassoon Music” in New Essays in Performance Practice (Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMl Research Press, 1989) and Milan Turkovic, Analytische Überlegungen zum klassischen Bläser-Konzert am Beispiel von Mozarts Fagott-Konzert KV 191 (München: Emil Katzbichler, 1981).
2 In addition to raising numerous questions on the authenticity of the Sinfonia Concertante for oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, and orchestra in E-flat major, K. 297b (Anh. C 14.01), Robert Levin has found that its cadenza was not written by Mozart. See Robert D. Levin, Who Wrote the Mozart Four-Wind Concertante? (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1988) xvii.
3 W.A. Mozart to L. Mozart, 22 January 1783, in Emily Anderson, ed., The Letters of Mozart and His Family, 3d ed. (London: Macmillan Press, 1985) 837. 4 See W.A. Mozart to L. Mozart, 22 January and 15 February 1783, Ibid., 837 and 840.
5 Brian K. Kershner, “A Study of the Classical Cadenza and a Manual for Writing Cadenzas for Classical Wind Concertos” (D.M. treatise, The Florida State University, 1986) 92. 6 See David Ronald Graham Lasocki, “The Eighteenthcentury Woodwind Cadenza” (M.A. thesis, The University of Iowa, 1972).
“Daniel Gottlob T ü r k Klavierschule, trans. Raymond H. Haggh (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982) 298. Emphasis in the original. 11Ibid., 300. 12 Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Mozart on the Keyboard, trans. Leo Black (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1962), 217. I3 Robert D. Levin, “Improvisation and Embellishment in Mozart Piano Cadenzas,” Musical Newsletter 5:2 (Winter 1975): 12. I4 Badura-Skodas, 225. I5 Betty Bang Mather, “The 6/4-Chord Cadenza for Classical Concerto Movements,” Flutist Quarterly 13:l (Winter 1988): 35. 16Joseph P. Swain, “Form and Function of the Classical Cadenza, Journal of Musicology 6:1 (Winter 1988) 4344. 17Johann George Tromlitz, “Unterricht die flöte zu spielen,” trans. Linda Bishop Hartig (Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 1982) 444. 18Quoted in Mary Robbins, “Reinterpreted Elements in Mozart’s Cadenzas for His Piano Cadenzas,” MozartJahrbuch 1991: 187. I9 Liner Notes to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Concerto in B-flat major for Bassoon and Orchestra, K. 191, Concentus Musicus Wien, Nikolaus Harnoncourt, conductor (Teldec 9031-77603-2) 1987. 20Milan Turkovic, Autograph Edition of Cadenzas for Mozart Concerto in Bb, K. 191 for Bassoon, as recorded on Telefunken 6.4236lAW (Spokane, WA: Jones Double Reed Products, 1980). 21 Turk, 300.
7 See Terry B. Ewell’s advice on “Playing Those ‘Missing’ Notes in Baroque and Classical Concerti” that appeared in the Vol. 20 No. 1, 1997 Double Reed. 8 Quoted in David Lasocki and Betty Bang Mather, The Classical Woodwind Cadenza (NewYork McGinnis and Marx, 1978) 16. 9 Milan Turkovic, “Kadenzen” to W.A. Mozart, Konzert für Fagott und Orchester KV 191, ed. Milan Turkovic and William Waterhouse (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1987).
About the Author. . . James A. Grymes is currently working towards Masters degrees in Historical Musicology and Bassoon Performance at Florida State University, where he studies with Jeff Keesecker.
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DOUBLE REED PLAYERS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, 1936
Double Reed Players of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1936 Sketches by Gerome Brush [Reproduced from a book of sketches of all the members of the orchestra]
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DOUBLE REED PLAYERS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, 1936
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL
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DOUBLE REED PLAYERS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, 1936
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DOUBLE REED PLAYERS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, 1936
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DOUBLE REED PLAYERS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, 1936
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A Comparative Examination of the Notation of Selected Orchestral Bassoon Solos By Mark Avery Macomb, Illinois
usic notation is an integral element of Western art music. Classically trained musicians respond to every dot of ink composers apply to their compositions. Correct notes, articulations, slurs, dynamics, beginning and ending of crescendos and diminuendos, tempo and stylistic terms, etc. in the music are important aspects of music publishing and ultimately musical interpretation by the recreative performer. By careful attention to detail of many elements of notation, however, many errors can be found in the music we perform. Preparation of orchestral literature for auditions or performance involves interpretation of the printed page. Three of the main sources of orchestral preparation include orchestral excerpt books, the orchestral part, and the orchestral score. Traditionally, most bassoonists’ first encounter with many of the standard orchestral solos is with an excerpt book. With this article, I have examined and compared the notation of select bassoon orchestral solos using Fernando Righini’s bassoon orchestral excerpt book (Il Fagotto in Orchestra. Florence: Edizione a cura dell’Autore, 1971) with a standard edition of the orchestral bassoon part and the orchestral score. The excerpts I chose are based on surveys done by Susan Nigro (“Bassoon Audition Excerpts,” To the World’s Bassoonists, Volume V, No. 3, 1975-76) and Richard Ramey (“A Survey of Bassoon Audition Repertoire of Major North American Orchestras,” NACWPI Journal, Fall 1984), and works included on David McGill’s CD (Orchestral Excerpts for Bassoon. Summit Records DCD 162, 1994). The excerpts appear in the order of their popularity, based on how often they were mentioned in Susan Nigro’s survey of North American and European orchestral bassoonists on the subject of bassoon audition excerpts. I have included what I consider to be the major solos from these works. In my preparation of this article I needed to make a decision regarding which edition to use to compare with Righini’s excerpt book. To remain consistent I used the part and score from the same edition. I possess parts and scores from various editions for many of the examined excerpts. Different editions of the same composition are not the same in all notational aspects. For example, some crescendos are notated in slightly different places, accents and staccatos are left off or added,
and some slur groupings are notated differently. Upon examining the part and score from the same edition, I also discovered many of the same notational inconsistencies. I corresponded with Sandy Pearson, the assistant librarian with the Boston Symphony, regarding the editions I chose to include. She commented, “in general the parts available from Kalmus are reprints of editions in use by major orchestras. In many instances, even though the critical editions (e.g., Mozart) have come more to the foreground as being better, there are many conductors who prefer the older editions.” Another concern arose when I located newer Kalmus scores. Kalmus’ new editions of Tchaikovsky’s Fourth Symphony, Fifth Symphony, and Sixth Symphony contain corrections to the inconsistencies between the score and the part that I discovered in their earlier editions. There is also a problem of interpretation regarding “errors” in notation of which we’re all supposed to be aware. For example, the end of The Rite of Spring second solo, 4 measures after number 12, the score, part, and Righini all slur down to an F from the Af in the previous measure; however, many bassoonists and conductors believe that this is a publishing error and that the Af should tie into the 4th measure rather than slur to the F (refer to David McGill’s CD). And of course there is still the question of “is it a Dn or a Df 4 measures after number 6 in Stravinsky’s Berceuse from the Firebird?” Righini’s Il Fagotto in Orchestra is a tremendous contribution to the profession. It includes a large collection of the tutti and solo passages for the bassoon from the standard orchestral repertoire. Righini has provided edition references with some of the works in his book, but most edition references are not included. As I compared the score and parts of the published editions I chose with Righini’s book, there were numerous notational inconsistencies. Whether the notational differences are due to Righini’s choice of editions, Righini included an editorialized interpretation (if this is the case, it is not mentioned in the preface or anywhere else in the publication), or publishing errors, these notational differences need to be addressed, especially to bassoonists who use the excerpt book to learn the major solos and tutti passages in the repertoire.
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A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
The presentation that follows is not an answer to the questions of notational problems in these selected bassoon solos. My intention is not to voice my opinions of how to interpret these solos, but to reproduce what notation is used in each of these three sources, thus helping point out the inconsistencies that must be addressed in a final interpretation. Performance solutions will involve studying the part and score, looking at other editions, looking at the critical editions and accompanying critical commentary, studying similar solos in others parts of the work that precede or follow, listening to recordings, studying excerpts with professional bassoonists, discussions with conductors, etc.
Using Finale, a music software program, I stacked the three versions (Part, Score, Righini) on top of each other for easy visual examination. Following each excerpt I have highlighted some of the differences that are apparent between each version. Some excerpts contain more notational differences than other excerpts, and some have more significant differences. Publishers rely on proof-readers before releasing their editions. I wish to thank Linda Fess for helping me proof the music I put into Finale. Hopefully, we have represented the editions accurately.
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4 Movement IV Allegro ma non troppo
h = 80
˚j m. 184 Solo œ B b b 24 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj ‰ œj ‰ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œn œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? œ ‰ J Part p p dolce p Allegro ma non troppo ( h = 80) ˚˚ j œ b œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ ? œ‰ j j œ œ œ œ œ œ B b 24 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ ‰ ‰ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ Score p p dolce p Allegro ma non troppo h = 80 ˚˚ .. Solo j Solo œ . . . . . . . . b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ j j B b 24 œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ.n œ. œ. œ. œ œ œ. œ. œ. b œ. œ. œ. j ‰ œ œ œ œ. . . œ. Righini p dolce p Solo œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ m. 350 m. 300 U œœœœœ œ ? bb Œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj ‰ Œ œ Part π ƒ ƒ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ ˙ U œ œ œ œ œœ œœœœœ œœ ? bb Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj ‰ Œ Score π ƒ ƒ Solo . . . œ. . . . œ. . . œ. œ ? œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ. œ Bb ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ Righini π ƒ ƒ stacc. m. 15
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 4. New York: Kalmus, n.d. Measures 15-17: Righini slurs all 3 measures and indicates this passage as Solo Measure 184 and 300: The Score does not indicate Solo Measures 184-187, 300-302, 350-353: Righini indicates staccato Measure 186: Righini indicates a slur from the grace note to the principal note Measure 187: Righini does not indicate a piano dynamic
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring Introduction Lento
J = 50 tempo rubato
Lent0 1/4= SO
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A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
q = 50
Tempo I 12
B 24 Part
œ bœ bœ œ
b œ b œ b œ œ œ œ b œ b œj œ b œ
B 24 Score
q = 50 bœ œ
b œ b œ b œ œ œ œ b œ b œj œ b œ
œ b œ œ bU˙ bœ
2 œJ ‰ Œ 4
1. Tempo Solo
24 œJ ‰ Œ
œ b œ b œ œ bU˙
b œ b œ b œ œ œ œ b œ b œj œ b œ
œ b œ œ bU˙ bœ
2 œJ 4
Stravinsky, Igor. The Rite of Spring. New York: Kalmus, n.d. 1)
3 measures before 1 to 2 measures after 1 : Righini does not indicate the higher level phrase marking in the first 2 measures and indicates different slur groupings
3 measures after 1 : Righini does not indicate 2 eighth note rests on beat 2 which changes the rhythmical grouping of the high C to a duple eighth note
3 measures after 1 to 5 measures after
: Righini indicates the slur differently
4) 2 measures after 3 : Righini indicates forte, the Part and Score indicate poco più forte 12 : The beginning and ending of the Part’s slurs in the first two measures are poorly notated 5)
12 : Righini’s ending of the first slur is poorly notated and the second slur is different than the Part and Score
Table of Contents 33
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 4 Movement II Andantino in modo di canzona . b B b b b b 24 Solo‰ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ. œ œ œ n œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Part π m. 274
. B b b b b b 2 Solo‰ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ. œ 4 œ œ nœ nœ Score π Andantino in modo di canzone . B b b b b b 1.24 Solo‰ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ n œ Righini π . œ >œ œ œ b b œ œ œ b œ œ. œ. B b b b nœ œ œ nœ nœ œ nœ nœ œ œ Andantino in modo di canzona
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ. œ. œ
. . > > . B b b b b b n œ œ n œ n œ n œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ. œ œ Score
. . > > . B b b b b b n œ œ n œ n œ n œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ Righini
espress. m. 300
Solo B bbbbb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ ? ‰ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ nœ œ J Part π morendo
Solo œ œ ˙ ˙ B bbbbb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ ? ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ J Score π morendo
1. Solo B bbbbb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ ? ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ˙ J π Righini
Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyitch. Symphony No. 4. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, n.d. 1)
Measure 277: Righini does not indicate a dot over the 1st C
Measure 283: The Part does not indicate a dot over the 2nd F
Measure 287: Righini slurs all 4 notes
Measures 289-290: Righini slurs into the Bf
Measures 301-304: Righini indicates the morendo earlier than the Part and Score
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A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
Tempo di Bolero moderato assai Solo
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ
œ œ >œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ >œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ >œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
Tempo di Bolero moderato assai q = 72 1˚ Solo
B3 4 Score
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ
Mod. assai q = 76 Solo
B3 4 Righini
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ-
¯ ¯ b œ¯ ¯œ b œ b œ œ B œ ‰ J J
œ¯ ¯œ ¯œ b ¯œ œ¯ ¯œ œ> œ b œ >œ œ œ b œ œ b œ b œ > œœ œ œ J 3
¯ ¯œ b œ b œ œ¯ b œ B œ ‰ J J
œ¯ ¯œ ¯œ b œ- œ- œ- œ> œ b œ >œ œ œ b œ œ b œ b œ > œœ œ œ J 3
b œ¯ ¯œ b œ b œ œ¯ B œ ‰ J J
œ¯ ¯œ ¯œ b œ- œ- œ- œ> œ b œ >œ œ œ b œ œ b œ b œ > œœ œ œ J 3
B ˙ Part
B ˙ Score
B ˙ Righini
¯ œ ‰ n œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ ¯œ œ œ¯ œ œ œ œ œ ,b œ> œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ J J 3
¯ œ ‰ n œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ ¯œ œ œ¯ œ œ œ œ œ ,b œ> œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ J J 3
¯ œ ‰ n œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ ¯œ œ œ¯ œ œ œ œ œ ,b œ> œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ J J 3
Ravel, Maurice. Bolero. Park Durand & Cie, 1929.
The Part does not indicate a metronome marking. The Score indicates1/4 = 72 and Righini 1/4 = 76
Measures 41-42: Righini indicates a lower level set of articulations, mostly in the form of slurs
Measure 42: Righini has indicated a tenuto for the 1st Bb 4) Measure 44: The Part has indicated a • for the Db Measure 46: The Part indicates the triplet notes on 5) beat 1 with • articulations 6) Measure 47: Righini indicates a lower level set of articulations, mostly in the form of slurs, and extended the higher level slur to the E
Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro Overture Presto
Table of Contents 36
A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
? # # œ. œ. œ. œ Part . ? # # œ. œ. œ. œ. Score ? # # œ. œ. œ. œ Righini .
œœœœœŒ œœ p œŒÓ œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ p œœœœœŒ œœ œ. π œŒÓ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ # œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ # œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ # œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? ## nœ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ œ #œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Part f #œ ˙ ? ## nœ œ œ œ œ Œ œ #œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Score f ? # # n œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ #œ nœ
Righini 1˚ Solo ˙ B ## Ó Œ œ nœ #œ p Part œ nœ #œ ˙ ? ## Ó Œ p Score Solo œ nœ #œ ˙ B ##
# œ n œ œ. b œ. œ. . œ. œ œ . . . nœ . œ. # œ œ b œ œ. œ. œ. œ. œ œ n œ. . œ. . b œ. # œ n œ œ b œ œ. . œ. œ œ œ b œ œ. ? . œ œ n œ. . œ. . b œ. œ bœ œ œ n œ. . œ. . b œ. œ bœ
œ. Œ Ó œ Œ Ó œ
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Marriage of Figaro Overture. New York: Kalmus, n.d. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
Righini has printed this excerpt in cut time Measure 101 and 214: Righini has not indicated a dynamic Measures 101-102: The Part does not slur to the D Measures 107: Righini indicates a staccato Measure 156: Righini indicates pianissimo Measures 157, 159, 161-163: Righini has indicated different slur groupings Measures 214-215: The Part does not slur to the G Measure 218: Righini slurs all 4 notes Measure 220: The Part indicates a staccato
Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade Movement II Andantino dolce espressivo
Andantino J = 112
Capriccioso quasi recitando
Solo ad lib.
Andantino j = 112 capriccioso, quasi recitando
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A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
Recit. Moderato assai
lento Solo 3
?4 Ó Œ 4 Part f
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œaccel.
>œ œ3 œ œ œ
Recit. Moderato assai
U œ œ >˙
>œ œ3 œœœ
>œ œ3 œ œ œ
cresc. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
I. Solo lento 3
? 44 Ó Œ Score f
recitando lento Solo
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ3 œ ˙
?Ó Œ Part f lento
stringendo e cresc.
>œ œ3 œœœ
poco rit. acceler.
cresc. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 œ ˙ lento œ ?Ó Œ p Score f U lento œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? Œ Righini p stringendo e cresc.
?Ó Œ Part f lento
?Ó Œ Score f
œ œ3 œ œ œ
>œ œ3 œœœ a tempo
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ poco rit.
24 # œJ ‰ Œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . #œ
M œ œ œ œ œ œ œaccel. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . #œ Tempo
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
accel. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
#œ 24 J ‰ Œ Tempo
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. #œ
stringendo e cresc.
rit. molto e dim.
# œ. 24 J ‰ Œ Tempo
Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai. Scheherazade. New
The part does not indicate a metronome marking. The Score indicatesJ = 112 and Righini 1/4 = 112 Righini has indicated many slurs terminating with a dot release throughout this solo (e.g., the first 3 measures) Measure 5 and 16: The Part indicates a crescendo Measure 11: The crescendo begins and ends differently in all 3 versions and the articulation is different on beats 2 and 3 in each version Measure 12-14 Righini has indicated different articulations and slur groupings Measures 17-18: Righini has indicated different articulations and slur groupings Measure 20: Righini does not indicate an accent on the high A Measure 21: Righini does not indicate adiminuendo and the rit. ass& begins earlier Measure 22: Righini does not indicate anA tempo
Recit. Moderato assai
Righini does not indicate that each cadenza begins forte Righini indicates a longerdiminuendo than the Part and Score to the piano dynamic at the beginning of each cadenza - Righini does not indicate apiano dynamic after the diminuendo at the beginning of the 3rd cadenza Righini does not indicate that the 1st two notes (D and E) of each cadenza are part of a triplet figure Righini’s beginning and ending slur after the fermata F is different than the Part and Score in each cadenza Righini ends each cadenza with a diminuendo to a piano dynamic The Score indicates an accent on the fermata F in the 1st cadenza, and does not indicate an accent on the F in the 2nd cadenza in theTempo measure Each version notates the accelerando .and crescendo in slightly different places The Score does not indicate an accelerado in the 1st cadenza (the Score does however indicate in the violin part senza ritard. ed acceler. and ad libitum colla parte) Righini does not indicate atenuto on the last D just before theTempo in the 3rd cadenza
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 5 Movement II Moderato con anima
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A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
b œ b œ œ- b œ- b œ œ œ Solo B # # b œ. n œJ bœ œ Part f bœ B # # b œ. n œJ b œ œ b œ- b œ b œ œ œ œ Score f n œ b œ b œ œ- b œ- b œ b œ œ œ œ B #1.# Solo b œ. J Righini f E
œ9 œ œ œ œ b ˙ b >œ œ b œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ9œ œ n œ œ ƒ œ9 œ œ œ œ b ˙ b >œ œ b œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ9œ œ n œ œ
> nœ bœ œ bœ bœ ˙ > nœ bœ œ bœ bœ ˙
ƒ œ9 œ œ œ œ b ˙ b >œ œ b œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ b >œ œ b œ b œ n œ ˙ ƒ
Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyitch. Symphony No. 5. New York: Kalmus, n.d. 1)
4 measures before D : The hairpin crescendo/diminuendo begins and peaks in different places in each version. An earlier published Kalmus Part slurred only the B to the A in this measure.
3 measures before D : The Part indicates a dotted quarter note E at the beginning of the measure
1-2 measures before D : The Score slurs to the h C#, the Part does not. An earlier published Kalmus edition reversed this situation — the Part slurred to the h C#, the Score did not.
E : The hairpin crescendo/diminuendo begins and peaks in different places in each version 3 measures after Part or Score
E : An earlier published Kalmus edition did not indicate a fortissimo in either the
Stravinsky: Firebird Suite Berceuse 1
q = 60
Solo œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ B b b b b b b 44 ˙ Part p
q = 60
Solo œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ B b b b b b b 44 ˙ Score p
q = 60
Solo œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ B b b b b b b 44 ˙ Righini p
œ œ b3œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ b œ b œ ˙
3 3 œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ bœ ˙
3 3 œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ bœ bœ ˙
Stravinsky Igor. Firebird Suite (l919). New York Kalmus, n.d. 1)
l?l : Righini indicates a repeat of the first 4 measures ofEl in his book. I added the piano dynamic and did not include come sopra. m l.Ll.The Part indicates (as above) and the Score come sopra. Come sopra means as above.
&nd m.. The Part indicates a Db as the fast J in these measures. The newer Kalmus edition (1985) has changed this Db to an EL.
Izl: Righini indicates a piano dynamic. The newer Kalmus edition indicates in the Score a piano dynamic, but not in the Part.
5) 1 measure after Bl : The Part and Score indicate a 1/4 = D natural on beat 2. The new Kalmus edition indicates beat 2 as Dh-Bb eighth notes in both the Part and Score llike like the Righini.
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A COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE NOTATION OF SELECTED ORCHESTRAL BASSOON SOLOS
3-4 measures after 6 : Righini indicates a slur over both measures
4 measures after 6 : Righini indicates a Dn. The new Kalmus edition indicates Dn in both the Part and Score.
1-2 measures after 7 : The Part does not indicate a slur, and Righini breaks the 2 measure slur. The new Kalmus edition Part and Score indicate a 2 measure slur.
4 measures after 7 : The Part does not indicate a slur. The new Kalmus edition Part does indicate the measure slur.
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 Movement I Adagio
? # # c Ó Œ Solo œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ # ˙. Part π p P
j œ ‰ Œ Ó p
j œ ‰ Œ Ó p
Adagio (q = 54)
? # # c Ó Œ Solo œ # ˙. œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ Score p π P Adagio q = 54
? # # c Ó 1.Œ Solo œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ # ˙. Righini p π P ? ## Ó Œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ Part π p P ? ## Ó Œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ Score p π P ? ## Ó Œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ Righini p π F
w S œ-
j œ ‰ Œ Ó
j‰ Œ Ó œ p j‰ Œ Ó œ p j‰ Œ Ó œ p
Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyitch. Symphony No. 6. New York: Kalmus, n.d. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
The hairpin crescendos and diminuendos are placed slightly different throughout all 3 versions The Part does not indicate a metronome marking Measure 5-6: Righini does not indicate a diminuendo to a piano dynamic Measure 9: The Score indicates a diminuendo at the end of the measure instead of a crescendo Measure 9: Righini does not indicate a crescendo after the h G, and indicates a mezzo forte where the Part and Score indicate mezzo piano
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Oboists and Electronics: Embracing a New Era By Aaron Cohen Montreal, Quebec
he purpose of this article is to explore the ideas and work of those oboists who have embraced a new era - those who have incorporated electronics into their repertoire. The oboists who have utilized the new technology have each taken it in a different direction. This is a most unusual situation to find in the oboe world where tradition is so highly valued. Instead, these players have welcomed the chance to undertake pioneering work. This article describes a series of individuals who have made a contribution to the field, be it large or small. The information presented here is based primarily on personal interviews conducted during the summer of 1995. An appendix of technical terms is included at the end of the text. Starting in the 1960s, each successive decade has witnessed more oboists utilizing electronics.
1960s Heinz Holliger Switzerland
One of the greatest oboists of our century and the first to experiment with electronics, Heinz Holliger introduced electronics into his early compositions, notably Siebengesang (1966-7) for oboe, voices, orchestra and electronics and Cardiophonie (1971) for wind instrument and three tape recorders. Siebengesang requires a microphone placed inside the oboe. The sound is passed through a band pass filter, sound regulators (bass and treble controls), and a reverberation chamber. Cardiophonie includes amplified heartbeats of the performer as he or she is performing.
1970s Joseph Celli Black Rock, Connecticut
“Electronics for me have been two kinds of steps. One has been the use of live electronics in performance, but secondly in terms of electronics informing me of what actually goes into producing sound. I began to understand, through algorithms, the filtering aspects of overtone systems. When we play a pitch, the pitch can be played with various timbral aspects by changing our relation to the reed. Therefore the actual composition of a tone, the overtone appearances of the tone, change depending on how we play it.” Joseph Celli is one of the most important figures in the modern oboe world because of his unique way of playing the instrument and his keen interest in improvisation. Mr. Celli has been incorporating electronic elements into his oboe playing for almost thirty years. He also plays many other instruments from around the world. Mr. Celli began using live electronics in the early seventies while presenting the American premieres of Stockhausen’s Solo and, later, Spiral using “home-made electronics” to perform these pieces. His early electronics consisted of tape loops, a home-made wah-wah pedal, volume control pedals, and Moog and Arp synthesizers. In the late seventies he worked with composer David Behrman who processed his oboe sound live using computers in performance.
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In the eighties, Mr. Celli worked with composer Jerry Hunt which led to a 1984 performance of Phalba at the New Music America Festival. This performance is believed to be the first live satellite piece in the United States. Mr. Celli played into a microphone in Washington, D.C., the sound being transmitted to Austin, Texas where it was processed live and then sent back to Washington and mixed with his live, real-time performance. In the nineties, Mr. Celli has begun to play the Yamaha WX7 MIDI wind controller which is the only single reed instrument he plays. “Most instruments are functioning within restricted systems of organization. Each culture has different ways of organizing sound. Usually sound is not organized to the potential of what instruments can actually do, but into the constriction of how sound fits into the system of organization. This instrument allows me to be cross-systems and cross-cultural.” Mr. Celli and his son program all the sounds on a Yamaha TX802 algorithmic synthesizer. The sounds they program will vary with the volume of air used, lip pressure, and tongue. Mr. Celli has released several recordings of his electronic performances on his own label, O.O. Discs; these include Organic Oboe, No World Improvisations, and No World (Trio) Improvisations. More information about his work can be found at the web site: http://www.hear.com/o.o./
John Corina Athens, Georgia
John Corina is both an oboist and a composer. In 1977, he wrote Partita for Electronic Oboe which he revised in 1982. This has been Dr. Corina’s only experience utilizing electronics with the oboe. A Barcus-Berry transducer is attached to the reed and the signal is sent to an ARP 2600 Synthesizer, a pitch follower and an envelope follower. The follower controls the voltages sent to the synthesizer where the sound sources of the oboe and the synthesizer are processed by the various modules of the synthesizer: the ring modulator, the voltage controlled filter/resonator, the voltage controlled amplifier, and the three voltage controlled oscillators. Each movement of the Partita has a different synthesizer patch and requires an operator at the synthesizer to make the changes. “I had some technical difficulties relating to volume in a performance at an IDRS convention (Towson State University, 1982) that I don’t think anyone will ever forget. When they invited me to play the next year they said I could play anything I wanted as long as I didn’t play that electronic piece again! (laughter) It has had several good performances though. My recommendation to anyone doing anything to amplify the oboe is to always make sure that someone is in the audience monitoring and controlling the volume.”
1980s Libby Van Cleve New Haven, Connecticut
“In order to ensure music stays alive and keeps generating new audiences, it’s important that all of us use the tools that are at hand. I don’t think the electronic oboe is going to radically change oboe playing for generations to come, but I do think if we want to keep the oboe around, it’s a good idea to keep expanding.” Libby Van Cleve has been incorporating electronics into her oboe playing for 15 years. After exploring electronics during her Bachelor’s degree, she continued to experiment during her Master’s and Doctoral studies. “All my friends were composers! Many of them were into electronic music, so they wrote electronic pieces for me. Often they wanted to learn a new program and would write a piece to get into it. Frequently they chose me to be the guinea pig! (laughter) After the piece was written, I would work with the composer to get it working. It always took a bit of tinkering before it could be played.” Ms. Van Cleve is currently working on a book about contemporary oboe technique for University of California Press. Ms. Van Cleve plays in her husband’s group “Chez Vees” in which she performs on the oboe with live electronics and has also gone on solo tours where she plays entire concerts of electronic works written for her. “The audience response
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is fantastic! Of course, some people like the “gizmo” side of it. My students in particular get very excited about it.” Ms. Van Cleve prefers a standard air microphone coupled with a DBX Noisegate to eliminate feedback. Her two main pieces of equipment are a ZOOM Box (a pedal controlled multi-effects box) and a Lexicon Jam Man Digital Delay unit. In specific pieces she interfaces with a Macintosh computer using a Roland VP70 Pitchrider. Ms. Van Cleve is featured on two CDs playing works for oboe and tape, Byzantium by Christos Hatzis (Centrediscs) and Xantippes Rebuke by Mary Jane Leach (Ariel). The following works have been written for and/or commissioned by Ms. Van Cleve: Ingram Marshall - Dark Waters for english horn, tape, and digital delay (1995) Scott Lindroth - Terca Rima for oboe with live electronics and computer (1995) Mary Jane Leach - Xantippe’s Rebuke for oboe and tape (1994) Jack Vees - Tatooed Barbie for oboe with live electronics and electric bass (1993) Eleanor Hovda - Coastings for oboe with live electronics and electric bass (1992) Jonathan Berger - Philately for oboe and live electronics (1990) Skip Brunner - Teaching No Talking for oboe and live electronics (1990) David Jaffe - Impossible Animals for oboe and tape (oboe version, 1990) Todd Winkler - Three Oboes for oboe and live electronics (1989) Jack Vees - Apocrypha for oboe and tape (1986)
Jan Wiese Oslo, Norway
“For the electronic oboe there will be a lot of development. Oboe players are curious, but they would rather hear traditional oboe music. Up until now, it has been an exclusive group.” Like Ms. Van Cleve, Jan Wiese has been experimenting with the oboe and electronics for 15 years. He plays mainly his own pieces, many of which have not been committed to paper because they are partially improvisitory in nature. Mr. Wiese captures his sound using a Barcus-Berry transducer but has been working with sound technicians in Norway to develop his own system for amplifying the oboe. Presently he is patenting it and hopes it will soon be commercially available. “It could be bought by any oboist because it will be cheap, good quality, and eliminates key noise and feedback.” Mr. Wiese attaches his oboe to a Pitchrider and triggers his two fifteen-year-old synthesizers, a Korg MS20 and a Roland SPV355. He also uses a Yamaha TX81Z synthesizer, a Yamaha TX7 synthesizer, and a Yamaha Midi Control Station. He is quick to praise the Yamaha WX7 Midi Wind Controller which he plays frequently. “It’s a beautiful instrument. I used to think that this was an instrument for the fast passages but it’s the opposite. It is an instrument for long, beautiful phrasing with a lot of color. It’s an advantage to be an oboe player when playing this instrument because it requires a tremendous amount of precision, something the oboe can’t be played without!” In the past Mr. Wiese has played with ballet and jazz groups, creating all the music himself. Recently Norwegian composer Terje Winter wrote four interactive pieces for him utilizing the Macintosh computer and the MAX program. In 1991, Mr. Wiese released a CD of electronic oboe music entitled “Stunt” on his label, Oslo Impresario. The disc features his own works for oboe, live electronics, and tape He hopes to record another CD featuring his piece for electronic oboe and wind band, his piece for electronic oboe and string quartet, and more solo electronic oboe pieces.
Matt Sullivan New York City, New York
“Many people are intrigued by the electronic oboe and audiences love it. People who are adventurous or have an open mind would really be excited by it. Generally, this option is not taught, but I teach my students at
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Princeton and they include electronic pieces on their programs. It’s going to be an important part of the future whether I promote it or anyone does. I wouldn’t say that electronic oboe is a driving force in keeping the oboe current, but I feel that in terms of the oboe being a participant in recent developments that it is important for the oboe to be in this realm. I see it as a perfectly natural development. Instruments are used to express the meaning in their time.” Matt Sullivan has been incorporating electronics with the oboe for 15 years performing mainly his own works which, like Jan Wiese, include improvisational elements. Mr. Sullivan’s pieces are best described as original. A recent piece titled Ma Bell Canto is based on samples taken from phone sounds and phone conversations. These are blended with samples of his oboe playing. For this work, Mr. Sullivan uses a Yamaha WX7 Wind Controller and a Roland 550 Sampler. “This setup enables me to “play” poems, words, and even jokes!” Apparently this piece is a real crowd pleaser. His other compositions include Oh Boy! (1990) for solo electronic oboe, Sonic Bloom (1994) for solo electronic oboe, and Mesa (1995) for native American flute and English horn. “The technology is so varied that to standardize what you might get is the hard part for the composer. The music that I play is a result of the equipment I use and not vice-versa. I have learned to incorporate the ‘defects’ or specific sonic qualities that come with some equipment to my advantage and incorporate it appropriately”. Mr. Sullivan prefers a Shure 57 air microphone to capture his sound and is experimenting with microphones on his body to help eliminate excess key noises. He uses four Boss Digital Delay guitar pedals (to hold pitches and rhythmic patterns), a Yamaha REX 50 (for pitch shifting and cleaner echo than Boss pedals), and a ZOOM box (for timbral effects). By connecting them all together, Mr. Sullivan maximizes his sonic options. Mr. Sullivan also performs with the electro-acoustic trio, “First Avenue” that has released two CDs, “Two Suns” (Newport Classics) and “Hocus Opus” (O.O. Discs). Of considerable interest are the “Portraits” performed by First Avenue. In these pieces, Mr. Sullivan uses a contact microphone on the reed to drive interactive video. The video, or story, changes as different members of the group perform. First Avenue has been doing “Portraits” for three years and audience response has been most enthusiastic.
Lawrence Cherney Toronto, Ontario
“Electronics are important to the future of music. It’s harder to know just where it fits in with the oboe. Some instruments lend themselves easier to the medium. I think incorporating the oboe into electronics has to be done very carefully because the instrument has such special characteristics. For instance, the quality of sound is what makes it such a marvelous instrument to start with. However, manipulation of sound by computer or digital means is here to stay and I think we will want to be a part of it. The fact that we can extend the possibilities for the instrument is good. Ultimately, it all has to be at the service of a good musical imagination, the composer.” Lawrence Cherney is the world’s leading authority and commissioner of oboe and tape pieces. To date, 35 pieces have been written for him by composers such as Alvarez, Arcuri, Hambreus, Harvey, Keane, Lake, Piché, Rimmer, Smalley, and Truax. “If you are going to tour as much as I do, you realize very quickly you can only play what you can conveniently carry. If I can’t carry it with me, I can’t do it.” With this in mind, Cherney carries DAT cassettes with him and a portable DAT player. Although he has played whole programs of tape music, he prefers to spice up an otherwise ordinary concert with an electronic piece. “The response to an electronic piece can be phenomenal if it is the right piece at the right place in the program. What’s really amazing is if you have six or eight speakers around the hall. The audience really has a sense of being inside the music.” “Many people feel ‘locked in’ with tape pieces because the tape part never changes. Whenever I hear that, I think about what Robert Bloom used to say about the metronome. He said that a lot of people misunderstood what a metronome did. A metronome actually taught you freedom, not bondage and in a way playing with tape is like that. If you know the tape part really well, you can be creative within certain parameters and there is still room for an artist.” Mr. Cherney has put out a complete CD of oboe and tape music entitled “Tongues of Angels” (Centrediscs). The pieces are all Canadian works written for Cherney and the disc has received extremely positive reviews in the United States and Japan. Mr. Cherney is also featured as a soloist with tape on seven other CD’s where he plays one of several works on the disc.
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1990s Antoine Lazennec Paris, France
“Due to the advances in technology, we can now play music that we could not before. Rock, jazz, and world music are now open to us. I would like to see more oboists play these kinds of music. In rock band situations, the audience goes wild for the oboe sound! “ Antoine Lazennec is a major innovator in searching for ways to capture the oboe sound and amplify it. With the help of Phillipe Rigoutat, Mr. Lazennec has developed and patented a system of amplification utilizing extra posts on the oboe to hold two small Isomax microphones. Having used this system for four years, Mr. Lazennec continues to improve it as well as test it on new audiences. He has given demonstrations in Minneapolis, Marseille, New York, Paris and Reims, sometimes playing as an amplified soloist with an orchestra. In the past, Mr. Lazennec has used wireless systems that have allowed him extensive freedom of movement during a performance. He recommends a Rexer or Shure wireless system. “When I was on tour with a rock group several summers ago, I would play a game with the sound engineer. When it was time to check the sound level of the oboe, I hid in a different place. It wouldn’t matter where I was, because of the wireless system whatever I played would come out the speakers. Sometimes I was backstage, another time I was behind the sound engineer! One concert we played in front of a school building, and I played from a window about four stories up!” Mr. Lazennnec has had several pieces written for his amplified oboe by composers A. G. Ochoa, Benoit Palliard, and Mannu Pikar, and has been performing with French rock groups “Mad Machine” and “I Muvrini.”
Lazennec/Rigoutat oboe amplification system.
Harry Sargous Ann Arbor, Michigan
“The oboe is being refined, but it’s basically the same instrument that people played at the turn of the last century. If we’re going to interest composers and interest people to study traditional instruments then we need all the possibilities that electronics give us. I think it’s very important that people get to know the equipment and somehow plug into it. I’m not recommending that they go the route that I’ve gone because it’s been a lot of work and it took me eighteen months to get the equipment to do what I wanted. You don’t want to let the equipment take over, you still have to do your job as a musician.” Harry Sargous has made electronics an integral part of his oboe career. He hopes to aid oboists interested in the field of electronics to get started by developing a convenient and affordable electronic oboe setup. He recently completed an internship at IRCAM in Paris where he worked towards this goal. Mr. Sargous has built up a large collection of equipment over the past four years, with support in part by grants from the University of Michigan. He plays a Rigoutat oboe that is amplified by microphones based on the Lazennec/Rigoutat system modified by Tim Clark. The acoustic oboe sound is captured using two Audiotechnica ATM 35s. MIDI note messages are captured using a Barcus-Berry transducer which is sent to an IVL Pitchrider 4000 Mark 2. The MIDI notes are sent to one or several of three synthesizers, a Yamaha VL1, a Roland JD990, or an EMU Morpheus. A Yamaha Promix 01 (a
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MIDI controllable mixing board) balances the whole setup. All this equipment fits into one rack and thus makes travel more convenient. Using a Pitchrider results in a small delay and Mr. Sargous has found the most efficient way to minimize the delay is by equalizing the oboe sound before sending it to the Pitchrider. He also programs a 12-15 millisecond delay on the amplified acoustic oboe sound so that the acoustic and processed sound line up sonically. Mr. Sargous plays a variety of repertoire utilizing electronics. He performs arrangements of traditional repertoire on the electronic oboe (Britten Metamorphosises and the Telemann Fantasies) and commissions new works by such composers as Bart Plot and Steven Rush. Outside of classical music, Mr. Sargous performs occasionally with jazz ensembles and other improvisatory groups using his electronic setup.
