ITIL for Dummies v1

March 15, 2018 | Author: api-3849678 | Category: Itil, It Service Management, Business Process, Service Level Agreement, Information Technology
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ITIL for Dummies Description - What is ITIL?.............................................................................................3 The Objective – Why Use ITIL?......................................................................................3 The Components.............................................................................................................4 Service Support...............................................................................................................5 The Service Desk Function..........................................................................................................6 Goal..................................................................................................6 Definitions.......................................................................................6 Activities..........................................................................................6 Benefits............................................................................................6 Possible Challenges.........................................................................6 Possible Key Performance Indicators..............................................7 Incident Management .................................................................................................................7 Goal..................................................................................................7 Definitions.......................................................................................7 Activities..........................................................................................7 Benefits............................................................................................7 Possible Challenges.........................................................................7 Possible Key Performance Indicators..............................................8 Problem Management .............................................................................................................8 Goal..................................................................................................8 Definitions.......................................................................................8 Activities..........................................................................................8 Benefits............................................................................................8 Possible Challenges.........................................................................9 Possible Key Performance Indicators..............................................9 Change Management ..........................................................................................................9 Goal..................................................................................................9 Definitions.......................................................................................9 Activities........................................................................................10 Benefits..........................................................................................10 Possible Challenges.......................................................................10 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................10 Release Management ................................................................................................................10 Goal................................................................................................10 Definitions.....................................................................................11 Activities........................................................................................11 Benefits..........................................................................................11 Possible Challenges.......................................................................11 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................11 Configuration Management ......................................................................................................13 Goal................................................................................................13 Definitions.....................................................................................13 Activities........................................................................................13 Benefits..........................................................................................13 Possible Challenges.......................................................................13 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................14 Service Delivery.............................................................................................................14 Service Level Management (SLM)............................................................................................14 Goal................................................................................................14 Definitions.....................................................................................15 Activities........................................................................................15 Version 1.3

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ITIL for Dummies Benefits..........................................................................................15 Possible Challenges.......................................................................15 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................15 Financial Management For IT Services ....................................................................................16 Goal................................................................................................16 Definitions.....................................................................................16 Activities........................................................................................16 Benefits..........................................................................................16 Possible Challenges.......................................................................16 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................16 Availability Management ..........................................................................................................17 Goal................................................................................................17 Definitions.....................................................................................17 Activities........................................................................................17 Benefits..........................................................................................17 Possible Challenges.......................................................................17 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................18 Capacity Management ..............................................................................................................18 Goal................................................................................................18 Definitions.....................................................................................18 Activities........................................................................................18 Benefits..........................................................................................18 Possible Challenges.......................................................................19 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................19 IT Service Continuity Management (ITSC)..............................................................................19 Goal................................................................................................19 Definitions.....................................................................................19 Activities........................................................................................19 Benefits..........................................................................................21 Possible Challenges.......................................................................21 Possible Key Performance Indicators............................................21

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ITIL for Dummies Description - What is ITIL? In the 1980s the quality of the IT services provided to the British Government was such that the then CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency, now Office of Government Commerce, OGC) was instructed to develop an approach for efficient and cost effective use of IT resources by ministries and other British public sector organisation. The aim was to develop an approach independent from any supplier. This resulted in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library – ITIL, which grew from a collection of best practices observed in the IT service industry. ITIL gives a detailed description of a number of important IT practices, with comprehensive checklists, tasks, procedures and responsibilities which can be tailored to any IT organisation. Where possible these practices have been defined as processes covering the major activities of IT service organisations. Every organisation aims to realize its vision, mission, objectives and policies, which means that a set of appropriate activities has to be undertaken. A group of activities form a process. If the process structure of an organisation is clearly described, it will show: • What has to be done • What the expected result is • How we measure if the processes deliver the expected results • How the results of one process affect those of another process ITIL offers a common framework for all the activities of the IT department. These activities are divided into processes, which provide an effective framework to make the IT service management more mature. Each of these processes covers one or more tasks of an IT department, such as service development, infrastructure management, and supplying and supporting the services. This process approach makes it possible to describe IT Service Management best practices independently from the actual organization structure of the entity. By using a process approach, ITIL primarily describes what must be included in IT Service Management to provide IT services of the required quality. ITIL defines the objectives and activities, and input and output of each of the processes found in an IT organisation. ITIL does not give a specific description of how these activities should be implemented, as this will be different in every organisation…. instead, it offers a framework for planning the most common processes, roles and activities, indicating the links between them, and what lines of communication are necessary.

