ITL9328CL FoundationwROYALCaseStudy IG.r3.3.0 ITp Demo

May 17, 2018 | Author: Carlos Augusto Sanchez Martelo | Category: Business Process, Itil, Business, Accountability, Leadership & Mentoring
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ITL9328CL_FoundationwROYALCaseStudy_IG.r3.3.0_ITp_Demo...

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Copyright ITIL Foundation, Classroom course, release 3.3.0 Copyright and Trademark Information for Partners/Stakeholders.

Copyright © 2012 ITpreneurs. All rights reserved.

ITIL® is a registered trademark of the Cabinet Office. IT Infrastructure Library® is a registered trade mark of the Cabinet Office

Please note that the information contained in this material is subject to change without notice. Furthermore, this material contains proprietary information that is protected by copyright. No part of this material may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language without the prior consent of ITpreneurs Nederland B.V.

The Swirl logo™ is a trade mark of the Cabinet Office.

 All contents in italics and quotes is from the ITIL® Service Lifecycle Suite © Crown copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from the Cabinet Office.

The language used in this course is US English. Our sources of reference for grammar, syntax, and mechanics are from The Chicago Manual of Style, The American Heritage Dictionary, and the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications.

 All other text is based on Cabinet Office ITIL® material. Reproduced under licence from the Cabinet Office More on: http://www.itil-officialsite.com/IntellectualPropertyRights/TrademarkLicensing.aspx

Copyright © 2012 ITpreneurs. All rights reserved

www.ITpreneurs.com

Copyright ITIL Foundation, Classroom course, release 3.3.0 Copyright and Trademark Information for Partners/Stakeholders.

Copyright © 2012 ITpreneurs. All rights reserved.

ITIL® is a registered trademark of the Cabinet Office. IT Infrastructure Library® is a registered trade mark of the Cabinet Office

Please note that the information contained in this material is subject to change without notice. Furthermore, this material contains proprietary information that is protected by copyright. No part of this material may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language without the prior consent of ITpreneurs Nederland B.V.

The Swirl logo™ is a trade mark of the Cabinet Office.

 All contents in italics and quotes is from the ITIL® Service Lifecycle Suite © Crown copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from the Cabinet Office.

The language used in this course is US English. Our sources of reference for grammar, syntax, and mechanics are from The Chicago Manual of Style, The American Heritage Dictionary, and the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications.

 All other text is based on Cabinet Office ITIL® material. Reproduced under licence from the Cabinet Office More on: http://www.itil-officialsite.com/IntellectualPropertyRights/TrademarkLicensing.aspx

Copyright © 2012 ITpreneurs. All rights reserved

CONTENTS LIST OF ICONS FOLLOW US ITIL ® FIRST AID KIT INFORMA INFORMATION TION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNIT 1: COURSE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Student and Instructor Introductions 1.2 ITIL® Foundation Course 1.3 Course Learning Objectives 1.4 Course Agenda 1.5 ITIL Qualification Scheme 1.6 Exercise — The Arora Family

1 2 3 4 5 7 8

UNIT 2: SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE 2.1 Best Practices in the Public Domain 2.2 ITIL as a Good Practice 2.3 Concept of Service 2.4 Concept of Service Management 2.5 Processes and Functions 2.6 The RACI Model 2.7 Roles and Responsibil Responsibilities ities 2.8 Exercise – The Lost Laundr y 2.9 Module Summary 2.10 Test Questions for Service Management as a Practice

11 12 15 17 23 29 35 36 39 41 42

UNIT 3: SERVICE LIFECYCLE 3.1 The Service Lifecycle 3.2 Basic Concepts of Service Strategy 3.3 Basic Concepts of Service Design 3.4 Basic Concepts of Service Transi Transition tion 3.5 Basic Concepts of Service Operatio Operation n 3.6 Basic Concepts of Continual Service Improve Improvement ment 3.7 Exercise – The New Swimming Pool 3.8 Module Summary

43 44 46 51 55 60 65 70 72

UNIT 4: SERVICE STRATEGY 4.1 Basic Concepts of Service Strategy 4.2 Principl Principles es and Models of Service Strategy 4.3 Proces Processes ses of Service Strategy 4.3.1 Service Portfolio Management 4.3.2 Financial Management for IT Services 4.3.3 Business Relationship Management 4.4 Module Summary 4.5 Test Questions for Service Strategy

73 75 85 89 90 96 99 102 103

UNIT 5: SERVICE DESIGN 5.1 Basic Concept of Service Design 5.2 Principl Principles es and Models of Service Design 5.2.1 Service Solutions for New or Changed Services 5.2.2 Management Informa Information tion Systems and Tools 5.2.3 Technology Architectures and Management Architectures 5.2.4 Processes Required 5.2.5 Measurement Methods and Metrics 5.3 Proces Processes ses of Service Design 5.3.1 Design Coordination 5.3.2 Service Level Management

105 107 108 110 111 112 115 116 119 120 123

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5.3.3 Service Catalogue Management 5.3.4 Availability Management 5.3.5 Information Security Management 5.3.6 Supplier Management 5.3.7 Capacity Management 5.3.8 IT Service Continuity Management 5.4 Exercise – Crossword 5.5 Module Summary 5.6 Test Questions for Service Design

136 142 149 153 157 163 167 169 170

UNIT 6: SERVICE TRANSITION 6.1 Change Management 6.2 Service Asset and Con figuration Management 6.3 Release and Deployment Management 6.4 Transition Planning and Support 6.5 Knowledge Management 6.6 Exercise – Crossword 6.7 Module Summary 6.8 Test Questions for Service Transition

175 177 192 198 202 205 210 212 213

UNIT 7: SERVICE OPERATION 7.1 Event Management 7.2 Incident Management 7.3 Request Fulfilment 7.4 Problem Management 7.5 Access Management 7.6 Service Operations Functions 7.6.1The Service Desk Function 7.6.2 The Technical Management Function 7.6.3 The Application Management Function 7.6.4 The IT Operation Management Function 7.7 Exercise – Complaint Handling and Service Recovery 7.8 Module Summary 7.9 Test Questions for Service Operation