Aaron Cohen Montreal, Quebec
My interest in the electronic oboe began in 1991 when I played the oboe through some of my friend’s guitar pedals. This gave birth to a short-lived band called “Oboecop”. Over the next three years I performed with electronics on several occasions, the climax being a complete electronic oboe recital in 1994. I have never owned any electronic gear and have always borrowed equipment from the institution where I was studying (University of Michigan, McGill University). Live electronic performances require constant access to equipment to practic with. For this reason, I have temporarily postponed electronic work until I can purchase my own equipment. Here is a list of works that I have written or have been written for me: Aaron Cohen and Jason Vantomme - Commemoration and Reflection on the Holocaust for electronic oboe, computer, and still images (1994) Pierre Simard - Messier 31 for electronic oboe and string quintet (1994) Jason D. Vantomme - Concertino for electronic oboe and simulated ensemble (1993/4) Armando J. Bayolo - Concertino Electronico for electronic oboe and string quintet (1993) Aaron Cohen - Le Tombeau de Ravel for Oboe and Digital Delay (1993) Armando J. Bayolo - Electroboephobia for solo electronic oboe (1992) Aaron Cohen - Splash for solo electronic oboe (1992)
Sally Faulconer Norman, Oklahoma
“What I find exciting is that through this equipment, I can study everything. I can sequence traditional repertoire, pop tunes, and now I’m working on orchestral excerpts. One of the most important things is that it allows my students to get into a contextual situation right away. They learn music faster. My feeling is that any musicians willing to embrace this technology are not going to be put out of business. I think the musicians that are going to be put out of business are the ones that refuse to accept that the technology is here.” Sally Faulconer uses the oboe coupled with a computer as a learning tool. She uses MIDI equipment to perform and study standard literature by programming the accompaniment using Mark of the Unicorn’s Performer. “Some sequences just play along as you play with them, others use tap tempo which means that someone taps the speed in predetermined beat notes on the synthesizer as you play. In the future I believe this is how music will be taught. Some of my colleagues are skeptical, but so far, reactions to my workshops have been extremely positive.” Ms. Faulconer created the “Contemporary Oboe Press” to inform others of her sequenced library which consists of several oboe standards such as the Hindemith Sonata, the Saint-Saëns Sonata, the Bach Double Concerto, and the Mozart Quartet.
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL
Coda’s Vivace Intelligent Personal Accompanist is worth mentioning because it allows oboists to incorporate electronics. It is a system in which the player is tracked via a clip on microphone and the accompaniment follows. Vivace currently offers over 30 complete oboe accompaniments including Hindemith, Marcello, Mozart, Poulenc, Schumann, Saint-Saëns, and Vaughan-Williams. Unfortunately you are limited to their accompaniments and cannot create your own. For more information on the Vivace system, write to Coda Music Technology, 6210 Bury Drive, Eden Prairie, MN, 55346-1718 or call 1-800-843-2066.
Kathy Geisler Berkeley, California
“I’m trying to attract and draw listeners in who may not otherwise come in contact with this music.” Kathy Geisler has recorded a CD of baroque oboe concertos accompanied by a “virtual orchestra” consisting of many synthesizers performing the orchestral parts. Unlike Sally Faulconer or the Coda Vivace system, her “virtual orchestra” does not follow her and she must play along with it, much like a tape. In preparing the “virtual orchestra”, the scores were loaded into the Finale program. Elements of musical interpretation (velocity, start time, envelope, and duration) were added using a program called “MIDI Sculpt”. Finally Ms. Geisler re-opened the scores in the Vision program where she added tempos and selected instrument sounds. Closing Remarks I would like to thank everyone I interviewed for this article. If you have had experience with the oboe and electronics, please write to me at the following address and I’ll interview you for the next installment. Aaron Cohen • c/o Champion Records • P. O. Box 1170 • Station H, Montreal • Quebec • H3G 2N1 • Canada Definitions All definitions were taken from The Electronic Musician’s Dictionary by Craig Anderton (Amsco Publications, 1988), A Dictionary of Electronic and Computer Music and Technology by Richard Dobson (Oxford University Press, 1992), or were invented by myself and Laurie Radford. air microphone - a device that captures an audio signal via the medium of air. algorithm - A procedure a computer uses to solve a particular problem. bandpass filter - A circuit that passes a particular range of frequencies while rejecting frequencies higher and lower than the selected range. contact microphone - a device that captures an audio signal via physical contact with the sound source. DAT - Digital Audio Tape. digital - A type of technology that considers any signal to be composed of a finite number of voltages, each of which can be represented by a number. digital delay - A device that converts an analog signal into digital data, delays the signal by a generally selectable amount, then converts the delayed digital data back into an analog signal. effects processor - a device that modifies some aspect of sound. equalization - For audio signals, the process of altering the distribution of energy in various frequency bands. feedback - the penetrating whistle that occasionally occurs when a microphone is being used for live amplification and is caused by the microphone picking up the signal from the loudspeaker. Finale program - a notation program. live electronics - electronic devices that can be used in a live concert or performance situation. Max program - a graphical MIDI processing program. microphone - a device used to capture sound (can also be called a transducer). MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface; a standardized language and hardware/software serial protocol for transfer of musically-related data between computers and/or musical instruments containing computers or similar data-processing circuitry. MIDI Control Station - the central station that controls the flow of all MIDI data to all MIDI instruments connected. MIDI controllable mixing board - A mixing unit that is controlled by MIDI data. MIDI note messages - MIDI data that conveys information about a particular note (pitch, duration, velocity). MIDI wind controller - an electronic instrument that converts wind signals from a performer into MIDI data. multi-effects box - an effects unit that contains numerous effects which can be selected by the performer. Noisegate - An audio processing device with one audio input and one audio output that senses whether the input signal is above or below a user-settable threshold and subsequently passes or suppresses the output. Performer program - a sequencer program. pitch and envelope follower - a device that maps the contours of pitch and envelope of an audio signal onto a user defined MIDI parameter. pitch shifting - shifting the frequency of an input signal to produce a different pitch. Pitchrider - a device that identifies the pitch of an audio signal (also called a voltage to MIDI converter). reverberation chamber - a chamber that gives the effect caused by sound waves decaying in an acoustic space. ring modulator - A signal processor with two inputs and one output. The output provides the sum and difference of the frequencies of the signals appearing at the two inputs, while suppressing the original input signal. sample - a sound that has been digitized and recorded into computer memory. sampler - a device that digitally records sounds, usually with the intention of triggering these sounds during playback via a musical controller of some sort. sequence - a musical phrase or composition stored in a sequencer. sequencer - A device that records the parameters of a performance but not the actual sounds. On playback, the sequencer feeds this information into an instrument capable of translating the stored data into a replica of the original performance. sound processor - any electronic device which performs some controlled function on an input audio signal. sound regulator - a high or low shelving filter. synthesizer - a musical instrument that generates various timbres via electronic means, which are then amplified through a power amplifier and played through a loudspeaker to create sound. synthesizer patch - a set of conditions that create a specific sound on a synthesizer. tape loops - that portion of a sampled signal that repeats indefinitely. transducer - a device that transforms one form of energy to another. Vision program - a sequencer program. voltage control - The process whereby the parameters of one electrical circuit are controlled by a control voltage feeding that device. voltage controlled amplifier - An electronic circuit that varies the output gain of an input audio signal in response to the voltage applied to its control voltage input. voltage controlled filter - An electronic circuit that varies a filter parameter in response to the voltage applied to its control voltage input. voltage controlled oscillator - A circuit that generates one or more audio/low frequency wave forms, the frequency of which varies in response to the voltage applied to its control voltage input. volume control pedal - a foot pedal that controls volume. wah-wah pedal - A (foot) pedal-controlled audio signal processor that contains a filter and varies the timbre of the signal going through it. wireless system - A system that use radio signals instead of wires.
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Poems Concert High
Oh Boy Le Hautboy
By Karen Hoagland, Los Angeles, California
By Travis A. Cox Hot Springs, Arkansas
I lend my voice, so sweet and clear, To all the voices gathered here. And when our souls are so combined, It gives our hearts a flight sublime. But when you lend to us your ear, We find your heart is also here. We soar upon your added strength. For you now, we go full length. Our soaring hearts, they fly so far. Our spirits now, have touched the stars.
Truly an ill wind that requires prodigious strain when gut is distended in diaphragmatic drives only the most dedicated, would thus shorten their lives as Tabuteau, a double hernia testifying did rive.
Oboe in Flight It is my breath that gives it life. My fingers cause a dance so bright. It is my heart that gives it soul. And from my lips comes sweet control. The rich, sweet sound, it softly floats. My total self, this rich voice holds. To your heart, has my soul flown? Does my soul then touch your own?
The Oboe Party By Maria Mendoza
An oboe is like a bird if you don’t feel it, it will not be heard. You can blow on it until your eyes fall on the floor, but you know people will always yell for more. The oboe is hard I do admit but it is worth every last bit! About the Author… Maria is a sixth grade, beginning oboe student of Gwendolyn Carlton in Peoria, Illinois..
The master, though Frenchman, rose above French tradition setting a new standard perhaps never to be surpassed. This glorious instrument doth beckon with double admonition putting to naught the older nasal order unto attrition. This pungent singer is from antiquity t’was even competitor in early Grecian games still an athletic endeavor, now celestial amidst musical gains the stars, the most serious double-reedist fains. A woodwind rising out of antiquity fame Evidently obstreperous from the very beginning In Handel’s time still did create quite a din braying like asses and evoking Bachanalian sinning Fortunate that somewhere crafty reedmakers designed a more sensitive and soulful reed, blessed find le hautboy in dire need for a fateful personality change lyrical melodies in analogous propitiousness sought its range The braying trumpets then left to the task of noise inscrutable le hautboy rose to more distinguished ranks immutable this strange wind of incipience rose to quality indubitable arresting the attention of that invincible incipient of Mannheim thus gained rightful access to that fledgling symphony sublime no longer relegated to doubling, now savoring its very own line coming of full age in Mozart with melodic poignant rhyme now a unique musical entity of expression so fine. One is soothed so pleasingly by sounds pastoral and what better rustic rummaging than master knell of the double reed family so lyrically distinguished as the ebony lead, wafting plaintive tones relinquished. Soothed so delightfully by the oboe’s joy, nay not rue as it frequently flavors in solo, the orchestral brew: none better than the golden nugget in Tchaikowsky’s 4th though a bit melancholy, it sparks soul anew. One is titillated in Bacchanalian fashion as Samson and Delilah cadenza twists in near pagan revel or Beethoven’s violin concerto introduced so invitingly most refined in Brahms violin concerto, a bejeweled navel. So, what is that magical ingredient for the oboist? might it not be a touch of genius bordering dementedness? would that I knew, for once the oboe obsessed the most I did feel an estrangement yea even reality absentedness. So, where zephyrs frolic and nymphs do cavort there in the distance the shepherds pipes exhort intermingled with forest song, the feathered artists impart what better tonal painter than oboe to sally forth? About the Author … Travis Cox is a member of the first violin section of the South Arkansas Symphony. He played the oboe before switching to violin. The poem is dedicated to Gerry Gibson, first oboist of the Arkansas Symphony.
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The Bell of a Bassoon Made by W. Hess By Dr. Klaus Gillessen Heilbronn, Germany
he bell of a bassoon described in this note is exhibited in a showcase at the University of Heidelberg, where announcements of the Collegium Musicum are posted. Its wood (maple?) is stained black, the metal parts consist of brass. Shape and the most important dimensions in millimeters are depicted in Fig. 1. There is a closed key mounted in a saddle, with a leather pad and a spring attached to it. The bore is slightly counter conical, the tone hole is provided with an extension tube about 5 mm (at the center) to 7 mm (at the sides) long. There is no ring present to reinforce the upper rim. Consequently, the bell shows several cracks, and a piece of the rim is broken out. The bell bears two stamps: the first one indicates the makers name and location (“W. Hess / Müchen” in script), the second one comes probably from a former owner. It reads “(crown) / (a letter ‘A’ or ‘M’) / INVT / N˚ 18”. According to The New Langwill Index1 there were two makers of woodwind instruments with the name Wilhelm Hess, father and son. W. Hess senior lived from 1800 to 1874, he was active as a woodwind instrument maker from 1825 to 1868. W. Hess junior was born in 1841 and died in 1880. Up to now eleven bassoons made by one of the two W. Hess’es could be located, mainly in Germany2 to 12, whereas most of his instruments do not have a bell described here are known from other bassoons from Hess. The counter conical bore in the bell seems to be typical of his instruments.3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 The closed key for low B is also present on two bassoons11 12 whereas most of his instruments do not have a bell key.2 to 9 One bassoon10 in the Heckel collection is unique in this respect: it does have a key for low B which is, however, located on an elongated bass joint. The bell joint is shorter accordingly and does not have a key. Two further instruments with this peculiar key arrangement for low B are exhibited in the Stadtmuseum Lindau.13, 14 They are probably not made by W. Hess, however, because they do not show stamps. The keys on most bassoons from Hess consist of brass and are also mounted in saddles as with the bell described here. Only two instruments11, 12 are equipped with German silver keys mounted on pillars. In some cases the stamps of Hess (“W. Hess / München” in script) have additional marks: one star,3, 4, 7, 8 two stars9,
or three Maltese crosses.5, 10 The bassoon in the Deutsches Museum12 exhibits also a second stamp “L / IN Vi N˚ / 3” which is somewhat similar to the one described above. The shape of the present bell joint is very similar to most of the instruments in other museums.2, 5, 6, 8, 9 The extension tube for the B tone hole is possibly a unique feature of the bell joint which is described here. Two other specimens11, 12 show a bulge around this tone hole, but this bulge is much lower. The purpose of the extension tube is probably to flatten and soften low B. It might also be speculated that it was added in connection with a conversion of the key from normally open to normally closed. This explanation is rather improbable, however, because the key was apparently constructed originally for normally closed operation. (See the shape of the end of the lever and the way the spring is attached.) More likely, the extension tube suggests that this bell joint belongs to one of the the first bassoons made by Hess equipped with a key for low B, when the correct position of the respective tone hole was not yet finally determined. The low B key may also be a later addition to an earlier instrument, and the additional note had to be adjusted with respect to pitch and/or tone color. Unfortunately, no fabrication dates of the Hess bassoons are available. It is also not known whether they were made by W. Hess father or son. It is possible, however, to bring the specimens into a most probable sequence in time, using the following four rules: 1.
with bell key probably later than without bell key
metal parts German silver probably later than metal parts brass
keys mounted on pillars probably later than keys mounted in saddles
larger number of keys probably later than smaller number of keys Application of these rules results in the sequence shown in table 1:
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2 no brass 3 no brass 4 no brass 5 no brass 6 no brass 7 no brass 8 no brass 9 no brass 10 no (yes) brass (this bell) yes brass 11 yes German silver 12 yes German silver
Mounting saddle saddle saddle saddle saddle saddle saddle saddle* saddle* saddle pillars pillars
No. of Keys 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 16 16 ? 17 17
*one resp. three keys on pillars, later additions? Table 1. Most probable sequence of bassoons made by W. Hess
13 14 15
Instrument no. 238 in the collection of the Musikwissenschaftliches Seminar der Georg-AugustUniversität Göttingen. Data of this instrument were kindly provided by K.-P. Brenner. F. Groffy, Musikhistorisches Museum Heckel-Biebrich, Abt. Fagotte, Wiesbaden-Biebrich: 1968, instrument no. F12. Jansen15 states that the bell of this bassoon has a counter conical bore. Instrument no. 41-228 in the Münchner Stadtmuseum. Heinrich Seifers, Katalog der Blasinstrumente im Deutschen Museum, Abhandlungen und Berichte, 44. Jahrgang, 1976, Heft 1, instrument no. 69671. Instrument no. Mus. 14 in the Stadtmuseum Lindau. Instrument no. Mus. 15 in the Stadtmuseum Lindau. W. Jansen: The Bassoon, Buren: Frits Knuf, 1978, vol. 1, page 401.
** The parts of these two instruments could possibly rearranged yielding one bassoon with stamps on all parts and one completely without stamps. In this case only one instrument should be attributed to W. Hess. The author is grateful to H.R. Drengemann, the conductor of the Colegium Musicum, for the permission to examine the bell, and to Ms. G. Heidler for the permission to examine the bassoons in the Stadtmuseum Lindau. Fig. 1 Shape and dimensions of a bell of a bassoon made by W. Hess. 322
The most pronounced change in this compilation occurs two lines before the end: brass keys mounted in saddles are replaced by German silver keys on pillars. Therefore it seems sensible to suppose that the first ten bassoons (including the one the bell described here belongs to) were made by W. Hess Senior, whereas the last two were fabricated by W. Hess Junior. The larger number of bassoon s from W. Hess (father) corresponds with his considerably longer active period of 43 years, compared to 12 years of W. Hess (son). The author would be grateful if the readers of the IDRS Journal could help to answer the following questions.: Are there more bassoons from W. Hess in public or private collections? In particular, is there a bassoon with the bell missing? Is something known about the dating of Hess bassoons?
THE BELL OF A BASSOON MADE BY W. HESS
W. Waterhouse, The New Langwill Index, London: Tony Bingham, 1993. Instrument shown in the Städtisches Museum Hechingen, Germany. Renate Huber, Verzeichnis sämtlicher Musikinstrumente im Germanischen Nationalmuseum Nürnberg, Wilhelmshaven: Noetzel, Heinrichshofen-Bücher, 1989, page 268, instrument no. MIR 413. A detailed description of this instrument was kindly provided to me by K. Martius. R. Birnstingl, private communication. F. Groffy, Musikhistorisches Museum Heckel-Biebrich, Abt. Fagotte, Wiesbaden-Biebrich: 1968, instrument no. F11. Instrument no. 40-284 in the Münchner Stadtmuseum. Instrument no. Mus. 12 in the Stadtmuseum Lindau. The stamp of W. Hess is only on the wing.** Instrument no. Mus 13 in the Stadtmuseum Lindau. There is no stamp on the wing, only on the butt, bass joint, and bell.**
About the Author … Dr. Klauss Gillessen is a physicist/bassoonist and a member of the Galpin Society and the IDRS. He is particularly interested in Bassoon History.
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A Bassoon Part to Mozart’s Coronation Mass By Dr. Klaus Gillesson Heilbronn, Germany
ost bassoonists will agree that Mozart must have loved the sound of the bassoon very much, and that he had an intimate knowledge of its various tone colours which he applied with unequalled mastery to express his musical ideas. The bassoon parts of his piano concerti and his later operas certainly belong to the best which have ever been written for the instrument. Therefore a bassoonist would get excited if something new written by Mozart for the bassoon is announced. Exactly this happened to me at the end of 1996. A large German newspaper reported about a performance of Mozart’s Coronation Mass (KV 317) in a church in Augsburg1 which had used an up-to-date unknown contemporary copy of the work with a separate bassoon part, in particular a bassoon solo in the Agnus Dei. The article contained the name of a musicologist involved in the matter, Erich Gackowski, who told me that the copy was written by a Father Matthaeus Fischer for the monastery Holy Cross in Augsburg, but that the material is now in private possession and not available to the public as long as an argument between musicologists concerning its authenticity is going on. With the help of Professor Dr. G. Voelkl from the Amt für Kirchenmusik, I received a copy of an article in the local newspaper, the Augsburger Allgemeine, which is reprinted here with kind permission of the editor. Considerable Doubts About the discovery of the bassoon in the “Coronation Mass” of Holy Cross By the member of our editorial staff Ruediger Heinze
The Mozart-City of Augsburg seems to have no luck with sensations regarding Mozart. When in 1990, organist Wilhelm Krumbach offered a Mozart “first performance of”, an “unknown organ concerto” to the municipal theatre, the former general manager of music, Luig, blindly seized the opportunity and placed a piece on the program which turned out to be the well-known Piano Concerto KV 175. When in October 1996 the Augsburg musicologist Erich Gackowski and the “Musica Suevica” choir called the attention to themselves with an up-to-date unknown contemporary copy of Mozart’s Coronation Mass, one was not without reason inclined to believe that this copy contained also a hither-to unknown bassoon part by Mozart to the Coronation Mass. Now there are considerable doubts, however,
whether this bassoon part really originates from Mozart. These doubts are expressed by Monika Holl (Music Department of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Munich) who has edited three volumes of masses for the New Mozart Edition and presently is working on a critical report for the Coronation Mass. Based on her knowledge of handwriting she confirms that the copy originates most probably from Matthaeus Fischer - as also declared Gackowski - but also points out that the bassoon part exhibits a different handwriting within the score. At the upper margin of the paper The bassoon part is located in a curious place within the score, i.e. on top of all other instruments and not below the oboe parts as usually found. Due to several indications, Monika Holl has concluded for the time being that the bassoon part was added subsequently by Fischer “or rather by the hand of somebody else” to the score where space was available, i.e. at the upper margin of the paper. From this is follows that the source used by Fischer to compose his score did not contain a bassoon part, which is Holl’s most important argument. The words “for the time being” address the present problem of the whole story. The findings of Monika Holl are based on reproduction in our newspaper which showed only the beginning of the “Angus Dei” from the Coronation Mass. She has not been allowed to inspect the original handwriting, not allowed to see more of it by the owner, who prefers to remain anonymous, as states Franz Wallisch, conductor of the choir “Musica Suevica”. And it seems that this will continue, though Wallisch himself admits that it would be desirable to inspect the original copy thoroughly, so that the choir also can get to the bottom of the discovery of the score. As long as scientific investigations are forestalled by the owner, as long Gackowski and Wallisch, who have propagated the Augsburg Mozart event, have to present proofs, the myster will continue. Despite better knowledge Finally, the events around the performance of the “Augsburg version” of Mozart’s Coronation Mass have another more than unpleasing aspect. Erich Gackowski already came to know some days before the concert (October 27th) that there are good reasons to doubt the authenticity regarding the bassoon part: during a visit at Salzburg where he presented the script to the experts Ernst Hintermaier (Erzbischoefliches Konsistorialarchiv) and Father Petrus (Erzstift St. Peter) the same objections were uttered as later by
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A BASSOON PART TO MOZART’S CORONATION MASS
Monika Holl. This was confirmed by Hintermaier on the phone. Despite these critical objections regarding the source, the responsible persons kept to the hoped-for Mozart-discovery still at the concert in Holy Cross, and the public was informed only in a biased manner. With this, the circle to organist Wilhelm Krumbach and the year 1991 is closed: The organizers have emphasized
the alleged importance of their finding to the end, despite their better knowledge. As a happy ending: the whole story has brought new scientific knowledge nevertheless. For at least it was also proven that some material of the Coronation Mass went from Salzburg to Augsburg after the death of Leopold Mozart.
Figure 1. The beginning of the Agnus Dei in the Augsburg copy of Mozart’s Coronation Mass. The bassoon part is at the very top, in the first staff.
There is further proof that the bassoon part at the top was added later, which can be seen easily: the staff is obviously written crossing the denotation “Andante sostenuto”, the heading “Agnus Dei”, and the instruction “Con sordini”. As a summary of the article it can be stated that there exists another contemporary copy of Mozart’s Coronation Mass, with a bassoon part added probably not by Mozart, of which only the first six bars of the Agnus Dei are available at present.
To facilitate further discussion, the published page of the manuscript is written here in the order of a modern score, and with some slurs added as usually performed today: (See Figure 2.) Of course one can draw only very little and preliminary conclusions from six bars of which three and a half are rests. At least the passage seems to be written by the unknown composer in a Mozartean manner, for the following reasons: The first part of the phrase doubles the first violins in
Bassi Figure 2.
the lower octave, an instrumentation which is a trait knownfrom many Mozart works. See for example the beginning of the Figaro Overture. The second part, the descending scale of six notes is not very specific, but it can be found in other bassoon passages by Mozart, for example in the Quintet for piano and winds(KV 452) first movement, bars IO, 122 and 13, or in D o n Giovanni (KV 527), finale of the first act, bar 270. The scale in the manuscript discussed here is written without a slur, but it seems more adequate to me to slur all six notes, because the oboes also slur their parallel descending scales in the eighth bar immediately before the soprano enters. As the next step I made contact with other musicologists who are well acquainted with the sources of Mozart’s works, Dr. Fay Ferguson from the management of the New Mozart Edition and Dr. Monika Ho11 from the Bayereische Staatsbibliothek who is occupied with the edition of Mozart’s masses (she is also mentioned in the newspaper article reprinted above). Both experts say that fundamentally there is no argument between the musicologists concerning the authorship of the bassoon part: at present the author is simply unknown, but it is very unlikely
that it was Mozart. This does not preclude the hypothesis that the part was written using musical material by Mozart. Both musicologists also agree that it is necessary to examine the whole manuscript to resolve the question of authorship, and they regret that this is not possible at present. This is the current status of the discovery of the bassoon part to Mozart’s Coronation Mass. I will continue to try to get access to the complete score which then could be examined by leading experts and published. Of course, the IDRS will also be informed. +
ENDNOTES I Augsburg is located some 60km west of Munich. The family of Mozart father Leopold lived in Augsburg. Even today the telephone directory of Augsburg counts seven private entries with the name Mozart
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[The above cartoons are by Vancouver, B.C., oboist Lauris MacKenzie and sent in by Jesse Read, bassoonist and conductor at the UBC. #1 was for an oboe-bassoon-piano trio recital on opera themes with oboist Beth Olson and pianist Terry Dawson, and #2 was for Lauris’ own oboe recital. — ED]
How Your Cat Sees Your Reed Desk
By David Riddles Los Angeles, CA
[David Riddles has been a free-lance bassoonist in the Los Angeles studios for the last 20 years ED]
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Honorary Members Maurice Allard Günter Angerhöfer Lady Evelyn Barbirolli Philip Bate Gwydion Brooke Donald Christlieb Lewis Hugh Cooper George F. Goslee John de Lancie Ralph Gomberg E. Earnest Harrison
Norman H. Herzberg K. David van Hoesen Cecil James Karl Öhlberger Ivan Pushechnikov Mordechai Rechtman Roland Rigoutat Sol Schoenbach Leonard Sharrow Ray Still Laila Storch
Deceased Honorary Members Robert Bloom (1908-1994)
Lyndesay Langwill (1897-1983)
Victor Bruns (1903-1996)
Alfred Laubin (1906 - 1976)
Robert De Gourdon (1912-1993)
Robert M. Mayer (1910-1994)
Ferdinand Del Negro (1897-1986)
W. Hans Moennig (1903-1988)
Fernand Gillet (1882-1980)
Frederick Moritz (1897-1993)
Leon Goossens, CBE (1897-1988)
Fernand Oubradous (1903-1986)
Benjamin Kohon (1890-1984)
Jerry Sirucek (1922 - 1993)
Simon Kovar (1890-1970)
Louis Skinner (1918 - 1993)
Dr. Paul Henry Lang (1901-1991)
Robert Sprenkle (1914-1988)
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Yard Sale Bassoon By Paul Lein Mt. Pleasant, Michigan
ne of the tall tales bassoon players always enjoy sharing with each other is about someone they know, or have heard of, finding a terrific bassoon at a yard sale. The more times the tale is told, the more it gets embellished: the bassoon becomes more and more terrific and the price paid gets lower and lower. Since I’ve been restoring bassoons I’ve spent lots of time tracing the histories of some “mystery” horns for myself and others. Although I’ve come across dozens of interesting bassoons with obscure histories, I had yet to literally come across a genuine “yard sale” bassoon until a couple of years ago. Some time in the summer of 1994 I received a phone call from a repair technician on the East Coast who had bought a bassoon at a yard sale and wanted to try to find out more about it. I told him where to look for serial numbers and brand stamps. The bassoon turned out to be a Heckel, but it was in sorry condition; all the keys and posts has been violently removed. The finish was damaged and the case and bassoon were both laden with mildew. Our immediate concern was that the bassoon had been stolen. While he contacted local and state officials, I inquired directly at the Heckel workshop to see if they had any information about the history of the instrument or reports of it having been stolen. I also checked with the IDRS, corresponded with the Doublereed–L and talked to some East Coast bassoonists I know to see if they had any anecdotal information about stolen 9000 Heckels. During the following several months I continued to try to find out more about the history of the bassoon while the technician who found it continued going to yard sales hoping to find a bag of keys. The people at the Heckel workshop were as helpful as they were able to be, reassuring me the bassoon has not been reported as missing or stolen to them. At the same time I inquired about the cost of having a new set of keys built for the instrument and they said it would cost about the same as a new Heckel. Then I asked about the cost of key castings so that I could build a set of keys myself, but they could not be sure the castings they had would fit a bassoon that they had made in the fifties. They also mentioned that they had once sold a set of key castings to an instrument maker in the Netherlands for a similar project, and he reported that he never wanted to do that job again. In any case, the cost of a set of raw key castings would have been about the same as the price of a new Fox Renard. I kept in touch with the technician who had pur-
chased the keyless bassoon for the next two years; when he abandoned hope of ever finding the keys, he agreed to sell me the project. The joints arrived in fall 1996 and the first thing I checked for was bore damage; while the outside of the joints looked terrible, the bore was untouched. Whoever had removed the parts had no love of the instrument, because there were screwdriver pry marks where they had unsuccessfully tried to remove the bands. There were also circular marks at each guard which showed they had unscrewed one screw and then twirled the guard to remove the other screw. The joints appeared to have been soaked in linseed oil and put away wet. Surprisingly, when taking apart the case, I found the original high E key! Also scattered around in the case were the original pads, rollers and push rods. I can only surmise that whoever removed the keys, posts, etc. from the bassoon thought they were real silver and hoped to sell them for for the value of the silver itself. (Was it fifteen years ago when silver was over $50 an ounce?) Putting the bassoon in a linseed oil bath, on the other hand, is something that would have been done by someone knowlegeable about bassoons. Refinishing the bassoon was more time-consuming than it might otherwise have been because the original finish was rust–stained from the remaining metal pieces. There was also the physical damage done by screwdriver and prybar when the keys were removed, a couple of cracks and an extensive invasion by mildew. After sealing the lined side of the boot and wing to protect the bore and tone holes, I removed the old finish and linseed oil with lacquer thinner. The badly discolored surface had to be bleached and then sanded. Fortunately, despite the terrible condition of the finish, the pad seats were perfect. When the wood was ready for stain, I tried to match the original color. The red pigment in older Heckel bassoons always fades with exposure to light, but the original color can usually be determined on an older bassoon by looking where the long and wing joints nest together, since almost no light gets in there. After staining and masking the pad seats, I sprayed on several coats of clear finish. When the clear coat was completely dry, I wet–sanded and buffed each joint. What remained of the original ivory bell ring had been lying in pieces in the case, so I made a new bell ring out of Corian. When I spoke with the good people at Fox, they were intrigued by, and very supportive of, the project. I ordered blank posts in the appropriate sizes from them and set them with epoxy in the original
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YARD SALE BASSOON
Heckel post holes. Having the posts set in the refinished bassoon made it much easier to visualize key position and spacing. I spent a day at the Fox factory with Chip Owen going through their files of past and present key castings to see which might be usable or modified to fit the Heckel. Late in the day, I left South Whitley with several feet of bar and rod stock, nickel silver sheet and a little box with about two pounds of miscellaneous key castings. Fortunately I have a 10,000 series Heckel which I could use as a guide to shaping the new keys to be as Heckel-like as possible. My goal was to build a set of keys using the original post holes in the 9000 and reproduce the roller placement, etc., of my 10,000 so the bassoons would feel as much alike as possible. The Fox pad cups have the same shape that Heckel used, but they are not available in all of the sizes I needed. Fortunately in my collection of over forty bassoons, I found a Riedl bassoon with unplated keys which had the pad cups of the sizes I was missing. Since some keys had as many as eleven separate parts to be built and fitted, it was certainly a pleasant surprise when a Fox part would be usable with only minor modification. The original high E key on the wing joint was an offset design I had not seen before; considering the bassoon’s vintage and the fact that it came from the East Coast, I wonder if the late Hans Moennig added it. The missing U-tube and attachment hardware proved to be another interesting challenge. The bore spacing at the bottom of the boot joint was quite large and no bassoons in my collection or parts from Fox were suitable. I transferred bore spacing and dimensions from the existing boot plate to brass sheet stock and then was able to use the U-tube bow from the same old Riedl. Since Riedl had cast a very thick bow, I was able to enlarge it to the Heckel dimensions and solder it to the boot plate I had made. I have large hands and have always played on a Heckel with many extra rollers for the right thumb and little finger, so I wanted to include all the same rollers on the 9000. The shape of the pad seat around the low E tone hole was an indication that the bassoon originally had a double roller E. Unfortunately the Fox double wide pancake key was quite a bit too large as cast, but with hours of grinding. finishing and reshaping, both the six rollers for the thumb and the right little finger double wide F# turned out well. Building an entire set of keys from a different manufacturer’s castings and building keys from scratch was definitely an education. The project thus far had taken several months, and I kept accurate records on time and materials as well as photographic documentation. By the time I completed building all the keys, I had become such a nervous
parent that I personally drove the keys down to Anderson Silver Plating. When I went back a week later to pick them up, the jigsaw puzzle of nickel silver parts had been turned into gleaming silver plated jewelry! If a bassoon has to be fairly heavily sanded during refinishing, the brand stamp is often lost, so I always have the boot band engraved with the manufacturer’s name, serial number and country of origin. Even though I was able to save the brand stamps on this Heckel because they were clear and deep, I still had the boot band engraved; it seemed to be a nice touch. As I assembled the bassoon and approached the first time I would play it, I’m not sure whether I was happier that the job was almost done or more in dread of playing those first few notes. What if I had just spent hundreds of hours building a bassoon lamp? My confidence in the innate quality and mysterious “Heckelness” built in to this bassoon was justified, however. After the first few notes, despite the many terrible things that had happened to this instrument, I was reassured it was still a Heckel, albeit a “HeckeLein”. Before taking it out of the house, I wanted to custom–build a case. Much of the damage I see on older bassoons is not from careless players, but rather from movement while the bassoon is in its case, especially when loose blocks let the joints bump together. The case I built is a little larger than average with no freestanding blocks. The joints are held far enough apart that they cannot possibly touch. I even put mirror–image saddles in the lid so that each joint is clamped in place when the case is closed. I’ve now played the bassoon in dozens of rehearsals and several concerts. It was especially interesting to switch back and forth with Drew Hinderer, my colleague in the Midland Symphony Orchestra, who also has a 9000 Heckel. He said that mine plays just like his, except mine has new keys. The yard sale bassoon did not originally have water tubes, but after playing it for a while I’ve decided to add them. Drew’s similar Heckel has Hans Moennig water tubes, so they will be a good pattern to follow. My being a bassoon technician probably means that this bassoon will never be completely done; it seems there’s always something new to try. On a subsequent visit to the Fox factory, it was gratifying to show them how the box of parts I had left there with several months earlier had become keys. Alan Fox, Chip Owen and Mike Trenticosti certainly deserve special thanks for their advice and support. The project has been a great learning experience for me and I’m happy this old Heckel is making music once more. Would I ever do it again? You bet! Im looking forward to this summer’s yard sale season. ❖
In original bassoon case, - broken bell ring Damage to boot joint Pry marks near boot band Stripped, ready to bleach and sand Refinished after buffing clear coat Bell key detail Offset high E on wing Left thumb key work close-up
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9 10 11 12
YARD SALE BASSOON
Boot front Boot back detail Low B detail — note roller action Finished bassoon in custom built case; note “before” picture (No. 1)
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Vivaldi Identification Information - Cross Reference Chart Compilation in Two Parts
Part 2: The Vivaldi Concerti
By Trevor Cramer Tallevast, Florida As owner of TrevCo Music I receive many requests for help in ferreting out information in two areas of importance to double-reeders: Bach “Cantatas” and Vivaldi “Concerti”. To make my life a little easier, I decided a few months ago to sit down and compile several cross-
reference lists. The “fruits of my labors” follow. These are NOT intended to be scholarly reports, nor definite assessments of either composer’s opera - they are merely little lists which any one of us may find helpful at times.
VIVALDI IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION - CROSS REFERENCE CHART Ryom
Solo Sonatas (one instrument plus continuo)
RV53 RV54 RV55 RV56 RV57 RV58 RV59
P.6/3 P.3/9 P.4/3 P.3/10 P.4/1 P.4/4 P.4/2
F XV, 2 F XVI,5 F XVI,9 F XVI,6 F XVI,7 F XVI,10 F XVI,8
F XV,8 F XV,1
Op.44 No.22 Op.44 No.24 Op.44 No.15 Op.44 No.18 Op.37 No.2 Op.44 No.23 Op.44 No.4
P.81 P.82 P.155 P.206 P.198 P.207 P.204 P.6/7 P.286
F XII,30 F XII,24 F XII,9 F XII,27 F XII,7 F XII,25 F XII,29 F XII,42 F XII,32
M 155 M 143 M 42 M 149 M 39 M 144 M 248 M 354 M 248
F XII,26 F XII,21 F XII,13 F XII,4 F XII,5 F XII,20 F XII,8 F XII,6
M 147 M 106 M 52 M 23 M 33 M 103 M 41 M 40
Op.13 No.1 Op.13 No.5 Op.13 No.2 Op.13 No.3 Op.13 No.6 Op.13 No.4
M 375 M 467 M 471 M 468 M 472 M 472 M 470
c C C C G g A
Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob
Sonata Sonata, Il pastor fido Sonata, Il pastor fido Sonata, Il pastor fido Sonata, Il pastor fido Sonata, Il pastor fido Sonata, Il pastor fido
Trio Sonatas (two instruments plus continuo)
Chamber Concertos ( more than two instruments plus continuo)
RV87 RV88 RV90 RV91 RV92 RV94 RV95 RV96 RV97 RV98 RV99 RV100 RV101 RV103 RV104 RV105 RV106 RV107
Op.25 No.1 Op.44 No.16 Op.44 No.17 Op.44 No.10 Op.44 No.3 Op.44 No.5 Op.44 No.12 Op.44 No.14 Op.44 No.13
P.402 P.342 P.403 P.404 P.360
C C D D D D D d F F F F G g g g g g
Rec/Ob/2Vln Fl/Ob/Vln/Bsn Fl/Ob/Vln/Bsn Il Gardellino Fl/Vln/Bsn Rec/Vln/Bsn Rec/Ob/Vln/Bsn Rec/Ob/3Vln/Bsn La Pastorella Fl/Vln/Bsn Vla d’a/2Ob/Bsn/2Hn Fl/Ob/Vln/Bsn Tempesta di Mare Fl/Ob/Vln/Bsn (see RV 571) Fl/Vln/Bsn Rec/Ob/Vln/Bsn (see RV437) Rec/Ob/Bsn Fl/2Vln/Bsn Rec/Ob/Vln/Bsn Fl/Vln/Bsn Fl/Ob/Vln/Bsn (also P. 6/6)
Solo Concertos (one instrument plus orchestra and continuo)
RV446 RV447 RV448 RV449 RV450 RV451 RV452 RV453 RV454 RV455 RV456 RV457 RV458 RV459 RV460 RV461 RV462 RV463 RV464 RV465
Op.39 No.1 Op.39 No.3 Op.8 No.12 Op.39 No.4 Op.39 No.7 Op.8 No.9 Op.39 No.6
Op.11 No.6 Op.39 No.2 Op.7 No.7 Op.7 No.1
P.41 P.43 P.8 (P.50) P.44 P.91 P.187 P.259 P.306 P.264
F VII,20 F VII,6 F VII,7 (F I,31) F VII,11 F VII,4 F VII,17 F VII,10 F VII,1 F VII,2 F VII,16 F VII,7 F VII,18 F VII,5 F VII,19 F VII,13 F VII,15 F VII,14
M 216 M 217 (M 85) M 283 M 222 M 520 M 279 M2 M 14 M 488 M 315
M 215 M 316 M 448 M 442
C C C C C C C D d F F F F F g a a a Bb Bb
Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob Ob
(see RV448 & RV470) (see RV447 & RV470) (see RV178) (see RV471)
(see RV449 & RV236)
Incomplete (see RV334)
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VIVALDI IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION - CROSS REFERENCE CHART - PART 2
Ryom RV466 RV467 RV468 RV469 RV470 RV471 RV472 RV473 RV474 RV475 RV476 RV477 RV478 RV479 RV480 RV481 RV482 RV483 RV484 RV485 RV486 RV487 RV488 RV489 RV490 RV491 RV492 RV493 RV494 RV495 RV496 RV497 RV498 RV499 RV500 RV501 RV502 RV503 RV504
Rinaldi Op.40 No.12 Op.40 No.5 Op.40 No.17 Op.40 No.8 Op.40 No.9 Op.40 No.1 Op.57 No.2 Op.45 No.1 Op.40 No.18 Op.40 No.27
Pincherle P.51 P.48 P.55 P.49 P.43 P.50 P.45 P.90 P.69 P.56 P.57
Op.45 No.4 Op.40 No.14 Op.40 No.4 Op.45 No.7 Op.40 No.16 Op.40 No.10 Op.45 No.2 Op.45 No.5 Op.40 No.19 Op.40 No.6 Op.40 No.7 Op.40 No.21 Op.40 No.25 Op.40 No.13 Op.40 No.15 Op.40 No.26 Op.40 No.24 Op.40 No.20 Op.40 No.2 Op.45 No.6 Op.45 No.3 Op.40 No.3 Op.57 No.1 Op.45 No.8 Op.40 No.11 Op.40 No.23 Op.40 No.22
P.71 P.52 P.432 P.282 P.303 P.433 P.137 P.318 P.304 P.298 P.299 P.305 P.307 P.300 P.128 P.131 P.130 P.384 P.381 P.72 P.70 P.47 P.89 P.401 P.382 P.387 P.386
RV534 RV535 RV536 RV543 RV545 RV548
Op.53 No.1 Op.42 No.2 Op.42 No.1 Op.39 No.5 Op.42 No.3 Op.52
P.85 P.302 P.53 P.301 P.129 P.406
Fanna F VIII,28 F VIII,18
Malipiero M 274 M 239
F VIII,16 F VIII,33 F VIII,34 F VIII,17 F VIII,9 F VIII,4 F VIII,21 F VIII,31 P.46 F VIII,3 F VIII,26 F VIII,14 F VIII,5
M 237 M 281 M 282 M 238 M 118 M 47 M 267 M 277 F VIII,13 M 34 M 272 M 225 M 67
F VIII,27 F VIII,6 F VIII,8 F VIII,22 F VIII,15 F VIII,19 F VIII,20 F VIII,32 F VIII,25 F VIII,29 F VIII,30 F VIII,37 F VIII,23 F VIII,11 F VIII,7 F VIII,2 F VIII,12 F VIII,10 F VIII,1 F VIII,24 F VIII,35 F VIII,36
M 272 M 71 M 109 M 268 M 236 M 240 M 266 M 278 M 271 M 275 M 276 M 300 M 269 M 214 M 872 M 28 M 223 M 119 M 12 M 270 M 298 M 299
Key C C C C C C C C C C C M 224 C C C d d Eb e F F F F F F F G G G g g a a a a Bb Bb Bb Bb
Instrument Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn C Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn Bsn
Double Concertos (two instruments plus orchestra and continuo)
F VII,3 F VII,9 F VII,8 F XII,35 F XII,36 F XII,16
M 139 M 264 M 263 M 265 M 280 M 73
C d a F G Bb
2Ob 2Ob 2Ob Vln/Ob (unison) Ob/Bsn Vln/Ob
Multiple Concertos (more than two instruments plus orchestra and continuo) Due to the unique nature of some of these concerti, it is suggested that instrumentation be confirmed beyond the reference contained herein.