The Objective – Why Use ITIL? The aim of ITIL is to provide a framework within which an organization can provide its IT services in a consistent, reliable, cost effective and measurable manner, resulting in the following benefits to the organisation as a whole: • • • •

The provision of IT services becomes more customer focussed and agreements about service quality improve the relationship; The services are described better, in customer language, and in more appropriate detail; The quality and cost of the services are managed better; Communication with the IT organisation is improved by agreeing on the points of contact;



…and to the IT organisation specifically:

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ITIL for Dummies • • • •

The IT organisation develops a clearer structure, becomes more efficient, and more focussed on the corporate objectives; An effective process structure provides a framework for effective outsourcing if that becomes an option; Supports the introduction of a quality management system; Provides a uniform frame of reference for internal communications and communication with suppliers, and standardisation and identification of procedures.

The Components There are five main ‘elements’ addressed by the ITIL books. Each of these elements interfaces with the other four, and overlaps them to some extent. The five elements are: • • • • •

The Business Perspective IT Infrastructure Management Applications Management Service Support Service Delivery

The ITIL ‘core’

What are the main components? The Business Perspective – addresses areas such as • Business Continuity Management • Partnerships and Outsourcing • Surviving Changes • Adapting the business to radical changes IT Infrastructure Management – addresses areas such as • Network Service management • Operations management • Management of local processors • Computer installation and acceptance • Systems management • Environmental management

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ITIL for Dummies Applications Management – addresses areas such as: • Software life cycle support • Testing an IT service for Operational Use Service Support – addresses areas such as: • Incident Management • Problem Management • Change Management • Release Management • Configuration Management Service Delivery – addresses areas such as: • Service Level Management • Financial Management for IT services • Availability Management • Capacity Management • IT Services Continuity Management (e.g. DRP) In addition, there are two functions which underpin all of these processes, and which are integral to all of them i.e. • Service Desk (e.g. Help Desk) • Security The following pages will focus on the two areas of Service Support and Service Delivery, and will summarise the associated activities, tasks and measures for these two core elements.

Service Support

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ITIL for Dummies  The Service Desk Function Goal •

To provide a Single Point Of Contact (SPOC) for customers and end-users and an operational SPOC for managing incidents to resolution



To facilitate the restoration of normal operations service with a minimum amount of impact to the business and customers, while remaining within agreed service levels

Definitions Single Point of Contact (SPOC)

The Service Desk provides a vital day-to-day contact point between customers, users, It services and third-party support organisations.

Service Request

Incidents logged by the Service Desk, which are a result of a request for increased functionality for new services, not a failure in the IT infrastructure.

Activities • • • • • • • • • • • •

Receiving calls, first line customer liaison Recording and tracking incidents, service requests and complaints Keeping customers informed on request status and progress Initial assessment, attempting to resolve or refer to someone who can, based on agreed service levels Monitoring escalation procedures relative to appropriate SLA Managing the request life cycle, including closure Communicating planned and short-term changes of service levels to customers Coordinating second-line and third party support groups Providing management information and recommendations for service improvement Identifying problem Highlighting customer training and education needs Contributing to problem identification

Benefits • • •

Improved Customer Service, Perception & Satisfaction Increased Accessibility – (SPOC) Improved Teamwork & Communication

Possible Challenges • • • •

Resistance to follow procedures Overloaded/ Burnout Organisational policy – No Buy-In for SPOC Communication skills

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ITIL for Dummies Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • • • •



Daily reviews of individual incident and problem status against service levels Weekly management reviews Monthly management reviews Proactive service reports Abandonment rate First contact resolution

Incident Management Goal To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimise the adverse impact on business operations or the user, and at a cost-effective price. Definitions Incident

Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service, and which causes, or may cause an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service.

Priority

Sequence in which an incident or problem needs to be resolved, based on impact and urgency.

