ITIL V3 Service Capability OSA Certification Exam

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ITIL V3 Service Capability OSA Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the ITIL V3 Service Capability OSA Exam: The 'How to Pass on Your First Try' Certification Study Guide

Notice of Rights: Copyright © The Art of Service. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability: The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks: Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book. ITIL® is a Registered Community Trade Mark of OGC (Office of Government Commerce, London, UK), and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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Foreword This Exam Preparation book is intended for those preparing for the ITIL® V3 Intermediate Capability Stream: Operational Support and Analysis (OSA) Exam. The Art of Service is an Accredited Training Organization for this program and has been training this course for more than 8 years. The strategies and content in this book are a result of experience and understanding of the ITIL® OSA Program, and the exam requirements. This book is not a replacement for completing the course. This is a study aid to assist those who have completed an accredited course and preparing for the exam. Do not underestimate the value of your own notes and study aids. The more you have, the more prepared you will be. While it is not possible to pre-empt every question and content that MAY be asked in the Intermediate OSA exam, this book covers the main concepts covered within the ITIL Intermediate OSA Syllabus and a Practice Exam (created by The Art of Service). Each Process contains a summarized overview of key knowledge areas. These overviews are designed to help you to reference the knowledge gained through the course. Due to licensing rights, we are unable to provide actual APMG Exams. However, the study notes and sample exam questions in this book will allow you to more easily prepare for an APMG ITIL® OSA exam. Ivanka Menken Executive Director, The Art of Service http://www.theartofservice.com/

2 Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Foreword ................................................................................... 1 Table of Contents ...................................................................... 2 ITIL® v3 Certification Pathway................................................... 7 Exam Specifics .......................................................................... 8 Exam Prerequisites.................................................................... 8 Exam Hints ................................................................................ 9 The Art of Service Objective Tree ............................................ 11 Study Notes ............................................................................. 12 IT Service Management........................................................... 13 9.1 Basic Concepts: ................................................................ 13 9.1.1 ITSM is the effective and efficient process driven management of quality IT Services. The added value to ITSM is that is business aligned and maintains a holistic Service Lifecycle approach................................................................... 13 9.1.2 Four Perspectives of ITSM (as found in Service Design Phase): 13 9.1.3 Why Service Management? ....................................... 13 9.1.4 Roles: There are many roles associated with ITIL processes. Each process should have a Process Manager e.g. Incident Manager. It is also reasonable for each Phase to have a Manager, e.g. Service Design Manager. ............................... 13 9.2 Key Terms:........................................................................ 14 10 ITIL ® v3 Service Lifecycle ...................................................... 15 11 Service Operation .................................................................... 16 11.1 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 16 11.1.1 Service Operation – Value:......................................... 16 11.1.2 Service Operation – Scope:........................................ 16 11.1.3 Achieving the Balance................................................ 17 11.1.4 Communication .......................................................... 17 12 Operational Support and Analysis............................................ 18 13 Event Management.................................................................. 19 13.1 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 19 13.1.1 Event management – Business Value ........................ 19 13.1.2 Activities..................................................................... 19 13.1.3 Interfaces ................................................................... 20 13.1.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 20 13.1.5 Challenges ................................................................. 21

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13.1.6 Critical Success Factors............................................. 21 13.1.7 Risks: ......................................................................... 21 13.1.8 Designing for Event management .............................. 21 13.2 Key Terms ..................................................................... 22 14 Incident Management .............................................................. 23 14.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 23 14.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 23 14.2.1 Incident Management – Business Value..................... 23 14.2.2 Activities..................................................................... 23 14.2.3 Interfaces ................................................................... 24 14.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 24 14.2.5 Challenges ................................................................. 24 14.2.6 Critical Success Factors............................................. 25 14.2.7 Risks .......................................................................... 25 14.2.8 Incident Model:........................................................... 25 14.2.9 Major Incident............................................................. 26 14.3 Key Terms ..................................................................... 26 15 Problem Management ............................................................. 27 15.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 27 15.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 27 15.2.1 Problem Management – Business Value.................... 27 15.2.2 Reactive Activities ...................................................... 27 15.2.3 Proactive Activities ..................................................... 27 15. 2.4 Interfaces ................................................................... 28 15.2.5 Metrics ....................................................................... 28 15.2.6 Challenges and Critical Success Factors ................... 28 15.3 Key Terms ..................................................................... 29 16 Request Fulfillment .................................................................. 30 16.1 Basic Concepts:............................................................. 30 16.1.1 Request Fulfilment – Business Value: ........................ 30 16.1.2 Activities:.................................................................... 30 16.1.3 Interfaces: .................................................................. 31 16.1.4 Metrics: ...................................................................... 31 16.1.5 Challenges: ................................................................ 32 16.2 Key Terms: .................................................................... 32 17 Access Management ............................................................... 33 17.1 Basic Concepts:............................................................. 33 17.1.1 Asset Management – Business Value ........................ 33 17.1.2 Activities..................................................................... 33 17.1.3 Interfaces ................................................................... 33 17.1.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 34 17.1.5 Challenges and Critical Success Factors ................... 34 Copyright The Art of Service

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17.2 Key Terms ..................................................................... 35 18 Service Desk Function............................................................. 36 18.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 36 18.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 36 18.2.1 Service Desk – Business Value.................................. 36 18.2.2 Service Desk Organizational Structures ..................... 37 18.2.3 Staffing....................................................................... 37 18.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 38 18.2.5 Outsourcing Service Desk .......................................... 38 19 Technical Management Function ............................................. 39 19.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 39 19.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 39 19.2.1 Role: .......................................................................... 39 19.2.2 Activities..................................................................... 39 19.2.3 Organization............................................................... 39 19.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 40 20 IT Operations Management Function....................................... 41 20.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 41 20.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 41 20.2.1 Role: .......................................................................... 41 20.2.2 Sub Functions ............................................................ 41 20.2.3 Organization............................................................... 42 20.2.4 Metrics ....................................................................... 42 21 Application Management Function........................................... 43 21.1.1 Objective: ................................................................... 43 21.2 Basic Concepts.............................................................. 43 21.2.1 Role ........................................................................... 43 21.2.2 Organization............................................................... 43 21.2.3 Metrics ....................................................................... 44 22 OSA - Technology and Implementation ................................... 45 22.1 Basic Concepts:............................................................. 45 22.1.1 Integrated ITSM technology: ...................................... 45 22.1.2 Event Management .................................................... 45 22.1.3 Incident Management................................................. 46 22.1.4 Request Fulfilment ..................................................... 46 22.1.5 Problem Management ................................................ 46 22.1.6 Access Management.................................................. 47 22.1.7 Service Desk .............................................................. 47 22.1.8 Service Management Tools........................................ 47 22.1.9 Tool Evaluation: ......................................................... 48 23 Service Operation .................................................................... 49 23.1.1 Activities..................................................................... 49 4

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23.1.2 Plan and implement Service Management ................. 49 23.1.3 OSA – Challenges...................................................... 50 23.1.4 OSA – Critical Success Factors.................................. 50 23.1.5 OSA – Risks............................................................... 50 24 Practice Exam ......................................................................... 51 24.1 Refresher “Warm up Questions” .................................... 51 24.2 Intermediate Style Practice Exam .................................. 55 25 Answer Guide ........................................................................ 106 25.1 Answers to warm up Questions ................................... 106 25.2 Answers to Intermediate Style Practice Exam.............. 106 26 ACRONYMS.......................................................................... 114 27 Glossary ................................................................................ 116 28 References ............................................................................ 119

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Also from Emereo Publishing and The Art of Service:

How to Develop, Implement and Enforce ITIL V3's Best Practices The refresh of ITIL® into V3 brought impressive positive changes. The evolution of the core principles and practices provided by the framework provides the more holistic guidance needed for an industry that continues to mature and develop at a rapid pace. Many organizations and individuals who had previously struggled with their adoption of the ITIL framework will continue to find challenges in ‘implementing’ ITIL® as part of their approach for governance of IT Service Management practices. In light of this, the primary goal of this book is to provide the support materials needed to enable the understanding and application of the ITIL® framework in a wide-range of contexts. This comprehensive book is designed as an easy reference that will walk you through the 5 Lifecycle critical steps you need to take to create a successful portfolio of IT Services. In addition you will learn how to manage and refine your service portfolio as your company's business evolves.

3 ITIL® v3 Certification Pathway Since the launch of ITIL v3 in July 2007, a new certification path was also released. This new path encompasses all the new v3 Programs, ending in the possible attainment of “Expert Status”. The figure below demonstrates the possible pathways that you could take to achieve the Expert status. To achieve Expert status, you are required to gain a minimum of 22 points by completing various ITIL® v3 programs: o You must complete the v3 Foundation Program (2 points) o You must complete the Managing Across the Lifecycle Program (5 points) o The remaining 15 points must come from The Intermediate Stream (Capability and Lifecycle Programs) (The numbers on each program indicate the points value.)

It is yet to be finalized how the “Advanced Level” can be achieved, but is expected to be based on demonstration of practical experience in ITIL and IT Service Management.

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4 Exam Specifics The APMG ITIL® v3 Intermediate Operational Support and Analysis exam is: o Multiple choice exam o 90 minutes in length o 8 scenario based questions o Pass mark is 70% o Closed book exam o Scaled Marking system: o Most correct answer – 5 marks o Next – 3 marks o Next – 1 mark o 1 answer – 0 marks. It is possible to do a paper based or a web based exam. (Please check with your Accredited Examination Centre for more information on this).

5 Exam Prerequisites In order to sit the ITIL Intermediate OSA Exam, you MUST have an ITIL v3 Foundation Certificate or ITIL v2 Foundation plus Bridge Certificate and completion of an accredited program from an ITIL Accredited Training Provider.

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6 Exam Hints When it comes time to sit your exam, you need to do this through an accredited Authorized Examination Center. You may have the option to do the exam as web or paper based. Either way, you will be given a paper copy of the Scenarios. A good thing! (Especially of you are doing web based – do not waste time opening web versions of the scenario – use the paper ones) Do not be fooled by the “only 8 questions” concept. These questions are designed to test you… - not only your knowledge, but also your understanding and application of the theory. You have 90 minutes, which means roughly 11 minutes per question. Most questions come with their own case study/scenario. You need to CAREFULLY read the scenario, then the question, then the scenario again. There are 4 possible answers – 1 is totally WRONG! And usually it is obvious to see which that is. If we do our math – you need 28/40 to pass. This means that if the answers are based on a 5/3/1/0 scale – you really cannot afford to get any 0 answers. You MUST get at least 2 x 5 mark answers and the remaining averaging 3’s (to get minimum of 28) …. So you DO need to know your stuff. THINK Business! – Remember – as “Techies”, we tend to get caught up in “our” IT world. The ITIL v3 lifecycle and in particular ITSM is customer centric… THINK THIS WAY when answering questions! Know your content – know your order. This study guide gives you a solid revision approach to this course – but does not cover ALL content (that’s why you do the course). Make sure you know what makes up a policy/plan/ and the activities for each process, as well as who does what.

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Case study hints o Identify main process/concept being tested o Identify the “issue/problem” faced within the scenario – there will always be one – your role is to resolve that issue. o Once you have read the associated question, go back and identify/confirm that you are on the right track Question hints o The 4 possible answers will appear to be similar – you need to read the possible answers carefully. o Eliminate the most obvious “wrong answer”... Things to look for: o Order of activities o Red herring activities o Wrong processes o Wrong description o From the remaining 3 responses – start to identify similarities/differences – this will help you to eliminate the next response generally – the differences will be a hint that one of them is incorrect – you have to decide which one o It is probable that the “most correct” response would have the correct order of activities/ descriptions and “just that little bit more”. o DO NOT assume that the longest response is the most correct one o Expect a “phase” question – while most questions are obvious what it is testing (i.e. process) – you could expect to get a “big picture” question asking about Service Transition in general – so make sure you understand your related phases

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7 The Art of Service Objective Tree This Objective Tree is a very useful tool for understanding and “tunneling” down into how ITSM can contribute to achieving a corporate objective. This helps us to better understand how the Service Lifecycle can contribute to achieving the Business objectives The aim of the Objective tree is to walk down the tree to understand HOW each level of the organization is assisted in achieving their objective by receiving support from the level below.

Once you get to the bottom, you then walk back up the tree, giving example of WHY each would be of benefit to the one above in achieving its objectives. ITIL contributes in the darker IT aspects in providing quality IT Service Management

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8 Study Notes The following Study notes are broken down into the following topics: o Service Management as a concept and relevant terminology o ITIL Service Lifecycle as a concept and relevant terminology o Service Operation Phase o Operational Support and Analysis (OSA) processes and functions o Implementing OSA and technology o Service Operation Again these study notes are not intended to replace an accredited ITIL Foundation Program. These notes are supplementary and may not include EVERY concept that may be tested.

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9 IT Service Management 9.1

Basic Concepts:

9.1.1

ITSM is the effective and efficient process driven management of quality IT Services. The added value to ITSM is that is business aligned and maintains a holistic Service Lifecycle approach.

9.1.2

Four Perspectives of ITSM (as found in Service Design Phase): People Partners Process Products

o o o o 9.1.3 o o o o o o o

Why Service Management? Business more dependent on IT Complexity of technology increases Customers demand more Environment becomes more competitive Focus on controlling costs of IT Low customer satisfaction Falling credibility of some IT organizations

9.1.4

Roles: There are many roles associated with ITIL processes. Each process should have a Process Manager e.g. Incident Manager. It is also reasonable for each Phase to have a Manager, e.g. Service Design Manager.

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9.2

Key Terms:

Process: a set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders. Service: a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks. IT Infrastructure: all the hardware, software, networks, facilities, services and support elements that are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control and support IT Services ITSM: A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services. Capabilities: The functions and processes utilized to manage services. Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization and cannot be purchased, but must be developed and matured over time. Resources: A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people, money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service. Resources are also considered to be tangible assets of an organization. Good Practice: (also referred to as Best Practice) That which is successful in “wide industry use” Functions: A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more Processes or Activities. Functions provide units of organization responsible for specific outcomes. Customer: refers to the person who “pays” for the service, or has the authority to request a service User: An organization’s staff member/employee who “uses” the IT service System: refers to a range of repositories for storing and accessing information – can include databases, Filing cabinets, storage cupboards etc 14

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10 ITIL ® v3 Service Lifecycle

Version 3 maintains a holistic view covering the entire lifecycle of a service, no longer does ITIL just answer the how questions, but also why? •Why does a customer need this service? •Why should the customer purchase services from us? •Why should we provide (x) levels of availability, capacity and continuity? By first asking these questions it enables a service provider to provide overall strategic objectives for the IT organization, which will then be used to direct how services are designed, transitioned, supported and improved in order to deliver maximum value to customers and stakeholders.