RV554 RV555 RV556 RV557 RV559 RV560 RV562 RV562a RV563 RV564a RV566 RV568 RV569 RV570 RV571 RV572 RV573 RV574 RV576 RV577 RV579
Op.28 No.4 Op.53 No.3 Op.53 No.2 Op.41 No.4 Op.47 No.4 Op.47 No.3
P.36 P.84 P.84 P.54 P.74 P.73 P.169 P.267 P.210
F CII,34 F XII,14 F XII,14 F XII,17 F XII,2 F XII,1 F XII,47 F XII,39 F XII,50
M 250 M 54 M 54 M 90 M 10 M3 M 380 M 338 M 510
Op.41 No.1 Op.64 No.5 Op.46 No.2 Op.44 No.16 Op.64 No.2
P.297 P.267 P.273 P.268
F XII,31 F XII,39 F XII,10 F XII,28 F XII,40
M 213 M 338 M 43 M 150 M 350
Op.46 No.3 Op.41 No.2 Op.41 No.3 Op.41 No.5
P.319 P.359 P.383 P.385
P.265 F XII,18 F XII,33 F XII,3 F XII,12
M 94 M 249 M 25 M 51
C C C C C C D D D D d F F F F F F F g g Bb
Vln/Ob/Org ad. lib. 3Vln/Ob/2Rec/2Vla/2Vcl/2Hpd/2Tpt 2Ob/2Clar/2Rec/2Vln/2Bsn 2Ob/2Vln/Bsn 2Ob/2Cl 2Ob/2Cl Vln/2Ob/2Hn Vln/2Ob/Bsn Vln/2Ob 2Vln/2Ob/Bsn Doubtful version 2Vln/2Rec/2Ob/Bsn Vln/2Ob Vln/2Ob/2Hn/Bsn Fl/Ob/Bsn Vln/2Ob/2Hn/Vcl/Bsn 2Fl/2Ob/Vln/Vcl/Hpd Incomplete 2Ob/2Hn/2Bsn Lost Vln/2Ob/2Bsn/2 Trombon da caccia Vln/Ob/2Rec/2Ob/Bsn Vln/2Ob/2Rec/Bsn Vln/Ob/salmoe 3Vla all’inglese
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL
Charles W. P. Cracknell Charles W. P. Cracknell, renowned British bassoonist, died on Thursday, May 1st, 1997 at the Maidstone Hospital, Kent, at the age of 81. Charles had a long and distinguished career as principal bassoon of the Hallé Orchestra. His presence in the IDRS and BDRS will be greatly missed. His obituary from the London Times reads as follows: Charles was principal bassoon of the Hallé for 31 years, during which time the Manchester Orchestra under John (later Sir John) Barbirolli became of Britain’s best. He was also an active and distinguished teacher of his instrument, who influenced generations of pupils and may be said to have created his own individual school of bassoon playing. The second son of a Hastings clockmaker, Charles William Penton Cracknell was expected to follow his elder brother into the family business. However, visits to the Hastings Municipal Orchestra had kindled in him an interest in music in general and the bassoon in particular. “Once bitten by the bassoon bug, there is no known antidote.” he said. A local piano-tuner and bassoonist started him off on a French-system instrument, and his studies continued with Frank Rendall. After switching to an Adler bassoon, using the more manageable and now much more widespread German system, Cracknell began to deputise at weekends in the Eastbourne Municipal Orchestra. After the Second World War, spent in the Royal Corps of Signals at York and then in Algeria, Cracknell enrolled part-time at the Royal Academy of Music. He studied with Richard Newton, principal bassoon of the BBC Symphony, and freelanced alongside players such as Archie Camden, Paul Draper and Eddie Wilson. When Barbirolli came to conduct a performance of the Verdi Requiem at the BBC towards the end of 1945, he asked Newton if he had any promising pupils for the recently reformed Hallé Orchestra. Cracknell went to play for him, and by August was in the seat he was to make his own over the next 30 years. The Hallé, founded in 1857, had been going through a difficult period. Players were shared with the local BBC Orchestra and the Liverpool Philharmonic Society. But Liverpool formed an independent orchestra in 1942, and, with BBC commitments preventing the Hallé from functioning properly, the decision was taken to go it alone. A separate full-time orchestra was formed in
1943 and Barbirolli was engaged as its conductor. He had to contend not only with the difficulties of recruiting musicians in wartime, but with the fact that most local players opted for the greater security of the BBC. Nevertheless, he succeeded in turning the Hallé into one of the country’s finest orchestras in the postwar years. Cracknell was highly regarded by his colleagues in the orchestra, who appreciated his beautiful sound, his natural musicianship and his support and encouragement of his fellow players. He gave a number of historic performances, among them the British premiere in 1949 of Richard Strauss’s Duet Concertino for Clarinet and Bassoon (with Pat Ryan). Despite his heavy workload with the orchestra, with more than two hundred concerts a year, Cracknell found time to teach at the Northern School of Music (later to be the Royal Northern College) and Chetham’s School, as well as taking a number of private pupils. He was an inspirational teacher, but exacting and methodical. He demanded high standards of accuracy and technique, though always at the service of musical expression. Many of his former pupils have gone on to become professional players and teachers often returning to him throughout their careers for coaching and advice; the distinctive school of playing they represent is his lasting musical legacy. Cracknell was made an Associate of the Royal Academy of Music in 1972, and retired from the Hallé in 1977. His imposing 6 ft. 5 in. presence was much missed by colleagues and concert audiences alike. The former still recall his wry sense of humor and predilection for complex spoonerisms. Despite heavy professional commitments, he took great delight in trying to grow dahlias almost as tall as he was in his Didsbury garden. Retiring to Kent, Cracknell continued to teach at King’s School Canterbury, and in 1980 his work as a teacher was recognized when he was appointed MBE in the New Year’s Honours List. In 1941 he married Patricia Mary Murphy. She survives him with their three daughters, two of whom are also musicians and teachers.
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In an obituary for Charles that appeared in the British newspaper the Independent (May 30, 1997) distinguished bassoonist William Waterhouse wrote the following words: “Charles Cracknell was for over 30 years Manchester’s leading bassoonist. Joining the Hallé Orchestra in 1946, he was one of the fresh crop of wind principals recruited after the end of war by Sir John Barbirolli to revitalise the orchestra. Cracknell was born in Hastings in 1915, the second son of a clockmaker. Early exposure to the excellent local Municipal Orchestra inspired him to take up the bassoon. After war service spent mostly in Algeria, he completed his studies on the instrument in London at the Royal Academy of Music. Having moved to Manchester, he was able
over the years that followed to make a distinguished contribution to what were the vintage years for the Hallé Orchestra under Barbirolli’s direction. A highlight early on was the British premiere of Richard Strauss’s Duet-Concertino, which Cracknell gave with the clarinettist Pat Ryan during the 1948-49 season. In addition to his activities as orchestral player, he was a dedicated and much-loved teacher, working at both the Northern School and the Royal Manchester College of Music. He took retirement in 1977, having spent 31 years with the orchestra, and was appointed MBE in 1980. Moving back south to Borough Green, Kent, he continued to teach for many years in Canterbury and the surrounding region.”
William S. Buzzard William S. Buzzard, 74, chemical engineer for 50 years, amateur bassoonist, and longtime IDRS member died of heart failure on Wednesday, May 14, 1997, at his home in Jenkintown, Pennsylvania. He was born in Portage, PA, and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after serving 28 months in the US Army in Europe during WWII. He married his wife, Georgine in 1948 after meeting her in Austria
while in the Army. He worked as a chemical engineer for many years in Hatboro with the Fisher and Porter firm, retiring in 1990. Mr. Buzzard was an avid bassoonist, playing in the Bucks County Symphony Orchestra for 44 years. He also served as librarian and was on the board of directors. He is survived by his wife, four children and three grandchildren. The IDRS joins them in mourning the loss of this valuable member.
Wilbur H. Simpson Wilbur H. Simpson, former bassoonist with the Chicago Symphony and bassoon teacher in many of the Chicago area universities, including Northwestern University, died at his summer home in Platte Lake, Michigan, on Tuesday, June 17, 1997. He was 79 years old. A resident of Evanston, Illinois, he performed with the Chicago Symphony for 45 years until his retirement in 1991. Originally from Angola, Indiana, Wilbur graduated from Northwestern University before serving in the Navy during World War II.
He was in the 30 piece band on the battleship Missouri when the Japanese formally surrendered in 1945. In 1946, he joined the Chicago Symphony and over the years taught many bassoonists who can now be found in major orchestras and universities throughout the world. Wilbur Simpson is survived by his wife, Margaret, three children and four grandchildren. The IDRS joins them in mourning the loss of this great bassoonist and teacher.
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL
Making Modern Music in Moscow: a Travelogue By Dr. Jeffrey Lyman Tempe, Arizona Few musicians would argue that, in the best of circumstances, a concert is much more than simply the recreation of a set of notes. Similarly, travel to a foreign country is never simply a run-through of daily chores on different shores. So when concerts and travel are mixed, the possibilities for adventure and education increase exponentially. With these thoughts in mind, I hope you will allow me to share this travelogue. ussia. For most of the world, for most of this century, Russia was a land that inspired both fantasy and fear. Whether your homeland was engaged in a Cold War with the Soviet Union, or choking under the grip of its iron hand, you as a citizen of the 20th century were hopeless of ever escaping its influence. So, when I had the chance to travel to Moscow for a series of concerts and recordings this past November, all the images I had ever envisioned of the capital of this previously off-limits country flooded forth. These ran the gamut of playing with my Russian G.I. Joe soldier as a kid to worrying as a young adult if Reagan or Brezhnev would be the first to press “The Button.” To this slightly older traveler in the 1990’s, Russia was still a land of fantasy, but thanks to a monumental change in the world political climate, one almost devoid of fear. True to my expectations, the Russia I had the pleasure of visiting was a place whose sense of tradition was so deep that it poured over into the present, mixing old and new at every turn. But what I couldn’t ever imagine was how much this opportunity I was given to make music in Moscow would enrich my life.
First Impressions Upon arrival in Moscow your initial thought will surely be, to quote an American cultural icon, “We’re not in Kansas anymore.” The lines at passport control in Sheremetyevo Airport are hardly lines at all, but more like amorphous masses of people that from time to time break off an individual like a ripened fruit and force it through the appropriate open channel. You then approach Russian customs officials, to whom you must declare everything in your possession, including of course your instrument and all of your cash as well. Not until you’ve passed through both of these
checkpoints do you ever get sight of the people who may be meeting you. For me, this meant trying to find the composer Yuri Kasparov, a man I had seen only in a photograph on a CD booklet, but with whom I’d established a pen-pal like friendship over the past three years. Mr. Kasparov is the Music Director of the Moscow Contemporary Music Ensemble, as well as an internationally renowned composer. I had made contact with him three years before this trip after purchasing a CD by his ensemble that featured Valeri Popov’s performance of the composer’s Sonata-Infernale for bassoon solo. Dragging my bassoon, my carry-on, and my overloaded suitcase through the exit, I was met not by a composer holding a sign with my name on it, but by a great crowd of heavily dressed people waiting for family, friends, business associates, etc. As I passed down between the mass of faces, I saw the man from the CD booklet near the exit. I called out, “Yuri?,” and was met with an affectionate hug by my new friend. We walked out into what was, being a new resident of Arizona, the coldest weather I’d felt since I left the Mid-West. Even as I was about to remark on the frigid air, Yuri stopped my words cold by commenting how warm it was in Moscow. This was another indication that, depending upon my perspective, I would be in for several surprises over the course of the next two weeks. As you drive to downtown Moscow from the airport, you might have difficulty distinguishing the Russian countryside from its American equivalents. You’ll pass a McDonald’s, several billboards for European cosmetics, and the inevitable cigarette ad. If you glance quickly at the cigarette ad, you’ll notice the picturesque Arizona landscape, with young beautiful models leaning over a brokendown Cadillac in front of an old service station (smoking, of course). Look a little closer and you’ll see that one thing isn’t quite right. Instead of the sign on the service station reading “Gas” or “Texaco,” the Russian version has the words “Pinute Butter” across the top of the building. This seemed hysterical to me until my friend asked if the average American would be able to notice mistakes in Cyrillic words posted in an ad for Russian vodka. Point taken: Exoticism sells, mistakes and all. The cigarette ad on the road into Moscow was
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MAKING MODERN MUSIC IN MOSCOW: A TRAVELOGUE
not the last time I’d see the all-pervading influence of Madison Avenue on Leningradsky Prospekt. It was hard not to feel embarrassed when I saw how many US companies have defaced the look of Moscow with their billboards and advertisements. The McDonald’s restaurants are the size of city blocks, and are packed full with people, while terrific little Russian restaurants nearby are nearly empty. You can buy Baskin-Robbins Ice Cream everywhere, provided you are prepared to pay about $5 a scoop. Chevrolet dealerships occupy buildings as large as hospitals, yet barely any resident can afford anything more than the brokendown domestic autos. Always and everywhere there are the cigarette ads. No streetcorner is without its enormous gaudy billboard, no wall without its scene of the Marlboro man telling both young and old Muscovites to light up. “Lighten up” was the advice I tried to give myself, hoping that these businesses might in some way be helping to put the city on its way toward economic prosperity. But I was here for music, wasn’t I? Why not try and adopt the stance of a visiting artist, not of a selfrighteous tourist? Why not just do the job I came to do and go home? Thankfully, my host and my soon-to-be new friends had another kind of trip in mind for me. Russian Hospitality With the help of several travel guides, I had tried to prepare myself a little before leaving for Moscow by learning about cultural differences, by attempting to brush up on my Russian history, and by setting some goals regarding which museums to visit and which sights to see. I gleaned from the guides that Russians are a generous people, self-deprecating to their very soul, and not afraid to pull out all the stops in seeing that their guests are comfortable. My first witness to this was when I learned that Yuri had arranged for me to have an apartment all to myself, where I could practice without bothering anyone. I was provided with a stocked refrigerator, a kitchen of my own, and all the mod cons. Having this apartment also left me free to live pretty much like I do at home, meaning I could spend hours and hours in front of the TV. Forget CNN, forget Crossfire, or This Week with David Brinkley. If you want to learn about the average Russian’s ideas about America, you must watch Russian television. The first thing you’ll notice is how great a percentage of what you watch in Russia was actually made in America. I watched reruns of NBC’s Homicide, with only one male voice and one female voice doing all the overdubs. The same two voices could be heard coming from many characters the next afternoon in Santa
Barbara. But American reruns don’t tell the whole story, as these are imported whole, like McDonald’s. The rest of the story is told in native programs like one that was supposed to be set in Texas. A police story, it was peopled by Texas Ranger-types who cooked spaghetti and served it with no sauce. Instead, these “typical Americans” added ketchup, Tabasco and grated parmesan cheese at the table. They dressed in clothes emblazoned with American flags on their arms or shoulders, and even the smallest cabin had a large American flag in the corner. All the children wore cowboy hats, and it seemed everyone drove green El Dorados. Anyone who thinks American television has reached rock-bottom in the Trash TV genre has not yet seen Russia’s equivalent. Hard Copy has nothing on Catastrophe, a kind of apocalyptic version of Candid Camera in which the producers stage public accidents waiting to happen, then set the cameras rolling. On the episode I saw, a studio audience roared with laughter as they watched a disabled car being placed in the middle of a busy Moscow street. The car was left in the center lane, just after a blind curve, and the point of the joke was to watch as speeding cars swerved around the stopped one. How would the new ratings board for American TV deal with that one? We are also accustomed to programs ending and beginning at the top of the hour or at the half hour. Often, such is not the case on Russian TV, but to their credit the extra time is filled with excerpts from cultural events. The definition of “culture” could be pretty loose, however. I saw everything from excerpts of recitals by Vladimir Spivakov and Dmitri Hvorostovsky to a music video of a translated version of “the Macarena.” Commercials, a sure sign that capitalism has reached this land, are as much a part of television here as anywhere. You can watch the same helpless Mentos girl get her car blocked by the same inconsiderate businessman, and be helped by the beefy but decidedly non-Russian-looking workers, all to the memorable Mentos melody. The Energizer Bunny walks through the streets of Moscow too, but at the sign-off the word “Energizer” is sung to the first four pitches of “The Song of the Volga Boatmen.” Making Music After immersing myself in the sights and sounds of my first Moscow day, I eventually had to get to work and begin rehearsals for the first concert, a performance of Gunther Schuller’s Sextet for Bassoon and Piano Quintet. Yuri drove me to the Ministry of Culture, a large gray building in an area
of the city that seemed to me to look more like an industrial park than a center of culture. This impression, though seemingly unkind, was one that would return throughout my stay. Under the former Soviet system, the arts were treated much as any other commodity, as if art or music was a product which could be systematically maintained like an industry. A tragic fact of life in the postSoviet era is that government support for the arts, which was reliable under the old regime, simply does not exist in the New Russia. The average musician’s salary in Moscow is an incredible $50 to $100 a month. The Russian National Orchestra, perhaps the best orchestra in the entire country, plays its concerts on folding music stands. However, if you think that the Russian musicians have adopted a defeatist attitude toward the present situation, think again. Upon entering the Ministry of Culture, I heard the end of a rehearsal of the Symphony #9 by the Georgian Merab Gagnidze. As frustrating as it is to admit, it is nearly impossible to hear contempo rary music played by American orchestras, and here I was listening to one of Moscow’s many fine ensembles digging into the score with relish. There were no repeated interruptions to stop for explanations, or for misbehaving musicians. Instead, here were nearly one hundred players treating this odd piece with the same attention they would give to a Chaikovsky symphony. Too good to be true? I hoped not. After the orchestra rehearsal, I met my colleagues for the Schuller, all members of the orchestra except the pianist. Luckily for me, we had the assistance of the young conductor Mark Kadin. His lack of English skills, and my lack of Russian, was overcome by a mutual knowledge of French. Although one might hope that a sextet would not require a conductor, the difficulties of Schuller’s tricky score were more quickly overcome thanks to Marks assistance. The next meeting of this group took on particular significance for me when I was told where it was to be held. The seven of us met the next afternoon at the Russian Union of Composers, in what was once the office of Tikhon Khrennikov, former General Secretary of the Soviet Union of Composers. As I stood outside the office looking at the nameplate that still hangs there, I felt a chill when I realized that I was probably in the very same spot where once stood Dmitri Shostakovich and any number of other composers while awaiting the news of their fates from the authorities. The greatest irony lay inside the office, which still contains Khrennikov’s desk and chair. Above and behind them on the wall now hangs the most
imposing object in the room: a large portrait of Shostakovich. The Union and House of Composers An organization that has no parallel in the
American musical scene is the Moscow Union of Composers. This group, along with the Russian Union of Composers, was formerly known as the Soviet Union of Composers (names seem to change faster than traffic lights in Russia.) It is at one and the same time a professional organization and an extended family, a close-knit group of like minded individuals and a conglomeration of unrelated artists. The Union of Composers meets, lives, works and shares at the House of Composers, located in the heart of the artistic district of Moscow. Within a few small blocks one can find the Moscow Conservatory, the Mayakovsky Theater, the apartments of many renowned musicians, artists, and film directors and this important center of Russian and Soviet musical history. Though every room in these two buildings has seen its own special history, no room is more central to the experience than the cafe on the second floor. Decorated in a style that combines 1950’s Western ranch, 1960’s Chinese restaurant chic, and an East/West neon bonanza, this cafe, or “buffet” as the composers called it, is full at all hours of the day and night. As you enter the smokefilled interior and belly-up to the bar, you’ll find fantastic espresso, surprisingly good Russian beer, tasty Armenian cognac, Red October chocolate bars, a small bistro menu that includes crab salad and red caviar, and at least five different types of vodka, in a selection that rotates almost daily. Back at the tables, composers now engage in conversations that only ten or fifteen years ago might have had them reported to the authorities. It was at these tables that I heard composers my own age speak of the excitement they felt at the Alternatives Festivals of the late 1980’s where for the first time, auditoriums full of hungry music lovers could listen to recordings of late Stravinsky Schoenberg, Hindemith, and any number of younger composers whose music had, even this short time ago, been banned in their country. Even more remarkable was hearing how a certain professor at the Conservatory would attend concerts in Western Europe, outfitted with a hidden micro phone, then come back to Moscow, meet students late at night behind locked doors, and do the unspeakable: listen to new, un-sanctioned works. It is one thing to read about such situations in a music history text, quite another to hear the tales coming from new friends sitting across a table from
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MAKING MODERN MUSIC IN MOSCOW: A TRAVELOGUE
you. When people who are living in your own time, who grew up in the same era as yourself, speak of having to lock doors before listening to music, then the art which nourishes you day after day begins to take on an importance that it did not have before. It was impossible to hear people say that they could have their careers ended because they expressed interest in, or intimate knowledge of, the music of certain composers, and not come away feeling somehow unfairly privileged. At the same time, it was difficult not to feel a strange kind of envy for them, because their knowledge and love of this music was so much more deeply personal thanks to these risks. Edison Denisov Music lovers in the West, if they know anything of contemporary Russian composers, may know the names of Alfred Schnittke, Sofia Gubaidulina, and perhaps Edison Denisov. But while Schnittke and Gubaidulina have for years lived and worked primarily outside of Russia, Denisov maintained homes in both Moscow and Paris, and never lost touch with the day-to-day workings of the Union of Composers, the classes at the Moscow Conservatory, or the professional lives of his many students and colleagues. Naturally then, all of the people I met at the Union of Composers were worried during the festival because Denisov was in Paris at the time, undergoing surgery for complications from a devastating automobile accident of two years earlier. News from Paris after the first two operations was cautiously optimistic. A third, unexpected operation was needed, and a deeper pallor seemed to fall upon everyone. On the 24th of November, we began rehearsals of a new concerto for bassoon, 8 double basses and 8 timpani, composed for me by Yuri Kasparov. After the rehearsal, Yuri and I returned to the Union of Composers and were met on the stairs by Dmitri Denisov, the composer’s son, and a flutist in the Contemporary Music Ensemble. As Dmitri descended the stairs, he embraced Yuri silently and it was then that I heard that Edison Denisov had died after the third operation. As we entered the cafe on the second floor, all the composers stood to offer their condolences to Dmitri, and to pay their respects to his father’s memory. The sad underlying truth of the situation was that in many ways they were all paying their respects to their own musical father. Almost no door seemed to open for anyone without the assistance of Denisov. That day and long into the night, many composers told me over coffee and cognac that it was Denisov who got them their
first publishing deal, or that Denisov arranged for performances of their music, or that he arranged for commissions, or wrote recommendations, and so on. So that evening, at the concert which was to feature Denisov’s latest work, and which now featured his last work, the mood of the entire crowd assembled was that of the funeral of a member of the family. Dmitri Denisov stayed in Moscow to assist in the performance of the work, titled Women and Birds. As is customary when Russian audiences particularly enjoy a piece, the applause turned from random clapping into a unison rhythm. Everyone stood in tribute to the man, in the room where so much of his music and the music of his many students had been brought to life for the first time. Popov’s Class One of the other highly anticipated moments of my trip was to meet and play for the great Russian bassoon virtuoso, Valeri Popov. Popov must be one of the busiest musicians in all of Moscow, teaching at several schools, playing in orchestras and chamber ensembles, and seemingly seeing to it that music gets played when and where it is supposed to. If someone needed music stands, they called Popov. If they needed a high-quality tape deck, they called Popov. Simply stated, if it wasn’t working, Popov could make it work. On the day I was to perform for Popov, Yuri took me to the neighborhood where the Musical College of the Moscow State Conservatory was located. After maneuvering around a construction site with no evidence of actual construction going on, I arrived at Popov’s class to play a short program of American music for solo bassoon. The program consisted of Leslie Bassett’s Metamorphosen, Kirk O’Riordan’s Temptation, Samuel Adler’s Canto XII, and David Lang’s Press Release. It was in this class that I experienced some of the most attentive listening I have ever received, and after my performance Popov continued to teach the class of 5 students as I listened. There was some truly top-notch playing, even when some of the students were handicapped by instruments in poor condition. Da Svidanya The final evening in Moscow was both unusual and unforgettable. We were to make the recording of 12 Samples at the Small Hall of the Moscow Conservatory. As mentioned earlier, the Conservatory is right in the middle of downtown Moscow, so the recording was scheduled to begin at midnight. This was delayed even further
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because the bassists, all members of the Russian National Orchestra, were called at the last minute to an extra rehearsal demanded by a guest soprano from La Scala.
task that happens with very human regularity. What I took home from this trip, and what all of us could take from our colleagues in Russia, is a little reminder of how important and how vital music is to our daily lives. If it can survive against unimaginable odds in Moscow, then it can and must survive in the rest of the world. Da svidanya! ❖
Valery Popov and his students (Left to Right) Sergei Vorkov, Dmitry Belokpidov, Vitaly Sodnikov, Popov, Jan Back, Dmitry Arseniev.
The recording went on without a hitch, and we packed up everything by about 3 a.m. Then came the task of moving timpani all over Moscow in tiny cars, then moving me to the airport for an early flight home. I left Yuri at the curb of the terminal, as he went back downtown to see to the details of the continuing concerts of Moscow Autumn. Flying home, I noticed that things everywhere seemed to happen a little more predictably than in Moscow, a little more on schedule, with a little less panic. Yet, they were also happening without that sense of achievement that comes from overcoming the inevitable roadblocks, locked doors, and helpless shoulder shrugs of every Moscow official. Simple logistics will never be taken for granted again by this musician. Nearly every minute of every day of my trip, every Russian I met was apologizing for this or that problem of day-to-day life in their country. I only wish I could show them the opposite side, with a glimpse into a musician’s life in America. I wish I could show them how an American orchestra will refuse to work five minutes longer to finish a piece if their rehearsal clock says it’s time to finish. Or, how so many American musicians seem more concerned with finding flaws in their contracts rather than finding ways to improve their music. Before my trip, many people asked if I was going to bring old reeds, equipment or cane to give to the bassoonists in Moscow. The truth is, these musicians don’t need American charity or sympathy, but our respect. Making music in Moscow, modern or otherwise, is a superhuman
Jeffrey Lyman in concert at the House of Composers, Moscow.
(A Recent Footnote: While visiting with Valeri Popov in Evanston, he pointed out a small error in the announcement made in Bassoonists’ News of Interest. He reminded me that the new work I played in Moscow by Yuri Kasparov was called 12 Samples of Interrelations between Bassoon, 8 Double Basses and 8 Timpani, while the Concerto for Bassoon is another completely different work by Kasparov, that Popov himself premiered last Fall in Stavanger, Norway. This detail is important when you realize how often and how well Mr. Kasparov composes for bassoon. Mr. Popov and Mr. Kasparov both deserve proper credit for continuing to champion the bassoon around the world.)
About the Author … Dr. Jeffrey Lyman is Assistant Professor of Bassoon at Arizona State University in Tempe.
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TO THE WORLD’S BASSOONISTS (TWB) 1972 V2 #3 1973 V3 #2 V3 #3 1974 V4 #1
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JOURNAL 1973 1975 1976 1978
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How to make
UltraLyte by Arthur L. Gudwin, M.D.
Author of: A make-it-yourself Belly Guard
High Fiber, Low Cholesterol...not tested on animals
...contains vast quantities of photos!!!
It’s for bassoonists.
...it’s a good thing
The astonishing method of reed construction for the space
ired of carrying around those old-fashion heavy reeds that need three wires, string, and glue? Sick of waiting for the damned things to break-in? Now a real Doctor reveals his discovery based on 36 years of intensive research, endless bassoon camps, seminars, personal communications, and pure inspiration!
Here are instructions for a fool proof method of bassoon reed construction. We begin with shaped, profiled cane. The traditional construction method consists of soaking the cane, possibly beveling the inside edges of the tube portion, folding it, placing three brass wires, and inserting (forcing in) a mandrel to form the tube. Then the binding is applied, usually string, followed by some glue or other sealant. Generally this method works well. I made hundreds of reeds that way but there were always problems— splits, poor seal, and especially asymmetry of the two halves at the throat near the first wire. There was always the need to return to the mountain to watch the gurus do it right. My personal experience, guru-wise, has been with Lou Skinner, Norman Herzberg, Philip Kolker, Keith Bowen, and Mark Popkin. All of those gentlemen teach variations of the traditional construction method.
There are even books written by the original Heckel Bassoon makers showing the same general steps. They called for lubricating the forming mandrel with goose grease, something found in every bassoonist’s kitchen in the 1830’s! An alternate way of forming the tube portion of the reed is that promoted by Don Christlieb. These instructions show a variation on his method and a new method of binding. The Christlieb method involves placing the soaked cane on a mandrel and applying many windings of a strong rubber band to the tube portion, then allowing the cane to dry on the mandrel for at least three days. In order to prevent air leaks, Christlieb gives special attention to the beveling of the inside edges of the cane where the tube halves are to meet. After the cane has spent three days on the drying mandrel under the force of the rubber bands, the
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HOW TO MAKE ULTRALYTE EASY PLAYING BASSOON REEDS
material has no more desire to return to its previous contour. Christlieb then binds the two halves together with four wires and applies a plastic material to the tube which hardens into a red blob. The reeds do not leak because of the beveling and because of the very extensive binding. By the way, his reeds play great. In my method the cane is applied to a drying mandrel, but no beveling need be done. The tube edges are trued up against a sanding block after the drying period. Okay, here is my recipe: There are three main steps: First, the formation of the tube on the mandrel; second, the sanding of the tube halves against a flat surface; and third, the binding. You may form the tube per my instructions and then proceed to bind and wrap the tube in the traditional way (three wires, string and glue). Or for the full wonder of the UltraLyte style, you use only two wires then wrap the tube end with mylar (“MonoKote”). A tight binding is not needed because the tube has been properly trimmed to prevent air leakage. The tools for the first step include a heatable forming mandrel, preferably made of brass, with a heat resistant handle. Mine was obtained from Pfeiffer many years ago. A gas stove or butane burner is nice for heating the mandrel. Christlieb Products sells an electric hot mandrel but I haven’t tried it. I use a heated mandrel to only partially form the tube, then the cane is placed on the drying mandrel. For the drying mandrel I have a great discovery—it’s a “scratch awl” made by Stanley, (69-007), and is available at most hardware stores. I have six of them in case I want to have several reed blanks drying at a time. It is the right size and taper for this process. It is rust proof, and is designed with a flat side on the handle (to
prevent rolling). And it is also flat at the bottom so it can stand on your living room mantle! I start with shaped, profiled cane. I’ve had very good results with Christlieb Cane, Jones Cane, and numerous others. Of course you can use your own home shaped and profiled cane as well. (I’ve even grown my own arundo
Three reeds drying on the mantle. donax). Try to avoid shapes that are too narrow at the tube portion because some stock is removed during the process as you will see. Soak the cane overnight or until it sinks. Place the cane on an easel to help locate the exact middle and lightly score the cane across at that point then fold it in half. A temporary brass wire (the standard #22 soft brass wire used by most reed makers) is placed at the general location of the first wire—the wire near the “shoulder” of the reed. I twist it on the side to remind me it’s temporary. This wire should be made quite tight because it will prevent any splits from extending to the blade. I learned that trick from Bob Williams (Detroit). In forming the tube I have not found it necessary to score or cut into the cane as is often recommended for “damage control”. A hot mandrel steams the cane enough to soften it a little (if it’s done slowly), so major cracks or splits are rare. Next, wrap the tube end with some butcher’s twine or a piece of leather (shown below). Heat the forming mandrel (but not to glowing) and push it into the wet reed for about an inch and wait until the sizzling stops. In fact, wait about 30 seconds—it gives the little veggie a chance to cook. Remove the mandrel and heat it again. Wet the reed
again and reinsert the hot mandrel and push it so the tip goes well beyond the wire. Wait 30 seconds again. Don’t worry if you don’t yet have a perfect tube—the drying step will take care of that. Remove the mandrel and the leather or string and wet the reed again. Now push the drying mandrel (the Stanley scratch awl) into the tube end a little past the wire until the butt end of the cane is about 5 cm. (2") from the end of the handle. This distance will vary depending on the width of the shape at the
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tube portion of the cane. 5 cm. works well for Christlieb cane which is about 6 mm. longer than most other cane pieces. The idea here is to push the mandrel in far enough so that after the reed is wrapped with the rubber band, the two halves of the tube do not touch each other. You will learn by trial and error the correct distance for each style of cane shape, but try to be consistent.
hold the reed up to the light there is a clearish area near the shoulder ledge. Although I try to prevent that from happening, it does not mean the reed will not be good. In fact, one of the reed styles taught by Lou Skinner was his “Windsor Mill Window” which had an extra bit of cane intentionally taken off near the shoulder, which gave the reed a special playing quality, but I forget what that quality was! (Windsor Mill is the Baltimore suburb where Skinner lived before retiring to Maine).
In this step you will see why no beveling was done prior to forming the tube. In fact, the condition of the sides of the shape has been ignored so far. Wet the tip area before removing the cane from the drying mandrel so that it will not be so brittle and break apart when you unfold it. But leave the rest of the cane piece dry. Cut the rubber band and remove the cane from the mandrel. Unfold the cane and sand the two halves of the tube against a sanding block. Use medium grit— about 120. Press hardest in the area of the tube where the first and second wires will go (see arrow in above photo). Try to sand the two halves approximately the same number of rubs. Sand onto the blade about 1 cm just lightly. The next photos show three stages of the process. You will note that due to the sanding, the tube is not quite circular, but rather two ellipses—Don’t worry—it’s fine. When construction is complete the tube must be reamed. The main concern is that the reed be air-tight without the need for a tight binding.
The reason the two halves should not touch is that you want the cane to form against the perfect symmetrical steel of the mandrel rather than be crushed against itself resulting in asymmetric distortion of the cane. The goal here is that the arch of the cane at the shoulder or first wire should be the same for both halves of the reed. This is one of the strong points of this construction method—matching blade contours. Next wrap the tube portion of the reed onto the mandrel with a strong rubber band. (I use the ones that come with the mail or newspaper). Simply cut it and wind it from the wire to the butt. Make it nice and tight. Then tuck the end under the last turn to secure it. Now let the cane dry for three or more days. You can make as many of these as you have Stanley scratch awls. I always have several reeds in this condition. They can be left indefinitely until you are ready to do the final assembly. There is a little more work that can be done while the reed is waiting on the drying mandrel: Remove the wire after a day or two (or longer). and file a ledge to delineate the shoulder. A simple nail file works well but will need periodic replacement. Don’t file too much—there is no “undo” button to click. The sharp shoulder ledge is useful for measuring the length of the blade later when you clip open the tip. Oh I know—many prefer to measure from between the loops of the first wire, but the wire can move. It’s a little like using driving directions that say “turn left at the dog”. The shoulder ledge will stay put. Also, filing away the slope that is usually present on machine profiled cane makes the reed play less stuffy. Sometimes I find I have removed a little too much cane and when I later
Three days later...
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HOW TO MAKE ULTRALYTE EASY PLAYING BASSOON REEDS
Carefully sand across the butt end of the tube to make it even. Now apply the two wires. First apply the second wire (or “middle” wire borrowing from the terminology of reeds with three wires). This is the tighter of the two wires, but not so tight as to dent the cane. Position it about 1 cm. from the shoulder ledge. Then apply the first wire. All reed gurus try to have this wire applied as evenly as possible. Christlieb’s film shows him holding the wire with two pin-vises so it can be wound around the shoulder area with even tension. Don’t forget—the tube has started to flair at this point making it difficult to apply the wire evenly by simply pulling and twisting. The way Lou Skinner taught to apply the first wire is as follows: Wind the wire just above the second wire, snug it up a little, then shove it up to the shoulder with a needle nose pliers (or your thumb nails). Then just twist it a little more and you’re done. This has the effect of distributing the pressure of the wire ligature evenly, and it’s a whole lot easier than using pin-vises. No third wire (near the butt) is used in my method. My theory is that this wire’s main use is to force the cane halves together tightly to make it well sealed. This tightness contributes greatly to the prolongation of the break-in period. Of course the cane hardens during the first two or three uses. But beyond that, there is the need for the cane to recover from the crushing it receives from the wires, especially the third. After a while the binding finally loosens up a little and the reed plays much better. Norman Herzberg teaches that new reeds should be put aside for a few months if possible. In my opinion they need this aging-in to allow time for the cane to loosen up under the wires, especially the third wire. In the Herzberg method some cane is removed from the sides of the butt end of the future tube portion prior to inserting the forming mandrel. Then the third wire forces the tube closed. This manoeuvre helps keep the tip from collapsing but adds to the need for a period of aging. During this waiting time, there are many fluctuations in humidity which act like mini soakings and dryings. Gradually the cane becomes thinner at the wires and the reed plays more freely. My reeds do not need this waiting period. Period. By now you have guessed that my method of reed construction relies on accurate trueing-up of the tube edges rather than brute force to create a good seal. Since the binding is not tight enough to force its way into the cane, no aging is needed. Sure, the blades will require some scraping as they harden, But they will play freely from the first use. If you find that the reed tips tend to collapse, you can apply more pressure on the back end of the cane halves when sanding. This will give the tube a configuration that will open the tip more. Just experiment. It depends on the cane and the shape. The style of the scrape also affects the tendency of the tip to stay open.