217 219 223 232 235 244 247 248 253 255 257 260 261 262

UNIT 8: CONTIN CONTINUAL UAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT 8.1 Basic Concepts of CSI 8.2 Principle Principless and Models of CSI 8.3 CSI Process 8.4 Exercise – Crossword 8.5 Module Summary 8.6 Test Questions for Continual Service Improvement

265 268 270 274 278 279 280

UNIT 9:TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE 9.1 Service Automation 9.2 Competence and Skills for Service Management 9.3 Competence and Skills Framework 9.4 Training 9.5 Module Summary

281 282 285 288 289 290

UNIT 10: EXAM PREPARA PREPARATION TION

291

MOCK EXAM

295

APPENDIX APPENDI X A: CASE STUDY

307

APPENDIX B: GLOSSARY

321

APPENDIX C: ANSWERS

415

APPENDIX D: APM GROUP SYLLABUS

437

APPENDIX E: ADDITIONAL INFORMA INFORMATION TION

449

APPENDIX F: KEPNER-TREGOE ® METHODOLOGY

459

APPENDIX G: RELEASE NOTES

461

FEEDBACK

463

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Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland Nederland B.V. B.V. All rights reserved.

LIST OF ICONS Refers to content that is meant for the instructor to lecture in class

Refers to content that is meant for the student to read on his/her own in class or at home Refers to information items that are not covered by the instructor in class but help the student understand a particular topic in detail Refers to a Scenario-Based Activity that the student must do in class or as homework after the completion of a topic or in between a topic Refers to items or contents that are given in a step-by-step-instruction or checklist format

Refers to an impor tant snippet of information that the instructors should remember to  touch upon upon while conducting conducting an an activity activity or during a lecture Refers to the simpli fication of content that was previously dif ficult to understand or confusing Refers to an extra piece of information that is not very impor tant but still good to know

Refers to light, conversational snippets of information or that the instructor can use in class to break the monotony of a serious and tedious lecture Refers to general-knowledge-based information that the instructor can use to provide relief to students during a serious or tedious classroom lecture Refers to space for the students to take notes

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Follow us Before you start the course, please take a moment to:

“Like us” on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/ITpreneurs

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"Add us in your circle" on Google Plus http://gplus.to/ITpreneurs "Link with us" on Linkedin http://www.linkedin.com/company/ITpreneurs "Watch us" on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/user/ITpreneurs

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®

Free ITIL First Aid Kit  The ITIL First Aid Kit (retail value $50) is an essential toolkit for effective utilization of an IT Infrastructure Library® (ITIL) for any organisation. It provides guidelines for areas to pay particular attention to and possible strategies to include in your program approach.

“Essential Information for professionals and organisations using ITIL”  Please scan the QR code below to download your free ITIL First Aid Kit.

itilfakpromo.itpreneurs.com

ITIL® and IT Infrastructure Library® are registered trade marks of the Cabinet Office.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 We would like to sincerely thank the experts who have contributed to the shaped ITpreneurs ITIL Foundation.

Authors / Subject Matter Experts y

P J Corum - Quality Assurance Institute

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Cesar Augusto Monteiro - IT Partners, Brasil

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Sergio Rubinato Filho - CA (C A Education), Brasil

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Service Management Art, Calgary, Canada

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Brian Bourne - Compagnie Générale de Communication

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Cazzy Jordan - General Dynamics Information Technology 

y

Marcel Foederer - ITpreneurs

Review Board Members : y

Per Ivar Lillebråten - Ciber 

y

Fatih Celen - Impetus Consulting

y

Michael D Costigan - CSC

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Lars Kristian Larsen - KMD

y

Erik Bartholdy - KMD

y

Bartosz Kozakiewicz - Conlea

y

 Jørgen Letager Hansen - Øberg

y

Krzysztof Kozakiewicz - Conlea

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Module1

COURSE INTRODUCTION DURATION: 1 HOUR AND 15 MINUTES

SHARE Learning Objectives

DISCUSS Course Agenda

OUTLINE ITIL Qualification Scheme

INTRODUCE Case Study 

THE

ROYAL CHAO PHRAYA HOTEL     

Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

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| COURSE INTRODUCTION| ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

1.1 STUDENT AND INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTIONS ITIL ®  Foundation Course

Course Introduction

Student and Instructor Introductions We would like to hear about you. Please share with the class: 

Your name.



Your profession.



Your role.



Your background in IT.



Your familiarity with the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL).



What you expect to learn over the next three days.

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Coming Up 1.2 ITIL® Foundation Course

Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | COURSE INTRODUCTION |

1.2 ITIL ® FOUNDATION COURSE ITIL ®  Foundation Course

Course Introduction

The Service Lifecycle

Continual Service Improvement

Service Transition

Service Strategy Service Design

Service Operation

ITIL = Information Technology Infrastructure Library  Adapted from The ITIL Service Lifecycle © Crown Copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from Cabinet Office

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The Service Lifecycle This course will guide the students in understanding the basic concepts of IT Ser vice Management (ITSM), as described in the five stages of the Service Lifecycle; that is, Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operation, and Continual Service Improvement (CSI). These stages will be dealt with in detail in subsequent modules. T

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Coming Up 1.3 Course Learning Objectives

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| COURSE INTRODUCTION| ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

1.3 COURSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES ITIL ®  Foundation Course

Course Introduction

Course Learning Objectives  At the end of this course, you will gain the knowledge and skills to: 

Comprehend Service Management as a practice.



Understand the Service Lifecycle.



Know the generic concepts and definitions.



Understand the key principles and models used behind selected processes.



Identify the selected processes.



Understand the selected functions and roles.



Comprehend the technology and architecture of the Service Lifecycle.



Comprehend competence and training.