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11 Service Operation Objectives: o Service Operation ensures day-to-day operation of processes is conducted, controlled and managed effectively. o Enable successful service improvements by systematically, monitoring performance, assessing metrics and data gathering. o Service Operation staff should have processes and support tools in place. This enables an overall view of Service Operation and delivery and the ability to detect any threats/failures to service quality. o As services may be provided, in whole or in part, by one or more partner/supplier organizations, the Service Operation view of end-to-end service must be extended to encompass external aspects of service provision – and where necessary shared or interfacing processes and tools are needed to manage cross-organizational work-flows. 11.1 Basic Concepts

11.1.1 Service Operation – Value: o Each stage of the Service Lifecycle provides value to the business. The operation of service is where plans, designs and optimizations are executed and measured. From a customer viewpoint this is where the actual value is seen. 11.1.2 Service Operation – Scope: o The Services themselves – any activity that forms part of a service is included in Service Operation, whether it is performed by the Service provider, an external supplier or the user or customer of that service. o Service Management processes – the ongoing management and execution of many service management processes are performed in Service Operation, even though a number of processes originate in the Service Design/Transition stage of the Lifecycle, they are used continually in Service operation. 16

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o

11.1.3 o o o o

Technology – all services require some form of technology to deliver them. Managing this technology is not a separate issue, but an integral part of the management of the services themselves. Therefore a large part of Service Operation is concerned with the management of the infrastructure used to deliver services. People – Regardless of what services, processes and technology are managed, they are all about people. It is people who drive demand for the organizations services and products and people who decide how this will be done. Ultimately, it is people who manage the technology, processes and services. Failure to recognize this will result in the failure of service management projects. Achieving the Balance Internal IT view vs External business view Stability vs Responsiveness Cost of Service vs Quality of Service Reactive vs Proactive

11.1.4 Communication o Communications must have an intended purpose or a resultant action. o Information should not be communicated unless there is a clear audience. o The audience must have been actively involved in determining the need for the communication and what they will do with the information. o Frequency, location and choice of medium for communication must be decided by the individual department and documented in a policy.

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12 Operational Support and Analysis Operational Support and Analysis Processes: o Request Fulfilment o Event Management o Access Management o Incident Management o Problem Management Operational Support and Analysis Functions: o Service Desk o Technical Management Function o IT Operations Management Function o Application Management Function

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13 Event Management Objective: Event Management provides the entry point for the execution of many Service Operation processes and activities. In addition, it provides a way of comparing actual performance and behavior against design standards and SLA’s. 13.1 Basic Concepts

13.1.1 Event management – Business Value The value to the business of implementing the Event Management process is generally indirect, but it is possible to determine the basis for its value. For example, o It provides mechanisms for early detection of incidents. o It enables some types of automation activity to be monitored by exception. o Signal status changes or exceptions that allow the appropriate person or team to perform early response. o Provides a basis for automated operations, increasing efficiency and allowing human resources to be better utilized. 13.1.2 o o o o o o o o o o

Activities Event occurs Event Notification Event Detection Event Correlation Significance of Events Event Filtering Trigger Response Selection Review Actions Close Event

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13.1.3 Interfaces o Interface with business applications and/or business processes to allow potentially significant business events to be detected and acted upon. o The primary ITSM relationships are with Incident, Problem and Change Management. o Capacity & Availability Management are critical in defining what events are significant, appropriate thresholds and how to respond to them. Event Management will improve performance and availability of services by responding to events when they occur and reporting on actual events and patterns of events to determine if there is some aspect of the infrastructure design or operation that can be improved. o Configuration Management is able to use events to determine the current status of any CI in the infrastructure. Comparing events with the authorized baselines in the CMS will help to determine whether there is unauthorized Change activity taking place in the organization. o Asset Management can use Event Management to determine the lifecycle status of assets. o Events can be a rich source of information that can be processed for inclusion in Knowledge Management systems. o Event Management can play an important role in ensuring that potential impact on SLA’s is detected early and any failures are rectified as soon as possible so that impact on service targets is minimized. 13.1.4 Metrics o # of events by category and significance o # and % of events that required human intervention and whether this was performed o # and % of events that resulted in incidents and changes o # and % of events caused by existing problems and known errors o # and % of repeated or duplicated events o # and % of events indicating performance issues and potential availability issues o # and % of each type of event per platform or application o # and ratio of events compared with the number of incidents.

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13.1.5 Challenges o Initial challenge could be obtaining funding for necessary tools and effort required to install and exploit the benefits of the tools. o Setting the correct level of filtering. o Rolling out necessary monitoring agents across the entire IT infrastructure can be difficult and time consuming – requires ongoing commitment. o Acquiring the necessary skills can be time consuming and costly. 13.1.6 Critical Success Factors o There are 3 keys to correct filtering: 1. Integrate Event Management into all processes 2. Design new service with Event Management in mind 3. Trial and Error o Integrate Event Management into all processes where feasible. This will ensure that only the events significant to these processes are reported. o Design new service with Event Management in mind. o Trial and Error. No matter how thoroughly Event Management is prepared, there will be classes of events that are not properly filtered. Event Management must therefore include a formal process to evaluate the effectiveness of filtering. 13.1.7 o o o

Risks: Failure to obtain adequate funding Ensuring the correct level of filtering Failure to maintain momentum in rolling out the necessary monitoring agents across the IT infrastructure.

13.1.8 o o o o

Designing for Event management Instrumentation Error messaging Event detection & Alert mechanisms Identification of thresholds

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13.2 Key Terms An event can be defined as a change of state that has significance for the management of a Configuration Item (including IT Services). This can be detected by technical staff or be automated alerts or notifications created by CI monitoring tools. Alert: A warning that a threshold has been reached or something has been changed (An event has occurred). Trigger: An indication that some action or response to an Event may be needed.

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14 Incident Management 14.1.1 Objective: To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability is maintained. 14.2 Basic Concepts 14.2.1 Incident Management – Business Value o Ability to detect and resolve incidents, which results in lower downtime to the business, which in turn means higher availability of the service. This means that the business is able to exploit the functionality of the service as designed o Ability to align IT activity to real-time business priorities. This is because Incident Management includes the capability to identify business priorities and dynamically allocate resources as necessary. o Ability to identify potential improvements to services. This happens as a result of understanding what constitutes an incident and also from being in contact with the activities of business operational staff. o The Service Desk can, during its handling of incidents, identify additional service or training requirements found in IT or the business. 14.2.2 o o o o o o

Activities Ownership, Monitoring, Tracking and Communication Incident identification/logging Categorization and initial support, prioritisation Investigation and diagnosis Resolution and recovery Incident closure

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14.2.3 o o o o o o

Interfaces Problem Management Configuration Management Change Management Capacity Management Availability Management Service Level Management

14.2.4 o o o o o o o o o o o o

Metrics # of Incidents (as a control measure) Breakdown of incidents at each stage Size of current incident backlog # and % of major incidents Mean elapsed time to achieve incident resolution % of incidents handled with agreed response time Average cost per incident # of incidents reopened and as a % of the total # and % of incidents incorrectly assigned # and % incidents incorrectly categorized % of incidents closed by Service Desk with no other reference # and % of incidents handled per Service Desk agent

14.2.5 Challenges o The ability to detect incidents as early as possible o Convincing all staff that all incidents must be logged o Availability of information about problems and Known Errors o Integration into the CMS to determine relationships o Integration into the SLM process

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14.2.6 Critical Success Factors o A good service desk is key to successful Incident Management o Clearly defined targets to work to – as defined in SLA’s o Adequate customer-orientated/technically trained support staff with the correct skill levels, at all stages of the process. o Integrated support tools to drive and control the process o OLA’s and UC’s that are capable of influencing and shaping the correct behavior of all support staff 14.2.7 Risks o Being inundated with incidents that cannot be handled within acceptable timescales due to a lack of available or properly trained resources. o Incidents being bogged down or not progressed as intended because of inadequate support tools to raise alerts and prompt progress o Lack of adequate and/or timely information sources because of inadequate tools or lack of integration. o Mismatches in objectives or actions because of poorly aligned or non-existent OLA’s and/or UC’s. 14.2.8 Incident Model:

•The steps that should be taken to handle the incident •The chronological order these steps should be taken in, with any dependencies or co-processing defined •Responsibilities; who should do what •Timescales and thresholds for completion of actions •Escalation procedures; who should be contacted and when •Any necessary evidence-preservation activities.

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14.2.9 Major Incident o The highest category or impact for an incident, a major incident results in significant disruption to the business. o A Major Incident can sometimes be confused with a Problem. o An Incident remains an Incident forever regardless of impact or priority. A problem is the underlying cause of one or more incidents and remains a separate entity o A separate procedure, with shorter timescales and greater urgency, must be used for ‘major’ incidents. A definition of what constitutes a major incident must be agreed and ideally mapped on to the overall incident prioritization system – such that they will be dealt with through the major incident process. o If the Incident Manager is also performing the role of the Service Desk Manager, then there should be a separate member of staff allocated to lead the major incident investigation team – they will report back to the Incident Manager. o If the cause of the Major Incident needs to be investigated at the same time, the Problem Manager will have to be involved. However, it is the Incident Manager that has to ensure that service restoration and underlying cause are kept separate. o The Service Desk will ensure that all activities are recorded and that users are kept fully informed of progress. 14.3 Key Terms Incident: 1. An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service. 2. Failure of a CI that has not yet affected service is also an incident. Service Request: A request by a user for information, advice or for a standard change or for access to an IT service.

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15 Problem Management 15.1.1 Objective: o Prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening, to eliminate recurring incidents and to minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented. 15.2 Basic Concepts

15.2.1 o o o o

Problem Management – Business Value Higher availability of IT services Higher productivity of business and IT staff Reduced expenditure on workarounds or fixes that do not work Reduction in cost of effort in fire-fighting or resolving repeat incidents.

15.2.2 o o o o o o o o

Reactive Activities Problem detection and logging Problem categorization and prioritisation Problem investigation and diagnosis Workarounds and raising known error record Problem resolution and closure Tracking and monitoring Major problem review Errors detected

15.2.3 o o o

Proactive Activities Major Problem Review Trend Analysis Targeting preventive action

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15.2.4 o o o o o o o o

Interfaces Change Management Service Asset & Configuration Management Release & Deployment Management Availability Management Capacity Management IT Service Continuity Management Service Level Management Financial Management

15.2.5 o o o o o o o o o o

Metrics Total # of problems recorded in the period % of problems resolves within SLA targets # and % of problems that exceed their resolution times Backlog of outstanding problems and the trend Average cost of handling problem # of major problems (opened/closed) % of Major Problem Reviews successfully performed # of Known Errors added to the KEDB % accuracy of the KEDB % of Major Problem Reviews completed successfully and on time.

15.2.6 Challenges and Critical Success Factors o A major dependency for Problem Management is the establishment of an effective Incident Management process and tools. o This will ensure that problems are identified ASAP and as much work is done on pre-qualification as possible. It is also critical that two or more processes have formal interfaces and common working practices.

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15.3 Key Terms Incident: Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes, or may cause an interruption to, or a reduction in the quality of that service. A failure of a CI that has not yet affected service is also classified as an incident. Problem: Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents (The investigation) Known Error: Known underlying cause. Successful diagnosis of the root cause of a Problem, and a workaround or permanent solution has been identified KEDB: Known Error Database Workaround: Used to restore agreed service operation, as quickly as possible.

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16 Request Fulfillment Objectives: o Providing a channel for users to request and receive standard services for which a pre-defined approval and qualification process exists. o Providing information to users and customers about the availability of services and the procedure for obtaining them. o Source and deliver the components of requested standard services. o Assist with general information, complaints or comments. 16.1 Basic Concepts:

16.1.1 Request Fulfilment – Business Value: o Provide quick and effective access to standard services, which business staff can use to improve their productivity, for the quality of business services and products. o Request Fulfilment effectively reduces the bureaucracy involved in requesting and receiving access to existing or new services, therefore also reducing the cost of providing these services. 16.1.2 o o o o o

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Activities: Menu Selection Financial Approval ‘Other’ Approval Fulfilment Closure

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16.1.3 Interfaces: o Service Desk o Incident Management o Service Desk/Incident Management – many Service Requests may come in via the Service Desk and may be initially handled through the Incident Management process. Some organizations may choose that all requests are handled via this route – but others may choose to have a separate process. o Release & Deployment Management o Service Asset & Configuration Management o Release & Deployment Management/Service Asset & Configuration Management – as some requests will be for the deployment of new or upgraded components that can be automatically deployed. In such cases the ‘release’ can be pre-defined, built and tested but only deployed upon request by those who want the ‘release’. Upon deployment, the CMS will have to be updated to reflect the change. Where appropriate, software license checks/updates will also be necessary. 16.1.4 o o o o o o o

Metrics: Total # of Service Requests (as a control measure) Breakdown of service requests at each stage Size of current backlog for outstanding Service Requests # and % of Service Requests completed within agreed target times Mean elapsed time for handling each type of service request Average cost per type of Service Request Level of client satisfaction with the handling of Service Requests

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16.1.5 Challenges: o Clearly defining and documenting the type of requests that will be handled – so all parties are clear on the scope. o

Establishing self-help front-end capabilities that allow users to interface successfully with the Request Fulfillment process.

16.2 Key Terms: A Service Request is: o A request for information or advice o A request for a standard change o A request for access to an IT Service o NOT related to a loss of service (i.e. incident) o NOT a normal change

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17 Access Management Objective: o Access Management helps to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of assets, therefore it is the execution of policies and actions defined in Security and Availability Management. 17.1 Basic Concepts:

17.1.1 o o o o o o

Asset Management – Business Value Controlled access to services Employees have the right level of access Less likelihood of errors in data entry Ability to audit Ability to easily revoke access rights Maybe needed for regulatory compliance

17.1.2 o o o o o o

Activities Requesting access Verification Providing rights Monitoring identity status Logging and tracking access Removing or restricting rights

17.1.3 o o o o o

Interfaces HR Information Security Management Change Management SLM Configuration Management

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17.1.4 Metrics o # of requests for access (e.g. Service Requests, RFC’s) o Instances of access granted, by service, user and department etc o Instances of access granted by department or individual granting rights o # of incidents requiring a reset/modification of access rights o # of incidents caused by incorrect access settings 17.1.5 Challenges and Critical Success Factors o Verify the identity of users o Verify the identity of the approving person or body o Verify that a user qualifies for access to a specific service o Link multiple access rights to a user o Determine status of a user at any time o Manage changes to a user’s access requirements o Restrict access rights to unauthorized users o Develop and maintain a database of all users and the rights they have been granted.