Now the fun part—the mylar! To apply the wrapping you will need a product called MonoKote. It is available in most hobby shops. MonoKote is normally used to cover model airplanes. It is made of mylar (which is clear) with a colorful heat activated adhesive on the inner side. It comes in many colors ranging from clear colorless to transparent or opaque colors. even metallic colors such as gold and silver or metal flake are available. It comes on rolls that are about two yards long by 30" wide. One roll will last you several careers, but you will probably need at least one other roll of another color so you can make spectacular designs. If you know anyone who makes radio control model airplanes, ask him to save his MonoKote scraps for you. Mylar shrinks when heated, but just enough to take out the wrinkles. It does not tighten enough to distort the cane, and it is not elastic when cooled. The heat activated adhesive sticks well to soft woods such as balsa, but to get good adhesion to cane bark you should do the following: Lightly scrape, file, or sand the bark from the butt to the “middle” wire. Then apply a tiny dab of Duco cement to the roughened cane and smear it around. In fact, smear most of it off. Now cut a small strip of MonoKote about 1/2" wide by 6" long (approximately). You will need an iron (hot) to apply the material to the reed. You can leave the iron in its standing position leaving both your hands free. Tack one end of the Monokote to the cane at the middle wire with the iron. Then wind the material snugly along and beyond the end of the tube. You can use a mandrel to help hold the reed, but push it in very loosely so it does not force the tube halves open. Now iron the Monokote onto the reed and while it is still hot, press the material firmly onto the reed with your fingers. Cut the mylar off flush with the end of the tube with a sharp X-Acto knife. Now you might want to add a trim piece. Cut a thin strip of another color and apply it anyway you want. These pictures show additional trim strips of
white being applied over the candy-apple red to create a Barber of Seville reed. You may have noticed I have not included any pictures of a clothes iron being used. That is because I no longer do it that way. Instead I use a
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MonoKote heat gun and a small Top Flite Trim Seal Tool. Both are available at the same hobby shops that sell MonoKote. An ordinary hair dryer will not do—it’s not anywhere near hot enough.
Reaming is always required due to the distortion of the lumen of the tube caused by the sanding. This is easily accomplished with the standard reamers available. I use the Rieger and the Popkin reamers, shown above. This step is done while the reed is still dry. At this point the construction of the reed is complete but I will share a few of my thoughts on the final trim.
MonoKote heat gun
If you can’t stand the idea of not having a ball of string at the end of your reeds (John Miller says the ball gives the reed a good handle), you can apply string and glue and paint the tube, but without the third wire, and still have a good result. Make sure not to use any aliphatic resin glues such as white furniture glue or Elmer’s Glue. These are water soluble before they dry and will wick into the string onto the cane and glue the whole thing together so firmly that it kills the vibrations of the reed. Trust me on this—I’ve done it! In fact, that’s what gave me the idea to move towards a non-constricting binding. A coat of Duco cement on the string is fine. Sometimes only paint will do the trick as in this camouflaged reed for combat gigs (above). There are lots of possibilities for creative expression. These mylar bound reeds are covered with chrome colored MonoKote followed by some words
printed on paper, then covered with clear red MonoKote. You can put your name on there or an emergency message such as, “Help! I’m a prisoner in a bassoon reed factory”. I never have two reeds that look the same. It would be hard to remember which is which, especially when you have “too many reeds” as Loren Glickman once observed when he saw my desk!
Clip the reed at 27 mm. from the shoulder ledge. Whenever I leave the blades longer than that there is instability of this C# and single finger E. I use the Popkin reed clipper. It is very easy to use on new, unopened reeds. Once a reed has been opened and needs further
clipping, though, there is a tendency for this tool to give unequal lengths to the two blades because the top and bottom blades can distort unequally just
as they are clipped. To get around this on already opened reeds I use the Popkin clipper to locate the outside edges of the proposed cut. This is possible because there is a straight and true indentation in the plastic anvil area of the tool. Mark the edges with a pencil, and cut it with an end nipper, scissors, or razor blade/cutting block. I find it difficult to get a true straight across cut by simply eyeballing it.
Several years ago I bought a few reeds from Lou Skinner. They were great. But the first one I tried had an unstable C# in spite of the 27 mm. blade length. I called his home in Jonesport, Maine. He said to cut off another mm. It was perfect after that. Speaking of Lou Skinner, he used to sell two handy
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HOW TO MAKE ULTRALYTE EASY PLAYING BASSOON REEDS
tools that I use frequently. These are probably no longer available but are easy to make for yourself. The upper item is a section of a rat tail file. The tip is 0.173" in diameter and at the handle the diameter is 0.223" (1.125" from the tip). There is a mark inscribed 5/8" from the tip. This file is used to do a final reaming of the tube when it is wet. It is used only the for the portion of the tube that will be around the crook. Sometimes a reed will leak around the crook area if it has not been used in a while. This file/reamer corrects that problem with the slightest counterclockwise turn. The other item is a thin mandrel for increasing the arch of the reed at the first wire—from the inside. It can be made from a nail. The shaft is 0.14" in diameter. It is 2" in length. I find it very useful. Another handy item, but at the “high end”, is the tip profiler from Rieger in Gaggenau, Germany, a town devoted to the manufacture of Mercedes Benz cars and trucks. Once a reed has been clipped, it can be placed on this gadget and you can do a final scrape of the 1.4 cm of the tip area. Theoretically, this profiler has been customized to match some reeds you have liked and sent to Rieger. It is ironic that we use such a precise tool (the dial indicator is another) for working with cane, a perverse organic agricultural material—a “veggie” as Mark Popkin likes to point out. But at least the
tip profiler will make the tips of both blades the same thickness and general contour, and you can easily tell which half of the reed is thicker. One common cause for unequal thickness of the two blades is failure to fold the cane exactly in half in the early steps. The gadget can also be used to check the squareness of the tip (assuming that squareness is desirable). The transverse line on the anvil can be used to mark the cane for correcting the cut with a razor, scissors, or rose shears. Again, the tip profiler is a luxury item! Monokote costs about $13.00 per roll. The material is packaged on a layer of clear plastic and rolled onto a cardboard tube. Do not confuse this clear plastic with the actual mylar. If you want to pursue this technique, the other
costs are those of the heat gun and the trim tool (tacking iron). They each cost about $25.00. For a reed making method to be good, one must be good at it. My own learning time was slowed by my initial reluctance to sand the tube halves enough to provide a good mechanical seal. If you sand the tubes against the sanding block adequately, your learning curve will be short, because the method is essentially fool proof. It’s simple woodworking—the two tube halves must be sanded so the sides are true, smooth, and flat. I was afraid, at first, to sand onto the blade portion of the reed. I had this erroneous concept that the blades hit each other when they vibrate, and that sanding them to prevent air leakage would spoil the sound. Not true! What spoils the sound is having to use excess ligature pressure from the wires — assuming you have good cane, as well as good gouge, shape, and profile. I almost never tighten the two wires after a reed is finished. In the dry weather they just take more time to soak and swell to form a seal. Finally, I would like to take advantage of the privilege of the floor by relating a few short anecdotes about Lou Skinner that I remember from the Miller/Skinner Bassoon Symposia during the years Mr. Skinner was alive and teaching reed making at that inspiring yearly event. Three scenes come to mind: In one, Lou would look up at the class in the middle of a session and say, “You don’t have to be crazy to do this, but it helps.” Now I know he did not invent that comment, but it was especially amusing when told by a kind old bespectacled man sitting in the middle of a pile of cane scraps, tools, hot plates, strings, wires, and papers. Many times he started class a few minutes late and would say, “I’m sorry I’m late, but it’s such a nice day I thought I’d walk.” This was especially effective when the weather was ghastly. Once, during the time of the Contra rebellion in Nicaragua, he started class by saying, “I have an important political statement to make — I am for the contras!” (Lou played contra.) But I digress... My phone number is listed below. If you have questions about this process, I can be reached most evenings (Eastern Time) at: (410) 647-8677. My e-mail address is [email protected]
My snail mail address is: 3 Cedar Point Road Severna Park, MD 21146
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A Nearly Foolproof Method of Forming Bassoon Reeds By Nicola A. Adamo Heidelberg, Germany
onestly, now, how many reed blades have split on you during forming of the tube, despite the most adroit use of your skill and tools? More than you care to admit? Would it make you happy if you could form your reeds with relative nonchalance and impunity, and, a nearly 99 and 44/100s percent chance of success, reed after reed after reed? And, achieving this without any particular difficulty, special gadgets, twine (wet or dry), steam, and without the use of a forming mandrel (cold or hot)? Does that sound like day-dreaming or wishful thinking? It isn’t and it is within easy grasp if you use my method and follow my instructions. Read on! The method is simplicity itself, requires no particular re-learning or other digression from the classical formation of the tube other than the use of an extra piece of wire, but it does work, and with an uncanny rate of success at that. The method is as follows: After having adequately soaked the folded, shaped and scored cane blank usually, I put the profiled blanks I want to shape and form in water when I go to bed and fold, shape, score ((four scores, centered and two millimeters apart, thus avoiding the longitudinal center line of the reed to be)) and form in the morning) I place two wires (0.6mm or 24 gauge) one ahead of and one behind the first wire mark and wind them in opposite directions. These I pull up as tight as possible without making the cane buckle and keeping the blades aligned. Squeeze the four resulting rings or strands together so they form practically a band approximately 2-1/2mm wide, then drive a short mandrel into the end of the reed blank and carefully push it in until it is within four to five millimeters of the registration mark. Check your work. All should be well. Now, give the tube portion a preliminary squeezing to completely open the scores with the reed pliers (oval hole preferred) or a pair of smooth-jawed pliers. This squeezing operation will also partially form the throat of the reed. Now comes the magic moment! Drive the mandrel all the way in to the registration mark. If all went as is should have you may now push the mandrel in up to one millimeter beyond the registration mark which will help to compensate for the eventual shrinkage during drying. Then I follow with wires two and three (0.7mm or 22 gauge).
Tighten all four wires, squeeze the tube portion (behind the double wire) so that the cane properly assumes the configuration of the mandrel and voilá, a beautifully formed reed blank with an excellent transition from round to an ellipse and a longitudinal arch to the tip of the blades and, no splits beyond the first wire and seldom checks worthy of mention. With reasonable care the blades practically align themselves during tightening of the double wires. Should there nonetheless be any slight discrepancy, it can be eliminated at this point either with the thumb and forefinger shifting the blades laterally into position or better, using a pair of smooth-jawed pliers. Additionally, the ellipse at the heel of the blades can also be regulated at this time so that the arch ahead of the first wire meets individual preference. Finally, adjust the tip of the blank so the blades form a straight line (a spring type clothespin is handy for this, if necessary) and set aside to dry for at least 48 hours. You may or may not want to chamfer the end of the tube at this time. Prior to developing this technique I used to employ the forming mandrel, more frequently than not, with destructive results. I have experimented with the forming mandrel on several occasions since then and despite the double wire I ended up with destructive splits ahead of the first wire and into the blades. In considering this phenomenon I came to the conclusion that the long mandrel exerts excess pressure from the inside out thus causing the blades to split. The twine method, wet or dry, is also not the answer because it does not apply the pressure needed with the necessary force at the point required. Of the last 600 reeds I made ten split during the tube forming operation. That comes to approximately 0.015 percent. You be the judge. Oh yes, the two wires. When I get ready to wrap the reed I discard them and substitute a single 0.7mm wire in the ordinary manner. Afterthoughts and further considerations: 1) You do not have to soak the cane all night. A profiled blank will be completely saturated within two hours. The reason I do it this way is because I am an early riser and this fits best into my pattern of living. 2) Four scores rather than “many” will result in a stronger tube and also provides for a better transition from the round portion of the tube that
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A NEARLY FOOLPROOF METHOD OF FORMING BASSOON REEDS
fits over the bocal to the throat and on to the tips of the blades. 3) If you do not have a pair of reed pliers with an oval hole you would do well to acquire a pair of smooth-jawed pliers. They are excellent for shifting the blades of the reed as well as protecting the bark from destruction through chewing up during squeezing of the cane on the mandrel during forming of the tube and throat. They are also useful in shifting the blades even after the reed is finished. But, use the plaque fully inserted when doing this. And, proceed carefully. 4) My reeds measure 58mm: tube=30mm; blades=28mm. 5) Wire placement: first wire=25mm; second wire=16mm; third wire=6mm. 6) The reason for letting the formed reed dry at least 48 hours is to insure that the relative humidity drops down to ambient values (aprox. 15%). 7) NEVER wrap a reed that has not fully dried. It will not come off the mandrel. In this connec-
tion, save yourself a lot of trouble and avoid the possibility of destroying a reed after having invested so much labor by buying yourself a good wrapping mandrel with an ejector. I assure you that after using it for the very first time you’ll wonder how you ever got along without it. In conclusion I hope the foregoing will be of assistance to fellow reed makers, reduce the number of failures and ban the distress associated therewith and, bring back a ray of sunshine into reed making. ❖
About the Author … Nicola Adamo is a graduate of the Cleveland Institute of Music where he studied bassoon with George Goslee. After a distinguished career as a musician and conductor in the US Army from 1947 to 1971, where he rose to the rank of Major, he now resides in Heidelberg, Germany.
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The History of the Oboe Class at the Prague Conservatoire By Miloslav Masier Prague, Czech Republic
he art of playing wind instruments has a great and long tradition in Prague. I have already written about the “bassoon class” in the Double Reed, Vol. 18.3, Winter 95, page 46. I will now briefly introduce the history of the oboe class of the Prague Conservatoire. The Prague Conservatoire was founded in the beginning of the second decade of the last century, when initiative from the old Czeck aristocratic circles couldn’t afford to maintain numerous orchestras. First, an “Association for Promoting the Music in Bohemia” was established which mediated the foundation of the Conservatoire, cared for its cultural mission, and secured economic conditions for the Conservatoire’s existence until its nationalization in 1919. Since then the Conservatoire has fulfilled its mission more than well. For example, the pupils’ orchestra was admired by Berlioz, Wagner and Liszt, the latter having played some of his works with them. Graduates of the Prague Conservatoire, for example include: Josef Slavik, Otakar Éevcík, Ondrîcek, Jan Kubelîk and Kocian, from among composers Antonín Dvorák, V. Novák and Josef Suk, and conductors Václav Talich and Rapael Kubelik. The following professors of oboe worked at Prague Conservatoire: Ludvík Fischer (1811 - 1819) Bedrick Bauer (1820 - 1824) Josef Zomb (1825 - 1832) Bedrick Bauer (1832 - 1870) Arnost König (1870 - 1913) Ladislav Skuhrovsky (1913 - 1940) Josef Deda (1940 - 1945) Dr. Václav Smetácek (1945 - 1956; he was the chief conductor of the Prague orchestra FOK and world famous conductor) Adolf Kubát (1948 - died on the 3rd of November 1980, at the age of 81) The Prague Conservatoire was honored in 1842 at the inauguration of Mozart’s statue in Salzburg. Artists and pupils of the Prague Conservatoire were invited to play at this event, among them oboist Jan Vozka, clarinetist Antonín Mauerman, bassoonists Alois Kössel and Antoním Straka and bombardon-player Václav Jakeé. Their performance met with a high appreciation.
Although the wind section at that time was mainly oriented to the education of orchestra artists, a great attention was paid also to the chamber music. For example, the pupils of the wind section played as soloists in festival concerts at the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Conservatoire’s foundation, among them was the bassoonist V. Neukirchner who later became famous as an outstanding soloist throughout Europe. In the beginning, manuals of the Paris Conservatoire were utilized for teaching at the Prague Conservatoire, but the professors were not satisfied with them. They began to look for their own new ways. For this they composed études and other study materials, mainly for lower classes, some of which are being used at the present time such as L. Milde studies for bassoon. The following are some outstanding graduates of the Prague Consevatoire who excellently worked abroad: - Frantisek Kouba (a famous oboist in Russia, solo-oboist in the Czar Orchestra and professor of the Petersburg Conservatoire) - Antonín Jand’ourek (solo-oboist in Helsingfors, in the Prague National Theatre and in the Court Opera in Vienna who gained a world reputation) - Karel ÉimuÚnek (solo-oboist in Odessa and Helsingfors) - Karel Sika (solo-oboist of the National Theatre and the German Theatre in Prague, further in Lwów, Warsaw and Petersburg) - Oto Siegl (solo-oboist in the Czar Opera in Petersburg) - Jan Cink (solo-oboist in Warsaw and Vienna) - Matyás Hájek (solo-oboist and professor in Würzburg) - Vilém Schubert (solo-oboist of the Czar Opera and professor of the Petersburg Conservatoire, founder of the “Schubert’s Foundation for Woodwind Instruments”) - Vilém Kopta (solo-oboist in Odessa and of the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra) Standards of the wind section of the Prague Conservatoire have continuously increased since the middle of the last century, especially under the guidance of Arnost König (oboe pro-
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THE HISTORY OF THE OBOE CLASS AT THE PRAGUE CONSERVATOIRE
fessor in 1870 - 1913) whose artistic personality influenced the whole section. After Professor König retired, the artistic growth of the wind section was influenced mainly by the flute professor Rudolf Cerny and the bassoon professor Josef Füger, the last outstanding pupil of the professor Ludvík Milde. He later became mayor and honorary member of the “Union of Czech Musicians.” Until recently I myself was the “Executive Secretary”, for concert artistic activities of the “Union of Czech Composers and Concert Artists”, being also a bassoonist. (Ronald Klimko mentioned it in the Vol. 17, No. 1 - Spring 1994, pp. 33-36.) I was in very good personal contacts with the Professor Füger whose pupils were K. Bidlo and K. Pivonka. K. Bidlo was my Conservatoire Professor of the chamber music and K. Pivonka my Professor of bassoon and the Academy of Arts in Prague where later I taught the bassoon and chamber music. In the Prague Conservatoire, one played for a long time in the so-called, “German way.” Only after the Professor Ladislav Skuhrovsky (oboist) and the Professor Artur Holas (clarinetist) started to teach, a change of tone creation occurred. French oboe and clarinet style,” technically bet-
ter equipped and suitable for their efforts to create the Czech way of the tone creation, were introduced in the Prague Conservatoire in 192223. The introduction of these new instrument systems also affected the development of the Czech production of musical instruments. Czech factories, producers and master-instrumentalists started to produced new instruments according to French types (except for the bassoons). They were frequently technically improved by their own innovations as was, for example the oboe in the Prague master Knopf’s workshop. As I have already mentioned in the article on the history of the bassoon class of the Prague Conservatoire, the Prague Conservatoire is modeled after some Italian institutions of this kind and after the Paris Conservatoire. As such it is the oldest school of this kind in Central Europe. That’s why I request that all colleagues, especially the men and women from other countries, write down the history of “our instruments”, the oboe and bassoon. I am convinced that the history of teaching our instruments which has not been written yet, should be recorded. And where else? - in “our magazine.” ❖
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From the Past: Reprints of Double Reed Articles from
83 do likewise. This of course is down a center line.
I have noticed, in many reeds, that a difference of 5 suffers no special defects but invariably this is at the back where slight differences are not so critical, For example one
Magazine [Because of the generosity of bassoonist Betty Asher of Scotts Valley, California, we are able to reprint reproduced articles of double reed interest from the pages of the famous old Woodwind Magazine, many written by and about still-famous artists. Ms.. Asher subscribed to the magazine “... I’ve treasured for years ..."” as a high school student. The following articles are reprinted from the January and September 1949 issues, which cost a whopping 15 cents each back then! We hope to run these reprints as a regular feature in future issues of the Journal and the Double Reed. ED]
blade may read 40, the other 35, both graduating down to 5 at the tip. Half way down the average difference will be 21/2 which is pretty close.
Differences approaching ten, however, are very noticeable in the performance of a reed and any adjustment lessening this difference usually brings about an improvement. Consider now the lateral graduation which diminishes as it approaches the edges, from the center. From 40 it tapers to approximately 33. At the “lips” where the center reads 6 it tapers to 4.
The Reed Problem A Treatise on the Manufacture of Bassoon Reeds Part I - Continued Don
ln our first discussion with John Conzelman, mechanical engineer, Ray Nowlin and I were agreed that if we could think in the terms of, say binding two clarinet reeds back to back and inserting a mandrel we would have a start. Actually our completed machine was based on this principle. Avoiding separate blades was the knotty problem, though a key to the solution. We set about literally dissecting all our reeds to determine, if possible some contours and proportions that would serve as a basis for our first experimental template. We were as surprised as the machinist that micrometer readings of blade against blade and side against side showed agreement within one or two thousandths. Such readings concerned the more successful reeds. In the poor reeds, one that got off to a poor start, or ones in which in one way or another inspired less care,
sandths. Most failures showed an over abundance rather than a lack of wood. This fact alone showed the advantages to be gained by having the cane stripped and “lay” worked in by mechanical means before it is folded and wired, so that all that need be done before the reed produces a tone, is to cut the blades apart. In fact in making them by hand I had a greater success by stripping the maximum bark from the cane while it was still on the shaper.
Lets us begin to think in thousandths. The thickness of a human hair is about three thousandths, so even one is not imperceptable. Let assume that if one blade begins at a thickness of 40 and graduates US
Bear in mind these figures are general. In this lateral taper I believe we make our most frequent error. Here an error of 4 or 5 thousandths difference, one side from the other (same blade) is more critical. It is increasingly so as it occurs toward the “lips” as shown below. It
,,--- -- --
__ _ ---
is not surprising then, in a reed near completion, that this area near the tip is sensitive to the slightest touch of silicon or 8/0 sandpaper. I believe most bassoonists who make their own reeds are thoroughly familiar with these pitfalls, but because handicraft is not necessarily bad, but inconsistent and because our eyes adjust themselves to errors. Because we have not availed ourselves of the better precision instruments of measure, what we start out to do and what we accomplish are two different things. Consecmently we have
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I believe errors in “scraping in” are often pre-determined by the set the cacoon (cane folded and wired ready for scraping and binding) takes as it comes off the mandrel. An unusual set becomes a mental hazard. If this is true then the causes for unusual sets are worth examining. Considering our technique fairly consistent up to this point, I maintain that here at the neck or throat of a reed, with such operations as slitting the cane along the tube, nursing the cane around the mandrel with pliers and cinching the wires, neither the outside radius nor the inside radius are as reliable as before as reference points indicating actual thickness. This forming operation means that the pith of the inner surface will be squeezed and compressed together and the crust of the outer surface will be split and subject to stress, in both cases it will be un-uniform. In fact the very splits or creases in the tubing by the throat will give the outer crust the illusion of being a truer radius than it is. Finally there is the out of round tubing caused by hasty and excessive squeezing with the pliers. Usually one of the halves of the tubing is of slightly different dimension or the slits in the tubing are of faulty distribution. Such distortions present us with psychological problems considering that symmetry aids the hand and eye in this work. Let us catalog a few of the various shapes that the tubing at the throat can take because they do determine the "set" of the “lay” as well as our technique in “scraping in” the “lay”. A silhouette of the “set” can be seen by looking through the back end of the tube, but it is much more reliable when the blades are clipped off for direct observation.
Fig. 1 is normal with degree of radii varying with individual taste from eliptical to round. Fig. 2 is caused by incomplete forming around the mandrel and by the center slits in the tubing predominating to such an extent that actual molding around the mandrel is reduced to a minimum. Fig. 3 is a variation of Fig. 2 caused by excessive squeezing of the sides. Fig. 4 is caused by cinching wire No. 1 with great tension while twisting.
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Figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8 are caused by becoming too thin. After many failhaving the slits in the tubing other ures by this method, I noticed that than the ones in the center predom- aside from the tip there was in all cases an over abundance of cane reinate, either on one side or both. My first great error concerns Fig. maining in the rest of the reed. 2. It was assuming that because the All of us at one time or another outside radius at the neck seemed have faced the problem of adjusting symmetrical and round, the inside the opening of a reed at the lips. It would be symmetrical and round is not always solved by pinching the also. Actually it was angular. Though a beginner, I first learned sides of wire No. 1, or the top and that a great danger lay in scraping bottom of wire No. 2, when the opentoo thin the angular part of the “lay” ing is too narrow, nor by reversing this procedure when it is too wide. as occurs in Fig. 2, then ensued the The method I use now is the one almost unconquerable habit of overcompensating leaving this part too taught me by Frederick Moritz, first thick. Realizing this I began an early bassoonist with the Los Angeles Philhope for calipers or something to harmonic Orchestra. With a sharp take measurements at this point. knife begin a beveling operation after My next greatest mental hazard is the cane is shaped and before it is what I call the cornicopea model, folded. Begin the bevel at the first Fig. 4. The radius on the side of the wire and increase the pitch to its wire twist is drawn into an angular greatest angle at the second wire, shape, whereas the other side conthen decrease this bevel until it is forming to the mandrel remains out by the third wire. The depth of round, thus the reed is left with one this bevel should be the greatest at side comparatively flat, the other wire No. 2, where it coincides with eliptical. the rind, somewhere between a 64th This offers more than a psychoand a 32nd of an inch. Four such logical problem alone, in “scraping bevels provide a natural fulcrum at in,” because while the flat side may actually be thicker, it will feel weakwire No. 1, and help the opening est to the thumb pressure because of stay in adjustment. the greater structural arch in the opposite blade. It is almost impossible to avoid a little cinching of wires while twisting them together, therefore it does help to put a temporary wire immediately back of wire No. 1, twisting it on the opposite side as a counter-balancing force. Another safe method which also reduces the possibility of splits is to insert the mandrel between the wired halves in several easy stages, making certain that it is well soaked each time. The best method of forming a symmetrical tube by hand is based on the old Almanraeder method of binding the halves with a cord before wiring. Moisten this cord as often as needed and insert a heated mandrel (not red hot). Two mandrels, the first being of a more slender taper and the second, regular size, will be most satisfactory. Unwind the cord to where wire N O . 1 can be applied, then No. 2 and so on. An almost involuntary habit which would follow from avoiding these pitfalls near the tube is confining the rest of “scraping in” operation to the tip or lower one third. Bringing results at first it is usually continued until one realizes that the ideal response is still wanting and the tip is
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from England Gwydion Brooke The Edinburgh Festival attracted many Americans this year, including several Woodwind enthusiasts. I enjoyed a meal or two with Whitney Tustin (oboist) and learned that he had been studying at the Conservatoire and incidentally contacting a wide variety of people on his travels, including most of the European W/W gentry. I discovered that, like myself, he had begun his career with Basil Cameron-but at Seattle, instead of Hastings. Another keen m e m b e r o f t h e f r a t e r n i t y , who, hurrying home had yet found time to deviate up to Edinburgh “especially to hear Leon Goossens” was one Max Risch, of St. Louis-fresh from Heckel’s factory with a new bassoon! I hope she’s proving malleable, Max. The Festival lasts for three weeks: and of constant interest are the varied styles of playing to be compared in the Swiss, French, German and British orchestras. This time I think I found the French Orch. du Conservatoire the most stimulating. Listening to a rehearsal of this orch., I looked at some wind men sitting with me and enquired “What on earth was that? There’s no saxophone in this work.” “It was a trumpet” s a i d a n O b o e P l a y e r . “Oh no - surely a bass flute” ventured a Trumpet Player. . . . Solo W/W works were not forgotten. Leon Goossens played his brother Eugene’s extremely effective oboe concerto with the Berlin Phil. Orch., conducted by the composer. On. another occasion he could be heard with the Reginald Jacques String Orch. at one of their 11 a.m. concerts, playing the Gordon Jacob concerto. These morning concerts provided opportunities to hear other eminent W/W men. Gareth Morris, our 29 year old flute virtuoso, played
a Suite in A maj. for flute and strings by Scarlatti, arr. by Arthur Benjamin. This work is in five movements and has been adapted from some piano Sonatas. Perhaps the earliest, and certainly the latest, clarinet concertos were played by Frederick Thurston; the former by Stamitz and the latter by Malcolm Arnold. It is not long since Arnold played a really brilliant first trumpet in the London Phil. Orch., but now he makes music with rather less physical effort. His new concerto is light and attractive, essentially though not without difficulty. Geoffrey Gilbert played the solo flute part in the Bach Brandenburg Con-
85 certo No. 5, and, on a later occasion (with the co-operation of flautist Robert Raynes) in the Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 and Handel Concerto in B flat. The Beethoven Septet and Schubert Octet together made a complete programme, the wind parts in this case being in the able hands of Frederick Thurston, Dennis Brain and Paul Draper. Paul (a son of Charles Draper, the famous clarinettist ) is a very fine player and uses a unique instrument he evolved about 20 years ago. He plays at the Covent Garden Opera. More about Paul anon. If, after an evening, say, at the Opera, one still felt impelled to investigate the improbabilities of reed and pipe, one could repair to the Royal High School at 11.30 p.m. and listen to a quartet of experts into the small hours! This was no jam session, but music written by a contemporary Scotsman (Cedric Thorpe Davie) for a production of The Gentle Shepherd-a “Pastoral Comedy” written by one Allan Ramsay in 1725. The players were Gerald Jackson (Fl), Terence McDonagh (Ob.), Jack Brymer (Cl) and Edward Wilson (Bsn) -all fresh from the aforementioned Opera! British Woodwind Personalities. No. 1. Terence McDonagh. B.E.M. Acknowledged as a pre-eminent
J u R s t e l a s e d “CONCERT CHAMPETRE” bY HENRI TOMASI The first recorded performance of the work by the contemporary French composer and conductor. This work performed on GALLERY Record No. 5002 by: HARRY SHULMAN - oboe DAVID WEBER - clarinet LEONARD SHARROW - bassoon On unbreakable 12” record, only $1.58 through your own record dealer, or direct from
MUSART DISTRIBUTORS 7
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Table of Contents 86 artist, commanding a satin oboe tone, Terry was born 41 years ago, and from 14 to 16 studied in Paris with Itubi! However, he was at the same time also studying the oboe with none other than Mystil Morel (always mentioned with respect), whose Loree oboe and cor anglais he considers himself very fortunate to have acquired. Terry prefers the Loree, in spite of one or two drawbacks, such as a flat low D. He was educated at a Jesuit College in Bruges and also studied at the Brussels Conservatoire. Initially, no doubt he gathered a thing or two about the oboe from his Father, the late James McDonagh, the outstanding cor anglais exponent of his day and indeed the man who set the present British standard in cor anglais tone. After attending the Roy. Academy of Music he spent a year successively with Basil Cameron at Harrogate (1927); with Barbirolli and the British National Opera Co.; and with Albert Coates and the Scottish Orch. In ‘30 he joined the B.B.C. Sym. Orch. as principal cor anglais (when Terry plays the cor you really hear something. He says he actually prefers it), changing to principal oboe in ‘36. He joined the part time Army before the war, and when Chamberlain told Adolf he didn’t want to play any more, Terry spent a year or two as a despatch rider, at which intoxicating amusement he managed to fracture five ribs. However, when the Luftwaffe began paying visits to London he joined the Fire Service in time to rescue (a deux with another musician) two damsels in dire distress and, I believe, rather attractive undress. There were evidently no strings to the service rendered as Terry, though carrying no mean profile, is still a free man. It was for this sticky feat that he was awarded the British Empire Medal. After the war he rejoined the B.B.C., but left to join Sir Thomas Beecham’s Royal Phil. Orch. in ‘47. He is Professor of the oboe at the Roy. College of Music; has broadcast much chamber music (the first broadcast of the Villa-Lobos Wind Trio was a notable affair! ) ; and is just as likely to be found in one London orchestra as another. Gordon Jacob has written him a “Rhapsody” for Cor Anglais and Strings, which he has performed several times. Other works he has performed include a Vivaldi Concerto (1st performance); a Dittersdorf
WOODWIND MAGAZINEREPRINTS Concerto (1st perf.); the Marcello Concerto; the Bliss Oboe Quintet; Moran Oboe Quartet; V. Williams Concerto, etc. His early training has instilled a
great appreciation of the Continent, and Terry is a keen traveller. He usually owns a fast car but they are always of the open variety. His weakness is cats.
Across the Nation Woodwind News HE picture of the Trio D’Anches in the right hand column is closely related to three woodwind soloists who have taken the bold step and initiated a group dedicated to a task similar to that of the three French musicians. Unnamed for the present, the woodwind trio under discussion is made up of three well-known men about town who take a serious view of the state of woodwind chamber music on this side of the tracks. ‘Dave Weber, clarinetist par excellence, Leonard Sharrow, 1st Bassoon with the N.B.C., and Harry Shulman, solo oboist at A.B.C. Beside recording the Tomasi Concert Champetre, the trio plans to concertize extensively throughout the United States with a view towards stimulating further activity in the chamber woodwind field. All this within the frame of an enormously full schedule, for each man, besides their orchestral affiliations, plays numerous concert engagements during the season. They represent a phenomenon that WOODWIND MAGAZINE has often called attention to . . . the re-exploration and new experimentation within the realm of woodwind group possibilities. Together with numerous college groups, and such organizations as Wendell Hoss’ various woodwind groups on the west coast, the Weber-Sharrow-Shulman Trio deserve close attention. W.M. will act as the woodwind conscience in this matter and reviews of recitals and recordings can be expected during the next season.
Above, the successful and pioneering Trio d’Anches made up of (from left to right) Andre Gabry, bassoon; Andre DuPont, clarinet; and Paul Paillefer, oboe, All are members of the French National Orchestra.
Letter from England Gwydinn Brooke
The American who forsook a weekly £ 2 0 in order to live in England (subsequently claiming that, at £7 per week, he was far better off over here) undoubtedly gave the British press good cause for a smug crack or two. He was no musician. Bothered not with reed or rosin, he maintained an excellent digestion and a British wife (the cause of the unbalance) with the aid of a pick and shovel--in some Northern Shire where men are men and the Government
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL is glad of it. Not that he is an isolated example. Citizens everywhere, detecting a narrowing of the post-war groove, have decided to take a look over the fence. Really first rate musicians have arrived from Australia or Canada, seeking approbation (or more solid benefits), in far greater numbers than our boys have moved outwards. Our music colleges nurture all races and creeds, and I see that the latest pianistic debut is a dusky maiden from Ceylon. However, the American W/W man who has been making enquiries as to the possibilities for himself and family over here (!) must not assume that the players’ market is as it was in 1945. Indeed no. My Friends, the outlook today is Different! Even transport is a problem. Many W/W types are to be seen getting around on various types of miniature motor-cycle (the type-propelled by those E flat, 5/8 motors-capable of covering, on one gallon, about four times as many miles as they can put behind them in an hour. And they can do their 45).1 have just watched Bob Burns, confederate from Canada, lifting his bass clarinets and so forth, from a sidecar attached to one of these things -itself no bigger than a fiddle case! (Burns is studying with bass clarinet maestrissimo Walter Lear.) What do I use? Prewar I made the most of 30 horses, as dispensed by Ford; but now I stagger along behind 71/2-yellow in the teeth at that. I have had about four new cars on order for about three years, but I am afraid you blokes take first choice. The present arrangement, however, saves me showers of shekels . . . Talking of cars brings me to a recent trip to Derby, the seat of the Rolls Royce. (Even the train was 90% 1st Class . . ). This visit was for the purpose of rendering the Strauss Duo for Clarinet and Bassoon and String Orchestra, in co-operation with 22 year-old Colin Davis. It would be easy to dismiss this work as rubbish, until one reflects that it was, after all, written by Strauss, and obviously put together with the facility of a master. For the devotee of Heldenleben, though, there is too much facility and no content at all. My colleague seemed to enjoy himself, and contended with the nonstop clarinet debut as though concealing something rather cunning in bellows. A far more stimulating and effective (and difficult!) work for these two instruments is the earlier Double Concerto by Joseph Holbrooke. It has been played twice over here-once by Kell and Camden, and once by Kell and Alexandra.
BRlTlSH W/W PERSONALlTlES: No, 2. CECIL JAMES The name of James is legendary in British bassoon annals, and the famous brothers, Wilfred and spade-bearded Fred, held righteous sway in their day. Unfortunately there is now only one member of the cian left to shoulder the beacon, but this duty is carried out by Cecil, son of Wilfred, in no uncertain manner. Playing a Buffet, he is one of the reasons why many students of Carl Almanraeder are chiding themselves for having forsaken the Entente Cordiale. Cecil conjures from his basson about twice the phons heard from many a fagott, and when touring in America with the R.A.F. Band, during the war, confounded not a few of the more remote unbelievers. Now 37, James made his initiatory mark at the Royal College of Music, where for two years he studied conducting with Sir Malcolm Sargent. Also worthy of intensive study at the College, the lucky Cecil found attractive and talented oboiste Natalie Caine-and Cecil is a man of purpose. Today Natalie copes with the oboe, Cecil, and three daughters. They make one of the few husband and wife teams seen regularly around town. The London Symphony Orch. soon snaffled him and Cecil spent nine years with this body, the latter part in the first chair. Nowadays allegiance is owed to the New London Orch., London’s best small orch., with whom he recently gave the first British performance of the Michel Spisak Concerto. (I did not hear this, though I have heard Cecil play the Mozart. The bassoon part of the Spisak appears to me to be somewhat synthetic, consisting of much scalework; but I have heard musicians dub it a bright little work). James can be heard in Harry Blech’s broadcasting ‘London Wind Players’ -a truly admirable enterprise, giving excellent performances of the various Serenades and Nonets and so forth; used to play with the now defunct National Sym. Orch.; and has played much chamber music over the air. In fact he is to be found almost anywhere, in the best professional style. Hobbies are photography and cars.