Activities • • • • • • •

Detection and recording Classification and initial support Prioritisation (impact and urgency) Investigation and diagnosis Resolution and recovery Closure Ownership, monitoring, tracking and communications

Benefits • • • • • •

Improved monitoring Improved management information on aspects of service quality Better staff utilisation, leading to greater efficiency Elimination of lost or incorrect Incidents and service requests More accurate CMDB (Configuration Management Database) information Improved User and Customer satisfaction

Possible Challenges • • • • •

No one to manage and escalate Incidents Specialist support staff (2nd level support and above) being subject to constant interruptions, making them less effective Business staff being disrupted as people ask their colleagues for advice Lack of coordinated management information Lost, or incorrectly managed Incidents

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ITIL for Dummies Possible Key Performance Indicators •

Quickly resolve incidents % reduction in incidents incorrectly assigned or categorised % increase in incidents resolved at first line support



Maintain IT service quality % increase of incidents resolved within target times Reduction in incident backlog



Improve business and IT productivity % reduction in average cost of incident handling % reduction where first line is bypassed



User satisfaction

 Problem Management Goal To minimise the adverse impacts of incidents and problems on the business that are caused by errors in the IT infrastructure (Hardware, Software & Documentation) and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors. Problem Management seeks to get to the root cause and initiate action to remove the error. Definitions Problem

A condition identified by multiple incidents exhibiting common symptoms, or from one single significant incident, indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown.

Known error

A condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, when it is confirmed which Configuration Item is at fault.

Workaround

Method of avoiding an incident or problem, either from a temporary fix or from a technique that means that the customer is not reliant on a particular aspect of a service that is known to have a problem.

Activities • • • •

Problem control Error control Proactive problem management Major problem review

Benefits • • • •

More effective and efficient incident handling Increased service quality Reduction in the number of incidents and problems Permanent solutions

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ITIL for Dummies Possible Challenges • • • •

Incident control procedure cumbersome or too difficult Staffing issues Knowledge-based system not used Dealing with known errors (no link between incident/problem/error records)

Possible Key Performance Indicators





Improved service quality % reduction in repeat incidents/problems % reduction in incidents/problems affecting services



Minimise impact of problems % reduction in average time to resolve problems % reduction in average time diagnose problems



Reduce cost of problems to users % reduction of the impact of problems on users % increase of proactive changes raised by Problem Management

Change Management Goal To ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes to minimise the impact of change-related incidents and improve day-to-day operations. Definitions Change

An action that results in a new status for one or more IT infrastructure Configuration Items.

Standard Change (Pre-approved)

A change to the infrastructure that follows an established path and is relatively common.

Request For Change (RFC)

Form or screen used to record details of a RFC.

Forward Schedule Of Changes (FSC)

A schedule that contains details of all changes approved and their proposed implementation dates.

Projected Service Availability (PSA)

A document containing details of changes to agreed SLAs and agreed serviceability due to currently planned FSC.

Change Advisory Board (CAB)

A group of people who have decision authority for implementing significant changes.

CAB Emergency Committee (CABEC)

A subset of the full CAB to handle emergency change requests.

Management Board

Endorses major changes before passing back to the CAB for

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ITIL for Dummies scheduling and implementation.

Activities • • • • • • • • •

Change logging and filtering Allocation of priorities Change categorisation CAB meetings Impact and resource assessment Change approval Change scheduling Change building, testing and implementation Change review

Benefits • • • •

Better alignment of IT services to business requirements Fewer changes to be backed out Increased productivity of users Greater ability to handle a large volume of change

Possible Challenges • • • • •

Overtly or perceived as a bureaucratic process Cultural difficulties to accept Change Management Irregular audits to check compliance to Change Management Bypassing the process (circumventing) Everything is urgent

Possible Key Performance Indicators •

Repeatable process % reduction in unauthorised changes % business driven change requests implemented on time



Quick and accurate changes % reduction of urgent changes % reduction of changes implemented without testing



Protect service % reduction in changes causing incidents % reduction in changes impacting SLAs



Show efficiency and effectiveness results % reduction in average cost of handling a change % reduction of failed changes

 Release Management Goal Release Management takes a holistic view of a change to an IT service and should ensure that all aspects of a release, both technical and non-technical, are considered together. Version 1.3

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ITIL for Dummies

Definitions Definitive Software Library (DSL)

A secure software compound where all authorised versions of software are kept.

Definitive Hardware Store (DHS)

An area set aside for the secure storage of hardware spares.

Delta Release

Only the Configuration Items within the release unit that have changed or are new since the last full or delta release.

Full Release

All components of the release unit are built, tested, distributed and implemented together.

Package Release

Includes at least two releases. i.e. a delta and a full may be grouped together.