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17.2 Key Terms Access: refers to the level and extent of a service’s functionality or data that a user is entitled to use. Identity: refers to the information about them that distinguishes them as an individual and which verifies their status within the organization. By definition, the identity of the user is unique to that user. Rights: (also called privileges) refer to the actual settings whereby a user is provided access to a service or group of services. Typical rights, or levels of access, include read, write, execute, change, delete. Services or service groups: Most users do not use only one service, and users performing a similar set of activities will use a similar set of services. Instead of providing access to each service for each user separately, it is more efficient to be able to grant each user access to a whole set of services that they are entitled to use at the same time. Directory of services: refers to a specific type of tool that is used to manage access and rights.

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18 Service Desk Function 18.1.1 Objective: The primary aim of the Service Desk is to restore the ‘normal service’ to the user ASAP. In this context ‘restoration of service’ is meant in the widest possible sense as it includes any action that is required to allow users to return to working satisfactorily.

18.2 Basic Concepts Role: The Service Desk is a vitally important part of an organizations IT Department and should be the single point of contact for IT users on a day-to-day basis. The Service Desk will handle all incidents and service requests usually using specialist software tools to log and manage such events 18.2.1 Service Desk – Business Value o Improved customer service, perception and satisfaction o Increased accessibility through a single point of contact, communication and information o Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user requests o Improved teamwork and communication o Enhanced focus and proactive approach to service provision o Reduced negative business impact o Better managed infrastructure and control o Improved usage of IT Support resources and increased productivity of business personnel o More meaningful management information for decision support

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18.2.2 o o o o

Service Desk Organizational Structures Local Service Desk Centralized Service Desk Virtual Service Desk Follow the sun

18.2.3 Staffing o Staffing levels o An organization must ensure that the correct number of staff are available at any given time to match the demand being placed on the desk by the business. o A number of tools are available to help determine the appropriate number of staff for the Service Desk o Skill Levels o An organization must decide on the level and range of skills it requires of the Service Desk staff – and then ensure that the skills are available at the appropriate times. o The decision on the required skills level will often be driven by target resolution times, the complexity of the systems supported and ‘what the business is prepared to pay for o Training o Investment should also be made in the professional development of Service Desk staff. o Internal mentoring and shadowing 2nd and 3rd level support staff is a good start, but best of breed Service Desks benefit from a formalized program of staff development. o Staff Retention o IT Managers must recognize the importance of the Service Desk and the staff who work on it, and give this special attention. Any significant loss of staff can be disruptive and lead to inconsistency of service. o

Super Users o Many organizations find it useful to appoint or designate a number of ‘Super Users’ throughout the user community, to act as liaison points with IT in general and the Service Desk in particular.

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18.2.4 o o o o o o o

Metrics First-line resolution rate % of calls resolved by Service Desk staff Average time to resolve incident Average time to escalate an incident Average Service Desk cost of handling incident % of customer/user updates conducted within target times. Average time to review and close a resolved call

18.2.5 Outsourcing Service Desk o Decisions to outsource are a strategic issue for senior managers. Many of the guidelines are not unique to the Service Desk and can be applied to any function, support area or service being outsourced (or out-tasked). o There are some safeguards that are needed, to ensure that the outsourced Service Desk works effectively and efficiently with the organization’s other IT teams and departments, and that end-to end Service Management control is maintained (particularly important if seeking ISO/IEC 20000 certification). o The lines of communication between the outsourced Service Desk and the other support groups need to work very effectively o Outsourcing companies who offer off-shore Service Desk solutions should take the following into account: o Training programs o Language skills o Regular visits by representatives o Training in the use of the customer organization tools and methods of work. o Clear ownership of the data collected by the outsourced Service Desk must be established

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19 Technical Management Function 19.1.1 Objective: o Helps plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to support the organization’s business processes through: o The use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition o Swift use of technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur. 19.2 Basic Concepts

19.2.1 Role: o Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT Infrastructure. o Provides detailed technical skills and resources needed to support the ongoing operation of the IT Infrastructure. o Plays an important role in providing the actual resources to support the IT Service Management lifecycle. o Ensures resources are effectively trained and deployed to design, build, transition, operate and improve the technology to deliver and support IT Services. 19.2.2 Activities o Specialist Technical Architects and Designers o Specialist Maintenance and Support Staff 19.2.3 Organization o The primary criteria of Technical Management organizational structure is that of specialization or division of labor. o The principle is that people are grouped according to their technical skills sets that are determined by the technology that needs to be managed.

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19.2.4 o o o o o o

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Metrics Measurement of agreed outputs Process metrics Technology performance Mean time between failures of specified equipment Measurement of maintenance activity Training and skills development.

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20 IT Operations Management Function 20.1.1 Objective: o Maintenance of the ‘status quo’ to achieve stability of the organizations day to day processes and activities o Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs, whilst maintaining stability o Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur.

20.2 Basic Concepts

20.2.1 Role: o To perform the daily operational activities needed to manage the IT Infrastructure. This is done according to the performance standards defined during Service Design. o In many ways, the function performs many of the logistical activities required for the effective and efficient delivery and support of services. (e.g. Event Management) 20.2.2 Sub Functions o IT Operations Control: o generally staffed by shifts of operators and which ensures that routine operational tasks are carried out. Also provides centralized monitoring and control activities, usually using an Operations Bridge or Network Operations Centre. IT Operations Control is the primary function responsible for monitoring Events.

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o

Facilities Management: o management of the physical IT environment, usually data centers or computer rooms. In some organizations many physical components have been outsourced and Facilities Management may include the management of the outsourcing contracts.

20.2.3 Organization o IT Operations Management is a function in its own right but, in many cases, staff from Technical and Applications Management form part of this function. o These staff will manage and execute their own operational activities. Others will delegate these activities to a dedicated IT Operations department. 20.2.4 o o o o o o

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Metrics Successful completion of scheduled jobs # of exceptions to scheduled activities and jobs # of data or systems restores required Equipment installation statistics Process metrics Maintenance activities

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21 Application Management Function 21.1.1 Objective: o In many organizations Applications Management departments have staff that perform daily operations for those applications. o As with Technical Management, these staff logically form part of the IT Operations Management Function. 21.2 Basic Concepts

21.2.1 Role o Managing Applications throughout their lifecycle. o Supports and maintain operational applications, plays an important role in design, testing and improvement of applications that form part of IT Services. o Support the organization’s business processes by helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for application software. o Assist in the design and deployment of those applications. o Provide ongoing support and improvement of those applications. o Identify skills required to support the applications

21.2.2 Organization o Although Application Management departments perform similar activities, each application or set of applications has a different set of management and operational requirements. o For example: o Purpose o Functionality o Platform o Brand of technology

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21.2.3 o o o o o o

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Metrics Measurement of agreed outputs Process metrics Application Performance Measurement of Maintenance activity Projects Training and skills development.

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22 OSA - Technology and Implementation 22.1 Basic Concepts: 22.1.1 o o o o o o o o o

Integrated ITSM technology: Self-Help Workflow or process engine Integrated CMS Discovery/Deployment/Licensing technology Remote control Diagnostic utilities Reporting Dashboards Integration with Business Service Management

22.1.2 Event Management The following features are desirable for any Event Management technology: o Multi-environmental o Easy to deploy o Standard agents o Open interfaces o Centralized routing o Support for design/test phases o Programmable assessment o Operator acknowledge alert o Reporting functionality

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22.1.3 Incident Management Integrated ITSM technology is required that has the following functionality: o Integral CMS o Process flow engine o Automated alerting o Open interfacing o Web interface o Integrated KEDB o Reporting facilities o Diagnostic tools 22.1.4 Request Fulfilment Integrated ITSM technology is needed so that Service Requests can be linked to incidents or events that have initiated them. o Front-end Self Help capabilities o Pre-defines workflow control o Priority levels o Automated escalation o Effective reporting 22.1.5 Problem Management Integrated ITSM technology is required that has the following functionality: o Differentiates between incidents and problems o Change Management o Integrated CMS o Known Error database o Effective reporting

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22.1.6 Access Management Access Management uses a variety of technologies, for example: o HR Management o Directory Services o Access Management features o Change Management systems o Request Fulfilment 22.1.7 Service Desk Adequate tools and technology support should be provided to enable Service Desk staff to perform their roles as efficiently and effectively as possible. Including: o Telephony o Support tools - KEDB - Diagnostic scripts - Self Help Web Interface - Remote control o IT Service Continuity Planning for ITSM support tools 22.1.8 Service Management Tools Tools will: o Enable Service Design processes to work more effectively. o Increase efficiency and effectiveness o Provide a wealth of management information o Identify weak areas o Cost savings o Increased productivity o Increase in quality of IT service provision

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22.1.9 o o o o o o o o

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Tool Evaluation: Requirements Identify Products Selection criteria Evaluate products Short listing Scoring Rank products Select product

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23 Service Operation 23.1.1 o o o

o o o o o o o o o o o 23.1.2 o o o o

Activities Managing Technology Monitoring and Control IT Operations o Console Mgt, Operations Bridge o Job scheduling o Backup and Restore o Print & Output Mainframe Mgt Service Mgt and Support Network Mgt Storage and Archive Database administration Directory and service Mgt Desktop support Middleware Mgt Internet/web Mgt Facilities and Data Center Mgt Improvement of operational activities Plan and implement Service Management Managing Change in Service Operation Project Mgt Risk assessment and Mgt Staffing

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23.1.3 o o o o o o o

OSA – Challenges Service Design make focus on one service at a time Service Design will often be conducted in projects Unrealistic metrics laid out in Service Design Ineffective Service Transition Measurements Virtual teams Balancing relationships

23.1.4 OSA – Critical Success Factors o Management support o Business support o Champions o Staffing and retention o Service management training o Suitable tools o Validity of testing o Measurement and reporting 23.1.5 o o o o o o o o o

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OSA – Risks Service Loss Inadequate funding and resources Loss of momentum Loss of key personnel Resistance to change Lack of management support Faulty design Lack of support Differing customer expectations

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24 Practice Exam 24.1 Refresher “Warm up Questions” The following multiple choice questions are a refresher from the Foundation level as a prelude. Question 1 Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of Event Management? a) To detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control action b) To monitor interactions and exceptions within the infrastructure c) To monitor and control the activities of technical staff d) To detect and escalate exceptions to normal service operation Question 2 Functions are best described as? a) b) c) d)

Self-Contained units of organizations Inter-related activities with a defined goal or output Closed loop control systems A team of IT staff who provide a single point of contact for all user communication

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Question 3 Technical Management is NOT responsible for? a) Maintenance of the technical Infrastructure b) Documenting and maintaining the technical skills required to manage and support the IT Infrastructure c) Defining the Operational Level Agreements for the various technical teams d) Diagnosis of, and recovery from, technical failures Question 4 What is the difference between a Known Error and a Problem? a) The underlying cause of a Known Error is known. The underlying cause of a Problem is not known b) A Known Error involves an error in the IT infrastructure, A Problem does not involve such an error. c) A Known Error always originates from an Incident. This is not always the case with a Problem d) With a Problem, the relevant Configuration Items have been identified. This is not the case with a Known Error. Question 5 There have been multiple incidents recorded by the Service Desk. It appears that the network is congested due to multiple connections. What kind of actions should the Service Desk analyst take in this instance? a) They should ask the Capacity Manager to expand the capacity of the network b) They should ask the Problem Manager to look into the problem right away c) They should ask the Security Manager to check whether too many authorizations may have been issued. d) They should ask the Service Level Manager to revise the Service Level Agreements (SLA) with a decreased availability target

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Question 6 What is the best definition of an Incident Model? a) A type of incident involving an authorized Configuration Item (CI) b) The template used by Service Desk analysts to record incidents c) A set of pre-defined steps to be followed when dealing with a known type of incident d) An Incident that is easy is solved at first contact Question 7 Which ITIL process ensures that the IT Services are restored as soon as possible in the case of a malfunction? a) b) c) d)

Change Management Incident Management Problem Management. Service Level Management

Question 8 Operations Control refers to? a) The managers of the Event and Access Management Processes b) Overseeing the monitoring and escalating of IT operational events and activities c) The tools used to monitor the status of the IT Network d) The situation where the Service Desk manager is required to monitor the status of the infrastructure when Service Desk Operators are not available

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Question 9 Which of the following is NOT an example of a Service Request? a) A user calls the Service Desk to order a toner cartridge b) A user calls the Service Desk because they would like to change the functionality of an application. c) A Manager submits a request for a new employee to be given access to an application d) A user logs onto an internal web site to download a licensed copy of software from a list of approved options Question 10 Which of the following is NOT an objective of Service Operation? a) Thorough testing, to ensure that services are designed to meet business needs b) To deliver and support IT Services c) To manage the technology used to deliver services d) To monitor the performance of technology and processes

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24.2 Intermediate Style Practice Exam As stated at the beginning of the book, the exam is comprised of 8 scenario based multiple-choice questions (though not all exam questions contain a scenario followed by a question). The following practice exam contains 16 questions for you to complete. In the official exam, all scenarios are provided first, then the questions. To make it easier to follow due to the number of questions, we have set it out with scenario followed by question. Scenario 1 Brewster’s is a toy factory that has been in business for 30 years. The company started with a small family run shop and has grown consistently over the years. They are now supplying toy stores nationwide and are considered to be the primary supplier of children’s collectable novelty erasers. Brewster’s IT department is relatively small (currently 15 staff) but efficient. They have recently employed an IT Manager in an attempt to improve the management of the infrastructure, as well as more effective use of resources and identification of areas for improvement. The Brewster’s management teams do not have a lot of IT knowledge. The newly appointed IT Manager is very ITIL focused and wants to implement as many ITSM processes as is appropriate – there are currently no formal processes in place. On starting with the company the IT Manager completed an internal assessment of the IT infrastructure – including staff skills analysis, and collated the results from customer satisfaction surveys completed over the last 5 years. The main areas of concern are as follows: Responses from customer satisfaction survey: Overall a consistent satisfaction level. However, responses completed during the past 12 months show an increase in customers who were unsatisfied with call waiting times when contacting the service desk for help with online orders and requests for information. Customers added the following additional comments: Copyright The Art of Service

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1. “Never get to speak to the same person twice when dealing with an Incident number, had to call several times to receive follow up on progress” 2. “Some of the Service Desk staff seem under qualified to deal with my questions about new applications/incidents/service requests” Results from Staff Skills Analysis: Staff, in general, have a good knowledge of IT systems and a basic understanding of the business processes and objectives. However, staff are not well informed of upcoming releases of new or changed services and not given adequate information to relay to the customers. Staff added the following additional comments: 1. “Communication between Service Operation departments has become inefficient - there are meetings for the sake of meetings, but the important information we need to know to do our day to day jobs is lacking” 2. “I still don’t know what half of the people do, that work in the IT department!” Results from General IT Infrastructure assessment: Lack of event monitoring and planning Lack of input from Operational Support departments into Service Design Lack of skill and information sharing across the Operational Support teams with regards to Incident, Problem, Workarounds and Known Error data. Little to no proactive activities being carried out.