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Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | COURSE INTRODUCTION |

1.5 ITIL QUALIFICATION SCHEME ITIL ®  Foundation Course

Course Introduction

ITIL Qualification Scheme and Credit Assignment

Legend SS

Service Strategy

SD

Service Design

ST

Service Transition

SO

Service Operation

CSI

Continual Service Improvement

OSA

Operational Support and Analysis

PPO

Planning, Protection, and Optimization

RCV

Release, Control, and Validation

SOA

Service Offerings and Agreement © Cabinet Office’s Official Accreditor – The APM Group Limited 2011

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Qualification Scheme The purpose of the ITIL Foundation Certi ficate in ITSM is to certify students who have gained knowledge of the  terminology, structure, basic concepts, and main principles of ITIL practices for Service Management.The ITIL Foundation Certificate in ITSM will guide the students to apply the ITIL practices for Service Management in the real world. After  the students pass the certi fication exam, they will gain credits of two points. T

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Coming Up 1.6 Exercise — The Arora Family

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| COURSE INTRODUCTION| ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

1.6 EXERCISE — THE ARORA FAMILY ITIL ®  Foundation Course

Course Introduction

The Royal Chao Phraya Hotel We are pleased to introduce the Royal Chao Phraya Hotel case study. 

The case study will be used for various exercises throughout this course.



Please take the specified time to read through the case study.



The case study will be followed by our first exercise.

9

Learning Focus This exercise is intended to introduce the students to some of the basic concepts of Service Management. Learning Methodology The intent of this exercise is not to achieve a correct result at this stage, but to: 

Introduce some of the basic concepts of Service Management.



Address the knowledge of some of those students who presume to know ITIL best practices based on their previous operational experience.

Review some of the key points below with the students at the close of the exercise: 

There is no distinction between Request Ful fillment, Incident Management, and the business.



Kit didn’t register the Incident or check whether other people had ear lier reported the same Incident in that room or on that floor.



The receptionist didn’t check if the Incident was resolved.



There was inadequate reaction to early checkout. The lost revenue is much greater than $19.



There was no linking of the similar Incidents faced by both Mr. Brock and Mr. Arora.



There is a damage caused by inconsistent compensation for a similar event.



There has been no Change Management on maintenance work and its effects on services.



There is no Con figuration Management.



There is poor service-oriented communications.

8

Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | COURSE INTRODUCTION |

Delivery Instructions Instruct the students to read the exercise on their own. Ask them to underline or highlight the identi fied errors  that could be corrected through the application of Service Management practices.

Exercise The Arora family arrived at the Royal Chao Phraya Hotel, enthusiastic about their upcoming stay. Mr. Arora checked in while his wife and two children, Ajay and Shalini, waited patiently in the lobby. It took some time to check the family in because the receptionist was first dealing with a lengthy complaint from another guest about her shower not having hot water and then handling continual interruptions on the telephone from people calling to ask about the availability of rooms for the upcoming Songkraan festival. After about 10 minutes, the Arora family was ready to go to their room, 1711. Their bellhop, Warit, led the way.  When they reached the room, they found it sti fling hot and musty. They turned on the air-conditioning, but it seemed ineffective. Mrs. Arora was quite upset and instructed her husband to get another room immediately. They had not escaped the heat of Mumbai to stay in an oven in Bangkok! Mr. Arora returned to the reception and again waited in line while people were checked in. He spoke to the frontdesk agent, Kit, and informed her of the situation. Kit was very nice and explained, “As the room hasn’t been used for a few days, it takes some time for the air-conditioning to take effect. I suggest that you close the curtains, take some refreshments at the Sugar Reef bar, and return in 20 minutes. Here is a beverage coupon for $20 as compensation for  the inconvenience.” Mr. Arora begrudgingly agreed and took his family for a refreshing drink at the Sugar Reef bar. The front desk heard no more from him until he came to check out the next day. “Oh, you are leaving a day early, Mr. Arora?” “Yes,” he replied, “the room was too hot for my wife and even though conditions improved slightly during the course of the evening, my wife really wants to move to the Mandarin Oriental today.” “Oh, I am sorry to hear that! I do hope that you will return and that next time, your experience will be much better. As a token of our apologies, I have removed from your bill the $19 charged for the video game you ordered.” Mr. Arora thanked her for the token of goodwill and headed for the front of the lobby to wait for his car to be pulled up from the garage. While waiting, Mr. Arora heard another guest talking to Sonny Singh, the Concierge. “I’ve been coming here for years, Sonny; I am so upset that this stay was ruined by the sti fling heat in my room.” “Did you complain about it to Mr. Van Rijn, Mr. Brock?” Sonny asked. “No,” answered Mr. Brock, “Dimitri is away for the day.” “But at least they gave you some compensation, sir?” “Yes Sonny, they gave me the room free, but that didn’t solve the problem, did it?” “Well, I guess saving $250 is some consolation, Mr. Brock.” “Maybe Sonny… maybe.” Mr. Arora was astonished to hear this and felt quite discouraged. He was just glad that his wife had not heard this story. Maybe he hadn’t complained enough! The hotel certainly hadn’t offered him any such compensation. Now he knew  that the move to a new hotel was the right step. Meanwhile, Sonny wandered back to the front desk and found the receptionist, Apple, chatting with Pap. “Apple, I just heard that there is a problem with the air-conditioning on the 17th floor. Is someone working on that?” “Oh, you must have spoken to Mr. Arora. He was a bit upset, but I think I satis fied him by compensating his bill.” “No, it wasn’t Mr. Arora, it was Mr. Brock and he is still upset.”

Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

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| COURSE INTRODUCTION| ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

“That’s strange,” said Pap,“I had told Kit yesterday that we were doing maintenance on the 17th floor and that we might lose some suction power on the air-conditioning units.” “Did you tell her to block the rooms, Pap?” asked Sonny.“No, but I thought that would have been obvious, wouldn’t it?” Meanwhile, the Aroras drove away in their chauffeured car.