Woodwind Intonation The Problem As It Exists Today
In discussing the subject of intonation, the woodwind instrumentalist has presented many questions, Some of these concern technicalities of construction; others are directly related to the subject of esthetics. Of all the perplexities, the one which never fails to appear is that which concerns the making of the instrument. The musician wants to know why his oboe or clarinet cannot be built in tune. What he really means to say is, “why can’t my clarinet be constructed in such a manner as to eiiminate the need for humoring”. The every-day woodwind player has been so involved in intonation from an esthetic standpoint, that he has overlooked the scientific side of the subject. Let us briefly investigate the matter. In the opinion of many musicians, the intonation as found embodied in our piano of today, is just about as perfect as we would like to have it. Thinking along these lines, the player should be reminded that the tuning of keyboard instruments, equal temperament, is regarded by physicists as a compromise tuning. Many odd measurements have resulted because of this equal division of the octave. The so called perfect fifths are in reality I/50 of a semitone flat, and the fourths are 1/50 of a semitone sharp. The interval of a fifth C-G, for example, is slightly contracted; whereas the interval of a fourth, G-C, is slightly enlarged. When combined, these two intervals result in an absolute perfect octave. In overblowing a vibrating tube such as a trumpet or a flute, we may obtain the interval of a fifth on the second step of the harmonic series. This note forms an absolute perfect interval with the fundamental of the instrument. Its scientific measurement is different than that of the piano fifth There are many dissimilarities existing between the vibrating properties of the piano and those of the natural harmonic series. Another one which may be mentioned in this brief reading, is that of the major third. This note of the harmonic series will be found flat as compared to the third of equal tem-
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intonation as dictated by this system, woodwind instrumentalists have been helped considerably. This system will be found useless however, in music having no accidentaly. A second tendency found in performance has another classification. T h e interval s y s t e m advocates all major and augmented intervals as b e i n g enlarged in size minor and diminished intervals have a contractive force. But this system also has its deficiencies. Using the major third C-E for example , should we keep the C fixed and raise the E; or should we stabilize= the E and lower the C? Both of these alterations are in adherencc w i t h the principles of this system. Through use of the accidental and interval theories, musicians have approachrd intonation problems from a scientific angle. They have realized that the ear can be guided by such principles Many musicians object to the U S C of anything other than the ear in regulating intonation. It is true that the ear will always be the final judge. But this process of using only the car, is of a very tedious nature, and quite frequently produces embarrassing results. If there are means of helping our problems, we should c e r t a i n l y take advantage of them. Regarding the subject of esthetics, one question often asked concerns intonation standards. Musicians want to know the definition of good intonation. Our present standards of intonation have been directly influenced by the Pythagorean school of thought. In accord with astronomical observances, Pythagoras preached that “number is everything? We may discover this doctrines by constructing a thirteen string instrument tuned in perfect fifths. If we should tune our bottom string to C, and then progress upwards till the B# string, we will find that this highest string is approximately one quarter of a semitone sharper than our original C string. Thus in Pythagorean intonat i o n , B# in higher than C.Itis because of this differcncc t h a t o u r piano must be tuned with contracted fifth:.) We may also des descend from C, and in turn, will obtain the flatted notes. Both the accidental and interother than its being in tune in a parval systems are derived from Pythaticular instance? There are explanagorean measurements. tions for all these characteristics. It is this form of intonation which Many musicians arc acquainted all present woodwind instrumentalwith the practices of playing a (C# ists attempt to achieve. The word higher than a D flat. Let US call this “attempt” is used in consideration of the accidental system. In using the
perament. Such differences, although involving minute measurements, may help us understand why the natural basic intonation of our woodwinds provides a major impediment when we attempt to play in the many keys of our present music. The piano sounds well in all keys only because of its compromise tuning. In the attempt to match the tunings of equal temperament, instrument makers have filled in the gaps between the notes of the harmonic series in a sort of equal manner. But their success has not been complete; these men have been faced with such problems as the “1150 of a semitone variance”, the parabola, the barrel, the bore, etc. Woodwind intonation is governed by all these factors. Resigning ourselves to the solution of intonation perplexities to be encountered through the use of our present-day instruments, we cannot escape the fact that we must humor on many occasions to make certan notes sound in tune. Let us isolate one of these notes. It sound very much on the flat side. We have already presented our problem to the repair man, but he has given us no encouragement. He has told us that alterations could be made, but as a result, the intonation of other notes would in turn be affected. Our only solution seems to lie in the remedy of humoring. Using our faulty instrument at orchestral rehearsals, we find that this flat note generally requires an alteration on the sharp side to make it sound in tune. Sometimes we have had to raise its pitch a little; other times we have been compelled to sharpen the note very much. The observing musician will also remember many occasions calling for no alteration at all. In these instances, the flat intonation of the note seemed to be in tune. Although we have beeen aware of such occurrences, we have not attempted to find reason for them. In raising the pitch of the faulty note inherent. in the instrument, we have satisfied the necessity of general correction. But in the case of non-alteration, what reasons have we provided
the many instances calling for exaggerated humoring. On these occasions, the player may be forced to sacrifice intonation in order to obtain a better tone quality. Of the three major thirds discussed in this article, the one found in the harmonic series is the lowest; the one of Pythagorean dimension is the highest and the one of the piano is intermediate Such observances are contradictory to the oft-mentioned statement that each note should have a specific pitch-that such a sound, is the only intonation which may be called in tune. Experienced musicians find that it is better to use a large major third when possible. By carrying out such practices, the musicians' intent is to use a sound which does not approach the border line separating the major and minor third. In this manner, the desired tonality may be convincingly presented. Acoustical laboratory readings of performing artists point to such practices. These tests have revealed the. use of the sharp major third in preference to the harmonic series measurement. It is a point to be decided whether or not we should regard deviations from the norm as intonation differences or as microtonal differences. In actual performance, the woodwind instrumentalist uses approximately twenty-five or thirty different notes within a single octave, depending upon the key, pitch factors, weather conditions, the faultiness of the instrument and other t e c h n i c a l i t i e s . The use of twelve semitones to the octave is a characteristic found only in the compromise tuning of the’ piano. Woodwind intonation is not this simple. Those who have not as yet acquainted themselves with the accidental and interval theories, should by all means do so. Through the understanding of these systems, the musician will have made the first steps toward better intonation.
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The Horrors of Bassoning Casual Observations While Playing
From Woodwind Magazine Vol. 2, No. 6, Feb. 1950, p. 5) Contrary to the general impression, musicians do think while playing. Unfortunately, m o s t o f t h e gentle thoughts are of the nasty variety, some of which are unprintable for obvious reasons. The other tantalizing gems center about the conduct, or better still, misconduct of reeds. With specific reference to my reeds, a million words more or less might cover the general range of cortical activity. The little wheels that spin around during the 8:30 to 11: 00 period (if we are playing at night) merely work out problems that have been dealt with time and time again wherever and whenever bassoon players meet, without tangible results. We will begin by assuming (as I had to when writing this) that we are contentedly squatting during a performance in the Academy of Music. The wheels are spinning, the lights are flickering on and off, and we are running through the perf o r m a n c e o f t h e Cesar Franck D Minor that broke the camel’s back. We are thinking, unfortunately, of bassoon reeds. Over a period of years, I have come to regard the reed as one of those elusive subjects (such as truth, or justice), which are hard to define and still harder to achieve. My first experience with reeds was one of faith in the maker. For example, Knochenhauer or Mechler certainly knew more about the subject, and therefore a reed manufactured by them must be good. I am the one
who failed if the reed sounds lousy and I must get back to practicing Milde or some other student bible. This illusion was destroyed when I visited Germany in 1932 and found that Knochenhauer had no less than five employees who assembled reeds in Willow Run fashion while Mechler opened the kitchen drawer and shaped a reed with his wife’s potato knife. Surely Don Christlieb has gone into it more scientifically than that, with better results. But that deep seated feeling that those lineal descendants of Almenraeder knew the darkest secrets still creeps into one’s mind. Having lost faith, I now turned to the reed itself, and upon close observation under strong lights, detected the causes of the trouble. Light poured through the back without refraction and I had a point. Two days later I found a similar situation in optics but one of the nicest reeds that ever graced the end of a Heckel crook . . . . . . . well, then it must be the cane. Cane brings up the vision of French farmers who have returned to the Frejus area with diplomas from the Paris Conservatory. They cut and bundle with a knowledge of astronomy that anticipates the full moon after which they select the best pieces for relatives at home and abroad. Surely, under such conditions a good piece of cane could not come my way and that is the cause of all my trouble. But a visit to the south of France can prove
that a piece of cane grows like a string bean and the farmer has never heard a bassoon, let alone a reed. So we wend our weary way back to ourselves, where we examine the throat with more concern than a otolaryngologist, who sees a strep condition. We look at the shape with more interest than the casting director of a new musical and we contact the wires with a deeper engineering understanding than the structural experts at work on a new suspension bridge. At this point, the non-bassooning reader will exclaim, “Why not throw it away and try another?” And rightly so, but remember the work put in, or the trips to the post office, the language difficulties, the food packages and frankly the dollar investment. One can hardly throw all that away, and yet perhaps it can be corrected if only one knew. That brings us back to ourself and the loss of faith mentioned in the beginning. But . . . concerts are played and bassoon players do have some choice bits so there must be some empirical approach to all this. Many of the experts can stop here, but for the uninitiated it would be wise to see that the butt of the reed is airtight and the blades will hold together when a vacuum is created by suction. Students find low notes difficult to play with a leaking reed, which is just as important as a split crook, or faulty pads or a leaky “abguss” on the boot. Much more
Table of Contents attention should be paid to the back or tube of the reed before turning to the vibrating front. Frequently obvious defects can be corrected there. We shall next examine the relation of the tube portion of the reed to the crook. They must not only fit your specific crook, but the rate of taper must be continuous, and not abrupt. Crooks vary as much as reeds and it is difficult to conclude t h a t a l l reeds fit internally as well as externally all crooks. It is only after these fundamentals are observed that we can turn
WOODWIND MAGAZINE REPRINTS our attention to the front of the reed. Now it is possible to have variations in personal taste but it is almost axiomatic that the first eighth of an inch must be extremely fine to start the tones. After the tone is started, disturbances may be created all along the way by varying amounts o f w o o d i n u n u n i f o r m arrangements, or too great a tension of the wires on the natural diameter of the arch in an effort to achieve a resounding opening. This reaction to the opening varies according to one’s environment, as I have found after a few tours. I now leave my pliers with John Fisnar, our second
bassoonist, and must plead my case before he will let me play with them (a happy arrangement and a wonderful partner!). You may wonder how one could have so many thoughts while playing. I hasten to assure you that it is not because I am not concentrating on my part, but rather because we play so many concerts. In any case, I have not covered the problem completely but must leave off now as I have to fix a reed for Tschaikowski’s 4th and 6th, which we are playing tonight (God, where are my pliers?)!
The Vibrato Problem The Seashore Study Applied
George Opperman (From Woodwind Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 6, Feb. 1950, p. 6;; and Vol.. 2, No. 7, March 1950, p- 6,, 12 and 14) The vibrato is one of the most interesting, and at the same time the most troublesome of techniques which confront the wind player. Ignorance of this technique can retard and even completely frustrate artistic development. Much of the confusion concerning t h e m y s t i c vibrato results from a general lack of knowledge of what the vibrato actually is and how it is heard. In my opinion, the greatest stumbling block in producing a good sound is most often attributable to technical weakness, rather than to the vibrato itself. It must be remenbered that the vibrato is a musical ornament. It embellishes a given sound and is not a cure-all. It cannot make up for faulty intonation; it cannot make a sound rich which is lacking in intensity, or one which is distorted by improper production. However, the vibrato is an integral part of our musical system. It cannot be bv-passed. Absolute control of vibrato is a paramount prerequisite in the development of artistic playing. What is required basically for the mastering of the vibrato is the mastering of breath control, embouchure control and all the other techniques of playing. Assuming then that the player has sufficient control over tone production, etc., all that is required for the average player is his own musical development which would carry with
it a conception of sound and a vibrato to produce that sound. This statement is m a d e b e c a u s e t h e vibrato has not been systematically taught by teachers of wind instruments. It has always been up to the student to grasp that part of the playing by himself. The fact that more and better players are being developed indicates that the vibrato can be mastered in most instances without special study. There is an old story about the late George Barrere which is particularly appropriate. Rudy Vallee asked the master how a vibrato is produced. Barrere replied that he didn’t use a vibrato. Yet Barrere would tell his students to make the tone sing. It is hardly possible that such an effect can be created on a wind instrument without the use of vibrato. In the previous issue of WOODWIND MAGAZINE, the French flutists, Marcel Moyse is quoted as saying that fifty years ago French woodwind musicians did not sing on their instruments. Vibrato was a thing not yet revealed. Taffanel, the eminent flutist, and Gillet, formerly oboist with the Boston Symphony, led the way. Taking a cue from string players they revolutionized the French style of woodwind playing. It is an interesting fact that Taffanel and Gillet chose to emulate the vibrato of strings. Why didn’t they imitate the
voice? I think we can find in this case an example of artistic intuition preceding scientific corroboration. Time has shown the correctness of of this school of thought. It is entirely logical that string instruments should be the leaders in this development because mechanical control of the vibrato is possible to a greater degree here than in voice or wind instruments. The question of vibrato in strings is not so much how to produce a vibrato, but rather what kind of vibrato is wanted to enhance the particular musical situation. We shall compare the vibrato of voice and string instruments elsewhere in this article. We are indebted to the late Dr. Carl E. Seashore and his staff at the State University of Iowa for their monumental work on the vibrato. Years of experimentation with the cooperation of vocalists and instrumentalists of artist calibre have revealed much concrete information. The following material is indebted to their work, “The Psychology of the Vibrato”. The most revealing information on the vibrato can be found in the fact of the vibrato illusions. The Seashore group found that there is quite a difference between the actual vibrato and the way it is heard. Here we may find the real key to an understanding of the vibrato.
Table of Contents It was further demonstrated that a vibrato is constituted by a pitch vibrato, an intensity vibrato, and a resultant, the timbre vibrato, each of which is separately dealt with. The pitch vibrato and the intensity vibrato are considered with regard to extent and rate. In the p i t c h vibrato, the extent represents the degree to which the frequency of the tone rises and falls. The rate indicates how frequently these regular fluctuations take place during one second. The intensity vibrato is considered in the same way as the pitch vibrato; the extent in this case represents the amplitude of the vibrato. The timbre vibrato is represented as a periodic pulsation in the harmonic structure of a tone. Each tone is represented to have a characteristic sound due to the strength of the overtones. The character of the tone is determined primarily by the 3rd, 4th, and 7th overtones. Due to the regular rise and fall of pitch and intensity of a vibrato cycle, the strength of the overtones constantly change. The result is a shimmering in the harmonic structure of the tone or a constant change in color. Little is known about the intensity vibrato. It is more difficult to isolate. It occurs less frequently, is less regular and is not so prominent as the pitch vibrato. It is modified by room resonance. The pitch vibrato occurs most frequently. Good singers, investigated by the Seashore group, were shown to sing with an average pitch pulsation of .5 of a tone. For about three-fourth of the singers, the extent ranged between .45 and .55 of a tone. Each
IDRS JOURNAL singer tends to have a characteristic average with allowance for musical variation from selection to selection and tone to tone. There were no differences in vibrato due to sex, musical mood, pitch level, of loudness of the tone. The pitch vibrato for string instrumentalists of artist calibre was much narrower with an average extent of .24. There is no marked difference in this regard between violin, viola or cello. The average rate for good singers is about 6.5 cycles per second. A rate slower than 5 cycles per second makes the pulsations intolerable. It was shown that the average rate for ten violinists was 7.0, ranging from 6.2 to 7.7 cycles per second. How is the vibrato heard? Ten listeners were tested under ideal laboratory conditions to determine how they heard the pitch extent in vibrato. As an average they heard a pitch extent of .25 of a tone as .13; .50 as .17, .75 as .23, and a whole tone as .27. The conclusions derived from these experiments indicated that the larger the extent of p u l s a t i o n the greater the underestimation. There is also the tendency to hear all extents alike. Other experiments applied the over-estimation of small angles from the visual to the same principal in hearing. Miles showed that when a good singer is asked to imitate a whole tone interval sounded by tuning forks, he gets it about right. The half tone interval under the same conditions he sharps, sharpening increasingly more and more as one progresses to the one tenth tone point. This explains how a pitch extent of a quarter tone, as com-
91 pared with larger extents, is heard relatively longer due to the small angle illusion. Another explanation of the illusion of vibrato deals with the area of the vibrato cycle. In hearing a vibrato, we tend to hear a deviation f r o m t h e mean tone, so that in a complete vibrato cycle of one half a tone, we think of the deviation from the mean tone as one quarter of a tone above and one quarter of a tone below. This creates an illusion of smaller extent. Also, the h e a r i n g o f intermediate pitches above and below the mean tone tends to divide the half cycles so that we hear the larger area toward the middle or close to the m e a n tone. It is to be noted that the illusion of overestimation of small increments and the underestimation of the large, work one against the other. The Seashore group concluded that these reductions in the extent of hearing pulsations m a k e t h e vibrato tolerable. The faster the rate within limits and the richer the tone, the greater would be the underestimation of the extent. It is pointed out that if we heard all the separate changes in a complex tone, it would be intolerable. However, a complex tone is in constant flux, changing in pitch, intensity and timbre. The tone quality which results from a series of such changes is called successive fusion or sonance. This is described as another illusion of sound, for if we heard the parts it would again be intolerable. In the next article, I shall discuss the vibrato in application.
The Vibrato Problem The Seashore Study Applied Part II In the last issue, we outlined the physical characteristics of the vibrato and introduced the radical idea of illusions in the hearing of vibrato. The aforementioned illusions greatly favor the performer. In practising the v i b r a t o t e c h n i q u e , w e m u s t remember that we do not have the use of the laboratory with advanced recording, photo and radio
equipment, etc. Therefore we must consider this study from the point of view of practise at home. The vibrato must become an integral part of the sound. When this is an accomplished fact, the player will feel that he is producing a natural vibrato. He will not be particularly conscious of the way in which he produces it, but will
be aware only of the musical situation in which he applies it. The vibrato is a long term study and is rarely learned quickly. Like all other techniques, it is acquired in stages. It is unreasonable to expect a student to produce a perfectly fused vibrato in the lesson following its explanation. It is just as unreasonable to expect a complete change
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of vibrato without an accompanying change in musical conception and a development of the other techniques in producin g sound and playing music. The time to incorporate the use of vibrato in playing is the moment the instrumentalist can think of another factor and still handle the musical material at hand. This does not mean that a long and detailed explanation of the vibrato follows, but rather an attempt is made to have the instrumentalist produce a vibrato . A simple explanation to the effect that the singing quality of the sound is due to the vibrato, accompanied by a demonstration of a sound without a vibrato, and the sam e volum e of sound with a variation of vibrato in extent and rate , will generally be all that is required dto start a talented student on a new track. Sometimes it helps to have the student whistle or sing a vibrato; this being successful, he might try it on the instrument. There is as much controversy between players on the subject of producing a vibrato as there is disagreement on how it is heard. On wind instruments (except on saxophone, where a jaw motion is used), vibrato is produced by regularly increasing and decreasing the force (intensity) with which a given sound is being produced. This is done by using almost the same mechanism which the body employs in producing speech, the obvious difference being that in the case of wind instruments, we do not use the vocal chords. This is quite simple to demonstrate. If the student holds one hand on the diaphragm and shouts “Hey” loud and short, the diaphragm will move in. The softer we expostulate ,the lighter will be the action of the diaphragm. In each case the diaphragm pushes in. The moment we relax the diaphragm, the body muscles push it back to its normal position. This represents a pendulum-like action, the diaphragm pushing in, the body muscles pushing it back to normal. Its effect on a steady air stream is represented by the following diagram :
WOODWIND MAGAZINE REPRINTS the body muscles set up a pendulum effect, so all along the air stream similar minor pendulum effects may be simultaneously located. However, the most important of these is the action of the diaphragm and body muscles, the strongest and most positive of these pendular actions. Depending on the resistance to the air characteristic of each wind instrument , different simple methods to educate muscular control of this pendulum effect have been developed. Where there is greater wind resistance, the heavier muscles must be used more than the others. As this resistance decreases, the lighter muscles along the air stream may be activated. Thus on bassoon, English horn and oboe, we find almost predominantly a consistent use of diaphragm vibrato. This does not mean the exclusion of the other factors in producing vibrato, but generally that in comparison with flute which has very little wind resistance, the lighter pendulum actions occur less frequently and to a smaller degree. This is so primarily because where there is great resistance to the wind, the weaker pendulum actions have no significant affect on the wind column. In developing vibrato, we are concerned first with regularity. The vibrato must be absolutely free from irregularity due to lack of control. Variation in rate and extent of the vibrato together with variation in intensity of the tone are the means of developing a “tonal palette”. The way to develop tone color is to combine and exercise these factors. For a start, let us illustrate a straight tone as contained within the space of two lines, as below:
Vibrato in wind instruments is created by regular increase and decrease in the intensity of the wind column. Let us represent this “pumping up” of a straight tone thus:
From this is abstracted the graphic vibrato symbol :
Of course this is not the only muscular activity which is employed in the production of the vibrato. In the same manner as the diaphragm
The method used to pump up a tone is to first stimulate the dia-
phragm and other muscles to set up a pendulum action. In the beginning, pronouncing “ha ” over the steady blowing produces the fluctuation of pressure necessary. There is the danger of not maintaining proper body support of the wind when using the repeated “ha”, “ha” to stimulate vibrato. The result is a cutting off of the wind and a knocking or beating results :
However rthis will soon disappear with the development of the diaphragm actio nwhich the “ha” expostulation is intended to create. Sometimes, gutteral l noises are present. This indicates either too weak a diaphragm action and an overexertion o f t h e l i g h t e r , u p p e r muscles, or inadequate blowing. O T develo p regularity , the vibrato should first be practised in definite rhythmic groups, i.e., groups of two, three, and four pulsations, etc. Since we are “pumping up” and releasing the intensity to create the pulsations, it is of the utmost importance in practise to start at the lightest intensity level possible. This is so because it makes it easier to pump up the tone. Also, we are attempting to develop sensitivity and control over the body muscles which produce the pendulum action and it is easier to feel the change from a lighter muscular tension to a stronger tension rather than vice-versa. This is extremely important. To illustrate, clench the fist as tightly as possible; then release the pressure as slowly as possible. It is very difficult to feel a gradual reduction in pressure. Now relax the hand for a moment and try it the other way. Close the hand very lightly and clench the fist tighter and tighter. Here we can feel great sensitivity with the increase in pressure, almost as though it were gauged. In the beginning, a student must be allowed to make any kind of vibrato in any register. Most often it is easier to produce vibrato in the upper and middle registers on wind instruments. A routine for practising gvibrato differs from player to player and instrument to instrument. However, the basic requirement on all instruments are quite the same. A routine, for example, ‘may include : 1. For first attempt at vibrato, “pump up” long tones four to eight
counts in slow definite pulsations at a low volume of sound in rhythmic groups of 2, 3, and 4. 2. After one week, the same exercise can be made a little bit more interesting and advanced by playing a two octave scale with two pulsations per note up and down. This study is a long time repair t h e tempo should increase gradually two pulsations per note. This works very well with students. It seems that is less fatiguing to play and easier for the average student to grasp than more pulsations in the group. 3. When the student has become proficient in making the two octave scales in vibrato, it is time to begin work with variations in rate and extent. These should be coupled with
variation in the intensity of the tone. Exercise 1. S t u d e n t should p l a y with light intensity (blowing lightly) a vibrato in small extent, i.e., “pumping up” lightly. Exercise 2. Same as exercise 1, with wider extents but retaining light intensity o f t o n e . G r e a t e r f o r c e should be used on “pumping up”, releasing each pulsation to the original low intensity of the sound. Exercise 3. Combine exercises one and two with increasing intensity. Exercise 4. Play exercises one, two, and three with faster and slower rates, i.e., pulsations per second. Exercise 5. P l a y crescendo-decrescendo from a straight low intensity,
93 adding a vibrato which is made wider in extent with the increase of intensity. Then play in reverse with wide extent at the high point, gradually reducing with the decrescendo. It may be helpful where a vibrato is too fast to slow it down by emphasizing the activity of the heavier muscles. Practise with greater intensity, wider extent, and slower rate. If the vibrato is too slow, practise with light intensity, narrow extent and increase the rate. Sensibly applied these exercises form a good routine to develop vibrato. It is not possible to develop a finished technique quickly, but careful application should bring gradual reward and ultimately a comfortable control.
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The Truth About Vibrato A Musicologist Views Its Development By Josef Marx
[This article by oboist and musicologist Josef Marx first appeared in the November, 1951 Woodwind Magazine. We are pleased to reprint it here. ED.] n contemporary voice, violin, cello, or piano teaching every phase of sound production, every single physical movement is codified and standardized according to the precepts of certain, successful, masters. Various schools monopolize the practice of each instrument according to time and place — but right or wrong, there is never any doubt about what is desired on the instruments and what is to be done to obtain this. In contrast, the teaching of woodwind instruments thrives in chaos. There are no pedagogues who have established a ritual, no Leschetitzky, Matthay, Auer, or Sevcik. How unclear the fundamental issues of wind instrument playing really are is best indicated by the generally accepted instrument methods, most of them of Parisian origin, which skirt more or less gracefully every basic point which calls for elucidation. If we had to reconstruct 19th and 20th century wind playing by means of these instruction books alone we would be left unaware of the fact that oboe, clarinet, and bassoon use a reed, that all wind instruments are activated by human breath, and that a more than ordinary dexterity of the fingers is called for. Supposing that a hundred years from now someone will ask the question: Did they play wind instruments with vibrato in the 20th century? The research necessary to answer that question would be stupendous. Supposing the same question were asked today! Would a uniform and all conclusive answer present itself? If we go to the instrument methods with this question, we again draw a blank. According to the books the word vibrato does not exist. If we avail ourselves of the contemporary advantage of being able to observe the 20th century player at first hand, the result would still be confusing. The Germans and their Eastern neighbors pride themselves on their straight, vibrato-less tone. When, in 1930, the New York Philharmonic, on their European tour under the direction of Mr. Toscanini, performed in Prague, the woodwind professors of the conservatory were shocked. In
one single night their whole life’s work seemed to have been destroyed. The young generation was fascinated by the vibrating flute, oboe, and bassoon, a sound they had never heard before. The French, Italians, Belgians, and Dutch advocate various degrees of vibrato for the flute, oboe, and bassoon from a wide wave produced by the diaphragm to a faint quiver caused by the stiffening of the throat muscles. (The lip vibrato seems to be an American contribution). On the same Philharmonic tour, the German reviewers commented on the “French tone” of the oboe. The French musicians in America, who read this comment in the New York Times were shocked and insulted. The first oboe of the Philharmonic then was Mr. Labate, an Italian. None of the countries mentioned above, however, extend the courtesy of a vibrating tone to the clarinet. The clarinet, anywhere and anytime, must be played with a straight tone. Why? Although isolated cases of clarinettists with a vibrato have been heard in New York in recent years, Mr. Reginald Kell in London seems to have been the first to take this question seriously and to conclude that the vibrato should be an intrinsic part of the clarinet tone also. His results are admired, or abominated, the world over, where his playing is known through his many recordings of all the important clarinet solos. His arrival in New York, registered immediately, in the form of a discussion of the vibrato question in Woodwind Magazine, which was taken up by other papers, including the New Yorker. We can safely assume that his presence here will bring about a change in taste for he is certain to have pupils and imitators. In this country the issue of woodwind vibrato has never been national because we have no national conservatory. Up to a few years ago most of the key positions in America orchestras were held by prominent European woodwind players so that one could easily identify each orchestra by the vibrato or non-vibrato of its various winds. Many of these men established themselves as teachers in the leading music schools. Thus, among the younger generation of American instrumentalists, mostly products of the excellent public school music system, who went ahead to one of the large Eastern conservatories, local peculiarities developed, so that it is very easy today to tag
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each flutist, oboist, clarinettist and bassoonist as coming from either Philadelphia, New York, Boston, or Rochester. This has perpetuated a characteristic of our American orchestras. Whereas German, Italian, French or English orchestras are manned, not only be devotees of the same school, but for the most part even graduates of the same national conservatory, our American orchestras culled their players from different national backgrounds. Each section, string, brass, and woodwind, represents different sound ideals — each section sometimes harbored different sound ideals within itself. Whereas a wind chord played by a French orchestra vibrates uniformly (the clarinet excepted), and the same chord played by a German orchestra is straight and unflinching, the American version would be uneven and diffuse. Since it so happened that most of the teachers who established themselves in the leading American music schools were French or under French influence, and since the constant din of popular music and jazz emphasizes it, the American school which is slowly emerging favors the vibrato on all woodwinds except the clarinet, and we have seen that the concepts of the sound of this instrument are at this very moment changing towards a vibrato also. There is, however, still no uniform method of producing this vibrato and the teaching of it is unsystematic and haphazard. Very few players and teachers, indeed, understand theoretically and physiologically how a vibrato is produced on a wind instrument. As pointed out before, two schools are at war, the exponents of the diaphragm vibrato and the practitioners of the throat vibrato. They view each other with such contempt that reconciliation seems improbable. First we shall have to settle once and for all which is morally superior, to have blue eyes or to have brown eyes. It is generally held that the use of vibrato on a wind instrument is a sign of modernism, and that, in line with progress, in all other matters of taste, it is a new invention. This myth is, of course, not confined to wind players alone, and a similar one exists among string players who feel that their vibrato is an invention of Romantic times and that all music before Mozart was played with an ardent and devoted dryness which makes listening to it a painful and therefore educational process. The late and respected Armold Dolmetsch shared that view. Wherein his excellent and fundamental work The Interpretation of 17th and 18th Century Music, historic accuracy prompted him to quote faithfully proof of the opposite (such as the definite call for vibrato in Geminiani’s violin method), he would expostulate angry protests in a footnote.
Vibrato in the violin has been generally traced to the beginning of the 17th century and is often attributed to Monteverdi. It was also known on keyboard instruments such as the clavichord and the organ. At that time, with the development of the Baroque opera, the solo voice became the highest form of musical expression. It would be hard to think of a virtuoso singing technique, such as developed at that time, without such a device as the tremolo, especially in a period where ornamentation was the basis of performance and the trill a most important part of voice culture. It stands to reason that instruments, which were developed to imitate the vocal ideal, would include the tremolo in their application. This applies also to the winds which, at that time, played a much more elevated social role in music than they do today. Fortunately, our knowledge of wind instrument vibrato in the past is not based entirely on theoretical speculation. There exist documents which prove its existence, as well as that of vibrato in general, much earlier even than is assumed by the most broad minded. Three examples, which will be given here in inverse chronological order, span a period of 250 years. They should suffice to convince us of the truth of our claims, though they certainly do not exhaust the subject. They call for more information, more research and more interpretation. On June 12, 1778, Mozart wrote in a letter: “The human voice trembles by itself, but such, and in a degree which is beautiful — that is the nature of the voice which one imitates, not only on wind instruments, but also on the string instruments, but also on the string instruments, yes, even on the clavichord — but as soon as one passes the limit, it is no longer beautiful because it is against nature; it sound just like an organ when someone pokes the bellows.” In the first flute method ever published, Jacques Hotteterre le Romain’s Principes de la Flute Traversiere, which appeared in 1707, we find a chapter devoted to two ornaments, called battement and flattement. The former is a trill produced by covering only the edge of the tone-hole below the note played, or by covering entirely the tone-hole second below the note played. The flattement of the low D, then the lowest note on the flute, was produced by turning the flute back and forth, thus lowering the pitch. Since these procedures produce a downward wave of only a few vibrations this ornaments must be grouped with the vibrato. Hotteterre further informs us that the same method also applies to the recorder and the oboe.
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The third reference seems to have gone by unnoticed so far, although it is the oldest and most significant in its implications. It takes us back into a period much less than the Baroque, preceding that of the culture of the solo voice and its reflection upon instrumental techniques. It is found in the second book of musical instruments ever published, Martin Agricola’s Musica Instrumentalis Deudsch which first appeared in 1528. This book is a reworking in German verse of its predecessor, Sebastian Virdung’s Musica Getutscht of 1511, Agricola used Virdung’s plates of various instruments but added his own text, which he changed and augmented in subsequent editions of 1530, 1542, and 1545. In the later edition, discussing the Swiss Fife, a cylindrical six-hole instrument which is reproduced in four sizes, discant, alto, tenor, and bass, Agricola tells us: “When playing the fife bear well in mind To blow it with a trembling wind The way they mostly teach it in The case of the Polish violin: As trembling ornaments the song Here too it never can be wrong.” The continuation of this poem exhorts the German organ makers also to install a vibrato mechanism to their organs, a device known, but
not frequent at that time. “God did not give us knowledge of it to keep it to ourselves, but to make it available to everybody”. Here we have a document which tells us that the vibrato was common practice in the Renaissance in the voice as well as on instruments, with particular reference to the flute, the rebec (Polish violin) and in some instances the organ. The two printed books on wind instruments preceding Agricola do not happen to tell us anything about it, but we cannot infer from that that the wind vibrato was invented around 1545. Had printing been invented earlier we surely would have more pertinent evidence about instrumental styles of the Middle Ages. As it is we can only assume that vibrato was used then too. We know from pictorial evidence that vibrato existed in voice culture in ancient Etruscan and Egyptian civilizations. And as the instrumental sound ideal is generally related to vocal and linguistic esthetic concepts we can safely assume that vibrato has been consistently used on wind instruments since several thousand years before our era. ❖
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Bassoon and Powder Puff No. 2 By Gloria Solloway
(Editor’s Note: Our Austrian correspondent’s interim report on Gloria Soloway’s ubiquity was carried in last month’s Woodwind Magazine This month we have a detailed rendering by the fabulous Gloria herself. For background material, readers are referred to W.M., Volume 2, No. 10). es! It is really that long, lost bassoonist making her “yearly” report … for it seems to be just that. At the time the last piece appeared, I was in Salzburg for the Festival … and at the precise moment when I received my copies of W.M., I happened to be around most of the members of the Wien Philharmonic, who took quite an interest in reading the article … much to my embarrassment! After that, I joined them to hear them record an octet for winds by Alexander Uhl (one of the big composers in Wien). And so began the first of many interesting and varied things I was treated to in Salzburg. Because of my friendship with the musicians, I was able to hear every rehearsal that went on during the Festival. This included the operas, the Phil. concerts and the chamber music. Of the outstanding events, there were Fidelio, with Fuertwaengler conducting and Flagstad, who sadly was not too good. But it was Fuert’s show and the Leonore No. 3 Overture was something … played as I’ve never heard it! It was absolutely thrilling and electrifying. Several good concerts of Fuert, and Kubelik. Unfortunately, the Festspielhaus, where all the concerts are held, is a terrible hall and the acoustics are so bad, it really did not do the orchestra justice. Then there was a private hearing for Fuert (which I was lucky to be asked to) of a new work by the orchestra’s English horn player, Prof. Hadamouvsky. A sextet for w.w.’s and harp are very interesting. And so the summer went … being pleasantly saturated by all this music, running into friends from the States, some of whom are studying and working in Paris … in particular Art Hoberman, flutist, who seems to be doing so well both in recitals and in conducting. Before closing the “summer chapter,” I really should mention a word about the “lederhosen” … the national summer costume of the men. They are the short, suede pants that they all wear, including the Phil. men. They’re really marvelous and very practical. They are never supposed to be cleaned and the dirtier they are, the more valuable. In many families, they are handed down from generation to generation to generation. They are worn with knee-length stockings and the whole outfit is really very quaint and colorful.
But, I must say, it took me a little while to get used to them for it seems to accentuate the knees and bellies … and really some were so funny!! But I grew to love them after a while and overlooked the variety of knees. Well … the time had now come (as it invariably does) to earn some money or return home. Since I was not quite ready for the latter, I had to think of a way to execute the former. Much as I would have like to return to Wien, it was really impossible to work there. (Ah, the trials of being a woman musician!) So bag and baggage and with Melba (Berke … my soprano singin’ gal friend from L.A. with whom I shared life in Wien), off we trooped to Rome. A two-day stopover in Venice proved delightful. We attended the opening night of a Contemporary music festival and Metropolitan first nights have nothing on Venetian first nights. All Venetian Society was there in all its spangles … and how they did glitter. Wish I could say the same for the program. One of the numbers was a new Hindemith Horn Concerto and played by … of all people … Dennis Brain, who must have come over for the Fest. I wasn’t too impressed with the concerto. Also in Venice bumped into a conductor friend of mine from Calif. … Gastone Usigli. On to Rome … scorching heat and likewise Italians! In the ensuing three day madness, I met and chatted with the manager of the Santa Cecilia Orch. and also another conductor, Carlo Zecchi, whom I had met in Salzburg. The information I succeeded in getting was that it is difficult for women to get into orchestras and furthermore, the music season in Italy doesn’t begin until December. It’s cooler then! Well… we did manage to see one of the last summer opera presentations and this was a thrill. It was held in the old Roman Baths … the Baths of Caracalla … a natural setting and a simply gigantic stage, making one gasp at each new set. The opera was Carmen and sad to say, it was awful. But the sets were worth seeing in this wonderful surrounding. Ah, those Romans … they really must have had quite a life. Anyway, off we went again … Melba back to Wien … and I, as a last resort, to London. Here the stumbling block was ye good ole union. Seems one has to live in England one year before one can even join. Ah well … it does have to protect its own. But in my six week sojourn, I had seen enough of the music picture and was very disappointed. Too much quantity and not enough quality. So many orchestras and so much music going on. There were only a few orchestras I felt were any good and among them was Barbirolli’s Halle Orch. from Manchester. They work very hard but there is a wonderful feeling
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among them. They are crazy about B. and he about them. Quite a few women too … aside from the usual strings, there are 1st oboe, English horn, 1st trombone, a horn and tympani. I met and chatted with B. who was very sweet. Introduced me to the bassoon section. Later on, I had lunch with Charles Cracknell, the 1st bassoonist and a very nice person. The English seem to be very enthusiastic chamber music lovers and I had much fun joining a group to play the Shubert Octet, Beethoven Septet, as well as quintets. I attended rehearsals of the B.B.C. Orchestra, the London Philharmonic and the Philharmonica (the main recording orch.) and among the musicians I met with Archie Camden, (bassoon) Frederick Thurston (clarinet) and Alex Whittacker (oboe). It was wonderful meeting and chatting with them, but as I say, I was rather disappointed in the music in general. What I really did learn to appreciate was the English sense of humor … which is just marvelous. The bus conductors especially … they seem to have a brand all their own which can either keep you in stitches for the whole ride, or make you feel less than “threepence”! Then, of course, there is the famous English tea, which is not only had in “high” afternoon, but “high” morning as well … (always served at rehearsals). The food situation … I’m sure you’ve heard about it … and it’s all true. Well … the time had now arrived when I exhausted what possibilities I thought there were (little did I know then!) and I made arrangements to set sail. My ticket being on the French Line, I was determined to spend one last gay month in Paris. Somewhere in the midst of packing, I looked at a map and saw what I thought would make a nice detour … Paris via Holland and Belgium. I thought I’d spend about three days in Holland … see the canals, the marvelous Rembrandts (and the whole Dutch school of painting, which I love), and hear that famous orchestra, the Konzertgebouw. And so it happened one morning … another life ago … that my two feet and faithful fagott touched Dutch soil. The three days went exactly as planned, but it was the fourth that became memorable. Through an introduction (from a friend in the States) I met Tibor de Machula (the orch’s marvelous 1st cellist) who in turn had me meet the 1st cellist, who in turn had me meet the 1st fagottist, Thom de Klerk. That was the fourth day and in Thom’s factory. For not only does he play exquisite bassoon, but he has a factory where he makes all the woodwinds as well. Quite an unusual person, this Heer de Klerk. And another thing … much to the envy of we poor human, “reed strugglers,” he plays on reeds he’s been using for the past 15 years!! Don’t ask me how, but it’s absolutely so. And the sound he gets … to use the teenagers vernacular … is absolutely “creamy.” It really is a continual wonder and joy for me to listen to
him. His velvet tone just ripples through the orchestra. This was one of the things that struck me when I first heard the orchestra. Oh yes … he plays on one of the bassoons he made himself. Well, on with the story. Just as I was about to walk out the door, fate walked in. During the course of our goodbyes, I jokingly asked if he couldn’t use another bassoonist in the section. As a matter of fact, he could use an associate first. After giving this statement a hearty laugh, I suddenly realized he wasn’t joking. From that moment on, my life hasn’t been the same. If this was a dream, I was sure I’d wake up swimming in the nearest canal! I arranged to play for Heer de Klerk and after not practicing for about 2 weeks I dashed home to put in a quick two hour session! After I played for him, he started to arrange an audition for the committee and four days and ten reeds later I found myself on a stage playing the Mozart Concerto and all the choice tidbits of the symphonic repertoire, with a scale thrown in for good measure. Among the listeners were Dr. Rudolph Mengelberg (nephew of the conductor), director of the Concertgebouw (hereinafter referred to as C.G.); the personnel manager of the orchestra and several of the first-chair men of the orchestra. Since they had to consult with other people and couldn’t come to a decision then, and since I completed my sight-seeing and was nervous about all my stuff I had already sent to Paris, I decided to leave and wait in Paris for an answer, which I could not conceive would be anything but “Sorry”. So off I went. A stopover in the Hague with a visit to another museum containing a fascinating collection of old instruments including a piccolo fagott. A day in Brussels — a lovely city with its town hall and square surrounded by the picturesque guild houses. Even took in a concert — the L’Orchestre Nat’l (which was not good) and Edmund Kurtz playing the Khatchaturian Cello concerto. And so Paris Finally! But it did not turn out to be “Paris finale” as 4 days later I received a telegram from the C. B. asking me to return! It was so utterly fantastic and I simply walked around as in a dream with the silliest grin plastered on my face from ear to ear! Seems this was mistaken for a flirtatious look by a Frenchman who got out at my “Metro” stop and followed me! Now just how could I explain in detail exactly in detail exactly what that earful grin was all about! After a merry chase along the Avenue de L’Opera, I succeeded in losing him and thereafter continued my grinning with a low head. And so I returned and as a friend wrote later: “How much in Dutch could one person get!” The Orchestra is wonderful and of course it goes without saying how thrilled I am to play in it. Since Eduard Von Beinum, its permanent conductor more or less, is ill, we have guest conductors each speaking in his own native language, i.e. Klemperer and Krips speaking German, Jean Fournet
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— French and Hien Jordans — Dutch. Most Dutch people speak three or four languages anyway. I speak English with Thom, German with die Herren Odijk and Rood (2nd and Contra, respectively), a bit of French with several others and with the rest limited sentences with any Dutch I’ve been able to pick up! Such a language — a mixture of all including “Lower Slobovia”! (See Al Capp). The other women in the orchestra are three violinists and two harpists. I’m probably their only woman W. W. in its history and an American at that! We rehearse practically every day and have three or four concerts a week. One of these is usually outof-town, in either the Hague, Rotterdam or other cities. It’s all very interesting though sometimes when I really stop to think of it, it seems unbelievable. You’re probably very curious to hear something about the “incident” that occurred a few months ago, but as much as I’d like to write a bit about it, it would take much too long, and it is far too complicated to go into. It seemed to start out as one thing but via the newspapers et al, it snowballed into other things. I am certainly in no position to know all the political involvements and believe me it is very involved. So for that reason alone, I am not in a position to say anything. I have never been in such a situation but to say the least, it was educational. After three weeks, things were smoothed over and we resumed playing again. Enough for that! (Editor’s Note: the foregoing remarks refer to the orchestral strike of some months ago). Just one more episode will bring you completely up-to-date on this “Fantasia”. You remember, I wrote you last about the Gramatti Concerto that was written especially for me last year in Wien? Well, several months ago I was invited by the Wiener Konzerthausgesellschaft to play it for their Fourth International Music Festival held in April. I was thrilled. What nicer way than that to return to your most loved city — Wein. The music city — at that! Since it came more or less at the time of our Easter vacation here, I could manage it very well. With special permission from Dr. Mengelberg, who allowed me a few extra days, I remained in Wein four weeks. During this time, I played six times. This included a concert in Salzburg where I played the Mozart Concerto at the Mozarteum. But doing the Festival was a lovely thing — all the wonderful artists connected with it — such as Pears, Britten, D. Maynor and many more. Much modern music that was played, made for a very interesting two weeks. Though I couldn’t remain for the full two weeks of the Festival (had to return as Klemperer was beginning a Beethoven Cycle) the four weeks that I was there were completely mad and wonderful. Seeing all my Wiener Philharmonic friends
again, and going to operas, concerts and a fascinating folk song and dance group from Yugoslavia. Also practicing, rehearsing with the orchestra, going to receptions and parties given for the artists of the Festival and being interviewed — all this kept me breathless and it’s a wonder I had any left to blow the concerts. The interviews were particularly amusing. One for a newspaper and the other for radio, where they would ask questions of my composer and myself and we would answer. The usual routine, only of course — in German. How I did howl when I listened to a rebroadcast later. My German is from hunger. But it was fun. The big reception given after the opening concert of the Festival in one of the lovely Saals of the Konzerthaus (the Schubert Saal) was a beautiful affair and looked like something you read of about old Vienna. My concert went very well and I certainly couldn’t have had a more critical audience. Among the people were Dr. Hans Sittner (President of the Staats Akademie für Musik and who commissioned the work originally), Professor Leopold Wlach (1st clarinet of the Wien Phil.); Professor Karl Öhlberger (1st Fag. of the Wien Phil.); several of the W’Ws from the Winer Symphoniker; your own Wein correspondent Friedrich Schonfeld (at whose house I spent a nice afternoon playing chamber music last year), and several friends I met in London — Dr. Harpner (head of the Anglo-Austrain Society in London) and another friend from the B.B.C., who came over for the same festival. And so it was — and a very nice “Was” at that. It too, was a bit on the fantastic side and sometimes I really couldn’t believe it. But it was all true and wonderful. I returned to Holland several weeks ago and am now looking forward to the tulips, which they say is a breathtaking sight. In the tulip fields are rows and rows or gorgeous tulips of all colors. Spring has also belatedly arrived and now begins the outdoorcafes — a delightful European pastime. After Klemperer and the Beethoven Cycle, Kubelik comes for several concerts from June 15th to July 15th there is the Holland Festival. Then the season is over and I am hoping to catch some of the Casals Festival later on. After that it’s anyones guess. Who knows — least of all do I. ❖
[This account appeared in the May and June, 1951 editions of the Woodwind Magazine. Do any of the readers know what happened to Gloria Solloway following this? Perhaps a knowledgeable reader can bring us up-to-date. ED.]