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Question 1 (refer to scenario 1) Which of the following options would be most suitable to address the issues identified from the Customer Satisfaction Survey?

a) You decide that the first two ITSM processes that need to be implemented are Incident Management and Request Fulfillment. As this will enable formal management and coordination of the Service Desk, and ensure that Incidents and Service Requests are dealt with accordingly, enabling separate logging and monitoring and faster call response times Send a formal memo to all customers, introducing yourself and your new role, thanking them for their valuable feedback and addressing the issues raised in the survey results and how you intend to resolve them b) You decide that the first two ITSM processes that need to be implemented are Incident Management and Request Fulfillment. As this will enable formal management and coordination of the Service Desk, and ensure that Incidents and Service Requests are dealt with accordingly, enabling separate logging and monitoring and faster call response times. In addition, you will ensure that the new Incident Manager will ensure the Service Desk is the single point of contact, as a first priority. This needs to be the focus over the next quarter to ensure that this policy is adopted ASAP, you will suggest reward options to ensure that staff and end users are in no doubt that this is an essential requirement supported by senior management. Send a formal memo to all customers, introducing yourself and your new role. Thanking them for their valuable feedback and addressing the issues raised in the survey results and how you intend to resolve them.

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c) The results of this initial assessment are better than you had expected, you do not see any need to change things yet. You are not concerned with the additional comments as the general feedback is that customers are satisfied with the end to end service and that a 100% satisfaction is unrealistic. You will suggest to the Business that more staff is required for the Service Desk to ensure that call waiting times are reduced and that a more detailed and selective criteria is used as part of the selection process to ensure staff are at the correct skill level and competency

d) The results of this initial assessment are better than you had expected, you do not see any need to change things yet. . You will suggest to the Business that it will be beneficial to complete another initial assessment in one year, after the next Customer Satisfaction Survey is completed, to compare the satisfaction levels and, if required, identify areas for improvement at that stage

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Question 2 (refer to scenario 1) Which of the following options would be the most effective option to address the issues identified from the Staff Skills Analysis? a) Organize a meeting with the managers of each IT department and form a Communication Plan. This plan will include all agreed methods, reasons and a list of personnel to be included for communications within the Operation departments. This plan will then be distributed to all staff, with a memo that will include; o A photograph of each IT staff member with job title o Brief Job Description and explanation of their day to day activities In addition, make a proposal to the Business that a Release and Deployment Manager is needed, this role will not only take on the responsibility of implementing a formal Release and Deployment process but will, manage the build, test and deployment departments and will also ensure that there is a consistent communication route to the service desk on up coming releases and organizing training/knowledge updates and consultation with service desk staff on new or changed services.

b) Organize a meeting with the managers of each IT department and form a Communication Plan. This plan will include all agreed methods, reasons and a list of personnel to be included for communications within the Operation departments. This plan will then be distributed to all staff, with a memo that will include; o A photograph of each IT staff member with job title o Brief Job Description and explanation of their day to day activities In addition, ask for the service desk to be sent copies of the release schedule so they are informed of upcoming releases

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c) Recommend to the Business that a new staff training program needs to be implemented that will include one service desk member per week shadowing a member of staff in each of the Business Process areas to learn how they do things and what the business objectives are. In addition, request a weekly update from the build, test and deployment areas on any upcoming releases, including any relevant information that will enable the service desk staff to provide a better service to the customer d) No immediate action required. You will work on a new training and communication policy that will formalize the process of communication and knowledge transfer between departments. You will also recommend that the first ITSM process to be implemented with be a formalized Incident Management process to ensure that effective measurements and analysis is taking place and that there is monitoring of staff competency and skill.

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Question 3 (refer to scenario 1) Which of the following options would be the most effective option to address the issues identified from the General IT Infrastructure assessment? a) You decide to recommend implementation of the Event Management process to formalize the event monitoring, planning and overall management. Ensure that there is resource sharing between the Service Design teams and the Operational Support teams as their input is necessary to ensure services are designed that will work efficiently in the live environment. In addition, implement the Problem Management process – at the same time, to ensure there are both reactive and proactive activities taking place with regards to Problems, a knowledge bank of information including known errors, workarounds, problems and incident records is produced and maintained b) You are not concerned with the lack of skill sharing between the Operational Support departments and Service Design as they are two separate entities of the Service Lifecycle with their own objectives. You are concerned, however, with the lack of skill sharing between the Operational Support teams and decide to formalize the 1st, 2nd and 3rd lines of support and recommend the adoption of a database that will incorporate all Incident records, Problem records, Known Error records, Workarounds and Event information, so that all staff can have access to and use this information c) You are not concerned with the lack of skill sharing between the Operational Support departments and Service Design as they are two separate entities of the Service Lifecycle with their own objectives. You are concerned, however, with the lack of Event monitoring and planning and foresee this as being a potential major issue. You decide to recommend implementation of the Event Management process to formalize the event monitoring, planning and overall management. Ensure that there is resource sharing between the Service Design teams and Copyright The Art of Service

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the Operational Support teams as their input is necessary to ensure services are designed that will work efficiently in the live environment d) Implement the Problem Management process, to ensure there are both reactive and proactive activities taking place with regards to Problems, a knowledge bank of information including known errors, workarounds, problems and incident records is produced and maintained. Once this process is established, working efficiently and staff have become more accustomed to this new way of working, use this success to recommend the implementation of the Event Management process

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Question 4 (refer to scenario 1)

Through further investigation you identify that there is no formal means of collecting data to identify service improvement, other than customer surveys. These are very subjective and do not give a balanced picture regarding quality of service. Through discussions with the Continual Service Improvement Manager, you decide to start collecting a range of metrics to help identify service improvements. Which metrics would be relevant to Service Desk

a) o o o o o o

% of calls resolved by Service Desk average time to identify incident average time to escalate incident % of user updates conducted within target times customer feedback average Service Desk cost of handling incident

o o o o o o

% of calls resolved by Service Desk average time to resolve incident average time to escalate incident % of customer updates conducted within target times customer feedback average Service Desk cost of handling incident

o o o o o

% of calls answered by Service Desk average time to escalate incident % of customer updates conducted within Service Desk hours customer feedback average cost of handling incident

o o o

% of calls answered by Service Desk average time to resolve problems average time to escalate problem

b)

c)

d)

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o o o

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% of customer updates conducted within Service Desk times customer feedback average cost of handling problem

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Scenario 2 NEB is a financial management company that specializes in lending money for substantial property investments. They have a large IT department that is currently using the following ITSM processes:  Service Level Management  Availability Management  IT Service Continuity Management  Information Security Management  Incident Management  Problem Management. Each of these processes have been implemented within the planned target time and are working effectively and efficiently. Staff have adapted to the changes in a very positive manner and see the benefits of using the ITIL framework. Last Saturday, there was a security breach. A previous member of staff, who has left the company and joined a competitor organization, has been able to gain access to several client lending files. After initial investigation, it was found that access was not terminated when the staff member left the company – this has highlighted that there are insufficient processes in place to ensure access rights are terminated when staff leave the company, change roles etc and there is ongoing investigation to see how many other previous staff still have access to the system.

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Question 5 (refer to scenario 2) The business has requested immediate recommendations from the IT Manager, as to what can be done to ensure this situation does not happen again and how best to inform clients, with reference to the security breach. Which of the following options is most suitable to deal with this situation? a) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access Management process as soon as possible. You suggest that as the IT organization has already effectively and efficiently implemented six processes, they will be able to manage a well executed and fast implementation. This process will ensure that access is provided to those who are authorized to have it and will ensure access is restricted to those who are not. With regards to informing clients, you recommend that clients are not told of the situation as you feel it will be too damaging to the NEB reputation and will result in a catastrophic loss of clientele. You suggest that if clients are contacted by the competitor organization, they can not prove that any information has been obtained via NEB files and (as there is now a plan to implement Access Management) NEB can confidently reassure clients that there is ample security and access management in place to ensure this situation could never arise b) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access Management process as soon as possible. You suggest that as the IT organization has already effectively and efficiently implemented six processes, they will be able to manage a well executed and fast implementation. As Access Management is the execution of the policies laid out within the Availability and Information Security Processes, the foundations are already laid. This process will ensure that access is provided to those who are authorized to have it and will ensure access is restricted to those who are not. To ensure alignment between the Business and IT, there will need to be integration with the Human Resources department to ensure there are 66

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consistent communications with regards to staff identity, start and end dates etc. With regards to informing clients of the breach, you suggest that the clients affected by the breach must be informed ASAP. You recommend a formal letter is sent from senior management to reassure clients that the situation is being taken seriously and what actions are taking place to ensure this never happens again. You are aware that this could damage the company’s reputation, as security is a critical success factor, but feel that the specific clients must be informed by NEB ASAP, as there is a high risk they will be approached by the competitor organization c) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access Management process as soon as possible. This process will ensure that access is provided to those who are authorized to have it and will ensure access is restricted to those who are not. With regards to informing clients of the breach, you suggest that only the specifically affected clients are informed of the breach, via a formal letter sent from senior management to reassure clients that the situation is being taken seriously. You suggest that the tone and focus of the letter should emphasize the following points: - there has been a ‘minor’ security breach fault of member of staff, who’s employment has now been terminated - no data has been ‘lost or changed’ - Sufficient action has been taken to ensure this situation does not happen again and NEB would like to assure their clients that there security and continued confidence is of the highest importance.

d) Your first recommendation is to implement the Access Management process as soon as possible. You suggest that as the IT organization has already effectively and efficiently implemented six processes, they will be able to manage a well executed and fast implementation. This process will ensure that access is provided to those who are authorized to have it and will ensure access is Copyright The Art of Service

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restricted to those who are not. With regards to informing clients of the breach, you suggest that all clients need to be informed of the breach and the action being taken to ensure this does not happen again. You are aware that this could damage the company’s reputation, but are concerned that if only the specifically affected clients are informed, word will spread and the entire client base will feel they have been kept out of the loop on such an important issue and further damage to NEB’s reputation will be felt

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Scenario 3 Vericom is a leading provider of government, business and consumer telecommunication services, and is currently seeking ways in which to improve its utilization of IT services to drive growth across its’ multiple lines of business. One of the largest organizations in the United Kingdom, Vericom is comprised of the following business units: • • • • • • • • •

Verinet (providing ADSL, cable, 3GSM, dialup and satellite services) Infrastructure Services (planning, installing and maintaining the PSTN and mobile network infrastructure) VericomTV (Pay TV) Consumer Sales and Marketing (including 400 Vericom retail outlets) Business and Government Finance and Administration Information Technology Services (Shared Service Unit, however some business units also have their own internal service provider) Human Resources Vericom Wholesale (for wholesale of Vericom infrastructure services)

Due to the extensive scope of infrastructure deployed and large employee and customer base, Vericom continues to rely on legacy systems for some critical IT services; however this is seen as a barrier to future organizational growth and scalability of services offered. The CIO of Vericom has also raised the concern that while improvements to the technology utilized is important, this also needs to be supported by quality IT Service Management practices employed by the various IT departments. The project of improving the IT Service Management practices employed by Vericom has been outsourced to external consultants who are aware of the major IT refresh that is going to be occurring over the next 24 months.

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Question 6 (refer to scenario 3) As part of the major refresh of IT systems, it has been agreed that the existing ITIL processes of Incident and Problem Management are not performing adequately. Recent surveys indicate that: • • • •

A high percentage of incidents are being escalated to secondline support staff There is inconsistency in the knowledge captured for diagnosing and resolving incidents and problems Problem Management is predominantly reactive and typically only executed when a large volume of incidents are identified to be of a common root cause There is little handover of knowledge (including documentation of Known Errors) for many releases deployed, creating significant workloads for the support groups in the weeks following deployment.

Which of the following responses BEST represents the way in which you would seek to improve the situation?

b)

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a) You understand the need to review current practices, so you compare current practices against those described in the ITIL volume of Service Operation. You perform a gap analysis, and realize most of the issues relate to inadequate knowledge capture and sharing. You focus on improving this by: • Reviewing the tools and systems used, and develop a business case for acquiring new Knowledge Management Software to be used by the IT division. • Creating rules for the escalation of incident and problems so that higher level support groups are not overloaded • Improving the level of documentation and knowledge capture by running incentive programs rewarding staff for the number of contributions made to the knowledgebase • Conducting training on how to use the refreshed Incident and Problem Management processes. • Developing performance metrics to be reviewed for Incident and Problem Management You communicate the need to review the situation, inviting various stakeholders from the IT departments and other

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business units to discuss the issues at hand. Your main concern is the lack of communication between various IT groups, so to improve this you focus on: • Improving the Release Policy to be adhered to by the various Release & Deployment teams, stating the documentation and knowledge transfer requirements for the different types of releases performed. • Developing guidelines, procedures and associated incentives for the capture of knowledge relating to incidents, problems and general service requests. • Conducting training and awareness sessions on the requirements for documentation and knowledge capture. • Rotating developers and second line staff through the Service Desk every three months • Develop consistency in the Early Life Support provided by design/specialist staff for major releases • Improving the interfaces between Incident and Problem Management, particularly those around escalation and problem detection. • Scheduling regular Proactive Problem Management reviews, which will look at trends in incidents and problems, and to identify vulnerable infrastructure components. • Developing metrics that will be used to evaluate the value and performance of the Incident and Problem Management processes. c) You understand the need for compliance to the defined processes, as currently many staff do not follow prescribed guidelines and procedures. Your efforts focus on improving compliance to the Incident and Problem Management processes by: • Auditing the processes, seeking where exceptions to defined procedures occur • Running awareness sessions to communicate the value and importance of the processes in place • Modifying existing systems and tools so that improve compliance to existing processes • Evaluating which groups are underperforming to identify any training that needs to occur

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• •

Tying staff remuneration to their utilization of defined processes, rewarding groups that meet all performance metrics defined Assigning responsibility to skilled Service Desk analysts for dedicated Early Life Support for major releases.

d) You communicate the need to understand more about the current issues, so you invite the Service Desk, Incident, Problem and Release & Deployment managers to a meeting to review the situation. Your main concern is the lack of documentation and knowledge being recorded by various IT groups, so to improve this you focus on: Defining the requirements for knowledge capture and transfer (including Known Errors) so that all communication is improved Improving the tools and systems used for by the various groups for knowledge capture and transfer Creating rules for the escalation of incident and problems so that higher level support groups are not overloaded Develop consistency in the Early Life Support provided by design/specialist staff for major releases Assigning responsibility to the lead infrastructure architect to oversee Proactive Problem Management. Conducting training on how to use the refreshed Incident and Problem Management processes. Rotating Service Desk staff through higher level support teams every three months Developing performance metrics to be reviewed for Incident and Problem Management

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Question 7 (refer to scenario 3) With Vericom being a large organization (approximately 40 000 staff), some of the business units have developed their own internal IT departments to supplement the services provided by the centralized Information Technology Services (ITS) department. This has occurred due to the specialized needs and requirements for technology, specifically Verinet, VericomTV and Consumer Sales and Marketing. While the decision has been made that this organizational structure is to remain in place, there has been identified issues relating to a lack of consistency in IT Service Management processes used by the different departments and unclear boundaries for the responsibilities of the various IT Service Desks. This has resulted in: • •

• •

End users calling the wrong Service Desk, requiring the call to be redirected to the appropriate group Inconsistency in the categorization and classification of service requests, incidents and problems, causing confusion and frustration when there are multiple IT departments involved Known Errors being recorded internally within the various IT departments, which may in fact have a wider impact on the whole organization when these are not visible to everyone Inconsistency in the Service Management systems and tools used for handling service requests, incidents, problems and Known Errors

From the following responses, which BEST represents the approach you would take to overcome the issues described above?