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Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

Module 2

SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE DURATION: 1 HOUR AND 45 MINUTES SHARE

Learning Objectives IDENTIFY

Challenges in an IT Organization

OUTLINE

L I   N  K   T  O 

ITIL as a Good Practice

BUSINESS DEFINE

VALUE

Service | Service Management | Functions | Processes

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11

| SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE | ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

Module Introduction

Learning Objectives

Service Management as a Practice

 At the end of this module, you will be able to: 





Describe:    

the concept of best practices in the public domain

   

the concept of service Management and IT Service Management (ITSM)

   

the importance of functions and processes in an organization

   

a process model and it’s characteristics

Identify:    

Stakeholders in service management

   

and explain types of customers

Define:    

and explain the concept of Service and types of Services

2

2.1 BEST PRACTICES IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN General Concepts

Best Practices in the Public Domain

Service Management as a Practice

Best practices are successful innovations that organizations implement to close gaps in customer needs and Service quality.

ITIL is the popularly accepted and trusted source of best practices for IT Service Management (ITSM).

Sources for best practices include: 

Public frameworks (for example, ITIL, COBIT ®, and CMMI)



Standards (for example, ISO/IEC 20000 and ISO/IEC 27001)



Proprietary knowledge (for example, vendors, individuals, and organizations)

 Are public good practices more attractive than proprietary ones?

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Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE |

General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Best Practices in the Public Domain

Standards

Employees

Industry practices Sources (generate)

Customers

 Academic research

Suppliers

Training and education

 Advisers

Internal experience

Drivers (filter)

Enablers (aggregate)

Technologies

Substitutes

Competition

Regulators

Compliance

Customers

Commitments

Scenarios (filter)

Knowledge fit for business Objectives, context and purpose  Adapted from Sources of Service Management best practices © Crown Copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from Cabinet Office

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Best practices are successful innovations that organizations implement to close gaps in customer needs and Service quality. Organizations set standards against competitors and try to close the gaps in its capabilities. Setting standards helps organizations improve Service quality and meet customer requirements for Ser vices. Sources for best practices are listed on the slide. Organizations should maintain and share public frameworks and standards along with proprietary knowledge to be at an advantage with competition and to be able to collaborate and coordinate easily across organizations.

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| SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE | ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

Public frameworks and standards are more attractive than proprietary knowledge because of the following reasons: Proprietary Knowledge

Public Frameworks

Proprietary knowledge:

Public frameworks and standards:



Is often unstated, undocumented, and deeply rooted in an organization. As a result, adoption, duplication, and transfer of proprietary knowledge are dif ficult without the cooperation of the owners.



Is characteristic of a local and speci fic requirement of the business. As a result, unless an organization is aware of such knowledge, this knowledge can become ineffective in its usage.

o

“ITIL

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LEAN

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Six Sigma

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COBIT 

Becomes a public framework only when owners of this knowledge agree to making  the proprietary knowledge public through commercial  terms, such as purchases and license agreements. Owners of proprietary knowledge expect rewards for their knowledge and investments.

o

CMMI

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PRINCE2

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PMBOK ®

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ISO 9000

o

ISO/IEC 20000

o

ISO/IEC 27001”





Are validated across diverse environmental contexts and are not limited to a single organization. Multiple organizations, disciplines, partners, supplier, and competitors examine these frameworks and standards. Some wellknown frameworks and standards are:

(Source: Service Strategy book) 

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Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

Are more widely found among a large community of professionals, for example, public training and certi fication. Organizations can acquire public knowledge through the labor market.

| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE |

2.2 ITIL AS A GOOD PRACTICE General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

ITIL as a Good Practice – ITIL Core

Continual Service Improvement

Service Transition

Service Strategy Service Design Service Operation

ITIL = Information Technology Infrastructure Library  Adapted from The ITIL Service Lifecycle © Crown Copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from Cabinet Office

5

ITIL adapts all common frameworks of practices and unites all domains of IT Service provision to deliver value to business. ITIL is the most practical approach to Service Management. Some characteristics that make ITIL a global success are: 

It is vendor-neutral: ITSM practices are not based on any speci fic platform of technology or industry. It is also not tied to any commercial proprietary practice or solution but is owned by the UK government. As a result, ITIL is applicable to any IT organization.



It is non-prescriptive: ITIL is applicable to all IT Ser vice organizations and their customers because of its robust, established, and time-tested practices. ITIL continues to be useful and applicable in public and private sectors; internal and external Service Providers, small, medium, and large enterprises; and within any technical location.



It is best practice:  ITIL embodies the learning experiences and thoughts of leaders who provide best Services to customers across the globe.

Because ITIL describes practices that allow organizations to deliver pro fi ts, Return on Investment (ROI), and continuous success, many organizations adopt ITIL to: 

“Deliver value for customers through services



Integrate the strategy for services with the business strategy and customer needs



Measure, monitor and optimize IT services and ser vice provider performance



Manage the IT investment and budget  Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

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| SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE | ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |



Manage risk 



Manage knowledge



Manage capabilities and resources to deliver services effectively and ef ficiently



Enable adoption of a standard approach to service management across the enterprise



Change the organizational culture to support the achievement of sustained success



Improve the interaction and relationship with customers



Coordinate the delivery of goods and services across the value network 



Optimize and reduce costs.”

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| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE |

2.3 CONCEPT OF SERVICE General Concepts

Concept of Service

Service Management as a Practice

“Service: A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks.” (Source: Service Strategy book)

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Services are a means to deliver value to customers by enabling what the customer wants to achieve (outcomes) without taking any ownership of costs and Risks. All Services have a Service cost when they become operational, which is reflected as Return on Investment (ROI) and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), and this cost must be managed. To avoid taking ROI and TCO Risks, the customers look to Service Providers to satisfy their need for those Services. The Service Provider, on the other hand, provides those Services according to the requirements of the customers. In doing so, the Service Provider does not expose all costs and Risks that the customer wants to avoid but only exposes the overall cost or price of a Service to the customer. These costs and Risks include all costs and Risk-mitigation measures of the Service Provider. The customer finally compares the cost and reliability of the Service offered and then buys the Service. Some constraints associated with Services are regulation, lack of funding or capacity, or technology limitations.

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| SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE | ITIL® FOUNDATION | INSTRUCTOR |

General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Concept of Service

Types of Services The types of services are divided into internal and external.