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Simplifying the Bassoon By Simon Kovar [This reprint from Woodwind Magazine is still good advice today from one of the great teachers. ED] he following article was originally conceived as a descriptive introduction for students. However, while going over the material, I realized that it applied to teachers and professionals as well. Further, it not only applies to the bassoon, but to the oboe and English horn as well. After 40 years of teaching and producing most of the fine bassoon players in the country today, I think it is time to put in print an objection to some of the malpractices and outmoded theories that make life difficult, if not miserable for the bassoonist and the double reed player in general. The first and most troublesome point involves the over-rated problem of vibrato. The whole vibrato controversy seems nonsensical to me. Between groups of scientists trying to standardize a method, and teachers who worry themselves and their pupils to death trying to teach something that cannot be taught, the problem has become a monster. In reality there is no difficulty. In the case of the student, it begins (like all his other problems) with listening to somebody use the vibrato and immediately trying to apply it himself in a conscious and artificial way. He uses it in the wrong places and in the wrong way and is aided and abetted by professional musicians who try and make a big mountain out of a little mole hill. The student should try to bring out a good sound, a beautiful sound. He should try and produce a singing sound. The attempt to beautify his sound automatically leads up to vibrato. His vibrato comes with ripening and it comes naturally as he becomes more advanced. It is impossible to tell somebody how to use it … first comes a strong embouchure and control. There is no philosophy in that. In the case of vibrato, like so many other things in music, you wake up one morning and you have it. It makes no difference where it comes from … from the lip or the diaphragm. If you sing and the tone has life, you have vibrato. Those professionals who claim that they have a specific formal method simply are fooling themselves. There is no more to the problem than what has been mentioned above.
The usually heartbreaking problem of embouchure is another case where there has been too much talk and too little action. There is no certain or specific rule for the formation of the lips. Everybody’s mouth is built differently, and whether you like it or not, man was not built like a suit of clothes. Once you accept the infinite variation in mouths, lips, etc., you accept the fact that embouchure must adjust to the capability of the lips. The old dictum that teachers occasionally give pupils that they can’t play bassoon because of the formation of their lips, or the sob story some players give you about the hard time they had, is nonsense. As long as a player produces a good tone, he can keep his lips the way he feels like it. Brass men are always complaining about the horror of playing from the side of the mouth, but I have heard some of the most magnificent brass playing from musicians who seemed to be holding the mouthpiece up against their ears. The embouchure should be as comfortable as possible and can’t be taught. The most comfortable and most natural is the best. The thick lips versus thin lips argument is again nonsensical. Experience will reveal this. The student should find out for himself which is best. Nobody who doesn’t have his mouth or lips can teach him and there is no rule. If necessary, even his ears will do. I am, myself, a staunch believer in the traditional way of teaching. I believe that there should be a strong discipline and a rational one. For this reason I insist on orchestral passages. Every student should start in his teens to study his orchestral passages. He will in all probability not be a soloist (how many bassoonists are?) and an early acquaintance with the literature and with the proper way of handling the day in day out material of his professional life will help immeasurably. There should be the greatest insistence on taking them in slow tempos, gradually working up to the faster. All double reeds begin with the idea of solo passages, but when the conductor says … “play such and such a passage,” he can’t handle it. The work that is characteristic should be mastered first and mastered well. From the first two months on, the student should begin with orchestral passages. In this way he gets acquainted with the repertoire from the beginning and develops a
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command of the instrument through correct phrasing, something which seems out of mode today. A young player should go through the traditional method of taking his teacher’s way of phrasing. He should strictly stick to this teacher or good players as guides. Then, when he is an accomplished player, he should add his individuality. There are too many loose players who begin with a nihilistic revolt against the methods of teachers and end up with an individuality which is nothing but loose playing and sloppiness. Discipline is necessary for the finished player, for the most part of his life’s work will depend on the base and if that is inadequate … you know what happens. In the case of the old bugaboo reeds, the less aid the better. All reeds are individual and instead of fooling yourselves about it, face the life-long reed slavery with resignation. There are men who can play with resistance. The variations are infinite. Every reed player has to
make reeds himself and find out what he needs for himself. Nobody else can tell him. ProfessIonals occasionally fall out of the habit, and should know better. The sooner you realize that you will have to go through the same trial and error as everybody else, the better. The last point is perhaps the most important. The most important fact of life concerning a bassoonist is that he is a group man. He cannot establish his own criteria but must adjust to the feeling of the group. It is around this phenomenon that the problem of intonation must be considered. No instrument has perfect intonation. Anything to the contrary is just feeble dream. While good intonation can be taught, most important is the ability to humor with the lips. The bassoonist must be able to match, he has to adjust to the group. When playing for himself, his intonation should be as perfect as possible, but when playing with the group, he must be able to adjust to whatever pitch variations exist.
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From Paris By Ben Spieler From Where [This is an interesting report on the Paris Conservatoire of 1951 from Woodwind Magazine. ED] e have been having some real Spring weather these days, and the balmy breezes blowing up the boulevards make routine wind work rough going. The promenade impulse is a strong temptation, and a fellow has to be made of a pretty good grain of grendilla to resist the pressure. Your correspondent gets a bad case of sighinitis every year at this time, and the travail has a tendency to suffer. Oh well, sighing down those low notes on the flute seem to help a bit, but in everything else it’s on the grim side. The two principal music schools here are the Conservatoire National, and the Ecole Normale de Musique. Practically everybody who comes to Paris is enrolled in one or the other. The Conservatoire had its beginnings during the reign of the Kings Louis, under various names. Its administration under French Republican rule started with its founder, SARRETTE in 1793. About this time, most of the stray heads laying around after the revolution were swept up and conveniently holed down somewhere, but those people walking around who still had a head to brag about were pretty touchy about it and anything Royalist, and were still ready for a good guillotinic scrape at the drop of a colored garter. Mr. Sarrette, in his capacity as Director of the Conservatoire was a victim of this confusion. One of his eleves played a horn solo in public entitled “Oh, Richard, Oh, My King.” Nobody knows what happened to the eleve, but rumor went that his head was found in one piece but not his horn. As for Mr. Sarrette, he was promptly put in prison. Thus, the Conservatoire beginnings show that a musician’s lot was always a tough one, and that audiences were always hard to please. The Conservatoire is located on a typical Parisian street, the five story buildings along the lane being garnished with balconies. The school, however, has a flat facade with no ornaments, and is conspicuously unassuming for that reason. All the arched windows on the ground floor are iron-barred and this outward appearance might have a stranger pass by completely
unaware of its significance. Up till 1913, the building was a Jesuit college, and the school was on the other side of town—not far from the Folies Bergeres. (They were the good old days no doubt.) The studios in the Conservatoire are vast, and hence give a feeling of emptiness and austerity. No desks as we have Stateside, but tables and long flat benches. The gray walls are adorned with occasional painting of French Artists and teachers, plus a long rack to accommodate a few dozen hats and coats. The Ecole Normale, on the other hand, is a structural gem. It was a private mansion built in 1892 with all the cheese cake of that carefree period, and was converted into a school in 1919. It’s ideal for those who crave inspiration, and who want that salon feeling when they practice. The Marquise who built it was, incidentally, and American woman. The fine concert hall of the school was built in 1928 on the site of the stables It seats 500 people, and is a perfect hall for recitals and small chamber groups. The rumor of Messrs. Crunelle and Delecluse coming to the States (Woodwind January) is pure invention. They have never given it a moment’s thought, and were greatly amused when I checked up with them. Mr. Mule is currently on a concert tour in Morocco, and so I can’t speak for him, but in recalling a conversation I had with him a few months back, I seriously doubt his ever considering going to the States on his own initiative. A little concert tour, yes, but that’s where it ends, and it would have to be arranged by interested parties. In this regard, he was approached last year but there was nothing decisive. The Conservatoire is sending an ensemble of 18 eleves on a two-week woodwind tour under Fernand Oubradous, their instructor, the end of March. The first performance will be in Milan’s La Scala. The idea behind this is to enhance artistic relations between the countries. Italy, in turn, is sending singers here. Mr. Selvincourt, Director of the Conservatoire, has just returned from a trip with other eleves to Spain. Off goes the hat for this sort of thing. For bassoonists, who might be curious about the work covered on their instrument at the Conservatoire, here's the list: The etudes include BITSCH (25 Etudes), BOZZA (15 Etudes), GAMBARRO (18 Etudes), MILDE (50 Etudes), PIARD
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(90 Etudes; 16 Etudes Characteristic), DHERIN (La Nouvelle Technique du Basson), and BOURDEAU. About every week a new solo is studies. Here is Mr. Dherin’s method. He has three classes weekly. On Tuesday, all twelve elves come to play their solo of the week with piano. Each play individually during this weekly three hour session. When this is done, the group plays together the solo for the following week, with all corrections of interpretation, breathing, etc. On Thursday and Friday, there are six in each class for the etude work. Scales are played in unison, and the etudes are played in a chain; one taking up where another stops. This is a good technique, and the entire etude must unroll without mistakes or interruptions. Here are the solos played up to now since October 15th. BOZZA - Concertino; Fantaisie. BUSSER - Portuguesa. BITSCH - Concerto. DE LA PRESLE - Petite Suite. BLOCH - Dancing Jack. DUTILLEUX - Sarabande & Cortege. DUCLOS - Fagottino. MOZART - Concerto. WEBER - Andante and Rondo Hongrois.
In general, the weekly digest is 6 to 10 etudes and a solo. This is not easy work. Add three hours a week of solfege, and an hour of music history to this, and you know what Jean Venthomme is up to all day. Next time, you will know what the other woodwinders are doing. Might add that the age for entrance is now between 10 and 20 at the Conservatoire. A student generally has his Premiere Prix in three years, but in some cases, after a year’s study he may receive it. This is very rare, though, the limit is five years study at the school. In every class there are three vacancies for foreign students who enjoy the same status as eleves. In France, the educational system is different. A child doesn’t have to go to public school. If, for example, at a very early age, he shows musical talent, his parents can pull the child out of school, to concentrate on music. It happens often, the only obligation, apparently, is to have a private tutor a few hours a week to teach him basic necessities. This explains why youngsters are seen putting in full time around the Conservatoire. Well, that’s the gossip from over here. Here’s wishing you all fine Easter vacation. ❖
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Paul Bunyan - Bassoonist Extraordinary By Floyd E. Low
[Some early bassoon fiction from Woodwind Magazine! ED] (Author’s Note: Nearly everyone has heard tales of Paul Bunyan, the legendary lumberjack hero of the North Woods. According to legend, Paul was a giant among men. Everything he had or did was simply stupendous and tremendous. It is said that he had a gun that could kill geese so high in the sky that they were spoiled by the time they reached the earth. Paul was undisputed master of the forest. He often cut down trees that were so tall that in order to see the tops of them it was necessary to call out the entire logging crew to help him look. There are many, many tales of a similar nature. However, until only recently was it generally known that Paul was a super-duper bassoonist. Being somewhat familiar with the legend of Paul Bunyan, the author had often heard rumors of the powers of Paul on his bassoon, but had given little credence to this fanciful presumption. He has made a careful search through forgotten archives and old documents and unearthed this heretofore little known artistic side of the great Paul.)
hen it is said that Paul Bunyan was a great bassoonist it is not meant in the ordinary sense. He was greater than great. Even a genius would shrivel up to nothing in comparison. With due respects to the great artists of today, Paul was undoubtedly the most terrific performer on the bassoon that the world has ever heard. Paul could blow so loud that he could drown himself out! When Paul practiced, so powerful were the vibrations set in motion by his gigantic lungs that the earth shook for miles around. Paul’s bassoon was no toy such as it played by the decadent musician of today. Paul’s instrument was made from an immense pin log which he whittled out one stormy evening while he was toasting his shins by the fireplace. The complicated acoustical problems involved in this task would have baffled present day engineers, but Paul figured them out in his head with just a few minutes of mental concentration. The bassoon keys were forged from heavy hunks of iron, and, while it is true that they went clankety-clank clank clunk when Paul’s huge fin-
gers pressed the, his playing was so passionate and artistic that the attention of his admiring audience was never diverted, even for the time of one little 128th note, by the din of rattling keys. Paul could, by the slightest touch of his powerful fingers, play the most entangling finger busters with lightning rapidity. One winter Paul was so busy cutting logs and digging rivers to float them out in the spring that he didn’t have much time for practice. Carelessly, he had left his bassoon lying on the side of a mountain fifty miles away. On about the first of April it was customary for Paul to play a dirge at the funeral of Old Man Winter. Since winter was nearly over, Paul thought of the bassoon and sauntered over one evening after supper to get it. Paul thought he better toot on it a bit to limber up his lip. Imagine his surprise when, at the first blast, seventeen bears that had hibernated in the tubing for the winter were catapulted out of the bell and went sailing over the mountain!
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In the memoirs of old-timers it is recorded that a colossal concert was once given by a Lumberjack Symphony. An auditorium built especially for this concert and covering an area of sixteen square miles was erected one Saturday afternoon by Paul and his men. All winter the hundreds of lumberjack musicians had carefully sandpapered, polished, and rehearsed every note and rest of the music. Finally, the week of the concert arrived. The word “week” is used because the symphony to be played had been composed by Paul in his spare moments and it took one week to play it. Even though this was the largest orchestra ever assembled, no conductor was necessary since Paul had so written the music that no one could escape from the bassoon. Thus making it impossible for any player to go wrong. An original oddity about Paul’s symphony— one that would certainly create a sensation even today—was a flute and ax duet. A huge pine log was placed in the center of the orchestra, and while the flute played trills and arabesques a lusty axman ran up and down the log showering the audience with crisp and luscious chips. On the sixth day of the concert at two o’clock in the afternoon the orchestra reached a climactic fortissimo in the Finale. Paul became so moved by his emotions—which, by the way, were as intense in comparison to those of ordinary human beings as were his other extraordinary qualities—that he completely forgot himself and blew so loud that he not only drowned himself out but also all the rest of the orchestra! It was, indeed, a thrilling sight to see four thousand musicians fiddling, blowing, pounding, and scraping, and not a sound to be heard! It was as if a giant and overpowering pause was being observed by the entire universe.
As Paul blew louder and louder it became silenter and silenter until one could hear a lumberjack think in the remotest part of the auditorium four miles away! Finally, the orchestra came to a pianissimo passage. Instantly the great silence receded and a glorious harmony burst upon the ear. The tones of this magnificent orchestra were so intense and powerful that they engulfed the audience like the waves of the sea and were plainly visible as they soared out over the forest. Once more during that memorable concert Paul demonstrated his mastery over the bassoon. Seeing a “Sforzando” accent approaching, Paul, at the proper instant, gave a tremendous heave with his mighty lungs and a powerful whack with his tongue. Unfortunately, however, he outdid himself. Even the great Paul could not have anticipated what was to happen. Under such terrific pressure his massive bassoon straightened out like sewer pipe and, slipping from his grasp, went roaring over the heads of the audience like a hurricane! It sped with terrific velocity through the side of the auditorium several miles away and for days after, so the oldtimers say, thee bassoon could be heard zooming and smashing through the forest and scooping great holes in the earth, which, so ’tis said, accounts for many of Minnesota’s Ten Thousand Lakes. Finally, the bassoon came to rest on what is now Minnesota’s famous Mesabi Iron Range. It failed, however, to make a perfect three point landing and buried itself far into the earth. Since the discovery of iron ore in Northeastern Minnesota, the mining companies have been unearthing great chunks of bassoon keys which are forged into guns, tanks, battleships, and skyscrapers. ❖
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Bassoon Music Reviews By Ronald Klimko Moscow, Idaho Music for Bassoon Alone or Bassoon and Piano Günter Angerhöfer (Editor): Orchesterstudien für Fagott. Friedrich Hofmeister Musikverlag, Hofheim-Leipzig. FH7049: Works by Peter Tchaikovsky (DM 25.00); FH7050: Works by the Russian Masters Borodin, Khachaturian, Mussorgski, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Shostakovich.(DM 32.00). These are two new volumes of orchestral excerpts from Russian composers edited in very handsome editions by IDRS Honorary Member Günter Angerhöfer. They have a very useful quality in that both volumes contain works that are normally difficult to obtain. In the Tchaikovsky volume, Günter has included very sizeable excerpts from the more rarely heard first three symphonies of the master, as well as the last three. The volume also contains bassoon parts from the operas Eugene Onegin and Pique Dame, along with the conventional Capriccio Italien and the Nutcracker Suite. The volume of Russian masters includes selections from the Symphonies #7,8,9,10,11, and 12 of Shostakovich, along with the Violin Concerto, the Gayne Ballet Suite by Khachaturian, Scherezade and Capriccio Espagnol by Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin’s Polovitzian Dances, and Mussorgsky’s Pictures from an Exhibition. Each work contains not only the solo passages, but useable chunks of the more difficult technical sections as well. These new volumes are a valuable tool for the student training for an orchestral career. Hofmeister has been one of the recent leaders in publishing orchestral studies for all instruments of rarer and more difficult to obtain works. These two volumes continue in this tradition.
Liu Chi: A Collection of Etudes for Bassoon by Orefici, Pivonka, Bianchi, Bruna, Bitsch, Gambaro, Gatti, Milde, Orselli, Bozza, Hoffman, and Oromszegi, with additional scales and exercises by the author. This volume was given to the IDRS by Bernard Garfield, who, on a recent tour to China, was given the collection by Liu Chi, principal bassoonist of the Central Philharmonic Orchestra of Beijing, with the request that he give it to the Society. Besides his own original exercises, the bulk of the volume are some of
the more famous etudes culled from the exercise books of the various authors listed above. I would imagine that Liu Chi pulled all these etudes into one volume and reprinted them for teaching purposes, since I would assume it would normally be difficult to find this music in the stores in China. This might be
explained in the frontispiece of the book, printed only in Chinese. I reproduce these two pages here for those readers who can understand it.
Richard J. Cioffari: Sonatina for bassoon and piano. Southern Music Company, San Antonio, Texas. SU 211. $10.00. This is a very well written work by Professor Emeritus, Richard Cioffari, of Bowling Green State University, Ohio. It is dedicated to bassoonist Robert Moore, who recently also retired from the same university. The work is in the standard three movement format and is written in a generally conservative neotonal style. The bassoon part goes no higher than b2, and is not overly demanding technically. The piano part is similar in its demands. I would rate it a solid Grade 3, well within the reach of a talented high school student or better. Overall it is a nice piece with very “tuneable’ thematic material. The last movement fits the bassoon especially well.
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Graham Powning: Bassoon Sonata No. 1 (for bassoon and piano) Spratt Music Publishers, 170 N.E. 33rd St., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334. Tel: (305) 563 1844, Fax: (305) 563 9006. $10.00. I found this work to be somewhat difficult, both technically and musically. Powning is an Australian oboist/composer, and this work is dedicated to his bassoonist colleague, John Cran of Syndey. It is a three movement work, but with an unconventional andante-scherzo-lento format. It is written in a modern- somewhat harsh- though not pointillistic style. The bassoon part is fairly demanding, climbing to a high d#2 in the very last measure of the lento finale. Of the three movements the scherzo is the most interesting musically. I must confess I didn’t care for the final lento which seems to end rather unconvincingly. The scherzo, however, might be worth performing as a separate single movement. It has some interesting rhythmic ideas.
P.D.Q. Bach: Sonata “Abassoonata” S.888 for bassoon and piano. Theodore Presser Co., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, 19010. OK. Here’s the setup as described in the performers notes: “When the piece is to begin, it is announced that the pianist ia inexplicably not on hand. He or she runs on only in time to play the last two measures, until then the bassoonist plays both the bassoon and piano parts simultaneously, using a neck strap for the bassoon.” Need I say more? This latest “oeuvre” from the fertile mind of Peter Schickele is a show-stopper if you’re up to it. The three movement work is cleverly written so that the bassoonist can play both parts. Schickele/Bach has thought of everything so that the thematic material can easily be fingered while alternating back and forth (and sometimes simultaneously!) between the two instruments. I have to rate it as a definite Grade 4, however,not because of the bassoon part but because working it all out (especially with my limited piano playing ability!) would be quite a feat! I do hope to perform it, however. It’s guaranteed to bring down the house-a rare kudo for us bassoonists! Get it! Do it if the piano playing doesn’t scare you off!
George Longazo: Concerto (1954) for bassoon and piano; Skyline Publications, 160 Skyline Drive, Eau Claire, WI 54703. Tel. and Fax. (715) 838 8890. This is a three movement work originally composed for bassoon and a chamber orchestra while the composer was at Indiana University studying compo-
sition with Bernard Heiden and bassoon with Roy Hauser. Dr. Longazo, who later recieved his DMA from the University of Southern California, where he was a bassoon student of Norman Herzberg, is currently Chair of the Department of Music, California State University, Chico. The composition is written in a fundamentally atonal style, at times approaching serialism, (the first theme of the first movement contains 11 of the 12 pitches of the chromatic scale in consecutive order), but is not totally organized around this system, as far as I can perceive. Some of the thematic material seems to have been derived from the superimposition of perfect fourths. The bassoon part is not overly difficult-rising to a high d flat2, but only in the slow movement. The last movement scherzo has a tongue-in cheek quality, somewhat reminiscent of Shostakovich. Overall I would grade it as a 4- in difficulty.
Adrian Williams: Sonate pour basson et piano. Éditions Max Eschig (215, rue du Faubourg St.Honoré, 75008 Paris) This is a fabulous new work for bassoon! According to the frontispiece, it was commissioned with assistance from “Pour que l’esprit vive” for Catherine Marchese and first performed by her with the composer at La Pree on May 19, 1996. It is a four movement composition, (moderate, slow, very fast, and fast), 15 minutes in length, and not overly difficult (about a Grade 4). The work is cyclic in structure in that thematic material is carried over from one movement to the next, but often beautifully transformed in the process. The range is only up to high d2, but it still would take an advanced performer to get the most out of the wonderfully written music. The style is British, somewhat reminiscent of Ralph Vaughan Williams, but more modern in technique if not in mood. I fell in love with the work the first time I read through it. The primary thematic material is based upon the reiteration of descending minor thirds. This is an interval which I have always felt has a kind of universally mournful quality to it-somewhat impressionistic in character. This thematic idea recurs in all the movements, but is often varied in the carryovera kind of “ideé fixe”. The third movement is an exciting scherzo-like Allegro Vivace. Even here and in the spirited final movement however, the overall expressive quality of the music prevails. I have already decided to perform this work myself. Get a copy of it and I know you or your better students will want to as well!
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Ed Bland: For Bassoon (November, 1979) (Osmund Music Inc., PO Box 451112, Los Angeles, CA 90045; tel: 213 368 6418; Fax; 310 215 9924. $5.95, plus $3.50 shipping and handling) This is a single movement work for solo bassoon of about 3 minutes duration written in an atonal jazz style. The first twelve pitches of the work comprise a 12 tone row, which is then used with somewhat freely in subsequent statements. The work is primarily held together by the unity of the jazzy rhythmic gestures. This is the greatest challenge of the workthe rhythm, which, while not overly complex, must still be “swung” in order for the work to be stylistically successful. Technically the range is only up to high a2, but the rhythmic problems make it pretty much a 4- in difficulty. It would require a mature student to pull it off. As a matter of fact, California bassoonist Julie Feves, Director of Performance at the California School of the Arts, who has worked closely with Ed Bland on a number of occasions, stated in an accompanying letter of introduction that she uses his music “...to help advanced students learn to master complex rhythmic and contrapuntasl idioms.”
Music for More Than One Bassoon Graham Lyons: Bassoon Games: Rita and the Wolf and Stereonata for two bassoons. Useful Music: Advanced Woodwind Series 4 (available from: Sunshine Music Distribution Co., Inc., 407 North Grant Avenue, Suite 400, Columbus, OH 43215-2157. Tel: (614) 221-1917, (800) 221-0711, Fax: (614) 22c4-1009. $8.50) This is an interesting, fairly short duo for two bassoons of moderate to advanced difficulty. The range ascends only to c2 in the first bassoon, and only in the second of the duos. That, and the relatively straightforward technical difficulty make it only a Grade 3, capable of being played by talented high school students. I found the first duo of only moderate interest. The first bassoon plays the Rita role and the second growls along mostly down low as the big bad wolf. The second work is much more interesting, however, with clever uses of rhythm and imitation in a stereophonic way under an allegro tempo. It is a nice collection, and makes for fun reading with a good student. Michael Curtis: Seven Jazz and Ethnic Duos for two bassoons. Managed Systems Solutions, P.O. Box 2281, Ft. Collins, Co. Tel: (800) 421 1016. $15.00. This is a fun collection of works. The jazz numbers require a bit of expertise to “swing” so that one doesn’t sound too “square” while playing them. (Fortunately
I have some “jazzers” in my bassoon studio who can help me out here!) The ethnic movements are written with flavors of Latin America, Bulgaria, Scotland and Israel. They make for delightful reading with one of your better students (a solid grade 4) and might even sound well on a recital program. (Movements could easily be extracted and played alone.) The first part ascends only to high d2 and the second part to b2, but the parts are generally treated equally in technical difficulty with the second part crossing the first at times and taking the lead. Michael Curtis is a former student of Norman Herzberg, and lives in Portland, Oregon, where he free lances as well as serving as principal bassoon of the Eugene Symphony Orchestra. This, along with other works of his mentioned elsewhere in this review, is a nice set of duos for bassoon, and I recommend them strongly to you for your musical enjoyment.
Daniel Kazez: Canons, Catches and Rounds for 3 and 4 bass clef instruments. (Works by Purcell, Byrd, Blow, and other composers of the English Baroque). SU 274. (Southern Music Co. San Antonio, Texas. $10.00. This is a nice collection of very easy and readable canons and rounds, written out in score form and arranged by cellist Daniel Kazez. The works can be played by any bass clef instruments, even cellos, as Kazez has included bowings for them as well. They all sound great, on bassoons however, and are very much within the ability of even an average high school student. The range never exceeds a2 in any of the upper parts, and often the third part is written an octave lower, so that it could be handled by a player of even more limited ability. All the parts are in the bass clef-there is no tenor clef. I would rate this a Grade 2+ in difficulty, and recommend it especially for use in clinics and classes with high school-aged students. The works are all quite short and delightful to read and play.
Johann Neopomuk Hummel (1778-1837) Fagottquartett in Es-Dur für 4 Fagotte, edited by Helge Bartholomäus. Musik-und Buchverlag Werner Feja, Berlin.(Available from Bassoon Heritage Editions, P.O. Box 4491, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33338. $13.25. This quartet was recently discovered and printed by the first time under the editorship of Helge Bartholomäus, who is a member of the Berlin Fagottquartette. It is a very pleasant, single movement work of about 4 minutes length that is generally march-like in character. The parts are not overly dif-
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ficult-the first bassoon has one rapid series of arpeggios on an f dominant seventh chord followed by a b flat chord that might require some fast- (or double-) tonguing, but all the other parts are quite easy and readable. It is a nice addition to the bassoon quartet literature, and I recommend it strongly to you. It would make a good opener (or closer) on a bassoon recital.
Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739) Geloso sospetto from the Opera Octavian (1705) for soprano, four bassoons and continuo. (Edited by Gordon Solie). Editions VIENTO, 8711 SW 42nd St., Portland, OR 97219 Tel: (503) 244-3060. This is a unique early quartet for bassoons and soprano by one of the early German of opera composers. It is a da capo aria typical of the opera seria style of the time. In an andante tempo, it presents the four bassoons in a florid, flowing 6/8 meter on the ritornello at the beginning and the end of the A section, then tacet for the fairly short B section, before returning for the da capo A. Only the first and second bassoon parts are of moderate difficulty (Grade 3-), and the bass continuo part, (which could be read on a fifth bassoon) is much more interesting than either the 3rd or 4th bassoon part. This is presumably because the 3rd or 4th parts were played by the two oboists who were believed to have picked up bassoons to play these parts! The work is a curiously unique historical piece which might go well on a concert of mixed vocal and instrumental music.
Ed Bland: One on One for two bassoons, or an adaptation of the rhythm of the second bassoon part for percussion on tape. (1996) (Osmund Music Inc. Address given earlier. $10,95 for bassoon duo version $12.95 for the bassoon/tape version-tape supplied-plus $3.50 shipping and handling.) This is a very interesting concept for a piece. The music exists in two versions. The first is that of a conventional duo for two bassoons written in an atonal but jazz style. The second version takes the rhythm of the second bassoon part and presents it as a taped percussion part, so that the work could be presented as a solo/tape composition. Frankly, this is the version that sounds the best to me. The two
parts are very contrapuntal and imitative in nature, but the solo/percussionn version gives the music more variety and contrast for my ears than the duo bassoon version.Moreover, another version of the piece with the first bassoon part as a taped percussion part also exists, but this version was not on the demonstration tape sent me. This work, written just last year, in 1996, sounds much more mature stylistically than Ed Bland’s solo bassoon work: For Bassoon (1979), reviewed earlier. As with that piece, however, the more complex rhythms, which the bassoonist must once again “swing”, make this a work of about a grade 4 level, suitable for an advanced player. I really liked the bassoon/tape version and would recommend it strongly as an interesting ca.3-4 minute “change-of-pace” work for your next recital. The work also exists in versions for flute and bassoon, clarinet and bassoon, bassoon and bass clarinet, as well as other oboe and clarinet configurations! Quite a bit of versitility from a single work!
Music for Bassoon with other Instruments
Michael Curtis: Eight More Original Jazz Duos, and Duo Suite on Mexican Themes for oboe and bassoon. Managed Systems Solutions, (Address given earlier.) $15.00. These are neatly composed and written duos for oboe and bassoon. They are cleverly crafted in either a jazz or Mexican style and/or idiom. Each movement is almost exclusively in da capo form and about two to four minutes in length. They are technically fairly demanding, more rhythmically than by range. Playing them in a jazz style would also require “swinging” the rhythms as they are written. Because of these more rarely requested technical demands, they probably should be graded at a 4- level. They are, however, very well done and would be lots of fun to play on a recital. The Jazz Duos could be performed as individual movements without sacrificing the quality of the whole. The Suite, however, would probably work best performed as an entire piece. As sightreading pieces they are quite challenging, though quite feasible to play, especially if one has some experience with the jazz idiom. All in all I can recommend them strongly to you for an interesting “change of pace” work on a future recital. Mariano Mores: “El Firulete”
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arranged for oboe and bassoon by Mariano Kraus. Latin American Works for Bassoon (Andrea Merenzon Collection) (Avenue Córdoba 2555 “5o”, Capital Federal (1120) Argentina. Tel: (54-1) 961 5593, Fax: (54-1) 961 8223). This is a lovely, spirited Latin American encoretype work arranged for oboe and bassoon from the collection of Latin American music by the Argentinian bassoonist Andrea Merenzon. Many of you might have heard Andrea, herself, perform it with Argentinian oboist Ruben Albornoz at the IDRS Conference in Tallahassee last year. It is in da capo form and is very tuneful and, as one would expect, very rhythmic. It would make a perfect recital encore piece with its brief length and warm spirit. Andrea Merenzon has been very active in South America compiling, collecting, and commissioning Latin American composers for music for the double reeds, especially the bassoon. This work is only one of many that she has published herself and made available to the general public. You can probably get hold of her catalog of works by writing to the above address. I recommend you do. This gem is only one of the many that there are in her collection.
Václav Kucera: Duettini per Oboe e Fagotto. Editio Moravia, Brno 1995. EM0056. When I wrote the article “Bassoon Music from the Czech Republic” (Double Reed, Vol.17, No. 1,1994), I reviewed this work. This is a reprint of part of my review at that time: “This is a major work by one of the Czech Republic’s most important modern composers. It is in four movements-Introduke, Scherzino, Canzonette, and Finale-and is about 14-15 minutes in length. The technical demands are quite severe, however, even though the bassoon part ascends only to d2. The rhythms are quite varied throughout, making it a 4+ to 5- in difficulty. It reminds me a little bit of the Andre Jolivet Duo for Oboe and Bassoon in difficulty level. It is a striking piece, however, well worth the effort it would take to perform it.” When I wrote that review the work had not been published. It has subsequently been published by Editio Moravia of Brno. If you should have trouble getting hold of the work, you might try writing the composer directly, whose address (at least in 1994!) is: Vaclav Kucera, Csc, Jizni II., 778 CR-14100 Praha 4, Czech Republic. Christopher Weait:
Ten by Three: A Collection of Folksongs from Québec for oboe (or clarinet), bassoon (or cello) and keyboard (piano or harpsichord). Miami Music Editions (Address given earlier) MME 27 $29.00. I don’t know if this work has been reviewed before. I do recall hearing this work performed at a previous IDRS Conference. Some of you might know it from that performance. If you don’t you should get to know it. It is a lovely compilation of French Canadian folk songs arranged by Chris Weait when he was still with the Toronto Symphony, prior to his move to Ohio State University, Columbus. It is now available through Henry Skolnick’s Miami Music Editions, and I recommend it strongly to you as a very solid recital piece. The ten movements are widely varied in style and length, and while technically demanding at times, they are very well written for the instruments by a composer who knows what the instruments can do. Each instrument, including the piano, gets a chance to shine with both solo and ensemble movements, which also add nicely to the variety of textures found within the work. The style is fundamentally tonal with modal/folk-style gestures also quite prevalent. I would grade it as a Grade 4-. It’s a nice work-one of the so very few for this combination of instruments- and I recommend it strongly to you.
Gordon Jacob: Duo for clarinet and bassoon (First Edition) Miami Music Editions MME 40. (Address given earlier.) This work is a gem. It is only four minutes in length, and was written in 1975 as a sound track for a short abstract film. It was resurrected by William Waterhouse and is now available thru Miami Music Editions. Despite its brevity, it manages to capture and hold the attention of both the performers and the listener. It would be perfect as an encore piece on your recital. Technically it is virtually sightreadable, probably a Grade 3, but that does not distract from the quality of the work. I can only quote the reaction of my clarinettist colleague, Roger Cole, after we had read it: “This one’s a ‘keeper’!”
Ryuji Yamauchi: Duet for flute and bassoon. Phoebus Publications, 1303 Faust Ave., Oshkosh, WI 54901. Two scores: $8.00. This is a work in seven short movements. It is written in a tonal, at times somewhat oriental style, and is technically quite easy (Grade 3) in both parts. It is a little disappointing musically in that some of the
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movements seem a bit static and too repetitive of similar rhythms and motives. It would be a nice work for high school performers who would find it well within their technical scope, or perhaps as a sightreading piece in your library. The music is hand written but very legible and clearly printed.
Gernot Wolfgang: Duo (1992) for flute and bassoon. Ludwig Doblinger (Bernhard Herzmansky) KG, WienMünchen, Catalog # 06 319. (Ca. 8 minutes) This is an interesting single-movement work with a variety of tempo changes. According to the composer’s notes, it is based on the construction of synthetic scales, after the teachings of American composer Vincent Persichetti. These scales are neither major nor minor, but constructed totally by the composer who can then use them in an atonal, polytonal, or even at times tonal manner. The piece makes interesting use of silence as a structural part of the music as well. The style is quite varied, at times serious, at others rather tongue-in-cheek in its humor. It is not overly difficult, perhaps a Grade 4+ to 5-. The bassoon part ascends to d2, but the tissitura is not in the high register all that much. It is definitely a pleasant work, and I recommend it to you strongly as a solid piece of contemporary music that will be quite accessible to your audience.