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• • •

a) You realize a coordinated approach is the best method, including: The development of the ITS Service Desk to be the single point of contact for ALL end user (internal) queries. This will be performed over a 6 month period, to take account for any training and transfer of knowledge that needs to occur. This Service Desk will then escalate to the appropriate second line group (from any of the IT departments) as required. Develop consistency across all departments for categories and priority coding systems used for all service requests, incidents and problems. Build or purchase a consistent service management tool that will be used by all IT departments for managing incidents, problems, Known Errors and service requests Holding regular review sessions involving staff from each of the IT departments to discuss current issues, recurring and potential problems future initiatives.

b) You realize a phased approach is the best method, including four phases: • Phase 1 – Build or purchase a service management tool that will be used by all IT departments for managing incidents, problems and service requests • Phase 2 – Standardize the use of ITIL processes used by the ITS department across all IT departments at Vericom • Phase 3 – Deliver training and awareness sessions for staff regarding the importance of the processes and how they should be used. • Phase 4 – Review the success of the project and pass any lessons learnt onto future projects

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c) You realize a coordinated approach is the best method, including: • Developing a telephone system that will route calls to the appropriate Service Desk based on the user’s input. This should also provide the capability for a Service Desk analyst to call them back during peak periods. • Develop consistency in all the categories assigned to service requests, incidents and problems across all IT departments. • Build or purchase a service management tool that will be used by all IT departments for managing incidents, problems, Known Errors and service requests • Hold regular review sessions involving key staff from each of the IT departments to discuss current issues and potential problems.

d) You realize that improving the business awareness of IT is most important, and address the issues by: • Identifying the training requirements of end users to improve their use of IT service • Implement an online Service Catalogue for all IT Services, with self-help capabilities to log and track incidents, problems and service requests • Assist Service Level Management in improving the visibility of the IT organization in general, and identify areas of customer satisfaction that need improving • Build or purchase a service management tool that will be used by all IT departments and end users for managing incidents, problems, Known Errors and service requests

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Question 8 (refer to scenario 3) Discussions have recently been held regarding the performance of the Incident and Problem Management. There has been some confusion among IT managers as to what metrics demonstrate the quality and performance of these two processes. From the options below, which represents the best range of measures for evaluating the success of Incident and Problem Management? a) Incident Management • • • • • • • • •

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Percentage of incidents resolved at first contact The number of incidents recorded due to event correlation Number and percentage of incidents grouped by category Number of incidents incorrectly categorized Improved availability of services Customer satisfaction Number of incidents requiring a reset of access rights Average time second line groups to respond Percentage of calls that bypass first line (Service Desk)

Problem Management • •





• • • •

The number of problems grouped by status Improved delivery of capacity and performance, with fewer capacity related incidents The number of RFCs created by Problem Management The percentage of incidents resolved at first contact The average time to resolve incidents The average time to close problems Improved availability levels Improved detection of system events

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b) Incident Management • • • • • • • • •

Percentage of incidents resolved at first contact The number of incidents recorded due to event correlation Number and percentage of incidents grouped by category Number of incidents incorrectly categorized Customer satisfaction Number of incidents requiring a reset of access rights Average time second line groups to respond Percentage of calls that bypass first line (Service Desk) Resources used for managing incidents (grouped by priority)

Problem Management • • •





• • •

The number of problems grouped by status Improved availability levels The number of RFCs created by Problem Management The percentage of incidents resolved at first contact The average time to perform root cause analysis of problems The average time to resolve incidents The average time to close problems Reduced SLA breaches

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c) Incident Management • •





• • • • •



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The number of problems grouped by status The number of RFCs created by Problem Management The number of workarounds developed for Known Errors and incidents The percentage of incidents resolved at first contact The average time to resolve incidents The average time to close problems Customer satisfaction levels Average costs for solving problems Number and percentage of problems that were resolved within SLA limits The number of major problem reviews conducted

Problem Management • • • • • • • • • • • •

Percentage of incidents resolved at first contact Average call time with no escalation Percentage of incidents resolved within agreed timeframes Average time to resolve incidents Number and percentage of incidents grouped by category Percentage of incidents incorrectly categorized Number of incidents linked to existing problem records Customer satisfaction Average time second line groups to respond Percentage of calls that bypass first line (Service Desk) Cost per incident Resources used for managing incidents (grouped by priority)

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d) Incident Management • • • • • • • • • • • •

Percentage of incidents resolved at first contact Average call time with no escalation Percentage of incidents resolved within agreed timeframes Average time to resolve incidents Number and percentage of incidents grouped by category Percentage of incidents incorrectly categorized Number of incidents linked to existing problem records Customer satisfaction Average time second line groups to respond Percentage of calls that bypass first line (Service Desk) Cost per incident Resources used for managing incidents (grouped by priority)

Problem Management • •





• • • • •



The number of problems grouped by status The number of RFCs created by Problem Management The number of workarounds developed for Known Errors and incidents The percentage of incidents resolved at first contact The average time to resolve incidents The average time to close problems Customer satisfaction levels Average costs for solving problems Number and percentage of problems that were resolved within SLA limits The number of major problem reviews conducted

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Question 9 (refer to scenario 3) The Verinet business unit which provides internet services is currently facing increased competition from other Internet Service Providers seeking to entice Verinet customers away with offerings such as free VOIP (voice over internet protocol) and Naked DSL (unconditioned local loop). To combat this, Verinet wishes to develop a new marketing campaign highlighting the high quality and availability of services offered. Before this occurs, the Service Manager within Verinet (who has previously implemented ITIL in other organizations) had recommended implementing Event Management to assist in the continued ability for providing high quality, highly available internet services to the UK population. She has been faced by some resistance, who believe that it is not required as Capacity, Availability, Incident and Problem Management have already been implemented. Which of the following would be the BEST response to the Veritnet directors in describing the benefits of introducing Event Management to Verinet?

a) The implementation of Event Management to complement existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing the process is directly seen by the following benefits: • Improved speed for Incident and Problem Management for identifying and analyzing the cause and potential effect • Improved ratio of used licenses against paid for licenses • Percentage re-use and redistribution of under-utilized assets and resources • Improved aliment between provided maintenance and business support • Improvement in maintenance scheduling and management for CIs

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b) The implementation of Event Management to complement existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing the process is generally indirect, but would support an enhanced ability to provide high quality and high availability internet services by: • Providing mechanisms for the early detection of incidents and problems before they impact customers • Notify the appropriate staff of status changes or exceptions that so that they can respond quickly • Providing a basis for automated operations, increasing efficiency and allowing human resources within Verinet to be better utilized • Providing improved visibility as to the events and interactions that occur within the IT infrastructure • Providing performance and utilization information and trends that can be used for improved capacity planning and system design

c) The implementation of Event Management to complement existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing the process is generally indirect, but would support an enhanced ability to provide high quality and high availability internet services by: • Providing mechanisms for the early detection of incidents and problems before they impact customers • Developing capabilities for the monitoring of critical components of the IT infrastructure for disruptions or breach of utilization thresholds • Automating the notification of key staff when exception events occur • Providing improved visibility as to the events and interactions that occur within the IT infrastructure • Reducing the time requirements of manual activities performed by IT staff as part of preventative maintenance.

d)

The implementation of Event Management to complement existing ITIL processes within Verinet will have a number of

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• • • • • •

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significant benefits. The value to the business of implementing the process is directly seen by the following benefits: Reduced SLA breaches Reduced times required for diagnosis and root-cause analysis of problems Reducing ratio of high priority incidents Reduced Mean Time to Restore (MTTR) for incidents Improved availability levels Improved delivery of capacity and performance, with fewer capacity related incidents.

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Scenario 4 Vision Media is an international media organization, operating various lines of business including: • Film Production • Television (production and delivery of their own channel in the United States VisionOne) • Print media (including newspapers in 15 countries) • Online Advertising The organization has recently been restructured, and now is comprised of the following companies and departments: • Vision Films (production of movies and television shows) • VisionOne (television channel) • VisionNews (coordinates all of the sub-companies involved in the delivery of printed newspapers, as well as being the centralized source of news information for all company owned media outlets) • VisionNet (managing the online and internet businesses) • Legal Services • Finance and Administration • Human Resources • Information Technology The organization is also actively pursuing growth in the online market, and is currently holding discussions with the leading online news provider about the possible acquisition of their company. This would increase the overall size of Vision Media by around 15%. The Information Technology department acts as a Shared Service Unit, providing IT Services to all of sub-companies and departments, which complement some of the Internal Service Providers that also exist. The director of Information Technology has realized the need to improve the quality of services offered by implementing ITIL, and has decided to do so using a phased approach. Some of the Service Design and Service Transition processes have already been implemented, and they are now planning the implementation of Service Operation. While the IT director does have tentative support from the other directors and CEO, budgets for implementing the Service Operation Copyright The Art of Service

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processes have not been finalized, and still require a business case to be formally submitted.

Question 10 (refer to scenario 4) The IT director is required to submit a business case to the board of directors of Vision Media for the implementation of Service Operation. Which of the following responses is the BEST summary of the benefits of implementing Service Operation (processes and functions), to be included in the business case? a) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital element necessary to enable service quality and reduce the overall expenditure on IT. This is because Service Operation is ultimately where the designs and optimizations introduced by IT are supported, and from an IT perspective where the actual value of IT Service Management is seen. Specific benefits delivered as a result of improved Service Operation includes: • Increased effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery and support • Reduced operational spending on IT • Increased customer and user satisfaction of IT services • Improved availability and performance of agreed IT services Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation is especially important to provide processes for reactively managing a growing end user population and increased scope and complexity in IT infrastructure utilized b) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital element necessary to further improve service quality, and to realize the value of the previous projects already completed (refer Service Design and Service Transition projects). This is because Service Operation is ultimately where the designs and optimizations introduced by IT are executed and measured, and from a business viewpoint where the actual value of IT is seen. Specific benefits delivered as a result of improved Service Operation includes:

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Increased effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery and support • Increased return on investments (ROI) into IT • Increased value on investments (VOI) into IT • Increased customer and user satisfaction of IT services Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation processes is especially important to provide cost-effective capabilities for managing a growing end user population and increased scope and complexity in IT infrastructure utilized c)

As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital element necessary to enable service quality and reduce the overall expenditure on IT. This is because Service Operation is ultimately where the designs and optimizations introduced by IT are deployed, and from a business perspective where the actual value of IT Service Management is seen. Specific benefits delivered as a result of improved Service Operation includes: • Fewer disruptions to agreed IT services • Reduced operational spending on IT • Increased job satisfaction of IT staff • Improved availability and performance of agreed IT services Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation is especially important to provide processes for reactively managing a growing end user population and increased scope and complexity in IT infrastructure utilized. d) As part of the ongoing Service Management initiative within Vision Media, the implementation of Service Operation is a vital element necessary to achieve service quality and support the objectives defined for the IT department. This is because Service Operation is ultimately where the designs and optimizations introduced by IT are supported, and from a business viewpoint where the actual value of IT is seen. Specific benefits delivered as a result of improved Service Operation includes: • Increased effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery and support • Increased return on investments (ROI) into IT • Reduced operational spending on IT Copyright The Art of Service

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• Increased customer and user satisfaction of IT services Given current plans for growth of Vision Media and possible acquisitions, the implementation of Service Operation is especially important to provide cost-effective processes for managing a growing end user population and increased scope and complexity in IT infrastructure utilized.

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Question 11 (refer to scenario 4) There is some confusion as to how the process of Access Management should be designed. In particular, there is debate as to how the process should be integrated into the overall approach of IT Service Management within Vision Media. The IT director has asked for submissions from some of her staff, describing how they think Access Management should be designed. Which of the following submissions describes the most appropriate way in which to design and implement Access Management within Vision Media? a) The design of a quality Access Management process will need to consider the current state of IT Service Management that exists within the IT department, as well as the organizational requirements of Vision Media in general. This will require interfaces to be created with: • Information Security Management: Which is responsible for the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines and procedures, which are then executed by Access Management • Service Level Management: Which is responsible defining the customer requirements for access to IT services • Request Fulfillment: Access Management will often be triggered by Service Requests, taken by the Service Desk or submitted using automated and self-help mechanisms • Change Management: Request for Changes (RFCs) will often involve modification of access rights • Demand Management: Which will provide information as to the patterns of business that will generate requests for access. Outside the scope of IT Service Management, some of the interfaces that will also need to be created are: • Human Resources: So that effective (and automated) communication exists to assist in the creation, modification, removal and audit of access rights. • General: o Direct requests from department managers

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o

Requests for enabling increased access for VIP staff

b) The design of an efficient Access Management process will need to account for the existing IT Service Management processes already implemented within the IT department, as well as the Human Resource requirements of Vision Media in general. This will require interfaces to be created with: • Information Security Management: Which is responsible for the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines and procedures, which are then executed by Access Management • Capacity Management: Which is responsible for the design of systems and infrastructure, which are in turn supported by Access Management • Knowledge Management: Each Knowledge base will require various levels of access to be defined and enforced. • Change Management: Request for Changes (RFCs) will often involve modification of access rights • Demand Management: Which will provide information as to the patterns of business that will generate requests for access. Outside the scope of IT Service Management, some of the interfaces that will also need to be created are: • Legal Services: So that the Legal department can verify the request for access is appropriate and lawful. • General: o Direct requests from department managers o Requests for enabling increased access for VIP staff

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c) It is important that the implementation of Access Management considers a number of key interfaces with existing IT Service Management processes, as well as other business processes, to ensure success and satisfaction of its defined objectives. This includes: • Information Security Management: Which is responsible for the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines and procedures, which are then executed by Access Management • Availability Management: Which is responsible for the design of security systems and infrastructure, which are in turn supported by Access Management • Request Fulfillment: Access Management will often be triggered by Service Requests, taken by the Service Desk or submitted using automated and self-help mechanisms • Change Management: Request for Changes (RFCs) will often involve modification of access rights • Configuration Management: Which can be used to record relationships between users and systems they can access. Outside the scope of IT Service Management, some of the interfaces that will also need to be created are: • Human Resources: So that effective (and automated) communication exists to assist in the creation, modification, removal and audit of access rights. • General: o Direct requests from department managers o Requests for enabling restricted access to contractors and external suppliers d) Access Management will need to be implemented in isolation from existing IT Service Management processes already in place at Vision Media so that its’ integrity can be ensured. The only exception to this is Information Security Management, which is responsible for the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines and procedures. Access Management uses these as formal inputs, which are then executed accordingly

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Question 12 (refer to scenario 4) The IT director is now considering the implementation of the Service Operation functions. However there seems to be overlap between the goals and objectives for each of the functions, which is causing some concern among staff involved in the project. Which of the following responses BEST describes the objectives of the four Service Operation functions?