Internal Services

Delivered between departments or business units in the same organization

External Services

Delivered to external customers

Services

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Services should be differentiated as internal and external to help organizations differentiate between Services that support an internal activity and those that essentially help realize business outcomes.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Concept of Service

Types of Services

External customer 

External customer 

External customer 

External customer 

External customer 

External customer 

The business Business unit (internal customer)

Business unit (internal customer)

IT IT department

IT department

IT department

External customer-facing services IT Services

Internal customer-facing services Supporting services (internal) Business services and products provided by other business units

 Adapted from Internal and External Services © Crown Copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from Cabinet Office

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The figure on the slide shows the difference between internal and external services for an IT Service Provider. Services can be classified as core, enabling or enhancing and are further explained in the subsequent slides.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Concept of Service

IT Services From the perspective of an IT service provider, an IT service is of three types.

Customer 

Core Services

Enabling Services

Enhancing Services (option)

Enabling Services

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IT Services Is made up of information technology, people, and processes. An IT Service Provider provides this Service to one or more customers to support its business processes. It can be further classified into: 

Core Services: Represent the value that the customers need and for which they are willing to pay. They deliver the basic outcomes that are needed by one or more customers. Core Services represent the value proposition for the customer and provide the base for their continued utilization and satisfaction.



Enabling Services: Are Services that are required to deliver a core Service. They are the “basic factors”  that allow the customers to receive the “real” Service. As a result, customers may not perceive these Services as Services in their own right because the Services may or may not be visible to them.



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Enhancing Services: Are Services that are added to a core Ser vice to attract customers to buy a Ser vice. They are not crucial to the delivery of a core Ser vice because they are only added as “excitement” factors.

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The table shows the three types of IT Services. “Type of service

Definition

Description Supporting services are de fined to allow IT teams to identify the interdependencies between IT components. They will also show how these components are used to deliver internal and external customer-facing services. Supporting services enable IT processes and services, but are not directly visible to the customer.

Supporting service, sometimes called an infrastructure service, although they are often broader than just infrastructure

 A service that is not directly used by the business, but is required by the IT service provider so they can provide other IT services – for example, directory services, naming services, the network or communication services.

Some IT teams view recipients of supporting services as ‘customers’. Although this promotes good service quality, it is also misleading. Supporting services only exist to be combined with other supporting services to produce customer-facing services. If they cannot, they are of no value and their existence should be questioned. There can be no service level agreements for supporting services as they are all internal to the same department. Instead, the performance of supporting services should be managed using operational level agreements. It should be noted that Figure 3.5 only refers to services originating inside the organization. In some cases supporting services are sourced from outside the organization. In these cases they are managed in the same way as other supporting services, but using underpinning contracts rather than operational level agreements.

Internal customerfacing service

 An IT service that directly supports a business process managed by another business unit – for example, sales reporting service, enterprise resource management.

 An internal customer-facing service is identified and defined by the business. If it cannot be perceived by the business as a service, then it is probably a supporting service. Internal customer-facing services rely on an integrated set of supporting services, although these are often not seen or understood by the customer or user. Internal customer-facing services are managed according to service level agreements.

 An external customer-facing service is available to external customers and is offered to meet business objectives defined in the organization’s strategy.

External customerfacing service

 An IT service that is directly provided by IT to an external customer – for example, internet access at an airport.

 An external customer-facing IT service is also a business service in its own right, since it is used to conduct the business of the organization with external customers. Depending on the strategy of the organization, the service is either provided free of charge (many government agencies provide services to the public for no fee), or it is billed directly to the person or organization using the service. In other cases, the service may be provided free to the customer, but paid for by a third party, such as an advertiser or sponsor. These services are managed using a contract – even a simple online agreement constitutes a contract of sale and purchase with terms and conditions.”

(Source: Service Strategy book)

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Concept of Service

Types of Customers

Internal Customers

People or departments working in the same organization

External Customers

People not employed by the organization or separate legal entities

Customer 

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Types of Customers Customers can be both internal and external. Both internal and external customers must be given an agreed level of Service along with the same customer Service levels. Given below is an example of both types of customers. Internal “…..the marketing department is an internal customer of the IT organization because it uses IT ser vices. The head of marketing and the CIO both report to the chief executive officer (CEO). If IT charges for its ser vices, the money paid is an internal transaction in the organization’s accounting system – i.e. not real revenue.”

(Source: Service Strategy book)

External “…an airline might obtain consulting services from a large consulting firm. Two-thirds of the contract value is paid in cash, and one-third is paid in air tickets at an equivalent value.”

(Source: Service Strategy book) T

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Coming Up 2.4 Concept of Service Management

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2.4 CONCEPT OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT General Concepts

Concept of Service Management

Service Management as a Practice

“Service Management: A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the fo rm of services.”  (Source: Service Strategy book)

Service Management: 

Is a set of specialized organizational capabilities that provides value to customers in the form of Services.



Is a professional practice that is globally supported by qualification schemes and standards.



Must transform capabilities and resources into valuable Services.

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Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities that provides value to customers in the form of Services. It is a professional practice that is supported by a vast body of knowledge, experience, and skills. The core of Service Management lies in the act of transforming capabilities and resources into valuable Services. An organization without appropriate Service Management in place will not have the required capabilities that can transform resources  that by themselves have low intrinsic value for customers. On the other hand, if a Ser vice Provider’s capabilities are mature, the quality of Service that the customers wants will be produced in a timely and cost-effective manner.

Capabilities: Take the form of functions and processes for managing Services over a Lifecycle.  

Represent an organization’s capacity, competency, and con fidence for action.

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General Concepts

Concept of Service Management

Service Management as a Practice

Challenges of Service Management Some challenges of Service Management capabilities are: 

They are intangible in nature.



The demand for capability is tightly linked to the assets of the customer.



They involve high level of contact for Service producers and consumers.



The Service output and Service capacity are perishable.

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Some challenges of Service Management capabilities are: 

They are intangible in nature. Capabilities are dif ficult to measure, control, and validate.



The demand for capability is tightly linked to the assets of the customer. Customers and customer assets, such as processes, applications, documents, and transactions, arrive with demand and enhance the production of Services.