Mark Sforzini: Rhapsody (1995) for flute and bassoon. (4111 West Swann Ave., Tampa, FL 33609, Tel. (813) 287-1319) This is a beautiful piece of modern music. Some of you might have been fortunate enough to hear it performed by Mark Sforzini himself on the bassoon, along with flutist Catherine Wendtland-Landmeyer at the last IDRS Conference in Tallahassee last June. I wasn’t able to myself, but so many colleagues told me how impressed they were with the work, I ordered a copy from the composer. It is a single movement work but about 12’ 30’’ in length, which makes it a major piece for this combination of instruments. It begins with loud and rapid music that gradually subsides into a more rhapsodic section. After this the music becomes a bit more playful, with first the flute, then the bassoon playing a legato melody, with the other instrument alternating with a staccato ostinato pattern. An acceleration in tempo leads to faster and more agitated music, followed by a cadenza and recitative-like section that rises to the climax of the work-only to gradually slow to a soft and gorgeous ending. Technically it is not an easy work. It would be a Grade 5+ to 6- in difficulty. The highest note in the
bassoon is only c2, but with the varied rhythms, tempo changes, accelerations, and with the rhythmic precision required between themselves, it would require quite a bit of rehearsal time to work out the “signals” between the two performers. The music comes with a full score, along with two beautifully cross-cued separate parts. The only complaint was that our flutist felt that the flute part could have been cross-cued even more. The bassoon part is fine. I strongly recommend this work to you as a beautiful, exciting and skillfully written piece of modern music worth reaching a wide audience.
Hans Possega: Trio für Flüte, Fagott und Klavier. Accolade Musikverlag (Tölzer Strasse 10, 83607 Holzkirchen, Germany. Tel/Fax 0049-8024-92143. ACC 1050. Here is still another nice piece of contemporary music written in a highly expanded tonal, but generally lyrical and non-pointillistic style by Munich composer/pianist Hans Possega. The work is published in a very handsome edition by a fairly new publishing company founded by Celia Collins and bassoonist Bodo Koenigsbeck. The work is also in a single movement, but with three main sections: an allegro, an introduction and modified “waltzish” section, and an agitato finale. The antiphonal interplay between the three instruments is particularly well handled in this work. The technical demands are somewhat strong, but not overly so. I would grade it overall as a good Grade 5-. It is not particularly “sightreadable”, but would probably go together without too much difficulty in rehearsal. The impressive factor is that it is, as with the two previous flute-bassoon works reviewed above, very skillfully composed. It is exciting to see such good music being written for our instrument! Accolade Musikverlag is in the process of building a chamber music catalog. Hopefully the coming works will be as solidly written as this one.
Karl Eduard Goepfart (1859-1942): Trio Op. 75 for clarinet, bassoon, and piano. Bassoon Heritage Edition BHE 14 (Address given earlier) This is an interesting work in a late romantic style by the relatively obscure German composer Karl Eduard Goepfart. It is in three movements-fast, slow, fast-and is not overly challenging technically or musically. It would make a nice contrasting romantic work (a rarity for this combination of instruments!) on a chamber music or solo recital. The bassoon part is only a Grade 3+ ascending only to b flat2, but would probably require at least the maturity of a college stu-
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dent to “wring” the proper romanticism from the notes. It is printed here by BHE very clearly in reproduction of its original printing by Johannes Sernau in Weimar, coming from the prodigious music library of William Waterhouse. I recommend it strongly as a nice addition to your chamber music library.
Peter Schmalz: Four Horsemen of the Peptic Apocalypse for clarinet, bassoon and piano. Phoebus Publications (Address given earlier) $22 for score and parts. This is a fascinating, well-written piece of music. It is in four “upsettingly titled” movements: Rubor (redness), Tumor (swelling), Dolor (pain), and Calor (heat). The composer provides no programmatic notes describing the “raison d’etre” for the titles, but the work, written in a modern, but not overly pointillistic style, is both pleasing to play and enjoyable to hear. The composition follows a somewhat standard four movement sequence of a slow intro-fast first movement, scherzo-like second, lento third, and presto finale. The parts are composed well for all three instruments and would provide a fair challenge to each. I would grade it a 4+ overall. Though it is not quite sightreadable, one can get a pretty good feel for the work reading it for the first time. My ensemble was enthusiastic enough about the work to consider programming it ourselves in the near future. I recommend it strongly to you as a nice modern work for this combination of instruments.
Giuseppe Verdi: La Traviata (Excerpts from the Opera arranged by Alexandre Ouzounoff for oboe, clarinet, and bassoon) International Music Diffusion (IMD 321) (2426 rue Etex, 75018 Paris, France; tel: (1) 42 29 21 31; fax: (1) 42 63 47 31. This little gem is a delight to play. French bassoonist Alexandre Ouzounoff has skillfully arranged the Overture and most of the memorable arias and ensembles from the opera for wind trio. Every instrument gets a chance to “show off” in the course of the
work, and it is written so that the entire work could be performed (with a nice finale to finish it off!), or individual movements could be extracted from it and played alone. It is very readable and not overly difficult in all the parts, about a solid grade 3+. I recommend it to you as a nice source for potential encore material for your repertoire, or even just for the fun of reading it with your colleagues.
Carl Maria von Weber: 2nd Movement from Concerto Opus 75, transcribed for bassoon and wind ensemble by Peter Schmalz. Phoebus Publications (address given earlier) Full score and parts $15.00. With the addition of the slow movement to the Opus 75, Peter Schmalz has now made the entire work available for solo bassoon with an accompaniement of 2 first clarinets, 2 second clarinets, 2 third clarinets, alto clarinet, bass clarinet, E flat contra clarinet, BB flat contra clarinet, and 2 horns. According to the catalog, the prices are: 1st mvt. $40.00 for score and parts, $8.00 for full score; 2nd mvt. $15.00 for score and parts, $5.00 for full acore; and 3rd mvt. $35.00 for score and parts, $20.00 for full score. If you have a solo appearance coming up in an “orchestrally impaired” location, this arrangement might be just what you need! ❖
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IDRS WWW ONLINE
IDRS WWW Search, July, 1997 http://idrs.colorado.edu/Search/Search.html
IDRS OnLine® Access to certain sections of the IDRS WWW, such as the membership directory, requires a password. To obtain a password, you must subscribe to IDRS OnLine®. To subscribe to IDRS OnLine®, send an email message to: [email protected]
Leave the subject field blank and type in the first line of text in the body of your message: SUBSCRIBE IDRS-L [your first name] [your last name]. Example: for Joe Bassoon to subscribe to the mailing list, Joe would type SUBSCRIBE IDRS-L Joe Bassoon as the first line of text in the body of his email message.
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Playing “Short” High Notes on the Hautboy By Bruce Haynes Montreal, Quebec, Canada
he hautboy (or “baroque oboe”) is expected to play up to d3, but has no octave key. For this reason, there is a certain urgency in finding secure fingerings for the high notes. In the earliest experiments with the instrument back in the 1960s, the fingerings that seemed to be the safest were the so-called “long fingerings” (because of their longer speaking length, using fingers of both hands). These fingerings, which tap second harmonics of lower notes, have been generally used for a generation now.1 Many players have used them reluctantly, being aware that long fingerings had no connection with the baroque instrument; until after the middle of the 18th century, every known chart indicates high notes with fingerings identical to the octave below, and c3 was given “all open.”2 Even after bb2 and c3 began to be played with added right-hand fingers, b2 often continued to be indicated “short,” ie., with the first finger only.3 By contrast, almost every chart from c1770 gives the more complex fingerings (the ones normally used nowadays), suggesting that a definitive change took place at about this time. (Changes of technique at this date are not surprising, since by 1770 the “classical” or “narrowbore” hautboy was very different from the instruments of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Short-fingered high notes might therefore be considered one of the defining characteristics of the “baroque” hautboy.) Here are the high-note fingerings for the nine known hautboy charts that appear prior to c1770: g2
123 (Ba, L, S, H); Bi, F, M add 6
123 (Ba, L, S, H); F, M add 6; 12 4 (E) Bi adds
123 (H); Bi, F, M add 6; 122 4 (Ba, L, S)
12 (Ba, L, S, H); Bi, M add 6, F adds 68
1 3 (F); Bi adds 6
1 3 (Ba, L, S, F, H); M adds 6; Bi adds 68
1 (Ba, H); Bi, M add 6; 2 (L, S, F)
“All open” (Ba, L, S, F, H); 2 6 (Bi); 2 7
23 456 (Bi, H); 23 8 (F)
(E); 23 45 (M)
(Ba) Banister 1695 (L)
Le Riche c1692
Second Book of Theatre Music 1699
One way to check whether long high-note fingerings were used is by looking for upward slurs to bb2, b2, and c3 from beyond the register break (that is, from c2 downwards) in music written in this period specifically for hautboy. Slurs of this kind are only possible with long fingerings. I have so far failed to find any in hautboy solos written prior to 1770.4 The angle at which the hautboy was held also says something about whether short high-note fingerings were used. To play the c3 “all open,” the hautboy must be held at an angle of at least 45˚, since the fingers cannot be used to hold the instrument; it is balanced on the two thumbs. Hotteterre wrote (1707:44) On doit tenir le Haut-Bois, à peu prés comme la Flute à Bec, avec cette difference, qu’il doit être une fois plus élevé.
The hautboy should be held much like the recorder, with the difference that it should be raised still more.
That would explain why thumbrests are never found on original instruments; holding the instrument between 45˚ and 90˚ to the vertical makes a thumbrest redundant. Several early pictures show the instrument held fairly high.5 The fine metal chains that were sometimes attached to the top joints of hautboys may have had to do with using short high-note fingerings.6 It is possible to drop the instruments when playing c3 “all open,” especially if (as often happened in those days) the player is marching. The chain may have been meant to loop through a buttonhole to keep the instrument from falling. As I wrote in an article on hautboy fingering in 1978,
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Most if not all players of the early 18th-century oboe regularly use these more secure harmonic fingerings for the upper notes when they must be tongued. The reason for this anachronism is one of the current mysteries in the field.7 In the intervening years, this statement has remained true. Using the equipment we have developed, no one has been able to switch entirely over to the original fingerings. Some players use b2 fingered 1 and even bb2 with 1 3, but I know of no player who regularly uses an open c3. Why is this important? An anachronistic fingering or two is not a serious issue. The real question is whether after a generation of playing the hautboy, a failure to find a solution to such a basic problem is not a sign of an anomalous approach to breath support, embouchure, reeds, or a combination of all three. Beyond this (as we have discovered before) is it possible that by ignoring the few historical clues we have, we are missing technical advantages, insights, something of the original character and sound of the hautboy, or even a more beautiful tone? Michel Piguet raised this subject in his talk at the Utrecht Double-Reed Symposium in 1994, suggesting that “something is not right about our Baroque reed material.” I found Michel’s remarks both an appeal to conscience and an inspiration, and in May 1995, I set out to try to understand this mystery. As might be imagined, I approached this project reluctantly, involving as it did a certain loss of security on the high notes, and a reed that squeaks more easily. I’ve been experimenting with it more or less continuously (with a few retreats) since then, and this article is a report on what I have so far found. My approach was first to begin using the short fingerings (after warning the neighbors!), and second to make a test over 80 different staple designs and a number of different cane gouges and shapes. I’m not yet sure I have a final design, but I think I’m getting close. It is likely that there is more than one way to achieve these fingerings. For myself, I found it to be a question of about 75% reed and 25% diaphragm support. The reed I ended up using is described below. While I hope the dimensions I give will be of help to the players, my point is not to advocate certain reed dimensions. Every player has his own dimensions. I’m sure the way to play the short high notes does not depend on only one kind of reed. I do want to say, though, that in one way or another it is indeed possible to use these fingerings. After testing them in the purifying fires of a number of concerts since the
middle of 1996, I can also say that (although they involve risk and insecurity) I never want to go back to the long fingerings I myself used for nearly 30 years. The short fingerings offer advantages that I’m only slowly beginning to appreciate, some of which I will discuss below. As far as reeds go, I experimented with cane diameter, cane gouge, cane shape, staple top opening, staple taper, staple wall thickness, staple length within the counterbore, and reed pitch. I also tried staples with circular and oval top openings, and tying loosely with a gap between the sides of the cane and the top of the staple.8 I developed reeds for different hautboys at A-415 and A-403. In the end, to have good highnote response using short fingerings, including a reasonably secure open c3, I found there were three factors that were critical: the dimensions of the top opening of the staple, the taper of the staple, and the width of the cane. I had been using a top inner diameter of 2.6 to 2.8; for these fingerings, I find it cannot be bigger than 2.2 (smaller than this does not help). I believe the critical dimension is not the top opening itself, but rather the outer diameter it implies (I tried using a small top opening with a shape that was wide at the throat, and it did not produce responsive high notes). A small outer diameter allows a throat that is narrow enough to accommodate a tip width of 8.8 to 9.22 (depending on the pitch of the hautboy). The tip width appears to be a critical dimension. I had previously used 10 mm, which gives delicious cross fingerings and a flexible low register. A narrower shape has the effect of raising the tessitura; the notes that speak most easily are those of the upper register. I also found I had to change the taper of the staple. From .054 expansion per mm of length, which I had used previously, I’m now up to .074. Staple taper affects the tuning of the notes above g2 in relation to those below it (a bigger taper makes a bigger interval, ie., the high notes become higher). This taper seems extreme compared to what I have used in the past, but I find it necessary in order not to pinch off the sound of the high notes, and to bring the bb2 up to pitch with the fingering 1 3. Also, with a throat this narrow, a taper that is too slight will cause the crossfingerings in the low register to roll. A related consideration is that lengthening the EL (the exposed length, or the amount the staple projects out of the instrument) not only lowers the general pitch but also makes the high notes lower in relation to the low notes. Quantz writes (1752:XVII:vii:7) that the octaves expand
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as the reed is shortened and contract as it is lengthened, a rule that I find to be true. The general pitch at which an instrument is played (and there is considerable leeway with hautboys) will affect the tuning of the high notes, and thus interact with staple taper. In a sense, good high-note response and good cross-fingerings are conflicting requirements, because the first demands a narrow throat and the second demands enough volume within the staple. These two extremes are in balance with a reed that can tongue quick repeated c1s and short c3s. This is a matter of subjective judgement, of course, since it is a balance between the percentage of time the open c3 fails to respond against the tone quality and feel in the middle and lower register. Since a squeak is a kind of unintended high note, any reed that encourages high notes also tends to squeak more easily, as for instance in the passage ab2eb2-c3-eb2. As Michel Piguet noticed, most early fingering charts have the first hole completely covered for eb2. Squeaks are mainly caused by leaking; James Talbot’s hautboy informant (probably François Le Riche) expressed his concern about leaks.9 One way to avoid them is to design the staple so it enters as far as it possibly can into the instrument’s counterbore. This also gives a more solid, stable feeling.10 As far as blowing technique for the high notes is concerned, I now understand what Bismantova and later sources mean when they talk of “increasing the air for each note as you ascend.”11 The c3 is the most sensitive note, and requires a very generous flow of air that must never let up. It occurred to me that this setup might work only on modern copies, so I’ve purposely tried it on several old hautboys. I found that it works the same way. If we imagine a continuum of reeds that work on the hautboy, one extreme is the bassoon reed, which when placed on a hautboy produces gratifying low-register notes and cross-fingerings, but nothing above a2. On the other end is the modern oboe reed, which is extremely uncooperative in the ways the bassoon reed is helpful, but will play into the stratosphere. In negotiating a compromise between these extremes, each player finds his own balance. The reed that allows the original high-note fingerings to work is somewhat closer to the modern oboe reed and farther from the bassoon reed than I would otherwise choose. But is has advantages that are difficult to ignore. Not only is it, to the best of our current
knowledge, closer to what players used in the period from about 1670 to 1770, but it offers a better sound and a simplified technique in the following ways: • Tone quality: short fingerings produce a sweeter, clearer, trumpet-like tone. They produce a more direct, homogeneous sound in relation to the rest of the instrument’s range, eliminating the shift in tone normally associated with the high register. The long fingerings have stuffiness by comparison (as, for instance, a2-c3, or the sound of d3-bb2-g2-bb2). The lack of a register break above a2 is liberating.12 Although small adjustments are still necessary, there is a sense of playing the complete range of the instrument with essentially the same embouchure and breath pressure. • Intonation and stability: the short bb2, with its ceiling sharper than which it will not go, keeps all the high notes lower and more fixed than those produced with long fingerings. The b2 is also unwilling to be pushed up. • Dynamic contrast: short fingerings offer considerably more dynamic range than is possible with long fingerings. A by-product of the reed that plays them is an a2 with a better dynamic range and response, virtually equal to that of any lower note. • Passagework is obviously simpler to finger in most combinations that involve the high notes: compare, for instance, the combinations g2 combined with bb2, b2, and c3. • Upwards slurs: the lack of a register break makes more upward slurs feasible: compare the long and short fingerings to c3 from f2, g2, and g#2. to b2 from d2, e2 and f2. to bb2 from eb2. There are drawbacks as well, though minor ones. The short fingerings emphasize the register break between c3 and the two notes above it, c#3 and d3. As a result, slurred c3-d3 and b2-d3 are delicate. (The most successful fingering for d3 is 23 6.) And the kind of reed that will play short high notes also emphasizes the register break between the low register ending on c2 and the next register. This is especially noticeable for the slurred interval c2-e2, which is more difficult than on wider reeds with larger staple top diameters. Although they are new to most players, the short fingerings (except for c3) are the same as the ones already used in the lower octave, which means they are easy to learn. Fortunately, the more complex long fingerings are not affected and continue to be available as backups. ❖
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The long fingerings vary but are often bb2 = 12 456 7, b2 = 1 3 456 7, c3 = 23 45 7. Except for Minguet (see below). This fingering actually works well with any kind of reed as a “passive” b2 (ie., one approached by slur). The last Allegro of Dreyer’s 6th sonata, mm 19-20, has octave slurs from a1-a2 and b1-b2; the slurs are casually placed and I prefer the musical effect when they are not slurred. The original score to C.P.E. Bach’s hautboy concerto in Bb (H466, c1765) has upward slurs to bb2 and c3 in bars 52, 146, and 204 of the first movement that cannot be accomplished with short fingerings. But not only is this piece relatively late, it is uncertain if it was originally conceived for harpsichord or hautboy. J.S. Bach’s Christmas Oratorio of 1734 calls for octave slurs on bb 1-2 and c203 in the 1st hautbois d’amour part. It is possible this instrument always — or more often, at least — used long high-note fingerings (or was doing so by 1734 in Leipzig). Short fingerings are often useful in d’amour parts, however (cf. BWV 108/1), and are more readily available than on the treble hautboy. The first movement of Cavazza’s Sonata de oboe of 1777 (which was conceived as a test piece) has slurs from c2 to bb22 and c3. Evidence is divided on this point, however. Only four of the nine pictures I know earlier than 1770 that show the angle of the hautboy relative to the body are larger than 45˚. Cf. the poem comparing the Schalmeye with the hautboy under the “Schalmeyen” illustration Johann Christoph Weigel’s Musicalisches Theatrum (c1720), which includes the phrase “dich ziert ein Pfening-Band und mich die Guldne Ketten” (“Thou art held by a penny-band; a golden chain graces me”).
Bruce Haynes, (May 1978), “Oboe fingering charts, 1695-1816,” GSJ, pp. 68-93. Cf. Burgess, Geoffrey and Peter Hedrick, 1989. “The oldest English reeds? An examination of 19 surviving examples,” GSJ 42: 41ff. I did not find that either of these variables was of help in high-note response. “The reed must be well moistened before the instrument will sound well to preserve itself the Wind within …” James Talbot, Musica, c1692. There are indications that early staples did not always extend as far as possible into the instrument, however. The Stanesby staple (Horniman Museum, with hautboy 1969.683) is only 43 mm long, but with the top opening and taper it has, could probably have extended another 10-12 mm. Staples were sometimes short enough that they could go in too far; Fischer (The complete tutor for the hautboy, c1770:5) advises When you put your Reed in the Hautboy you should be careful not to put it in too far, as it will be difficult to blow, and probably be out of Tune: if the end of the Reed is too small, to prevent it’s going too far into the Hautboy, put some thread round it. The carelessness with which the bottom of the staple in the grand chalumeau of the Claudius musette #485 (Copenhagen) was made (clearly not round) suggests that it was not intended to extend all the way to the walls of the counterbore. “… crescere ogni volta piü il Fiato, e ad ogni voice, che farrà piü ascendendo …” Cf. for instance the Vivaldi Concerto in C, RV 447, 1:82-85.
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A Bassoon Lite, Please By Alan Goodman Los Angeles, California
Der Fickle January 3, 1997 / Daily News vana Trump is suing an Italian ship-building firm for $35 million, saying the $4.1 million yacht it sold her is a lemon. She says the 105 foot boat she ordered up 1 1/2 years ago is ‘unseaworthy, dangerously built and abysmally contracted,’ plus it measures but 98 feet and only hits its posted top speed of 33 mph when it carries no load and no passengers. Trump accuses the Cantieri Di Baia Corp of undermining her ‘internationally recognized persona, inflicting emotional stress and causing a diminution in her reputation and prestige.’”
In 1974 I placed an order with the world renowned Fickle Bassoon Company located in Schmendricks an der Danube for a brand new bassoon. I had been playing on an older model Fickle for many years and because of some approaching middle aged hormone imbalance decided that newer was better. So I sent to the company for their brochure which I received in short order. After much agonizing over the particulars, I settled on an instrument with more or less standard keys, rectangular case, and with something I had coveted for many years, a jet black finish. I labored over the order sheet, something perhaps devised by a former IRS employee, for several nights. Finally satisfied that all was correct, off went the order sheet to Schmendricks an der Danube complete with a money order representing one-third of the total payment. To emphasize the importance of my need for a good instrument, I enclosed a personal letter with my order form describing how I was playing principal bassoon in the Los Angeles Philharmonic and therefore needed the best instrument possible from the Fickle Bassoon Company. Satisfied that the Schmendricks an der Danube would soon provide me with bassoon bliss, I settled down to wait my turn on the two year waiting list. About a year later a letter written in foreign code, somewhat similar to English, but probably best understood by other Schmendricks informed me that the second third of the payment was due. I mailed the sum
requested. The Fickle Bassoon Company has a quaint tradition that ensures both the continued prosperity of the company and the poverty of the customer. The bassoon is paid for in advance of delivery in three payments: the first at the time of placement of the order, the second halfway through the two year waiting period, and the balance just before the instrument is mailed off to the buyer. The first two payments are based upon estimates of what the instrument might cost. Might cost is the operative term here since no definite price is ever stated at the time of the order or the waiting period that ensues. The most interesting payment is the last. Here the company charges a balance that reflects the changing exchange rate of their currency, the Highmark, the increased cost of raw materials, inflationary pressure, increased cost of labor, increased cost of a new Schmendrickmobile, and the cost of replacing some plumbing in the Schmendrick factory. The huge cost is immaterial, however, when what you are getting for your money is a world class, state-of-the-art, carefully crafted, full voiced, finely tuned instrument representing the pinnacle in the art of the bassoon maker’s secret. As I opened the case of my new Fickle bassoon I tingled with anticipation. Here was the answer to all my dreams. A beautiful new jet black bassoon that would carry me to auditory glory. As a piece of furniture it rivaled the beautiful finish of a Steinway grand piano. As an instrument it rivaled …? Gee, it didn’t play a note. It leaked so much it would probably make a good spaghetti strainer, providing that the leaks weren’t so large the spaghetti slipped through the cracks. This is what it must feel like to drive an expensive new car off the lot only to watch the doors fall off a mile from the dealership. Panic is the handmaiden of despair. I despaired. I panicked. My doors had fallen off. The spaghetti was slipping through my jet black, high priced strainer. Vas der Fickle a pickle? The only way to tell was to have the bassoon repaired. Then we would know what it sounded like, but not before. A written complaint to der Schmendricks at the Fickle factory about my disappointment with the instrument brought back a most sympathetic
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A BASSOON LITE, PLEASE - DER FICKLE
and finitive reply. The Fickle bassoon was perfect I was informed. All Fickle bassoons were perfect I was informed. People all over the world since the beginning of time played on Fickles and no one but no one, with the exception of me, had ever had the temerity to even suggest that the Fickle was anything less than perfect … I was informed. Therefore, the problem obviously lay with me. I was less than perfect and so the problems I was encountering were of my own making … I was informed. Upon reflection I had to admit there was a certain logic at work here. It was true that I was less than perfect. Hadn’t several conductors been so kind as to point this out to me? Hadn’t my first wife, in a selfless campaign to make me perfect, reminded me of this quite often? My response to the Schmendricks at Fickle’s thanked them for their insight. Perhaps they would be so kind as to take my persona into their world renowned workshop to make it over into the perfection that was my bassoon’s? In that way I could both avoid tampering with a perfect instrument and make several conductors quite happy, not to mention the ex-wife. I tried to imagine buying a car, paying for it, and pushing it out of the showroom over to the service bay to have it repaired so that I could drive it home. I tried to imagine getting the money back that I had paid for the bassoon. Pushing the car was easier to imagine. The bill to repair the bassoon was $1,000.00. But what is money when dealing with a work of art. So it cost a few bucks to get going. The important thing is to keep your perspective. Art. Music. This is the important thing. Not money. Money is a means to an end. Unfortunately for me, I could no longer be certain of which end we were now looking at. It was time to take the Fickle down to the concert hall and make glorious music. So there I was. Yes sir. It was black. It was beautiful. It was expensive. It was repaired. It was a perfect Fickle. It was … flat. How flat? Perhaps as flat as a pancake hiding under a five pound frying pan. It tuned to a perfect “A” 436. The orchestra tuned to an “A” 442. Logic suggested that both the orchestra and the Fickle couldn’t both be perfect and yet these two entities were 6 vibrations apart. Fortunately I had my recent letter from the Schmendricks an der Danube indicating in no uncertain terms who it was who was truly perfect. In an effort to accommodate 104 other misguided souls of the orchestra who, like myself were apparently also not perfect, I stuck bocals in that instrument that were so short they could have passed for bicycle pump needles. Still the Fickle remained stubbornly per-
fect, playing at a solid imperturbable perfect “A” 436. I realized only too late that my mistake was in sending the personal letter explaining how I needed a good instrument because I played the principal bassoon in the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Actually, I should have sent a letter explaining how this was an instrument I needed for my pet chimpanzee to play in the local zoo band. Then the Schmendricks at Fickle’s would have made me a less than perfect instrument that I could have played in the orchestra. I had the instrument for several years during which time I happened to tour through Schmendrick an der Danube and dropped into the Fickle factory to complain once again about my jet black pancake. No problemmo with the local Schmendricks. They suggested that I leave the instrument with them while they drill the bore out and maybe, just maybe, something good would come of it. Of course, for the privilege of playing Russian roulette with the black bassoon the charge would be nominal. I figured a flat bassoon was better than no bassoon at all, and so when I returned home I sold the instrument to the chimpanzee in the local zoo band. I later heard that he in turn traded it to a gullible flamingo for an instrument made by Lox of Elkhorn und Hardart an eder Mississippi that played an “A” 442. Rumor has it that the flamingo in a fit of disgust flew south to Miami dropping it into the Atlantic Ocean where it was recently reported by a school of dolphins to still be emitting bubbles tuned to a perfect “A” 436.
“My Dear Ivana, Darling! You have my deepest sympathy. I too have suffered the undermining of my internationally recognized persona. Did by any chance your lemon come with an extremely short bocal with which you might be willing to part …” ❖
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Stan “The Man”
he man stood. Alone. His eyes were closed. He was a study in concentration. A tenor saxophone hung from a strap looped around the man’s neck. His back was slightly hunched over, as if he was trying to protect the instrument from insult by curling as much of his body around it as was possible. Beads of sweat formed on his brow as he stood before sheets of music spread, unseen, on the music stand in front of him. His facial muscles were contorted with his effort to bring out the mood and nuance of the music he was hearing in his mind’s eye. He had been at it for at least a half hour now, and he felt that the expression he was after was just starting to flow. The phone rang. It broke the mood he had worked so hard to get … “Hello …” “Hello … May I speak to Alan Goodman, please?” The voice at the other end of the line belonged to a woman. His mind quickly flipped through the repertoire of women’s voices he knew. It didn’t register. Someone he didn’t know. Older. Maybe wants a donation for something or other. “Alan Goodman??” “Yes. This is Arleen Finch from the Los Angeles Philharmonic. I’m calling to remind Mr. Goodman that the first rehearsal next month … that would be July 7th, has been moved up to July 6th. If he is there, may I speak to him please?” “I’m afraid that won’t be possible Miss Finch.” “Oh … I do have the correct phone number, do I not. Mr. Goodman lives at this number???” “Well … yeah. You have the right number, but he’s not here …” “Oh, I see. Well then, can you have him call me at the Philharmonic offices when he gets in?” “I’m afraid not, Miss Finch. I’d like to, but I can’t do that.” “I’m afraid I’m somewhat confused. Why can’t I just leave a message for him? You did say this is his home. Didn’t you?” “Yes, yes … it’s easy to explain, Miss Finch. You see, Alan Goodman is dead. He died on the first day of the Philharmonic’s summer vacation. June 1st.” “OH MY GOD!!! How awful! I’m soooo sorry!! And he was such a nice man too. Oh I can’t believe it … such a relatively young man. I don’t know what to say …” “… Well Miss Finch, I guess there’s not much to be said. But its not as tragic as you might think. In a way, it’s kind of funny, if you know what I mean.”
“Funny? FUNNY??? A man dies and you call it FUNNY?! Alan Goodman played principal bassoon for the Philharmonic for the last twentysix years, and you have the audacity to call his tragic passing Funny??? Say, who am I talking to? Who are you? Are you a member of the deceased’s family???” “Oh me?? Yeah, I guess you could say that. My name is Stan Getz. I’m a very well known and respected jazz tenor saxophone player. I’ve got hundreds of recordings out with every group you could imagine. I recorded, as a matter of fact, right up until I died in 1993. Or was it 1994 … hard to remember these details, but somewhere in there …” “This is outrageous. Is this some kind of sick joke, or have you been smoking some bad hemp … I must say I don’t appreciate this whole sad conversation…” “…Oh this is no joke, Miss Finch. You see, I USED to be Alan Goodman, but that was up until June 1st, when I put my bassoon away for the whole month. It’s easy really. Alan Goodman dies every year around this time. That’s when Stan Getz is reborn. On June 1st Stan “The Man” Getz takes his tenor sax out of storage and BAM … Mr. Super Sax!! You see, Miss Finch, June is Tenor Month. If you wish to call back in July, I’m sure Alan Goodman would be happy to talk to you, but right now … well, I’m afraid he’s dead … at least until July.” The Sax Man held the phone to his ear for a few moments before he realized the line had gone dead. He shrugged his shoulders and returned the phone to its receiver. In short order he was back to his place in front of the music stand. He closed his eyes, curled his body around the saxophone as if he was protecting it from harm, and imagined himself on the bandstand in front of a swinging trio … piano, drums, bass. He took a deep breath and swung into his first chorus of Funny Valentine in B flat. The face of every single patron in the smoke filled club turned to take in the warm, mellow tones of his soul filled solo. He was into it now. Really, really into it. So much so, that he didn’t even notice the dog slink out of the room and head down to the basement in search of a nice quiet, cool corner. ❖
About the Author … Alan Goodman is co-principal bassoon of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.
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REGRESSION ANALYSIS AS AN AID IN MAKING OBOE REEDS
Regression Analysis as an Aid in Making Oboe Reeds By Katherine Ceasar-Spall James C. Spall Ellicott City, MD ABSTRACT Professional oboe players almost always have to make their own reeds, which involves a time-consuming process often fraught with wasted effort and discarded results. About one fourth of the total time spent on a reed involves getting it to a stage where it can be tried out on the oboe. We have used regression analysis to aid in making predictions about the ultimate quality of a finished reed based on data available at the initial try-out. The inputs to the regression model are several different characteristics of the cane used in making the reeds, and an assessment of the reed in its early stages through this initial try-out on the oboe. We hope to be able to decide whether or not to continue to work on the reed past this stage, based on the predictions of the regression. Thus far, the outcomes predicted by the regression have coincided reasonably closely with the actual outcomes in our trials. Several regression models were tried, ranging from pure linear to curvilinear models that include interaction terms and/or squared terms, and a particular curvilinear model was deemed the most appropriate. Key words: Oboe reed quality, Statistical analysis, Multivariate regression [Reprinted, with permission, from the Journal of Testing and Evaluation, July 1997, copyright American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.] 1. INTRODUCTION The average concert-goer has little idea of what is behind the beautiful (one hopes) oboe sound heard emanating from the stage. In addition to the years of training and hours of practice that all professional musicians undergo, the oboist has a whole other unique set of problems centered around the making of the reeds that are used to produce a sound through the instrument. The oboist’s livelihood is thus utterly dependent upon the few square centimeters of vibrating cane in the reed. These reeds require a considerable amount of skill and time (easily one or more hours) to make, and are by no means always successful. Further, they often wear out after only one practice session, rehearsal, or concert, calling for a constant replenishment of the supply. Temperature and humidity changes can also render a previously good reed unusable. (Bassoonists and clarinetists must also deal with making reeds, but their problems are fewer. Their larger reeds last longer and do not require the same degree of delicate workmanship to produce.)
Needless to say, any new insights into making the production process more efficient and less time-consuming are always welcomed by the oboist. Specifically addressed in this paper is a means of using regression to make faster and more accurate decisions about which reeds will or will not be successful. Our aim is to use regression analysis to predict the ultimate quality of a reed before much time has been spent in making the reed. The ability to accurately predict if a reed will be unsuccessful would allow the oboist to discard the partially made reed before additional fruitless time is spent. Since most oboists do not have formal statistical training, the authors are unaware of any previous study using a regression model for this purpose. A statistical study using regression has been conducted, however, for use in evaluating the quality of oboe reeds produced by commercial sources (Vernier and Shorter ). The professional oboist almost never uses these commercial reeds because they are quite expensive and are usually of inferior quality to the ones produced by the oboist for his/her own play. They are mostly bought by students and amateur players. The study in  differs from this one in that Vernier and Shorter were rating already-finished reeds, while we are interested in making predictions about the quality of the finished reed, using data collected from unfinished reeds. The layout of the remainder of this paper is as follows: Section 2 presents an overview of the reedmaking process, including a discussion of the variables used to construct the regression models. Section 3 presents the basic regression models. Section 4 presents a comparison of the actual outcomes of finished reeds (using new data) to predicted outcomes from the regression models. These comparisons were used to evaluate the validity of the standard regression assumptions and to compare the relative performance of the models developed in Section 3. Conclusions and recommendations are made in Section 5. 2. OVERVIEW OF REEDMAKING PROCESS Cane for making oboe reeds is usually purchased in tubes by the pound from France (its scientific name is Arundo donax and it is a relative of bamboo). The reedmaking process then begins with the splitting of one of these tubes. Much cane is discarded at this point for being too soft or hard, not straight, not the “right” color, or for being generally of substandard quality.
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After a tube is selected to be made into a reed, the straightest section is chopped to a usable length and the inside is gouged out. Again cane can be discarded at this stage for any number of reasons: too soft, doesn’t gouge well, appearance , etc. Then the soaked cane is folded over a metal form and shaped, tied onto a metal tube, and scraped until it plays. This is the point at which we would like the regression to predict whether or not to continue, because this is by no means the end of the reedmaking process. The refining of the scraped reed is usually the most time-consuming part, as the refining is critical to having the reed meet the stringent requirements for a successful performance, i.e., ability to play both loud and soft passages, easy articulation of notes, and overall balance of intonation (playing in tune). It is just this time period, about three fourths of the total time spent per reed, that we wish to avoid if the finished reed is not destined for success. Thus far, the variables that have been selected for the regression models have been referred to only in passing. Table 1 lists the variables and describes the conditions that produce each rating. It must also be noted that some of the measurements are based on subjective impressions rather than exact calibrations, which seems to be an inherent limitation of a process oriented to producing music. The authors have, however, made every attempt to keep the ratings (which range from 0 to 2, in increments of 0.1 for all input and output variables) as consistent as possible within this subjective context (see also Section 5). The “TOP CLOSE” category refers to whether the
sides of the reed close and seal all the way to the top of the reed. This greatly influences the reed’s stability. “APPEARANCE” refers to the inner side of the gouged cane (before it has been made into a reed) and it deals basically with the amount of graininess in the texture and whether the lines seen in the texture are straight and unbroken. “EASE OF GOUGE” rates how easily a hand-operated, non-power gouging machine gouges the cane. “1ST BLOW” rates the player’s overall impression of the reed after trying it out on the oboe (and adjusting it) for about five minutes. For the first author, this try-out occurs after approximately a half hour of work (gouging, shaping, tying, scraping). “VASCULAR BUNDLES” refers to the definition of the organic structures, which can look like rails, that one sees on the inside of a split, ungouged tube of cane. “SHININESS” likewise deals with the appearance of an ungouged, split tube of cane. “OUTCOME” is the dependent variable and its rating system on the table is self-explanatory. When the above independent variables are used in the models, they will henceforth be abbreviated to T,A,E,F,V, and S respectively. The reed outcome will be shown as y. See Table 1. 3. THE REGRESSION MODELS We examined many models built from different combinations of the above six independent variables. These ranged from the use of all six variables in a linear model, to linear models using fewer than six variables, to different combinations of interactive variables and squared variables. The models were esti-
QUANTIFICATION OF INPUT AND OUTCOME VARIABLES
TOP CLOSE (T)
EASE OF GOUGE (E)
1ST BLOW (F)
VASCULAR BUNDLES (V)
Opens below 1mm below tip
No lines, grainy
Much pressure needed, small dusty shavings
Out of tune, ugly sound, no core
Very defined, ribbed
Terrible; wild, ugly, out of tune
Opens to 1mm below tip
Some graininess, not continuous lines
Still some forcing, shavings not uniform
Feels poor, but maybe a fast, big adjustment could improve
A few breaks in lines
Closes halfway up tip
Slight curve in defined, continuous lines
Gouges easily with few misses of the blade
In tune, nice tone, hard to play
Perfect close to top
Straight, defined, continuous lines
Very little pressure; even, smooth shavings
In tune; beautiful tone, good response
Not every stroke Pitch and tone not produces shavings, great, but core is some pressure present, suggesting needed potential
Unacceptable but could practice on it and then discard
Moderate degree of shininess
Student quality; maybe play one rehearsal In tune, fairly responsive, near concert quality
Great in every way; concer quality
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mated from 115 finished reeds that were made by the first author over a period of several months. Four of the more interesting models were selected for further study. Subsections 3.A to 3.D below each describe one of the four models we are considering. In Section 4, a prediction analysis is described using new data to compare outcomes predicted by these models (ˆy) to actual outcomes (y). Recall that all of the input variables in the models that will be presented in this section are on the same 0 to 2 scale so that the relative magnitude of the regression coefficients in the linear models is a direct indicator as to the relative importance of that input. The p-values computed will be relative to the null hypothesis that each indicated coefficient is equal to zero. All p-values in this study are based on a normal distribution of the model error term and can thus only represent approximations (see Section 5). They have been computed using the formula in Abramowitz and Stegun [2, p.949] for approximation of a t-distribution based on a large number of degrees of freedom (in our case, 108 to 111, depending on the number of coefficients being estimated). In the linear models, the coefficients for variables T,A,E and F will be tested using a one-tailed test for significance because it is almost certain that higher ratings for these variables positively affect a reed’s outcome. For V and S, this assumption cannot be made so easily, so a two-tailed test must be used. For curvilinear models, where one variable is used more than once (by itself and as part of an interactive variable), a two-tailed test is also necessary to account for the possibility of a negative coefficient appearing with either the single or the combined variable. (This will apply to the models discussed in Subsections 3.C and 3.D for the variables T and F.) Quattro Pro® spreadsheet software was used for the various regression computations in this study.