Activities • • • • • • •

Release planning Designing, building and configuring a release Testing Release acceptance Rollout planning Communication, preparation and training Distribution and installation

Benefits • • • •

Consistency in the release processes Better expectation levels Improved historical data concerning releases Reduced risk of unauthorised or illegal software

Possible Challenges • • • •

Initial resistance to change Circumvention of procedures Unclear ownership and responsibilities Pressure to move forward

Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • • •

Releases built and implemented on time and within budget Secure and accurate management of DSL and DHS Compliance with all legal restrictions Accurate distribution of releases to all remote site No evidence of unauthorised software at any site

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ITIL for Dummies  Configuration Management Goal To identify, record and report on all IT components that are under the control and scope of Configuration Management. Definitions Infrastructure

Includes hardware, software and any associated documentation.

CMDB

A database, which holds a record of all Configuration Items, associated with IT infrastructure.

Configuration Item

A component of an infrastructure or item, such as a request for change, associated with an infrastructure, that is (or is to be) under the control of Configuration Management.

Baseline

A product or system established at a specific point in time, which captures both the structure and the details of that product or system and can be rebuilt at a later date.

Scope

The range of responsibility covered by Configuration Management.

Configuration Item level

The degree of detail selected to describe each Configuration Item.

Attributes

Details that uniquely identify Configuration Items such as location, version number, and serial number.

Relationships

A description of the interfaces that exist between Configuration Items in the infrastructure.

Activities • • • • •

Planning Identification Control Status accounting Verification and audit

Benefits • • • •

Accurate information on Configuration Items and their documentation Adherence to legal obligation Contributes to service continuity plan Helps with financial planning

Possible Challenges • • • •

Wrong Configuration Item level with too much detail Over ambitious schedules Lack of management commitment Circumvention of processes

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ITIL for Dummies Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • • • •

Number and list of unauthorised configuration items Incidents and problems traced back to changes Unsuccessful changes/releases because of poor impact assessment, incorrect data in the CMDB, or poor version control The cycle time to approve and implement changes Licenses wasted or not put into use at a particular location Results of configuration verifications and audits

Service Delivery

 Service Level Management (SLM) Goal To maintain and improve IT Service quality through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring and reporting to meet the customers’ business objectives.

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ITIL for Dummies Definitions Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Written agreement between an IT service provider and the IT customer.

Operational Level Agreement (OLA) Underpinning Contract (UC)

Agreement between two internal IT areas/departments e.g. Network Management and Service Desk. Contract between an external supplier providing services to IT.

Service Catalogue

Defines services available to the customer from IT.

Service Improvement Program (SIP)

Formal project undertaken within Service Level Management, focusing on customer/staff satisfaction.

Service Level Requirements (SLR)

A listing of clients’ service requirements that form the basis for SLAs.

Activities • • • •

Establish function Implement process Manage ongoing process Conduct periodic reviews

Benefits • • • • • •

Services are designed to meet service level requirements Ability to monitor specific targets Focused on business needs Service improvement Supplier management SLA can be used as a basis for charging

Possible Challenges • • • • •

Difficulty in monitoring actual achievements from a customer’s perspective Failing to ensure that targets are achievable prior to agreement Inadequate supporting agreements IT based rather than business aligned SLAs not communicated

Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • • • • • •

Are underpinning contracts and OLAs in place and current for all SLAs? Are SLAs being monitored and are regular reports being produced? Are review meetings being held on time and correctly recorded? Is there documentary evidence that issues raised at reviews are being followed up and resolved (e.g. via an SIP)? Are service breaches being followed up effectively? Are service level achievements improving? Are Customer perception statistics improving? Are IT costs decreasing for services with stable service level achievements?

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ITIL for Dummies  Financial Management For IT Services Goal To provide cost-effective stewardship of the IT assets and resources used in providing IT Services. Definitions Direct Costs

Costs, which are clearly attributable to a single customer.

Indirect Costs

Costs incurred on behalf of all, which have to be apportioned.

Variable Costs

Costs, which vary with some factor such as usage/time.

Unabsorbed Costs Costs Elements

Any indirect costs, which cannot be apportioned. Hardware, software, people, accommodation, transfer, and external services.

Activities • • •

Budgeting IT Accounting Charging

Benefits • • •

Increase confidence in setting and managing budgets Accurate cost information to support IT investments decisions, determining cost of ownership for ongoing services A more efficient use of IT resources throughout the organisation

Possible Challenges • • • •

New disciplines (limited understanding) Limited IT/accountancy skills Poor strategic objectives Cost outweighs benefits

Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • •

How much they (customers) have spent on IT during the financial year? Whether the charges made match the predicted profile? How is the IT organisation investing any profits? Any variances… What caused them? What actions are being taken?