They have a high level of contact for Service producers and consumers. The absence of buffer between the creations of the Service Provider’s Service and the customer’s consumption of that Service makes Service Management capabilities dif ficult to achieve.



The Service output and Service capacity are perishable. Service Providers need to ensure that they provide a steady supply of demand from customers and assure the customers of a consistent and quality Ser vice. Service Management had its origins in the airlines, banking, hotel, and phone businesses. It is now adopted by IT as a Service-oriented approach to manage applications, infrastructure, and processes.

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General Concepts

Concept of IT Service Management

Service Management as a Practice

“IT service management (ITSM): The implementation and management of quality IT services that meet the needs of the business. IT service management is performed by IT service providers through an appropriate mix of people, process and information technology.”  (Source: Service Strategy book)

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ITSM The meaning of IT keeps changing depending on the various perspectives of the business and people. As a result, these perspectives need to be recognized and balanced to communicate the value of ITSM and to know the context for how  the business looks at the IT organization.

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General Concepts

Concept of IT Service Management

Service Management as a Practice

IT Service Management Meanings

 A category of services utilized by business and treated as an expense

 A collection of systems, applications and infrastructures

IT Service Management  A category of business assets and is treated as an investment

 An organization with its own set of capabilities and resources

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Some meanings of ITSM are: 

“IT is a collection of systems, applications and infrastructures which are components or sub-assemblies of a larger product. They enable or are embedded in processes and services.



IT is an organization with its own set of capabilities and resources. IT organizations can be of various types such as business functions, shared services units and enterprise-level core units.



IT is a category of services utilized by business. The services are typically IT applications and infrastructure that are packaged and offered by internal IT organizations or external service providers. IT costs are treated as business expenses.



IT is a category of business assets that provide a stream of benefits for their owners, including, but not limited to, revenue, income and profit. IT costs are treated as investments.”

(Source: Service Strategy book) Using the principles of Service Management, all IT organizations must act as Service Providers to make sure that organizations deliver the needs of the customers. To carry out ITSM effectively and ef ficiently, IT Services should be managed from the business perspective. The IT Service Provider must communicate to the customer if the Services required cannot be delivered according to  the agreed level of performance or cost.To know that a good relationship exists between an IT Service Provider and its customers, the IT Service Provider needs to maintain a balance between the three aspects listed below.The aspects are: 

The customer receives an IT Service that meets its needs.



The IT Service is at an acceptable performance level.

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The cost of the IT Service is affordable. According to ITIL, an IT Service Provider is de fined as someone who “provides IT services to internal or external customers.” A Service Level Agreement (SLA) documents agreements between an IT Service Provider and a customer. It lists the IT Services, de fines the Service level targets, and identi fies the responsibilities of the IT Service Provider and the customer. A single SLA can cover multiple IT Services or customers.

General Concepts

Concept of Stakeholders in Service Management

Service Management as a Practice

Teams

Internal Stakeholders Functions, groups, and teams deliver the services within the organization.

Functions Groups

Customers

External Stakeholders Customers buy goods and services.

Users

Suppliers

Users use IT services directly and on a dayto-day basis. Suppliers are third parties that supply goods and services.

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Stakeholders in Service Management Stakeholders are impor tant to an organization, project, or Service. They are interested in the activities, targets, resources, or deliverables from Service Management. Some examples of stakeholders are organizations, Service Providers, customers, consumers, users, partners, employees, shareholders, owners, and suppliers. Stakeholders internal to the Service Provider organization are the functions, groups, and teams that are involved in  the delivery of Services. On the other hand, stakeholders external to the Service Provider organization are customers, users, and suppliers. Internal stakeholders are functions, groups, and teams that deliver Services.

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External stakeholders are:

Customers Buy goods or Services.  

Define and agree to the Service level targets.

Users 

Are people who use the Service every day.



Use IT Services directly.



Are sometimes customers who use these Services.

Suppliers Are third par ties who are responsible for supplying the goods or Ser vices needed for delivering IT Services.  

Examples are commodity hardware and software vendors, network and telecom providers, and organizations  that outsource Services T

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Coming Up 2.5 Processes and Functions

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2.5 PROCESSES AND FUNCTIONS General Concepts

Processes and Functions

Service Management as a Practice

“ Process: A process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs.”  (Source: Service Strategy book)

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Processes are measurable and performance driven. They help managers measure cost, quality, and other variables and help practitioner’s measure duration and productivity. Processes must also meet the expectations of all internal or external customers. A process exists to deliver a speci fic, identifiable, and countable result.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Processes and Functions

Process Characteristics

M



Performance driven



Cost, quality, duration, productivity, and so on

S



Delivery of a specific result



Individually identifiable and countable



Delivery of results to a customer or stakeholder 



Meeting customer expectations



Could be internal or external



Traceable to a specific trigger 

easurable:

pecific results:

C

ustomers:

R

espond to a specific event:

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Characteristics of Processes The characteristics of processes are: 

They are measurable: A process is driven by performance because managers measure cost, quality, and other variables while practitioners are concerned with duration and productivity.



They give specific results: A process exists to deliver a speci fic result that is individually identi fiable and countable. However, it is not possible to count the number of completed Service Desks as compared to the number of Changes.



They are customer-oriented: The result of each process is delivered to a customer or stakeholder, who may be internal or external to the organization. The process must meet the expectations of the customer or stakeholder.



They respond to specific events: A process — whether ongoing or iterative — should be traceable to a specific trigger.