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a) Service Desk To act as a single point of contact for all user incidents, requests and general communication. • To restore ‘normal service operation’ as quickly as possible in the case of disruption. • To improve user awareness of IT issues and to promote appropriate use of IT services and resources. • To assist the other IT functions by managing user communication and escalating incidents and requests using defined procedures. IT Operations Management • To maintain the ‘status quo’ to achieve stability of the organization’s day to day processes and activities. • To monitor and identify potential improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs, whilst maintaining stability. • To apply swift operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur. • To manage all physical IT environments, usually data centers, computer rooms and recovery sites. •

Technical Management • To design highly resilient, cost effective technical architectures. • To use adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition. • To use technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur. • To ensure resources are effectively trained and deployed to design, build, transition, operate and improve the technology to deliver and support IT Services. Application Management • To deliver new and modified applications that are well designed, interface with existing architectures, are resilient and cost-effective. • To ensure the functionality and performance requirements of the business are delivered in optimal fashion. • To use appropriate skills to maintain optimum availability of applications. • To assist in the decision whether to build or buy software that meets business requirements.

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b) •

• •



Service Desk To act as a single point of contact for all IT incidents, requests, problems and general communication. To restore services as quickly as possible in the case of disruption. To improve user awareness of IT issues and to promote efficient use of IT services and resources. To resolve incidents, problems and service requests using defined processes and procedures.

IT Operations Management • To build highly resilient, cost effective technical architectures. • To use adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition • To use technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur. • To test applications for identifying the potential impact on the production environment. • To contact users to advise when technical problems are resolved.

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Technical Management To maintain the ‘status quo’ to achieve stability of the organization’s IT services. • To identify potential improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs, whilst optimizing stability. • To coordinate swift technical skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur. • To manage all physical IT environments, usually data centers, computer rooms and recovery sites. Application Management • To build new and modified applications that are well designed, interface with existing architectures, are resilient and cost-effective. • To ensure the functionality and usability requirements of the business are delivered in optimal fashion. • To ensure resources are effectively trained and deployed to deliver and support IT Services. • To efficiently respond to failures and diagnose and resolve any disruptions that occur. •

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c) Service Desk To act as a single point of contact for all customer incidents, requests and general communication. • To restore services as quickly as possible in the case of disruption. • To improve user awareness of IT issues and to promote efficient use of IT services and resources. • To assist the other IT functions by managing user communication and resolving incidents and requests using defined procedures. IT Operations Management • To maintain the ‘status quo’ to achieve stability of the organization’s day to day processes and activities. • To identify potential improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs, whilst optimizing stability. • To coordinate swift technical skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur. • To manage all physical IT environments, usually data centers, computer rooms and recovery sites. •

Technical Management • To build highly resilient, cost effective technical architectures. • To use adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition • To use technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur. • To ensure resources are effectively trained and deployed to deliver and support IT Services. • To contact users to advise when technical problems are resolved. Application Management • To build new and modified applications that are well designed, interface with existing architectures, are resilient and cost-effective. • To ensure the functionality and usability requirements of the business are delivered in optimal fashion. • To test applications prior to deployment into the production environment. • To efficiently respond to failures and diagnose and resolve any disruptions that occur.

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d) •

• •



Service Desk To act as a single point of contact for all IT incidents, requests, problems and general communication. To restore services as quickly as possible in the case of disruption. To improve user awareness of IT issues and to promote efficient use of IT services and resources. To resolve incidents, problems and service requests using defined processes and procedures.

IT Operations Management To maintain the ‘status quo’ to achieve stability of the organization’s IT services. • To identify potential improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs, whilst optimizing stability. • To coordinate swift technical skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur. • To manage all physical IT environments, usually data centers, computer rooms and recovery sites. •

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Technical Management • To build highly resilient, cost effective technical architectures. • To use adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition. • To use technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur. • To test applications for identifying the potential impact on the production environment • To contact users to advise when technical problems are resolved. Application Management • To build new and modified applications that are well designed, interface with existing architectures, are resilient and cost-effective. • To ensure the functionality and usability requirements of the business are delivered in optimal fashion. • To ensure resources are effectively trained and deployed to deliver and support IT Services. • To efficiently respond to failures and diagnose and resolve any disruptions that occur.

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Question 13 (refer to scenario 4) Sally Robbins, who had previously managed the IT department’s Service Desk, has now been assigned the role of Incident Manager. To assist in the implementation of the process, Sally has conducted a number of meetings with IT staff, customers, external suppliers and other relevant stakeholders to identify their requirements. Based on these discussions, Sally has created following impact definitions, which will be used in conjunction to the given urgency to determine the appropriate timescales and effort applied for response and resolution to recorded incidents. Urgency High

Med

Low

High

1

2

3

Med

2

3

4

Low

3

4

Priority

Impact

5

Impact Definition: • Low Impact o Affects a single user, preventing them from performing normal work functions o A single, non-critical device or peripheral is unavailable •

Medium Impact o Multiple users are affected, preventing them from performing normal work functions o A regular business function is unavailable to part of a or organizational unit department



High Impact o A vital business function is unavailable to an entire department or company owned organization Major Incident o A vital business function is unavailable to all Vision Media departments and company owned organizations



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Example Incidents: I.

II.

III.

IV.

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The IT manager of Vision Films detects that their dedicated Virtual Private Network linking them to Vision Media’s corporate IT systems has failed. This has prevented users from accessing or modifying any file, document or system maintained by the centralized IT department of Vision Media. The vice-president of the Finance and Administration department reports that her laptop keeps rebooting. She has an important report to complete for the Chief Executive Officer. The president of Vision TV is unable to stream high-definition video from a regional office. He requires the regional office’s WAN connection to be upgraded to a 14.4 M/bit wireless mobile network. A IT staff member is alerted to the failure of systems provided by Human Resources to all other departments and subcompanies to manage payments and leave for Vision Media employees (and those employed by organizations fully owned by Vision Media)

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Which of the following responses provides the correct assignment of impact to the above incidents?

a) I. II. III. IV.

High Impact Medium Impact Not an incident, should be a Request for Change Major Incident

b) I. II. III. IV.

High Impact Low Impact Not an incident, should be a Request for Change Major Incident

c) I. II. III. IV.

Major Incident Medium Impact High Impact Major Incident

d) I. II. III. IV.

High Impact Low Impact Medium Impact Major Incident

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Scenario 5 You are the CIO of a large stockbroking firm, based in Hong Kong. Recently this company has acquired two other major firms in London and New York. Total Company staff now exceeds 800 people. Each Firm currently has their own Service Desk. o o o

Hong Kong has 10 SD staff to 400 employees, with 6 2nd level support staff London has 3 SD staff to 140 employees with 3 2nd level support staff New York has 5 SD staff to 250 employees with 5 2nd level support staff

With this new merger comes new support issues. Complaints are coming in to say that there si an imbalance with ratio of IT support staff to users, Service Desks in London and New York are having trouble knowing and supporting new systems which has resulted in users calling Hong Kong Service Desk. This has resulted in higher resolution times and an inability to get through to the service desk The Business is not happy with the current situation...

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Question 14 (refer to scenario 5)

As CIO, you decide to reorganize the Service Desk structure as a means to address the levels of service. You decide to use a follow the sun Service Desk. Which of the following descriptions to you present to the Business as your solution? a) . By implementing a follow the sun SD, you use current data to determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to support its own location and the expected support levels in other locations. You then ensure that SD staff are trained on all current services. You appoint 2 Super Users per Service Desk to act as a buffer and to assist the users. You set up SD schedule based on usage and work hours b)

By implementing a follow the sun SD, you use current data to determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to support its own location and the expected support levels in other locations. You then ensure that all SD staff are trained on all current services and able to provide an average of 60% 1st line support as a target you appoint 2 Super Users per location to act as a buffer and to assist the users. You set up SD schedule based on usage and work hours

c)

By implementing a follow the sun SD, you will start by investigating if the current infrastructure is capable of supporting a global service desk, including use of VOIP technology (this is possible). You use current data to determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to support its own location and the expected support levels in other locations. You decide to use English as the main language for all support. You then ensure that all SD staff are trained on all current services and able to provide an average of 60% 1st line support as a target you appoint 2 Super Users per location to act as a buffer and to assist the users. You set up SD schedule based on usage and work hours

d)

By implementing a follow the sun SD, location. You decide to keep local languages for SD. You use current data to determine minimum staffing requirements in each location to support its own location. You then ensure that all SD staff are Copyright The Art of Service

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trained on local services and able to provide an average of 60% 1st line support as a target You appoint 2 Super Service Desk Operators per location to act as a buffer and to assist the users.

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Question 15 (refer to scenario 5) You decide to use this opportunity to also implement Access Management and Request Fulfilment. The business is not convinced that this is necessary –as they say that “these are done by Service Desk as part of their daily job”. You decide to present the benefits that each process implementation will bring. Which of the following will you use? a) Request Fulfilment Access Management You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits: process will work well with the o Controlled access to new SD setup as Request services Fulfilment will provide quick and o Employees have the right effective access to standard level of access services, which business staff o Less likelihood of errors in can use to improve their data entry productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke You stress that Request access rights Fulfilment effectively reduces the o Maybe needed for bureaucracy involved in regulatory compliance requesting and receiving access to existing or new services, therefore also reducing the cost of providing these services

b) Request Fulfilment Access Management You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits: process will work well Incident o Controlled access to Management as Request networks Fulfilment will provide quick and o Employees have the right effective access to standard level of access o Less likelihood of errors in services, which business staff can use to improve their data entry productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke You stress that Request access policies Copyright The Art of Service

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Fulfilment effectively reduces the waiting time for requesting and receiving access to existing or new services, therefore also reducing the complaints from users

o

Maybe needed for regulatory compliance

c) Request Fulfilment Access Management You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits: process will work well with the o Controlled access to new SD setup as Request services Fulfilment will provide quick and o Employees have the right effective access to standard level of access services, which business staff o Less likelihood of errors in can use to improve their data entry productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke You stress that Request access rights Fulfilment effectively reduces the o Maybe needed for waiting time for requesting and regulatory compliance receiving access to existing or new services, therefore also reducing the complaints from users

d) Request Fulfilment Access Management You highlight that this new You raise the following benefits: o Controlled access to process will work well Incident networks Management as Request o Employees have the right Fulfilment will provide support create own access standard services, which IT staff o Less likelihood of errors in can use to improve their data entry productivity, for the quality of o Ability to audit business services and products. o Ability to easily revoke You stress that Request access policies Fulfilment effectively reduces the o Maybe needed for waiting time for requesting and business compliance removing access to existing or new networks, therefore also 102

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reducing the complaints from users

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Question 16 (NO SCENARIO) The success of Service Operation phase is based on some important Critical Success Factors. From the options below, which would be the most important for Service Operation?

a) o Management support for using phase o Business support to ensure users use Service Desk as little as possible o Champions to drive process usage o Staffing and retention of Service Desk o Service management usage o Suitable tools – especially Incident Management o Measurement and reporting of capacity

b) o o o o o o o

Management support for setting up phase Business support to ensure users call Service Desk Champions to lead process implementation Staffing and retention of Service Desk Service management training Suitable tools Measurement and reporting of usage

c) o o o o o o o

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Management support for setting up SD Business support to ensure users call Service Desk Champions to lead Service Support Staffing and retention of Service Desk Service management understanding Suitable tools – especially Service Desk Measurement and reporting

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d) o o o o o o o

Management support for setting up phase Business support to ensure users use Service Desk Champions to lead process implementation Staffing and retention of Service Desk Service management training Suitable tools – especially Service Desk Measurement and reporting

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25 Answer Guide 25.1 Answers to warm up Questions 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. C 7. B 8. B 9. B 10. A 25.2 Answers to Intermediate Style Practice Exam Remember – the way the exams are scored are on a 5/3/1/0 point scale. The following answer guide will help you to identify the most correct answer, and why it is more correct than the next answer. Question 1 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Incident Mgt and Request Fulfilment

Most Correct

B

Second Best

A

This is the correct answer – focus on identifying correct processes and using service desk as SPOC – and ITSM as important to business Missing using SD as SPOC

Third Best

C

No focus on ITSM – IT focused

Distracter

D

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Question 2 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Skills analysis, esp in release and deployment

Most Correct

A

Second Best

B

This is the most correct answer – focuses on issues Not addressing Change/release issue

Third Best

D

Incident mgt is not the priority – release is

Distracter

C

Question 3 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Event and Problem Mgt

Most Correct

A

Second Best

D

This is the most correct answer – it addresses correct order as well as proactive side to Problem Mgt Not addressing Event Mgt

Third Best

C

Lack of understanding of ITIL framework.