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ITIL for Dummies  Availability Management Goal To optimise the capability of the IT infrastructure, services and supporting organisation to deliver a cost effective and sustained level of availability enabling the business to meet their objectives. Definitions Availability

Ability of an IT service or component to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time.

Reliability

Freedom from operational failure.

Maintainability

Maintenance done on systems from an internal focus.

Serviceability

Maintenance done on systems from an external focus.

Resilience

Redundancy, to allow IT’s continued operation despite the incorrect functioning of one or more of its sub-systems.

Security

Deals with confidentiality, integrity, and availability of associated data.

Vital Business Function

The element of a business process considered business critical.

Activities • • • •

Determining availability requirements Compiling the availability plan Monitoring availability Monitoring maintenance obligations

Benefits • • • • • •

Single Point of accountability Services are designed for availability Optimal usage and performance Reduction of failures Moving from reactive to proactive Adds value to the business

Possible Challenges • • • • • •

Lack of organisational commitment No management responsibility No buy-in for having an Availability Management process Failing to delegate appropriate authority levels Lack of resources Lack of tools to support the process

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ITIL for Dummies Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • • • •

Improvement in the MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and MTBSI (Mean Time Between System Incidents) Reduction in the MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) Effective reviews, follow-up on SLA, OLA, UC breaches Increase in the reliability of services and components Percentage increase in availability Reduced cost of unavailability

 Capacity Management Goal To ensure that all the current and future capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements are provided cost effectively. Definitions Capacity Database

Database used to record activity within Capacity Management.

Demand Management

Seek to influence customers to use systems at different times to better control workloads

Resource Management

Controls file management space, evaluate new technology and developments in equipment, provides insight into the infrastructure and calculates the investment that must be made.

Modelling

Modelling techniques can determine how to achieve optimal capacity and the division of this capacity.

Application sizing

Calculates new software requirements and can determine new hardware requirements for applications that are being developed.

Activities • • • • • • • • •

Demand Management Workload Management Modelling Application sizing Production of a capacity plan Performance Management Resource Management Iterative Activities – Monitoring, analysis, tuning Storage of data

Benefits • • • •

Increased efficiency and cost savings Reduced risk More confident forecasts Value to application lifecycle

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ITIL for Dummies Possible Challenges • • • • •

Over expectation Vendor influence Lack of information The distributed environment No consideration given to monitoring levels

Possible Key Performance Indicators •

Resource Forecasts Timely resource requirement forecasts Accurate forecasts of trends



Technology Breached SLAs because of old technology Performance and throughput measures of all services



Costs Effectiveness Reduction in panic buying Accurate forecasts of planned expenditures



Plan/Implement Appropriate IT Capacity To Match Business Need Reduction in incidents Act on recommendations

 IT Service Continuity Management (ITSC) Goal To ensure that the required IT technical and services facilities can be recovered within required and agreed timescales. Definitions IT Service Continuity

Part of the overall BCM, for continuity of IT services only. ITSCM is dependent upon information derived from the BCM.

Business Continuity Management (BCM)

Managing risks to ensure that at all times the business can continue to operate to, at least, a pre-determined minimum level.

Crisis

An unplanned situation in which it is expected that the period during which one or more IT services will be unavailable will exceed threshold values agreed to with the customer.

Activities •

Stage 1: Initiation Setting policy Terms of reference and scope Resource allocation Define the project organisation and control structure Agreeing on project and quality plans

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ITIL for Dummies •

Stage 2: Requirements and Strategy Requirements and strategy Business impact analysis Risk assessment Risk reduction measures Recovery options Details of risk assessment



Stage 3: Implementation Organisation/Implementation planning Implement risk reduction measures Implement stand by arrangements Develop procedures Initial testing



Stage 4: Operational Management Education and awareness Training Review Testing Change control Assurance

Benefits • • • • • •

Potential lower insurance premiums Regulatory requirements Better business relationships Positive marketing or contingency capabilities Organisational credibility Competitive advantage

Possible Challenges • • • •

Service continuity plan will not remove all sources of risk Must address not only technical safeguards but also organisational facilities Not all damage is financially quantifiable Service continuity plans may be required by law

Possible Key Performance Indicators • • • • • •

Regular and comprehensive testing of the ITSCM plan Awareness throughout the organisation of the plan(s) Manage and negotiate all necessary contracts with third parties Regular reviews Regular communication Regular audits

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