Delivery Notes Ask the learners to remove all the “a”s from the word MaSaCaRa , or memorize the phrase Mary Sells Custom Rings, to get essence of the characteristics of processes.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Processes and Functions

Process Model Process control Triggers

Process policy

Process owner  Process documentation

Process objectives

Process feedback

Process

Process metrics

Process activities

Process inputs

Process procedures

Process roles

Process improvements Process outputs

Process work instructions Including process Reports and reviews

Process enablers Process resources

Process capabilities

 Adapted from Process Model © Crown Copyright 2011 Reproduced under licence from Cabinet Office

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Process Model In the diagram, a process is shown as a set of structured activities designed to accomplish a speci fic objective. There are clearly defined inputs, activities, and results, along with documented process roles and a continual improvement loop. A trigger, which may be an input or an Event, initiates a process or an activity within a process. For example, Service failure may trigger the Event Management and Incident Management processes. To deliver outputs that are reliable, a process can consist of any of the roles, responsibilities, tools, and management controls. Organizations should document and control the processes once you de fine them. A process that is in control can be repeated and managed. Consequently, you should build measurements and metrics into the process to control and improve it. Organizations should ensure that they incorporate process analysis, results, and metrics regularly in the management repor ts and process improvements. In other words, processes are measurable and performance driven. They help managers measure cost, quality, and other variables and help practitioners measure duration and productivity. Processes must also meet the expectations of all internal or external customers. A process exists to deliver a speci fic, identifiable, and countable result.

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General Concepts

Processes and Functions

Service Management as a Practice

“ Function: A function is a team or group of people and the tools they use to  perform one or more processes or activities."  (Source: Service Strategy book)

Functions:  

Provide structure and stability to organizations.  Are self-contained units of organizations, with their own capabilities and resources.



Rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and control.



Have their own knowledge base, built from experience.



Can result in functional silos if there is a lack of coordination or an inward focus.

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According to ITIL, a function is a team or group of people and the tools it uses to perform one or more processes or activities. A function also has the specialized resources needed to generate the desired outcomes. In large organizations, functions maybe divided and performed by several departments and teams, and groups or functions can also be embedded within a single organizational unit, such as the Service Desk. On the other hand, in small organizations, an individual or a group can perform multiple functions, for example, a technical management department performing the functions of a Service Desk.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Processes and Functions

Functions

Group People performing similar activities on different technologies into different organizational structures or different companies

Department

Team

Based on hierarchical reporting structure, where managers are responsible for the execution of the activities

Team members can work virtually or in multiple locations towards a mutual objective but not in the same organization structure

Functions

Division Comprises of a number of departments being grouped together, geographically or product wise

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Different Functions For a successful Service Lifecycle, you should clearly de fine the roles and responsibilities that are needed to perform  the processes and activities in each stage of the Lifecycle. You should establish, manage, and assign roles to individuals and to suitable structures of the organization, such as teams, groups, or functions. The groups, teams, departments, and divisions can be defined as: Group 

Are a number of people who have similarities with one another.



Refer to people who perform similar activities although they may work on different technologies or report into different organizational structures or even different companies.



Are not formal organizational structures but de fine common processes across organizations.

Team 

Are formally organized and recognized groups.



Are people working together but not in the same organization structure to achieve a common objective.



Can be co-located or work in multiple locations and operate virtually.



Are useful for collaboration, for dealing with a temporary or transitional situation.

Department Are formal organizational structures that perform a speci fic set of de fined activities on a continuing basis.  

Have a hierarchical reporting structure with managers being responsible for the execution of activities and  the daily management of departmental staff. Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

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Division Refers to a grouped number of departments such as geographical or product line groupings.  

Is self-contained generally. General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Processes and Functions

IT Management

Software Development

Operations

Service Desk

Desktop Support

Incident Management

Problem Management

Change Management Change Manager Role

ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX

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Only the size, structure, and culture of an organization can actually determine if it is a function, role, activity, or set of processes. ITIL describes four functions — Service Desk, Technical Management, IT Operations Management, and Application Management — in detail. The Service Desk acts as the Single Point of Contact (SPoC) for customers when there is a disruption in Services, for Service Requests, or for Requests for Change (RFCs). Technical Management provides the detailed technical skills and resources required to support continuing IT Services operation and IT infrastructure management. IT Operations Management executes the day-to-day live activities that are required to manage IT Services and the supporting IT infrastructure. IT Operations Management also conducts IT oper ations control and facilities management. Application Management manages applications throughout their Service Lifecycle. It supports and maintains live applications and plays a crucial role in the design, testing, and improvement of applications that are part of IT Services. T

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Coming Up 2.6 The RACI Model

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2.6 THE RACI MODEL General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

The RACI Model

RACI RACI is an example of an authority matrix, which can be used within organizations to indicate roles and responsibilities in relation to processes and activities.

R = Responsible  A = Accountable C = Consulted I = Informed

Change Sponsor

Customer 1.0 Record the RFC

R

2.0 Review the RFC

Service Desk

Change Manager 

Change Coordinator 

R

A

I

A

R

R/A

R

3.0 Assess and Evaluate Change

CAB

R

ECAB

Change Builder 

C/I

Change Tester 

Etc.

I

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The RACI Model Organizations must clearly de fine all roles when designing a Service or a process. The RACI Model offers a close, succinct, and easy way of tracking who does what in each process and allows speedy and con fident decision making. RACI is an acronym for what the four main roles should be: 

Responsible: The person or people responsible for accurate execution or getting the job done.



Accountable: The person who has ownership of Service quality and the result. Only one person is accountable for one task.



Consulted: The people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought. Their involvement is through input of knowledge and information.



Informed: The people who are kept updated on the progress of a Service. They receive information about process execution and quality. Some organizations use the RACI de finitions but shift the order to Accountable, Responsible, Consulted, and Informed (or ARCI). However, the meanings and usage of RACI continue to be unchanged. T

 Just Concluded 2.6 The RACI Model

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Coming Up 2.7 Roles and Responsibilities

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2.7 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Roles and Responsibilities

Role  A role is the set of responsibilities, activities, and authorities defined in a process and assigned to a person or team.

Problem Analyst Role

Change Initiator Role

Second-line Analyst Role

First-line Analyst Role

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A role is the set of responsibilities, activities, and authorities de fined in a process and assigned to a person or team. One person or team may have multiple roles, for example, the roles of Con figuration Manager and Change Manager may be performed by a single person or team, who should carefully assess this requirement and workload.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Roles and Responsibilities

Generic Roles

Process Owner Role

Service Owner Role



Is accountable for the overall quality of the process.



Is accountable for the delivery of a specific Service.