3. A. The basic linear model with estimated constant The basic linear model involving the six input variables of Table 1 and an estimated constant produced the estimated regression equation ˆy = -0.605 + 0.103T + 0.153A (0.420) (0.065) (0.107) + 0.137E + 0.552F + 0.176V + 0.119S . (0.112) (0.096) (0.096) (0.079) (The numbers in parenthesis represent the estimated standard error of the yˆ and each coefficient.) The customary R2 measure of proportion of variability explained by the model was 0.335. The most significant variable by far (and not surprisingly) appears to
be “1ST BLOW” with its coefficient of 0.552 and a pvalue of less than 0.001. The other p-values in this model ranged from 0.059 (for T) to 0.131 (for S.) This basic linear model is shown here mostly to use as a reference, a necessary starting point for building other, more powerful versions of the regression. The constant has been computed, as is the convention. However, it was decided to set the constant to zero in the remaining models that have been selected for possible utilization. The reason for this is that theoretically, if there was an observation in which every input variable were given a zero rating, it is expected that the outcome should also be zero. This could not happen with a non-zero constant. In fact, in this particular model the constant is negative, so if every variable had been given a zero rating, the outcome would have had a negative rating, which would be outside of the established 0 to 2 rating scale.
3.B. Basic linear model with constant set to zero The estimated regression equation for this model was ˆy = 0.073T + 0.089A + 0.022E + 0.512F + 0.080V + 0.079S . (0.426) (0.065) (0.104) (0.098) (0.095) (0.084) (0.078) The R2 (=0.310) and estimated standard errors for all coefficients in this model were lower than in the model of Subsection 3.A, as expected [3, Sect. 11-2]. Although the “1ST BLOW” retains its original significance, the others become even less significant, as seen by their lowered t-ratios (e.g., the t-ratio for E drops from 1.22 to 0.22, that for A drops from 1.42 to 0.85, and for V it drops from 1.83 to 0.95, giving them all p-values greater than 0.19.) The magnitudes of the individual coefficients for this model are also smaller.
3.C. Model with two single variables and three interactive variables with constant set to zero The estimated regression equation was ˆy = -0.094T + 0.328F + 0.108AE + 0.207TF + 0.091VS . (0.408) (0.095) (0.113) (0.033) (0.087) (0.037) The three interactive terms (AE, TF, and VS) were chosen based on the nature of the reedmaking process. A and E were combined because it was reasonable to assume that a piece of cane that is hard to gouge will probably yield a rougher and less desirable appearance. T and F are considered by the author (and other oboists) to be the most important variables, even though F yields much higher coefficients and lower pvalues than T thus far. They are further interrelated because, in the first author’s experience, the stability of sides that close is essential to a good “first blow”. V and S are considered related by virtue of both describing the
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appearance of ungouged cane. With AE and VS it was hoped that relatively insignificant variables (as indicated in the linear models above) would combine to form more significant interactive variables. By placing the already quite significant F with T (which has always been considered a vital variable by reedmakers, despite its relatively low magnitude coefficients and higher pvalues in the previous models), it was hoped that they would combine to form an extremely powerful interactive variable. T and F were the only two variables also placed in this model in a non-interactive fashion because of their relative importance. Some of the hoped-for changes occurred. The R2 increased to 0.361. However, T by itself yielded a negative coefficient, undoubtedly as a result of its also being used in the interactive TF. (The overall effect of T plus TF should always be positive, but it is possible for one or the other to come out negative when both are used in the same model.) The F was so strong on its own that it maintained a positive value (0.328; still the largest of the five coefficients in the model) despite the presence of the interactive variable TF. The coefficients of the three interactive variables are not very high (ranging from 0.091 to 0.207), but their tratios range from 2.37 (for TF) to 3.27 (for AE), and all yield p-values of less than 0.02 (a two-sided test for TF and VS and a one-sided test for AE, as discussed above.) Based on all of these observations, it was decided to build another model with the only change being to omit the single T variable.
3.D. Model with one single variable and three interactive variables with constant set to zero This model produced the estimated regression equation yˆ = 0.378F + 0.091AE + 0.138TF + 0.080VS . (0.408) (0.101) (0.029) (0.053) (0.035) Thus far, Model 3.D seems to be the most promising of all that have been examined. The R2 is 0.356. The t-ratios are quite large for each variable or variable combination (3.75 for F, 3.14 for AE, 2.62 for TF and 2.25 for VS). The p-values were all less than 0.03. There are no negative coefficients. Further, as an experiment, we ran the regression analysis for this same model, with the exception of allowing for a nonzero additive constant. The constant in this case was estimated to be very small (0.055), and the other coefficients changed very little from those shown above. This was much lower in magnitude than the constants in the linear model of Subsection 3.A (-0.605) or in a version of the model with three interactive variables in Subsection 3.C where the constant was computed (0.693.) This is a positive indicator as to the ability of this model form to describe the underlying process.
Further tests on the relative performance of Model 3.D (to the other models) is presented in Subsection 4.2.
4. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF MODELS 4.A Evaluation of Regression Assumptions This subsection reports on tests of whether the models in Section 3 and the reed-data-generating process are consistent with the standard regression modeling assumptions. These assumptions are that the residual error terms (yi-ˆ yi) have mean 0 and constant variance across i and are statistically independent and normally distributed (the subscript i denotes the i th reed). The violation of any of these assumptions does not preclude the idea of building regression models for reed prediction (since that is simply a least squares fit to the data); rather, violation would provide a basis for caution in interpreting the tratios and standard errors reported in Section 3 and may suggest that alternatives to the standard regression framework of Section 3 (see Section 5) may yield improved results. For this subsection, an additional 46 reeds were made by the first author. This test set is independent of the data set used to build the models, providing an objective evaluation of the performance of the models. Let us first test for (sequential) independence of the residuals (yi-ˆyi) because the other tests are based on this independence being true. Since we cannot a priori assume that the residuals are normally distributed, we use the nonparametric (distribution-free) runs test described in Lehmann [4, pp. 313-315] (this test is based on the number of sign changes in the residuals sequence). Using the test statistic in [4, p. 314], the pvalues for all models are never less than 0.39, providing no evidence to reject the independence assumption. Given the above independence hypothesis for all the models, we can now test the hypothesis that the prediction residuals have mean 0. Once again, since we cannot assume that the residuals are normally distributed, the central limit theorem can be invoked to argue that the sample mean (normalized by the sample standard deviation for the mean) is approximately N(0,1) distributed. Then, the associated p-values for Models 3.A-3.D are, respectively, 0.003, 0.039, 0.050, and 0.066. These provide evidence that the mean zero hypothesis is false (especially for Model 3.A). We now test the normality assumption for the residuals by using the well-known chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit (e.g., Bickel and Doksum [5, pp. 314316]). This test focuses on only Model 3.D, as that is the model of primary interest (see Subsection 4.B and comment at end of this paragraph). Using the sample mean and variance for the Model 3.D residuals as the
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true mean and variance, we tested whether the quartiles based on a normal distribution contained approximately 1/4 of the 46 residuals. From Bickel and Doksum [5, p. 315], we produce a chi-squared statistic (three degrees of freedom) of 3.565, providing a pvalue of 0.31 (no evidence to reject normality). (Incidentally, by the Cramer-Levy Theorem [6, pp. 525526] and linearity of operations on the 46 test data yi, the normality of residuals for any one model implies the normality of residuals for the other models.) The final evaluation of the applicability of the standard regression assumptions is to determine whether the residual variance varies from measurement to measurement (the standard assumption— homoskedasticity—is of no variation). Again, we only test Model 3.D here. We test for a relationship between (yi-ˆyi)2 and yi, where the output yi is a proxy for a simultaneous test of all input variables. We found a sample correlation coefficient of 0.11. Using the test statistic in Bickel and Doksum [5, p.221], this corresponds to a p-value of 0.46, providing no evidence to reject the hypothesis of zero correlation between (yiˆyi)2 and yi (this p-value is an approximation, as the test statistic is based on both variables being normally distributed, and (yi-ˆyi)2 is obviously not). To summarize, the residuals derived from the 46 test reeds appear consistent with the standard regression assumptions, with the exception of the assumption of mean zero for the residuals. The mean-zero hypothesis is rejected with p-values ranging from 0.003 (Model 3.A) to 0.066 (Model 3.D). In the case of Model 3.D (the main model of interest), the residual sample mean was 0.095. Taking this as the true mean value and the prediction standard error in Section 3 (0.408) as the true standard deviation, the root-mean-square prediction error is (0.4082 + 0.0952)1/2 = 0.419; this represents only a small increase over the value 0.408 derived in the original (model-building) data set, which is based on the mean 0 hypothesis. (Similar arguments can be made for Models 3.A-3.C since their sample means were also relatively small compared to the estimated standard deviations in Section 3.) Hence, we conclude that the standard regression framework provides a meaningful basis for understanding the statistical performance of the models. Section 5 will discuss some more advanced approaches to deal with potential shortcomings of the standard approach. 4.B Comparison of Models This subsection uses the 46 reeds of Subsection 4.A to evaluate the relative performance of the models. We were interested in comparing the sample means of the absolute prediction residuals, lyi-ˆyil, where ˆyi comes from one of the Models 3.A. 3.B, 3.C and 3.D. In this way, we test for the model that gives us the best predictions.
We used a standard test for inferences about the difference between the means of two populations with matched samples [7, pp.345-347] to compare the absolute residuals from Model 3.D to those of the other three models. Each model was in turn paired with 3.D because 3.D had thus far exhibited the most favorable characteristics of the four models (for reasons discussed in Section 3). For each model (3.A, 3.B and 3.C), the absolute residual for each observation was subtracted from the corresponding absolute residual from Model 3.D and from these differences a sample mean and sample standard deviation were computed; we then applied the standard test of a mean being 0 using a normal approximation to the distribution of the test statistic (the standard “z-statistic,” which is N(0,1) distributed under the null hypothesis). This is a one-sided test since the alternative hypothesis is that Model 3.D has a lower mean residual (i.e., the sample mean in the test statistic is statistically significantly less than zero). The comparison of Model 3.D to Models 3.A-3.C produced z-statistics (and associated p-values) of 2.93 (0.0018), 0.62 (0.23), and 1.41 (0.08), respectively. These values provide strong evidence of a significant difference between Models 3.D and 3.A and suggest the possibility of a significant difference between Model 3.D and Models 3.B and 3.C. The mean absolute prediction residual for Model 3.D was 0.28. In addition to the analysis based on the 46 test measurements, there are several additional reasons to favor Model 3.D, which follow from the model-fitting numbers in Section 3: 1) The computed constant of Model 3.D was close to zero (0.055), in contrast to that of 3.C (which had been computed to be 0.69) and that of the basic linear 3.A (-0.605). 2) Model 3.D had the fewest (four) parameters and its R2 was only slightly lower (0.356 compared to 0.362) than Model 3.C, which had five parameters. (In general, it is best to seek the most parsimonious description of the regression process, all other things being essentially equal, and one would expect the R2 to increase as more parameters are added.) Model 3.A was rejected because of the large (negative) magnitude of its constant and its poor performance in the prediction analysis. 3) All the coefficients in Model 3.D were significant and this cannot be said for any of the other three models. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND EXTENSIONS The process of model selection above is intended to be illustrative of the steps an oboist might go through in determining a mathematical model related to the reed-making process. Clearly, however, it cannot be expected that a mathematical model can fully repre-
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sent such an artistic process with its high degree of subjectivity. Nevertheless, an R2 of 0.30-0.40 is a positive indicator that some of the reedmaking process can be explained with a regression model. Further, based on the test set of data, the mean absolute prediction error for the favored model (3.D) was only 14% of the allowable outcome range (0-2), providing evidence that a model can capture a large amount of the potential variability. The authors certainly do not expect other oboists to draw the same quantitative (or even qualitative) conclusions as above, since the reed-making process is highly individualized. However, we do expect that other oboists might find regression analysis useful in prediction and/or in understanding the relative importance of the various input variables. A standard regression approach such as above has the advantage of being familiar to a broad audience and being implementable with standard spreadsheet or other software existing on almost any modern personal computer. However, the authors recognize that possibilities exist for improving and extending the initial approach as described above. One potentially valuable extension to the current approach would be to account for the subjectivity in assessing the input and output variable values. A random coefficient regression approach, which includes measurement error in the input and output variables as one aspect to be considered, would be one way to treat this problem [8,9]. Perhaps the most well-known approach is the Kalman filter, where the regression coefficients (T, A, etc. here) would be treated as state variables that evolve in time (e.g.,  or ). The Kalman filter also has the advantage of accommodating possible correlations from one reed to the next. Such correlations might follow from correlated climate and cane conditions and trends in the oboist’s reed-making technique and condition of his/her reedmaking equipment. Another approach worth possible examination is to replace the standard linear/curvilinear regression model with a neural network (see, e.g.,  for a review with many references). This has the possible advantage of uncovering subtle nonlinear relationships that might not otherwise be anticipated. A disadvantage, however, is that the trained neural network does not have the same relatively easy interpretability of a conventional regression model (i.e., the neural network weights cannot be readily associated with statistically significant/ insignificant contributions as can the estimated regression coefficients). In particular, the values of the estimated neural network weights do not provide the same direct insight into the process as do the estimated regression coefficients (where it is straightforward to test for statistical significance and to compare the relative strengths of
the different variable contributions to the outcome ranking). Further extensions to the existing approach might be possible by properly accounting for the non-normal distribution of the observations (due to the [0,2] truncation of output) or by including additional input variables (one such possibility would be the ease with which the knife works the cane). Despite the possible enhancements of these and other extensions, we feel that the current relatively straightforward regression approach is able to provide considerable insight into the reedmaking process. ❖ REFERENCES  Vernier, V.G. and Shorter, L.C., “Oboe Reed Survey,” The Double Reed (the journal of the International Double Reed Society), vol. 13, no. 3, 1991, pp. 27-40.  Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, A. (eds.), Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards, Applied Mathematics Series 55, 1972.  Kmenta, J., Elements of Econometrics, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1971,  Lehmann, E.L., Nonparametrics: Statistical Methods Based on Ranks, Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1975.  Bickel, P.J. and Doksum, K.A., Mathematical Statistics: Basic Ideas and Selected Topics, Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1977.  Feller, W., An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Application (Vol.II), Wiley, San Francisco, 1971.  Anderson, D.R., Sweeny, D.J. and Williams, T.A. Introduction to Statistics, West Publishing Company, St. Paul, MN, 1991.  Johnson, L.W., “Stochastic Parameter Regression: An Annotated Bibliography,” International Statistical Review, vol. 45, 1977, pp. 257-272.  Johnson, L.W., “Stochastic Parameter Regression: an Additional Annotated Bibliography,” International Statistical Review, vol.48, 1980, pp. 95-102.  Anderson, B.D.O. and Moore, J.B., Optimal Filtering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979.  Spall, J.C. (ed.), Bayesian Analysis of Time Series and Dynamic Models, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1988.  Cheng, B. and Titterington, D.M., “Neural Networks: A Review From a Statistical Perspective (with discussion),” Statistical Science, vol. 9, 1994, pp. 2-54.  Van Monfort, K., Estimating in Structural Models With Non-Normal Distributed Variables: Some Alternative Approaches, M & T Series 12. Leiden, Holland: DSWO Press, 1988.  Spall, J.C., “The Kantorovich Inequality for Error Analysis of the Kalman Filter with Unknown Noise Distributions,” Automatica, vol. 31, 1995, pp. 1513-1517.
About the Authors... Katherine Ceasar-Spall played oboe and English horn with The Richmond Symphony (Virginia) from 1986 to 1991. She currently plays Principal Oboe for the Alexandria Symphony and performs as a regular member of the National Chamber Orchestra and The Washington Chamber Symphony. This project was conceived while she was pursuing part-time studies in math and statistics in the mid 1990’s. It also addresses the question of what happens when you cross an oboe player with a statistician, as she is married to the second author of this paper. Her email address is: [email protected]
Jim Spall joined The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory in 1983 and was appointed to the Principal Professional Staff in 1991. He also serves as an instructor in the Johns Hopkins School of Engineering. Dr. Spall has published over 70 articles in the areas of statistics and control and holds two U.S. patents. For the year 1990, he received the Hart Prize as principal investigator of the most outstanding Independent Research and Development project at JHU/APL. He is an Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, a Contributing Editor for the Current Index to Statistics, and he served as editor and coauthor for the book Bayesian Analysis of Time Series and Dynamic Models. Dr. Spall is a senior member of IEEE, a member of the American Statistical Association, and a Fellow of the engineering honor society Tau Beta Pi.
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REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY/TREASURER
Report of the Executive Secretary/Treasurer by Lowry Riggins E-MAIL ADDRESSES Fairly frequently I try to e-mail something and it returns as “undeliverable”. Some of you are new to computers and e-mail. Please be aware that a computer is just a big, fast, dumb machine. An address which is slightly off may stand a chance of being delivered through the US Postal Service. But an e-mail which is off by just one character will not get through. Some of you send me “e-mail addresses” which look much like a mouse walked across an ink pad and then on to your paper. If I can not read it, I just toss it as useless. If you want your e-mail address on file, TYPE or print it carefully. Remember that to a computer everything is a specific character. Ones are ones, “l’s” are l’s, and ne’r the twain shall meet. A colon is not a semi-colon and an “O” is not a “0”.
IDRS OFFICE Another frequent occurrence happens with phone calls. First remember that the FAX number is a dedicated FAX and is always answered by the machine while the PHONE is actually a phone, not a FAX, and is answered only by a “human”. The FAX machine picks up after the first ring and beeps. It will only talk to another FAX machine since it firmly believes machines are somehow superior. Your office is not a brilliantly lit, tile floored, room full of machines and people. It is, rather, the former “girl’s room” in my home. Since the phone is mainly my home phone, I answer with a simple “Hello”, not with “Office of the International Double Reed Society.” After my hello, there is often a moment of silent confusion followed by an inquiry as to whether this is the IDRS. I do not have an answering machine so when you call, you either reach me or you don’t get an answer. If you must reach me send a FAX or use e-mail.
COMPUTERS ET AL Don’t believe for a minute that computers do
not make mistakes. Anyone who has used a computer for any time can tell of “loops” that will not stop, of re-booting to exit some program, and other “learned” responses from the computer. The computer may even be doing what it was told to do and still make a mistake as far as your desire is concerned. Take “diacritics” as an example. A macron such as “a” may go through a given program without any trouble, but just try a cedilla such as “Ç” or an umlaut such as “ö” and see what happens. Programs such as Windows’ Notepad will give you some strange results. This all leads to a problem for members whose names or addresses contain diacritical marks. I try to use these in the computer since I feel that we should acknowledge a person’s name correctly. BUT, sometimes, a program steps in and does weird things to characters when I am trying to do something simple like print a label. This also creates occasional problems when I send an updated list to Yoshi for use at the IDRS web site. So if you have a diacritical mark in your name or address, please let me know if there are problems. I don’t guarantee a solution, but at least I’ll know about it! And this segues nicely into - - -
LABELS I have tried to make the labels used for our issues conform as much as possible to the standard usage in the countries of the IDRS. If your label is not “according to your customs” please send me a correction. I can not always do it right because of limitations in the various programs, but I will try.
WHO WAS THAT MASKED MAN? Out of plain curiosity, does anyone know who the fine looking bassoonists are in the Creative Soundblaster ad for the AWE 64?
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Lost Sheep Members are classified as “LOST” when first class mail is returned as undeliverable. Your assistance in locating these members will be appreciated. If you live close to one of these members please consult the phone book and call them. After a years or so, lost members are placed in the archives. Achram, Denise L. 28378 Elba Drive Grosse Ile, MI 48138-1925 USA
Feves, Julie A. 18409 Hiawatha Street Northridge, CA 91324 USA
Morse, Julie S. 9707 Kingsley Road #237 Dallas, TX 75238 USA
Telford, Melissa 2/348 Crown Street Surry Hills, NSW 2010 AUSTRALIA
Banghart, Hannah L. 10025 Governor Warfield Parkway Columbia, MD 21044 USA
Heersche, Kimberly K. P.O. Box 84589 USC Columbia, SC 29225-0112 USA
Nicometo, Seth 926 Brophy Cir. Fayetteville, AR 72703 USA
Torsten, Sandin Ovre Bergsgatan 14 S-80251 Gvle SWEDEN
Bassett, Julie Eastman Commons; Box 198 100 Gibbs Street Rochester, NY 14605 USA
Helmer, Carl 6401 North Christmas Tree Lane, Apt. # 22 Flagstaff, AZ 86004 USA
Nix, Lori Ann 812 Shamrock Street Opelika, AL 36801-3832 USA
Tune, Juanita 650 Sierra Vista Drive; Apt. # 209 Las Vegas, NV 89109 USA
Houle, Victor G. #106 9950-90 Avenue Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5A4 CANADA
Oster, April Box 486; 606 St. Paul Street Baltimore, MD 21202-2355 USA
Johnson, David 171 Stalnaker Hall; West Virginia Univ. Morgantown, WV 26506 USA
Pelkey, Melissa 245 Heather Hill Drive West Seneca, NY 14224 USA
Bellon, Dominique 740 West Chimes Street; Apt. # 25 Baton Rouge, LA 70802 USA Brass, Lauren 2141 Maple Avenue Evanston, IL 60201 USA
Pfeil, Lou Ann P.O. Box 510973 Salt Lake City, UT 84151-0973 USA
Turpen, Scott 2360 West Broad Street B6 Athens, GA 30606 USA Utkin, Alexei Kutusov St. 35/30 Moscow RUSSIA Warman, Ian R. 504-1235 Comox Street Vancouver, BC V6E 1K6 CANADA
Buck, Pfc Allison 1420 Gator Blvd.; USMC/SOM Norfolk, VA 23521 USA
Johnson, Christopher 11071 East Blvd.; Cleveland Instit. Music Cleveland, OH 44106-1776 USA
Cameron, Brandon WTAMU Box 1478 Canyon, TX 75088 USA
Kayser, Jennifer 2218 West Arbor Glendale, WI 53209 USA
Carlson, Margaret L. P.O. Box 12626; UNT Denton, TX 76203 USA
Kwak, Jung-sun AM Kochenhof 92 70192 Stuttgart GERMANY
Rochell, Thomas: 445 South Wright Street; Apt. # 119 Lakewood, CO 80228-2603 USA
Cobbs, Matthew 1913 North Blackwelder Avenue Oklahoma City, OK 73106-4253 USA
Leonard, Wilbert L. 7001 Chance Street Pittsburgh, PA 15208 USA
Sasaki, Takehiro 2959 Any Lane Bloomington, IN 47408 USA
Davis, Kathryn Hartwick College Box 411 Oneonta, NY 13820 USA
LeVasseur, Andrew P. 515 Monroe Street Denver, CO 80206 USA
Schumann, Shannon 1048 Centurion Road Lexington, KY 40517 USA
Denize, Michel Ens.Instr.Hav-10Rue Marcel Royer S9 Le Havre, PPAL 76600 FRANCE
Lin, Hung-Chu 5908 North Penn Avenue # 217A Oklahoma City, OK 73112 USA
Smith, Sara 2124 South Oak Grove Avenue Springfield, MO 65804 USA
Martin, Heather E. 301 Helen Keller Blvd. Apt. # 307 Tuscaloosa, AL 35404 USA
Stack, Judy 716 Drummond Street North Carlton, Victoria 3054 AUSTRALIA
Drummond, Jayne 4th Avenue Southwest Seattle, WA 98136 USA
Melia, Emily Eaton Res. Col. Rm.208 1211 Dickinson Dr. Coral Gables, FL 33146 USA
Symonik, Susan 30 St. Vital Road Winnipeg, Manitoba R2M 1Z3 CANADA
Yamada, Erika 3101 Port Royale Blvd. # 338 Fort Lauderdale, FL 33308 USA
Erlandson, Carrie 1523 N.W. Spruce Ridge Drive Stuart, FL 34994 USA
Moore, Richard J. Stockleigh, Catherington Hill Waterlooville, PO8 0TU ENGLAND, UK
Teles, Elen M. C. Rua dos Vanzeleres 301 4100 Porto PORTUGAL
Yumoto, Hisao 2500-1-30D, Nakanogoh Fujikawa, Shizuoka 421-33 JAPAN
Dickey, Marion E. 1000 Marjean Lane; Apt. Q-21 Grants Pass, OR 97526 USA
Pinzon, Jorge Calle 39 N; 19-45; Apto. 501B Bogot , Cundina marca COLOMBIA, S.A.
Weeks, Jennifer 494 Oxford Street E #2 London, Ontario N54 3H7 CANADA Weinshenker, Lisa Ann Box 767 - Bates College Lewiston, ME 04240 USA White, Andra K. 1849 North 200 West; Apt. # 134 Provo, UT 84604 USA Wike, Lori Box 130 - 100 Gibbs Street Rochester, NY 14605 USA Williams, Gwendolyn 292 Oxford Street Apt. #23 Rochester, NY 14607-2773 USA Wright, Michael B. 412 Chestnut Drive Tallahassee, FL 32301-2715 USA Wynn, Jr., Walter D. 1459 Willow Lake Drive; Apt. E Atlanta, GA 30329-2811 USA
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Contributing Members The Society thanks those who have given additional financial support by becoming contributors. Their additional support is vital to the accomplishment of our goals. Patrons American Bassoon Co., Inc. Franck Bichon Peggy J. Brown Mark Chudnow Woodwinds Lewis Hugh Cooper Forrests Music - Peter Klatt Fox Products Corporation Robert D. Gilbert - RDG Inc. A. Glotin T. W. Howarth & Co. Jones Double Reed Products Hans J. Kreul Ltd. Anna Lampidis De Gourdon - Loree McFarland Double Reed Shop Frank A. Morelli, Jr. Yoshiyuki Nakanishi Edmund Nielsen Woodwinds, Inc. Lawrence M. Probes, M.D. Lowry & Carolyn Riggins Philippe Rigoutat & Fils W. Schreiber & Söhne Christopher Weait Marcus Wieler Bassoon Workshop Yamaha Corporation of America Donors Accurate Double Reed - Mark Franko The USAF Band of the Rockies Altieri Instrument Bags L’Atelier du Hautbois Arundo Research Company Arundo Reeds and Cane Robert Hart Baker Sue Schrier Bancroft Robert Barris Bass Bags - Anthony Morgan Bassoon Heritage Edition, Inc. Charles Bell Waldemar Bhosys Sara Lambert Bloom Bocal Music - Alan R. Hawkins Edward T. Bowe, M.D. Bradford D. Buckley Fratelli Bulgheroni SNC Billy H. & Nancy Burdine John Campbell Ferald B. Capps Cascade Oboe Reeds Charles Double Reed Company Peter Christ Christlieb Products Gerald E. Corey Paul Covey Oboes Custom Music Company Glen R. Danielson
William J. Dawson, M.D. Heiko Dechert John J. Dee Michael H. Dicker Raymond H. Dusté B & D Publications - David E. Dutton Haskell Edelstein Evanston Band and Orchestra Company Michael W. Fay Marc D. Fink Ludwig Frank & Frank Meyer GEM Woodwind Products - Gary Moody Margaret A. Gilinsky Oboe Works Nancy E. Goeres Arthur L. Gudwin, M.D. Bela B. Hackman The Proboe Shop - Guy M. Hardy High Notes - James Schaeffer Sally Jo Hinkle-Teegarden Ann E. Hodge Norma R. Hooks Robin Howell Bocals International Opus - Adam Lesnick Yoshiyuki Ishikawa, D.M.A. Japan Double Reed Inc. Jeanné Inc. Donald J. Johannessen Mary C. Kemen Richard E. Killmer Charles B. King, III Robert King Musical Sales, Inc. G. Leblanc Corporation Stephan Leitzinger Marlin Lesher Reed Company Dr. George Longazo Humbert J. Lucarelli Donald V. Mac Court Stephen Margolis, M.D. Juliet C. Markovich Midwest Musical Import Roger O. Miller John W. Miller, Jr. The Miller Marketing Co., Inc. Nagamatsu Woodwind Laboratories Ryohei Nakagawa New England Sheet Music Service Robert G. Pajer Jonathan R. Parkes Fratelli Patricola Jennifer Paull Donald Plesnicar James M. Poe Janet Polk Seth M. Powsner James C. Prodan Puffit Greeting Cards Robert P. Raker, M.D.
Wayne Rapier Claude F. Reynolds Oboe Shoppe Robinson and Ross Woodwinds Dan Ross Ichiro Sasaji Scott W. Snyder, M.D. Robert & Bailey Sorton Jack Spratt Woodwind Shop Virginia K. Stitt Hitomi Sugawara Charles O. Veazey Dr. Vernon G. Vernier Gail Warnaar Double Reeds David Weber - The Reed Maker’s Manual Alan J. Werner, Jr. Westwind Precision Machining Holly V. White Kristin Hogan White Richard O. White Wichita Band Instrument Co. William Wielgus Howard Wiseman Womble/Williams Double Reeds William E. Wright, M.D. Sustaining John W. Abbott Helen Mendell Ackley Rodney F. Ackmann Nicola A. Adamo Carol Padgham Albrecht Meyrick Alexander Brenda L. Alony Barbara J. Anderson Karyl Arnold Richard Aronson Keith C. Atkinson William R. Baddeley William P. Baker Alexander Bakker Janet Elizabeth Balej Cheryl M. Banker Paul H. Barrett James W. Bartee, Ph.D. Theodore R. Baskin John H. Baxley Suzane B. Bazner Jon P. Beebe John E. Bentley Berdon Company James T. Berkenstock Reuben Berman, M.D. Carol A. Bernhardt Steven Bernstein Donald Beyer Kelly Bickford
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL
E. Edwin Bloedow David Bourns Thomas G. Boyd Mindy Braithwaite James M. Brody Dr. Andrew F. D. Brown Wesley A. Brown Celia Dugan Bryan William F. Buchman John H. Burkhalter James Butterfield Judith L. Buttery Michael K. Byrne Lori Caccavo Sandro Caldini Charles F. Call, D.P.M. William J. Cannaway Stefano Canuti Gwendolyn E. Carlton Marianne E. Carrel Gene C. Carter Marilyn A. Chappell Frederic T. Cohen Lynette Diers Cohen Don J. Cohn Stephen Colburn Jack Cole Roger Cole Cedric Coleman Julia C. Combs George W. Comstock, M.D. Donna Conaty-Cooley David P. Coombs Peter W. Cooper Piroozi Cooper Silvia Fanny Coricelli John H. Corina José Coronado Jennifer Craig Memorial Fund for the Arts Trevor Cramer - TrevCo Music Timothy H. Cronin Custom Music Company Jerry A. Dagg Cecil F. Dam Kevin Damon Lewis Dann William D. Davis Bruno De Rosa David A. DeBolt Renee Anthony Dee Gilbert DeJean Doris A. DeLoach John William Denton Steven A. Dibner Thomas W. Diener William D. Dietz Laura J. von Doenhoff, M.D. Nik Donges Elaine Douvas Peggy Dudley Barbara Jackson Duke
Dan J. Duncan Daryl W. Durran Theodore J. Eckberg Artemus Edwards Otto Eifert Jan Ekstedt Michael A. Ellert Harold Stephen Emert Keiichiro Enomoto Ian Falloon Nancy Greene Farnetani Herbert W. Fawcett, D.D.S. James C. Ferraiuolo Peter Finch Lewis T. Fitch A. Irving Forbes Dr. Nancy Fowler Fox Winds Corporation of Japan Jonathan Friedman Juan Vicente Gil Fuentes Ivan Volodymyr Furgal’ Masahiko Furukawa, M.D. Vitaliano Gallo K. Edward Gant Lawrence A. Gardner Bert Gassman Dr. Edward L. Gaudet, D.D.S. Edward A. Geller Oscar Ghebelian Julie Ann Giacobassi Mark D. Gigliotti Dr. Linda M. Gilbert Alain Girard Phyllis Glass Irving W. Glazer Ben Glovinsky Harold M. Goldner Maryll R. Goldsmith Doris D. Goltzer Lauren Green Gombolay Louise Cavalieri Goni James A. Gorton Julie A. Gregorian Peter Grenier H. Gene Griswold Hafsteinn Gudmundsson Arnie Gunderson Patricia L. Gunter Howard B. Gutstein, M.D. Charles W. Hamann Joseph H. Handlon Per Hannevold Paul Michael Harris Darryl E. Harris, Sr. William V. Harrod Jonathan H. Hawes John R. Heard Wilhelm Heckel GmbH Theodore C. Heger Thomas C. Heinze Rebecca Henderson Michael L. Henoch
David Herbert Stevens Hewitt Leonard W. Hindell Alan Hollander Oboes Kenneth L. Holm Carolyn M. Hove Charles G. Huebner Timothy R. Hughes William F. Hulsker Robert G. Humiston John S. Husser Daniel L. Ijams United Musical Instruments, Inc. Noritsugu Ishino Hans Georg Jacobi James Y. Jeter Giung-Hyun Jo Ronald L. Johnson Michel Jolivet, D.V.M. Andrea & Stephen Jones Michael L. Jones Dr. Gunther Joppig John Walter Faure Juritz Satoshi Kanesaka Noburu Katayama, M.D. Andrew J. King Bruce P. King Nancy Ambrose King Stanley E. King Alex Klein Jay C. Klemme Merilee I. Klemp Edward A. Knob Harold W. Kohn Phillip A. M. Kolker Lisa A. Kozenko Felix G. Kraus Paul A. Krieger, M.D. Seth Krimsky Arthur Kubey Marion Arthur Kuszyk Edwin V. Lacy Cecile Lagarenne Peter Lambert Landy Bassoon Repair Robert A. Lapkin, M.D. Antoine Lazennec Richard H. Lea Donald Leake, M.D. Peter C. Lemberg Stéphane Lévesque Judith Zunamon Lewis Hung-Chu Lin Linton Oboe/Bassoon - Jack Linton Martin S. Lipnick, D.D.S. Robert Lohr Richard W. Lottridge John W. Mack Jan Irma Maria de Maeyer Alice H. Magos Steve Malarskey Woodwinds Dr. Kenneth Malhoit
Table of Contents 132 Marco Le Manna Dwight C. Manning Kiyoshi Matsubara Donald C. Mattison Susan A. Mausolf Paul B. McCandless, Jr. Evelyn McCarty D. Keith McCelland Charles McCracken, Jr. Donald J. McGeen Timothy S. McGovern Melinda McKenzie Richard Meek Eugen Meier Andrea Merenzon Kristy L. Meretta Dennis P. Michel Marcos Mincov James R. Mitchell W. Stuart Mitchell, Jr. Moeck Verlag Carol Moffett Adriano Mondini Gene E. Montooth Robert J. Moore Bernd Moosmann, Ltd. Laurence S. Morgan Ralph William Morgan Robert E. Morgan James H. Moseley Dorothy E. Mosher Robert Mottl Franklin Pieter Mulder James W. Mullins, Jr. Rev. Greg W. Neteler Amelia Russo-Neustadt, Ph.D. Jan Joris Nieuwenhuis Daina L. Nishimoto Coreen L. Nordling Rebecca Noreen Earl C. North Dirk Noyen James N. O’Donnell Rosemary Ruth O’Farrell Leslie S. Odom Eric P. Ohlsson Antero Ojanto Robert L. Olson Gustavo E. Oroza-Henners Mark S. Ostoich Miguel Pakalns Havner H. Parish, M.D. Josep Julia Pascual Kenneth Pasmanick Sandra E. Pearson Homer C. Pence Tedrow L. Perkins Kermit C. Peters Eric J. Petersen Robert J. Pfeuffer Christopher Philpotts Enzo Pizzi, Inc.
Gina Pontoni Richard Porter, M.D. Prestini Reed Corporation James F. Preston John F. Price Gerald & Patricia Prunty Gregory Quick Jerome L. Rabinowitz Carl Rath Richard Rath Vernon Berry Read James F. Reiter Scott E. Reynolds Andrea J. Ridilla George T. Riordan Joseph Lee Robinson Tonyia R. Robinson James R. Roe John Rojas Mark L. Romatz Ronald Roseman D. Hugh Rosenbaum Rosslyn Woodwind Supplies Ltd. Steven J. Rovelstad Harrison E. Rowe Frank Ruggieri James M. Ryon Pamela S. Sacco George J. Sakakeeny, II Bruce M. Salad Walter Hermann Sallagar Dean H. Sayles Schilling Reeds - Kevin Schilling George S. Schlazer Dr. John H. Schnabel Peter J. Schoenbach Clare Scholtz David Schreiner Elizabeth A. Schulp Martin Schuring William J. Scribner Mark S. Seerup The Selmer Company Scott M. Shevy Andrew M. Shreeves Carolyn I. Shull Ivan A. Shulman, M.D. Joyce Sidorfsky Keith Sklower Joseph Lawton Smith Malcolm W. Smith Rheta R. Smith Michelle Jo Snyder David Solter Roger C. Soren Douglas E. Spaniol Thomas J. Stacy Frank S. Stalzer Sylvia Starkman Bob Stevens & Son Eugene E. Stickley Jim R. Stockigt
Daniel J. Stolper Maureen C. Stone Sherry L. Sylar David E. Taylor Jane Taylor John F. Thompson Robert K. Thompson Mrs. Grace S. Tracy Milan Turkovic John J. Urban Gerhard Veith Vigder’s Bassoon Supplies Allan Vogel Erik Waldejer Stephen J. Walt David B. Ward Sara Watkins Wolfgang R. Wawersik Arthur Weisberg Abraham M. Weiss David E. Weiss Karl-Friedrich Wentzel Andrea Whitcomb Charles C. Wicker Isle of Wight International Oboe Competition David A. Wild, M.D. Paul A. Wille Dr. Jack D. Williams Kerry M. Willingham Peter J. Wolf Richard C. Woodhams William S. Woodward The Woodwind and The Brasswind Brian Woodworth Deborah W. Wright Malcolm John Wright Hiroshi Yoshimizu David Zar MS Bernadette Zirkuli Marilyn J. Zupnik
Table of Contents IDRS JOURNAL
The Use of the IDRS Trade Marks The logo and the seal of the International Double Reed Society are the exclusive property of the Society and may not be reproduced or used without written permission. The Society will permit the use of logo or seal only if used in conjunction with an official application form for membership in IDRS and not used in a manner that may give the casual reader the appearance of an endorsement by the IDRS, of the person, entity or product associated with such reproduction. Prospective users must obtain permission in writing and submit a press proof of the proposed printed item in advance of publication. Please direct inquiries in writing to the IDRS music Industry Liaison. ADVERTISEMENTS IN IDRS PUBLICATIONS The International Double Reed Society sells advertising space in The Double Reed and in The Journal of IDRS to individuals, institutions and businesses for payment of the current advertising rates. The Society does not attempt to verify the accuracy or reliability of any advertising claims, made herein, and thus IDRS does not recommend or endorse any of the products, businesses or services advertised in the advertising section. CLASSIFIED ADS FOR SALE: Heckel Bassoon No. 4328. Recently completely restored by Bernd Moosmann. Silver plated keys, excellent finish and beautiful sound. High D and E keys. US $13,000. Fax: (54-1) 961 8223 (Argentina) or Email: [email protected]
BASSOONS FOR SALE: 4 Fox Renard Bassoons Model #51 (short reach), Brand New!: 2 still in box/2 played for about 3 months; complete with new Altieri custom-fitted backpack case covers and all originaL Fox accessories. $2000/$1900 John Ruze 804-883-7441.
If you would f %
hhh like to advertise d in the REED & DOUBLE contact: g w Peter Klatt FS 510-845-7178