Distracter

B

Question 4 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Service Desk Metrics

Most Correct

B

Correct and relevant SD metrics

Second Best

A

Third Best

C

Average time to identify incident not a valid metric of SD Average time to escalate incident not a valid metric of SD Cost of an incident is not a SD metric

Distracter

D

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Question 5 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Access Mgt

Most Correct

B

Second Best

D

Third Best

C

Distracter

A

Most correct answer – recognizes relationship between access and Availability and Information Security Mgt, as well importance of business credibility Lack of reference to other processes Does not reference other processes and does not value business credibility

Question 6 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Service Operation and communication, as well as interfaces with other phases/processes

Most Correct

B

This is the most correct answer

Second Best

D

Is not addressing release policy, or problem mgt

Third Best

A

Business case for Knowledge mgt tool not part of service operation, lack of communication methods to address issues

Distracter

C

Question 7 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of establishing a Service Desk and Incident Mgt

Most Correct

A

Second Best

C

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This is the most correct answer –it identifies SD as SPOC and list appropriate steps to establish a service desk SD is more than just a telephone system, not considering business involvement in improving service Copyright The Art of Service

Third Best

B

Distracter

D

This is not focus of Service Operation

Question 8 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of metrics of incident and problem mgt

Most Correct

D

This is the most correct list of relevant metrics

Second Best

B

Missing metrics of incident resolution time

Third Best

A

Availability of services is not an incident mgt metric Incident mgt metrics not valid for problem mgt

Distracter

C

Question 9 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding the business benefits of Event Mgt

Most Correct

B

Second Best

C

This is the most correct answer – it considers the business Last point is not a business benefit

Third Best

D

SLA breaches is the only business benefit

Distracter

A

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Question 10 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding the benefits of Service Operation as a whole to the business

Most Correct

B

Second Best

D

Third Best

A

Distracter

C

This is the most correct answer – it considers the business Reduced operational spending on IT is not a valid business benefit Focus is on IT, not business

Question 11 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of the interfaces between access mgt and other processes

Most Correct

C

Second Best

A

Third Best

B

Distracter

D

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Most correctly lists all relevant interfaces with access mgt Missing availability mgt – key interfaces Missing availability mgt – key interfaces, and focus is on legal – not valid for internal organization

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Question 12 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of the Service Operation Functions

Most Correct

A

Most correct objectives for all functions

Second Best

C

Third Best

D

Technical mgt last point not valid objective IT Operations – does more than coordinate skills Application mgt – testing not objective, nor is responding to failures – too broad Technical mgt last point not valid objective IT Operations – does more than coordinate skills Application mgt – testing not objective, nor is responding to failures – too broad Technical mgt last point not valid objective IT Operations – does more than coordinate skills Application mgt – testing not objective, nor is responding to failures – too broad Service Desk – does not resolve problems

Distracter

B

Question 13 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of incident prioritization

Most Correct

B

Most correct answer

Second Best

A

ii – not a medium impact

Third Best

D

i – not major incident ii – not a medium impact iii – not an incident

Distracter

C

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Question 14 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of service desk structures

Most Correct

C

Second Best

B

Third Best

A

Distracter

D

Most correct answer – especially selecting English as main language Missing common language Missing common language Super users are not part of service desk

Question 15 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of benefits of request Fulfilment and Access Mgt

Most Correct

A

Most correct answer – business benefits

Second Best

C

Third Best

B

Complaints form users – not a valid business benefit Complaints form users – not a valid business benefit Incident mgt –not relevant as benefit for business – access mgt works with Service Desk

Distracter

D

Question 16 Question Rationale

The aim of this question is to demonstrate an understanding of Critical success factors for Service Operation

Most Correct

D

Most correct answer – all relevant CSFs

Second Best

B

Third Best

C

Measurement and reporting of “usage” of Service Operation as whole not a CSF users need more ways of contacting SD other than just “calling” SD Measurement and reporting of “usage” of Service Operation as whole not a CSF

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Not just about setting up a SD users need more ways of contacting SD other than just “calling” SD Distracter

A

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26 ACRONYMS AM Availability Management AMIS Availability Management Information System BCM Business Capacity Management BCP Business Continuity Plan BIA Business Impact Analysis CAB Change Advisory Board ECAB Emergency Change Advisory Board CFIA Component Failure Impact Analysis CI Configuration Item CMDB Configuration Management Database CMIS Capacity Management Information System CMS Configuration Management System CSF Critical Success Factor CSI Continual Service Improvement CSIP Continual Service Improvement Program CSP Core Service Package DIKW Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom DML Definitive Media Library DS Definitive Spares FTA Fault Tree Analysis ISM Information Security Management ISMS Information Security Management System ITSCM IT Service Continuity Management ITSM IT Service Management IVR Interactive Voice Response KEDB Known Error Database KPI Key Performance Indicator MoR Management of Risk MTBF Mean Time Between Failures MTBSI Mean Time Between Service Incidents MTRS Mean Time to Restore Service OGC Office of Government Commerce OLA Operational Level Agreement PBA Pattern of Business Activity PIR Post Implementation Review PSO Projected Service Outage QA Quality Assurance QMS Quality Management System RFC Request for Change

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ROI Return on Investment SAC Service Acceptance Criteria SACM Service Asset and Configuration Management SCD Supplier and Contract Database SIP Service Improvement Plan SKMS Service Knowledge Management System SLA Service Level Agreement SLM Service Level Management SLP Service Level Package SLR Service Level Requirement SPM Service Portfolio Management SPOF Single Point of Failure SSIP Supplier Service Improvement Plan TCO Total Cost of Ownership TQM Total Quality Management UC Underpinning Contract VBF Vital Business Function VOI Value on Investment

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27 Glossary Alert: A warning that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occurred. Asset: Any resource or capability. Application Sizing: Determines the hardware or network capacity to support new or modified applications and the predicted workload. Baselines: A benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison. CMDB: Configuration Management Database CMS: Configuration Management System Configuration Item (CI): Any component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service. DML: Definitive Media Library Function: A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more processes or activities. Incident: An unplanned interruption to, or reduction in the quality of an IT service Known Error: A problem that has a documented Root Cause and a Workaround KEDB: Known Error Database Maintainability: A measure of how quickly and effectively a CI or IT service can be restored to normal after a failure. Modeling: A technique used to predict the future behaviour of a system, process, CI etc MTBF: Mean Time Between Failures (Uptime)

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MTBSI: Mean Time Between Service Incidents MTRS: Mean Time to Restore Service (Downtime) OLA: Operational Level Agreement Process: A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. Process Owner: Role responsible for ensuring that a process is fit for purpose. Remediation: Recovery to a known state after a failed Change or Release RFC: Request for Change Service: A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating Outcomes Customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific Costs and risks Service Owner: Role that is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT service SCD: Supplier and Contracts Database Service Assets: Any capability or resource of a service provider Serviceability: Measures Availability, Reliability, Maintainability of IT services/CI’s under control of external suppliers. SIP: Service Improvement Plan SKMS: Service Knowledge Management System SLA: Service Level Agreement SLM: Service Level Manager SLR: Service Level Requirements SSIP: Supplier Service Improvement Plan Copyright The Art of Service

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Status Accounting: Reporting of all current and historical data about each CI throughout its lifecycle. Trigger An indication that some action or response to an event may be needed. Tuning: Used to identify areas of the IT infrastructure that could be better utilized. UC: Underpinning Contract Utility: Functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need. Often summarized as ‘what it does’. VBF: Vital Business Function Warranty: A promise or guarantee that a product or service will meet its agreed requirements.

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28 References ITIL. Continual Service Improvement (2007) OGC. London. TSO ITIL. Service Design (2007) OGC. London. TSO ITIL. Service Operation (2007) OGC. London. TSO ITIL. Service Strategy (2007) OGC. London. TSO ITIL. Service Transition (2007) OGC. London. TSO

Websites www.artofservice.com.au www.theartofservice.org www.theartofservice.com

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INDEX* A Ability 23, 33, 101-2 ability, enhanced 81 access 26, 30, 32-5, 54, 61, 65-7, 87-9, 101-2, 108 Access Management 3-4, 18, 33, 47, 66, 87-9 Access Management and Request Fulfilment 101 access management features 47 access management process 66-7 efficient 88 Access Management Processes 53 access mgt 108, 110, 112 access rights 34, 65 audit of 87, 89 modification of 87-9 reset of 76-7 revoke 33, 101-2 access rights Average time 76-7 acquisitions 83-6 act 37, 83, 91-4, 99-100 addition 19, 57, 59-61 answer guide 5, 106 answers 5, 8-10, 15, 106 Application Management 43, 91-4 Application Management Function 4, 18, 43 applications 9, 20, 43, 54, 91 modified 91-4, 116 test 92-4 applications/incidents/service requests 56 architectures, existing 91-4 Art of Service Objective Tree 2, 11 assessment, initial 58 audit 33, 101-2 availability 15, 23-4, 27, 33, 80 Availability Management 24, 28, 33, 65, 114 availability of services 20, 30, 80 Availability of services 109 Average cost of handling problem 28 Average Service Desk 38 Average Service Desk cost of handling incident 38 average time 38, 63, 76-9, 107 B Basic Concepts 2-4, 13, 16, 19, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 41, 43, 45 BCP Business Continuity Plan 114 benefits 6, 11, 21, 65, 80, 84-5, 101, 110, 112 following 80, 82, 101-2

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significant 80-2 BIA Business Impact Analysis 114 book 1, 6, 55 Breakdown of incidents 24 Breakdown of service requests 31 breed Service Desks benefit 37 Brewster s 55 Brief Job Description 59 buffer 99-100 business 2, 9, 13, 16, 23, 26-7, 37, 54-5, 58-60, 66, 69, 80-4, 87-8, 914, 98-9, 109-10 [4] business applications 20 business awareness 75 business benefits 109, 112 valid 110, 112 Business Capacity Management 114 business case 70, 84 Business case for Knowledge mgt tool 108 business compliance 102 business credibility 108 business events 20 business function 95, 115, 118 regular 95 business involvement 108 business objectives 11, 60 business operations 23 business personnel 36 business perspective 85 business priorities 23 real-time 23 Business Process areas 60 business processes 20, 56, 89 business requirements 91 Business Service Management 45 business services 30, 101-2 business staff 30, 101-2 business support 50, 104-5 business support Improvement 80 business units 69, 71, 73 Business Value 2-4, 19, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36 business viewpoint 84-5 bypass 76-9 C calls 38, 55-6, 58, 63, 73, 75-9 capabilities 14, 23, 75, 116-17 capacity 15, 52, 76, 80, 82, 104 Capacity Management 24, 28

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cause, underlying 26, 52 Centralized Service Desk 37 Challenges and Critical Success Factors 3, 28, 34 Champions 50, 104-5 CI (Configuration Item) 20, 22, 26, 29, 52-3, 114, 116, 118 CIO 98-9 clients 66-8 informing 66-8 CMS 20, 24, 31, 116 communication 2, 17, 23, 36, 38, 56, 59-60, 71-2, 87, 89, 91-4, 108 company 6, 55, 65, 83, 95, 98 company s reputation 67-8 complaints 30, 98, 102-3 complaints form users 112 complement 80-1, 83 complexity 37, 84-6 compliance 71 regulatory 33, 101-2 computer rooms 42, 91-4 concept 1, 9, 12 Configuration Item, see CI Configuration Management 20, 24, 31 Configuration Management System 114, 116 confusion 73, 76, 87 consistency 71-5 contact 23, 36, 51, 57, 74, 91-4 contact users 92-4 content 1, 9 Continual Service Improvement 119 Continual Service Improvement Manager 63 control 14, 25, 36, 49, 51, 117 Controlled access 33, 101-2 coordinate skills Application mgt 111 coordination 57 Core Service Package 114 cost 13-14, 27, 30, 91-4, 101, 107, 117 average 24, 31, 63-4 reduced 41, 91-4 Average 78-9 Cost of Service 17 creation 87, 89 cross-organizational work-flows 16 CSFs 112 CSI Continual Service Improvement 114 CSIP Continual Service Improvement Program CSP 114 customer feedback 63-4 customer satisfaction survey 55, 57-8 customer updates 63-4

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customers

14-16, 30, 36, 55-8, 60, 95, 117

D damage 6, 67-8 data centers 42, 91-4 data entry 33, 101-2 delivery 16, 83, 117 demonstrate 7, 106-12 department managers 88-9 departments 17, 34, 36, 38, 55-6, 59-60, 65, 69-70, 73-5, 83, 85, 87-8, 95-6 deployment 31, 43, 70, 93, 107 designations 6 designs 16, 21, 39, 43, 84-5, 87-9, 91 system 81, 88 desk 37-8 development 74, 87-9 diagnose 41, 91-4 speedily 39, 91-4 diagnosis 23, 27, 29, 52, 82 Direct requests 87-9 directors 83-4, 87, 90 Directory of services 35 Directory Services 47 disruptions 26, 81, 85, 91-4 Distracter 106-13 documentation 70-2 E Early Life Support 71-2 efficiency 47, 84-5 element, vital 84-5 employees 33, 54, 98, 101-2 Enable Service Design processes 47 entities 6, 26, 61 environments 13, 42, 91-4 live 61-2 production 92-4 errors 21, 24, 27, 33, 52, 101-2 escalate problem Copyright 63 escalation 71, 78-9 Event and Access Management Processes 53 event correlation 19, 76-7 event detection 19, 21 Event Management 2-4, 18-21, 41, 45, 51 implementation of 80-1 recommended implementing 80 event management process 19, 61-2

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Event Management to Verinet 80 event monitoring 56, 61 events 19-22, 29, 36, 46, 51, 81, 107, 118 exam 1, 9, 55, 106 execution 16, 19, 33, 66 expenditure 84-5 Expert status 7 exploit 21, 23 External business 17 F Facilities Management 42 failures 17, 20-1, 26, 29, 40, 92-4, 96, 111, 114-16 operations 41, 91-4 technical 39, 52, 91-4 feedback 57-8 filtering, correct level of 21 first contact 53, 76-9 first line 76-9 first recommendation 66-7 focus 13, 50, 57, 67, 70-2, 106, 109-10 formal management 57 Fulfilment 30, 101-2 functionality 23, 43, 46, 54, 91-4, 118 service s 35 functions 4, 12, 14, 38, 41-2, 51, 84, 90-1, 93, 111, 116 G Given current plans 84-6 government 69 groups 14, 35, 71-3, 116 second line 74, 76-9 guidelines 38, 87-9 H handling incident 38, 63 average Service Desk cost of 63 handling problem 28, 64 High Impact 97 high priority incidents Reduced Mean 82 Higher productivity of business 27 highlight 101-2 holistic Service Lifecycle approach 2, 13 Hong Kong 98 Hong Kong Service Desk 98 human resources 19, 66, 81, 87, 89, 96 I

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identity 34-5 Impact Definition 95 implementation 4, 45, 61-2, 85, 89-90, 95 fast 66-7 implementing 19, 59, 80-3, 99 Improved availability 84-5 Improved availability levels 76-7 Improved availability of services 76 Improved customer service 36 Improved detection of system events 76 Incident and Problem Management 70, 76, 80 Incident and Problem Management Copyright 72 Incident and Problem Management processes 71 incident backlog 24 incident closure copyright 23 incident identification/logging 23 Incident Management 3-4, 18, 23, 31, 46, 53, 65, 104 Incident Management and Request Fulfillment 57 Incident Management Problem Management 76-9 Incident Management process 31 effective 28 formalized 60 Incident Manager 2, 13, 26, 57, 95 incident mgt 106-8, 112 Incident mgt metrics 109 Incident Model 3, 25, 53 incident number 56 incident prioritization 111 incident process 26 incident records 61-2 incident resolution 24 incident resolution time 109 incident results 26 incidents 20, 23-7, 29, 32, 34, 36, 38, 46, 52-3, 63, 70-9, 92, 94, 96-7, 101-2, 107 [5] customer 93 early detection of 19, 81 escalate 63, 107 escalating 91 escalation of 70, 72 major 26 multiple 52 record 53 recorded 95 recurring 27 refreshed 70, 72 resolving 70, 93 track 75