Is responsible for ensuring that a process fits the purpose





Is responsible for the sponsorship, design, and Change Management.

Is responsible for the initiation, transition, maintenance, support and improvement of a specific Service.

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Generic Roles There are two generic roles in Service Management, Process Owner and Service Owner. These owner roles are not necessarily dedicated resources. A Process Owner: Is accountable for the overall quality of the process and oversees the management of and compliance with  the processes, procedures, data models, policies, and technologies associated with the IT business process. 



Is responsible for ensuring that a process is fi t for purpose and that all activities within the process are performed.



Is also responsible for the sponsorship, design, and Change Management of the process and its metrics.



Role is often assigned to the same person who performs the Process Manager role, but the two roles may be separate in larger organizations.

A Service Owner: Is accountable for the delivery of a speci fic Service, regardless of where the underpinning technology components, processes, or professional capabilities reside. 



Is responsible to the customer for the initiation, transition, and ongoing maintenance, support, and improvement of a particular Service.



Interacts with the Process Owner throughout the Ser vice Management Lifecycle.

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General Concepts

Service Management as a Practice

Roles and Responsibilities

Generic Process Role Other generic process roles are the Process Manager and Process Practitioner.

Process Manager Role 

Is accountable for the operational management of a process.



Carries out the role of process owner and coordinates all process activities.

Process Practitioner Role 

Carries out one or more activities of a process.



Can be combined to process manager role or there may be a possibility of a large number of practitioners executing different parts of the process. For example a 2nd or 3rd line analyst in the Incident Management process.

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A Process Manager: Is responsible for the operational management of a process.  

Is responsible for planning and coordinating all the activities required to perform, monitor, and report on the process.



Role is performed, in some organizations, by several Process Managers, for example, regional or departmental Change Managers or ITSCM Managers for each data center.

A Process Practitioner: Is accountable for carrying out one or more activities of a process.  

Is joined with the Process Manager role in some organizations and for some processes. In other organizations, huge numbers of practitioners carry out different parts of the process. T

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Coming Up 2.8 Exercise — The Lost Laundry

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2.8 EXERCISE — THE LOST LAUNDRY DURATION: 30 Minutes INTRODUCTION After a series of complaints about lost laundry, James has asked Dimitri to review the entire laundry process. As a first step, Dimitri organizes a meeting with Isabel O’Hara, who is the head of the front of fice; Mary, who is the head of housekeeping; Reginald Jones, who is the account manager for the laundry company; and your team of Service Management experts. Dimitri has asked you to attend this meeting to kick-off the discussion.

Learning Focus This exercise is to demonstrate the students’ understanding of the de finition of a service, the roles within Service Management, and the use of RACI diagrams. Learning Methodology Expected Results:

Laundr y is a service because hotel guests want clean and/or pressed clothes without performing the activity themselves. The consequences of poor service are passed on to the hotel and then to the laundry company, which also bears the losses. The characteristics of the laundry process are: The laundry service is triggered by a request from a guest to either housekeeping or the front desk. The students could also have identi fied that there are perhaps three triggers for this service: guest requests, linen/towels, and staff uniforms. Measurable activities include:        

The laundry needs to be presented with a correctly filled inventory list. The laundry needs to be classified as urgent or normal. The laundry should be picked up before a specific time. All laundry picked up should be gathered at one place for pick-up. All laundry should be picked up on time by the laundry company. All laundry should be handled and processed in accordance with the client’s wishes. All laundry should be returned to the hotel on time. All laundry should be distributed to the correct guestrooms by a specific time.

Delivery Instructions Divide the class into two groups (three, if you have a large class). Each group will then produce three answers each in the student’s notes section. Ask each group to nominate one person to present their answers. Stimulate them  to discuss the answers based on the material in the curriculum. Time should be limited to 20 minutes for discussion and preparation and 10 minutes for presentation and review. Ask the students at least one question per presentation to ensure that they have the required knowledge. Remember that this is a Foundation-level course, so comprehension is the goal of this exercise, not application.

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Exercise You choose the following agenda: 

 Why is laundry a service?



 Which specific Event triggers the laundry service, what activities or results are measureable, and what speci fic results are delivered to the customers?



 Which of the attendees in the meeting should be the Process Owner, Service Owner, and Process Manager; why will a RACI chart/matrix help clarify everyone’s roles; and who is Responsible and who is Accountable?

Student Guidelines Appoint an individual to write down and present the team’s answers.  

You have 20 minutes to discuss and prepare your answers.

Sample Answer: There should be no complaints about missing or incorrectly handled clothes. Specific results are: 

Clothes handled as requested



Customer satisfied



On-time delivery 



To the right customer 



Correctly packaged

Possible assigned roles are: Process Owner = Dimitri, Service Owner = Isabel, Process Manager = Mary  RACI is an example of an Authority Matrix that documents the roles and relationships of stakeholders in a process or activity. The accountability for the process lies with the process owner (Dimitri) because he controls the resources that provide the valuable services to the customer. Everyone else is responsible for executing part of the process. T

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Coming Up 2.9 Module Summary

Copyright © 2012, ITpreneurs Nederland B.V. All rights reserved.

| INSTRUCTOR | ITIL® FOUNDATION | SERVICE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE |

2.9 MODULE SUMMARY General Concepts: 

Good practices  address the need to learn and adapt in dynamic business environments and improve performance while managing trade-offs.

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Customers pursue sourcing strategies that best meet their business interests while service providers must ensure competitiveness.

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Good practices are used to benchmark against peers and address gaps.

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Sources are public standards and frameworks and proprietary knowledge.



The ITIL core set consists of Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operation, and Continual Service Improvement.



Services are a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating the outcomes that customers want to achieve without the ownership of speci fic costs and risks.



Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in  the form of services.

Processes and Functions: A process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a speci fic objective.  

Process characteristics are Measureable, Specific results, deliver to Customers, and Respond to a speci fic event.



A Process model facilitates understanding and helps articulate the distinctive features of a process.



Functions are teams or groups of people and the tools they use to perform one or more processes or activities. T

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Coming Up 2.10 Test Questions for Service Management as a Practice

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