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user 91 Incidents and Service Requests 57 incidents being 25 incidents 82 Increased customer 84-6 Increased effectiveness 84-5 Ineffective Service Transition 50 Information Technology 83 infrastructure 14, 17, 20-1, 39, 41, 51-3, 55, 69, 81, 84-6, 88-9, 99, 118 infrastructure assessment 56, 61 infrastructure design 20 input 56, 61-2 Integrate Event Management 21 Integrated CMS 45-6 Integrated ITSM technology 4, 45-6 integration 24-5, 45, 66 interfaces 2-3, 20, 24, 28, 31-3, 71, 87-9, 91-4, 108, 110 Intermediate Style Practice Exam 5, 55, 106 internet businesses 83 Internet Service Providers 80 internet services 80 high availability 81 investments 37, 85, 115 issue/problem 10 issues 57, 59, 61, 70-5, 91-4, 107-8 ITIL 1-2, 7-9, 11, 15, 55, 119 ITIL processes, existing 70, 80-1 ITIL Service Lifecycle 12 ITIL volume of Service Operation 70 ITSM 2, 9, 11, 13-14, 106, 114 ITSM processes 55, 57, 60, 65 J job title

59

K KEDB 28-9, 47, 116 key interfaces 89, 110 Key Terms 2-4, 14, 22, 26, 29, 32, 35 knowledge 1, 9, 55-6, 70-2, 74 knowledge bank 61-2 Known Errors 20, 28-9, 46, 52, 61-2, 70, 72-5, 78-9, 116 L lack

25, 50, 61, 71-3, 108 56 lack of skill 61

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Lack of understanding of ITIL framework language, common 112 Legal Services 88 Less likelihood of errors 33, 101-2 letter, formal 67 levels, right 33, 101-2 liability 6 lifecycle 7, 9, 15-16, 43, 118 line support 99-100 Local Service Desk 37 location 17, 99-100 logging, separate 57 London 1, 98, 119 Low Impact 95, 97

107

M Maintainability 116-17 Major Incident 3, 26, 97, 111 Major Incident Copyright 97 Major problem review 27-8, 78-9 management 2, 13, 16-17, 22, 25, 42-3, 55, 61, 71, 80, 101-2 Management support 50, 104-5 Manager 2, 13, 54-5, 66 managers 37, 53, 59, 76, 96 managing 7, 17, 39, 83-6 Managing Change in Service Operation 49 managing incidents 74-5, 77-9 managing user communication 91, 93 Mean Time to Restore (MTTR) 82 Mean Time to Restore Service 114, 117 Measurement 40, 44, 50, 104-5, 112 mechanisms, self-help 87, 89 Med 95 medium impact 97, 111 memo 59 formal 57 method, best 74-5 metrics 16, 63, 109 Metrics 2-4, 20, 24, 28, 31, 34, 38, 40, 42, 44 Missing availability mgt 110 Missing metrics of incident resolution time 109 modification 87, 89 monitor 14, 51, 53-4, 91 monitoring agents 21 Most Correct 106-12 most correct answer 8, 106-12 MTTR (Mean Time to Restore) 82

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N NEB 65-7 networks 14, 52-3, 101-2 normal work functions, performing 95 number 7, 16, 20, 37, 55, 70, 76-81, 89, 95 O Objective 3-4, 19, 23, 27, 33, 36, 39, 41, 43 objectives 11, 16, 25, 30, 56, 61, 85, 90 off-shore Service Desk solutions 38 OGC 119 online Service Catalogue 75 operation 16, 20, 39, 112 operation departments 59 operational activities 42, 49 operational events 53 Operational Support 56, 61-2 Operational Support and Analysis, see OSA Operations 49, 111 Operations Control 41, 53 Operations Management 42, 91-4 Operations Management Function 4, 18, 41, 43 optimizations 16, 84-5 optimum condition 39, 91-4 organizational structure 39, 73 organizational unit department 95 organizations 4, 11, 13-15, 20, 31, 35-7, 39, 42-3, 51, 66-7, 73, 75, 80, 83, 95-6, 110 competitor 65-7 organizations Applications Management departments 43 organizations services 17 organization s 38, 92, 94 organization s business processes 39, 43 organization s day 91, 93 organization s staff member/employee 14 OSA (Operational Support and Analysis) 1-2, 4-5, 12, 18, 45, 50 Outsourcing Service Desk 4, 38 ownership 14, 23, 115, 117 P PBA Pattern of Business Activity 114 performance 19-20, 71, 76, 81-2, 84-5 person 6, 14, 19, 34, 56 personnel, list of 59 phase 2, 13, 74, 104-5 photograph 59 planning 61, 69, 83 policies, revoke access 101-2

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Practice Exam 1, 5, 51, 55 priority 26, 57, 77-9, 95, 107 proactive activities 3, 27, 61-2 Proactive Problem Management reviews, regular 71 Problem 20, 26, 29, 52, 56, 71-2 problem categorization 27 problem detection 27, 71 problem investigation 27 Problem Management 3-4, 18, 24, 27-8, 46, 53, 65, 70, 76-80 oversee Proactive 72 Problem Management Copyright 72 Problem Management processes 61-2, 70-2 Problem Manager 26, 52 problem mgt 107-9 problem records 61, 78-9 problem resolution 27 problems 20, 24, 26-8, 46, 52, 61-3, 70-9, 81, 92, 94, 111, 116 close 76-9 solving 78-9 technical 92-4 problems Reducing ratio 82 procedures, defined 71, 91, 93 process implementation 101, 104-5 process metrics 40, 42, 44 processes, new 101-2 productivity 30, 101-2 products 6, 13, 17, 30, 48, 101-2, 118 projects 44, 50, 69, 74, 84, 90 service management 17 PSO Projected Service Outage 114 publisher 6 purchase 74-5 Q quality Access Management process

87

R Rationale 106-12 recovery sites 91-4 Reduced negative business impact 36 Reduced operational spending 84-5, 110 reduction 26-7, 29, 116 refresh 69-70 refresher 5, 51 Release & Deployment Management 28, 31 Release & Deployment Management/Service Asset releases 56, 59-60, 70-2, 107, 117 release 31

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Remote control 45, 47 reporting 20, 45, 50, 104-5, 112, 118 Request for Changes, see RFCs Request Fulfillment 3, 30 Request Fulfilment 3-4, 18, 30, 46-7, 106 Request Fulfilment Access Management 101-2 requests 14, 26, 30-2, 34, 54-5, 60, 87-9, 91-4, 97, 101-2, 117 requirements minimum staffing 99 usability 92-4 resilient 91-4 resources 14, 23, 39, 50, 55, 61, 91-4, 116-17 Restore Service 92-4 review 38, 70, 72, 74 review sessions, regular 74-5 RFCs (Request for Changes) 76-9, 87-9, 117 rights 6, 33-5 Risks 3, 5, 21, 25, 50 ROI 85 role 2, 4, 10, 13, 20, 26, 36, 39, 41, 43, 47, 57, 59, 95, 117 S SAC Service Acceptance Criteria 115 SACM Service Asset and Configuration Management 115 Sally 95 scenario 8-10, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65-6, 69-70, 73, 76, 80, 83-4, 87, 90, 95, 98-9 [2] scope 2, 16, 32, 69, 87-9 increased 84-6 SD 99, 104, 106, 108, 112-13 calling 112-13 sun 99 valid metric of 107 SD metrics 107 SD schedule 99 SD setup 101-2 SD staff 98-9 Second Best 106-12 security 65-7 security policies, renewal of 87-9 senior management 57, 67 Service 14, 17, 31-2, 112, 116-17 outsourced 38 Service Asset & Configuration Management 28, 31 Service Assets 117 service being 38 Service Continuity Management 28, 65, 114 Service Continuity Planning for ITSM support tools 47

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service Copyright, improving 108 service delivery 84-5 Service Design 41, 50, 56, 61, 119 Service Design and Service Transition 84 Service Design and Service Transition processes 83 Service Design Manager 2, 13 Service Design Phase 2, 13 Service Design/Transition stage 16 Service Desk 4, 18, 23-6, 31, 36-8, 47, 52-9, 63, 71-9, 87, 89, 91-4, 98-9, 101, 104-6, 111-12 [1] department s 95 global 99 retention of 104-5 sun 99 users call 104 users use 104-5 Service Desk and Incident Mgt 108 service desk Distracter 112 Service Desk Function 4, 36 service desk hours 63 Service Desk/Incident Management 31 Service Desk Manager 26 service desk member 60 Service Desk Metrics 107 Service Desk Operators 53 Service Desk Organizational Structures 4, 37 service desk staff 59-60 Rotating 72 Service Desk structure 99, 112 service desk times 64 Service Desks in London and New York 98 service groups 35 Service Improvement Plan 117 service improvements 16, 63 Service Incidents 114, 117 Service Knowledge Management System 117 Service Level Agreements, see SLA Service Level Management 24, 28, 53, 65 Assist 75 Service Level Manager 52, 117 Service Level Requirements 117 Service Lifecycle 2, 11, 15-16, 61 Service Loss 50 Service Management 2, 5, 7, 12-13, 38-9, 49, 84-5, 87-9, 114 Service Management Copyright 11 Service Management initiative 84-5 Service Management practices 69 Service Management processes 16, 73, 88-9

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Service Management systems 73 Service Management Tools 4, 47, 74-5 consistent 74 Service Manager 80 service Mgt 49 Service Mgt and Support 49 Service Operation 2, 4, 12, 16-17, 29, 49, 54, 56, 84-5, 104, 108-10, 112, 119 implementation of 83-6 implementing 84 improved 84-5 normal 23, 51 Service Operation Copyright 83 service operation functions 90, 111 Service Operation Phase 12 service operation processes 19, 85 service operation , normal 91 Service Owner 117 service provider Serviceability 117 Service Providers 15-16, 69, 83 service provision 16, 36 service provision Copyright 47 service quality 16-17, 23, 84-5 service requests 26, 31-2, 34, 36, 46, 54, 57, 71, 73-5, 87, 89, 92, 94 handling 73 service requests Copyright 75 service restoration 26 Service Strategy 119 Service Support 104 service targets 20 Service Transition 10, 119 services 2, 6, 13-17, 22-3, 26-7, 29-30, 32-5, 53-4, 60-3, 69, 75-6, 837, 91-4, 99, 101-2, 116-18 [10] centralized Information Technology 73 changed 56, 59 consumer telecommunication 69 customer purchase 15 end-to-end 16 improved 41, 91-4 local 100 new 21, 30, 101-2 satellite 69 Information Technology 69 Infrastructure 69 services/CI s 117 services 84-5 service 36 normal 36

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set 14, 35, 43, 53, 55, 99 Shared Service Unit 69, 83 SIP Service Improvement Plan 115 situation 53, 66-7, 70, 72, 98 skilled Service Desk analysts 72 skills 21, 37, 43, 56, 60-1, 91 SKMS Service Knowledge Management System SLA 115 SLA (Service Level Agreements) 52, 78-9, 109, 115, 117 SLA s 19-20, 25 SLM Service Level Management 115 SLP Service Level Package 115 SLR Service Level Requirement 115 SPM Service Portfolio Management 115 SPOC 106, 108 SSIP Supplier Service Improvement Plan 115 stability 17, 41, 91-4 optimizing 92-4 staff 24, 26-7, 37, 42-3, 51, 55-62, 65, 67, 70-1, 73-4, 81, 87, 90, 95, 102 design/specialist 71-2 key 75, 81 operational 23 technical 22, 51 56 staff member 59-60, 65, 67, 96 staff skills analysis 55-6, 59 Staffing 4, 37, 50, 104-5 stakeholders 14-15, 70, 95 standard services 30, 102 requested 30 status 20, 34-5, 53, 76-9 status quo 41, 91-4 stress 101-2 sub-companies 83, 96 submissions 87 Success Factors 3, 21, 25, 67, 112 Suitable tools 50, 104-5 Super Service Desk Operators 100 Super Users 37, 99 Supplier Service Improvement Plan Copyright 117 support staff 25, 39, 98 swift, coordinate 92-4 systems 14, 37, 56, 65, 70-2, 88-9, 96, 98, 116 incident prioritization 26 T Table of Contents 2 target times 31, 38, 63

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team 14, 19, 38, 51, 116 incident investigation 26 technical architectures, effective 91-4 technical infrastructure 39, 91-4 Technical Management 39, 43, 52, 91-4 Technical Management Function 4, 18, 39 Technical mgt 111 technical skills 39, 52, 91-4 adequate 39, 91-4 technology 4, 12-13, 17, 39, 45, 47, 54, 69, 73, 91 event management 45 terminology 12 test 9, 14, 59-60 Third Best 106-12 thresholds 20, 22, 25, 116 time 9, 14, 21, 26, 28, 34-5, 37, 40, 50, 56, 61, 116-17 timeframes 78-9 timescales 25-6, 95 tools 11, 14, 16, 21, 28, 35, 37, 47, 53, 70-3, 116 customer organization 38 trademarks 6 training 1, 37-8, 40, 44, 60, 70-2, 74 service management 50, 104-5 transfer 72 tree 11 Trial 21 TSO 119 type 19-20, 31-2, 35, 53, 71 U UC s 25 understanding 1, 9, 11, 23, 106-12 service management 104 usage 99, 104, 112 service management 104 use Event Management 20 user awareness 91-4 user calls 54 user population 84-6 user satisfaction 84-6 users 14, 16, 26, 30, 32, 34-6, 57, 74-5, 89, 98-100, 102-3, 112-13 prevented 96 V value 1-2, 13-14, 16, 19, 71, 80-2, 84, 117 actual 16, 84-5 value business credibility 108 VBF 115, 118

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Vericom 69 Vericom infrastructure services Verinet 73, 80-1 Verinet business unit 80 Virtual Service Desk 37 visibility, improved 81 Vision Media 83-5, 87, 89, 96 growth of 84-6

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W web 8-9 work 25, 27-8, 37-8, 47, 56, 60-2, 101-2 work hours 99 workarounds 27, 29, 61-2, 78-9, 116 Workarounds and Event information 61 www.artofservice.com.au www.theartofservice.org www.theartofservice.com 119

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