Islam God's Final Message to Mankind

September 8, 2017 | Author: DrSabeel Ahmed | Category: Prophets And Messengers In Islam, Sin, Prophet, Jesus, Salvation
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ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind



ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Copyright © 2009, Islamic Foundation, Villa Park, Illinois, USA All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without prior written permission of the Copyright owner and the Author 2

ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

table of contents PREFACE............................................................................................................................. V INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... VI CHAPTER 1   Divine Guidance is the Only Solution for Current Crisis................................................1 CHAPTER 2   Is Religion a Thing of the Past?.......................................................................................6    (A)  CONCEPT OF ORIGINAL SIN AND CHRISTIAN SCHEME OF SALVATION...............8     (B)  ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF SALVATION.....................................................................12    (C)  ISLAM REJECTS CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF ATONEMENT FOR SINS      THROUGH BELIEF IN THE DEATH OF JESUS (pbuh) ON THE CROSS.................12    (D)  CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF TRINITY......................................................................12    (E)  HOLY QUR’AN REJECTS TRINITY AND DIVINITY OF JESUS (pbuh) ......................16    (F)  ASCETISM AND MONASTIC LIFE...........................................................................16    (G)  SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE................................................................19     (H)  OBSCENE AND OFFENSIVE TEACHINGS IN THE BIBLE......................................22    (I)   NEW TESTAMENT INSULTS JESUS (pbuh)............................................................23     (J)  CONCLUSIONS.....................................................................................................25 CHAPTER 3  Essential Features of True Divine Guidance.................................................................26 CHAPTER 4   Islam is the Only Hope for the Future............................................................................28 CHAPTER 5   Islam on Brotherhood and Equality of Mankind...........................................................46 3I

ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 6   Islam on Justice.............................................................................................................. 49 CHAPTER 7   Islam and War................................................................................................................. 54 CHAPTER 8   Islam Offers Friendship, Cooperation and Peaceful Co-Existence.............................60 CHAPTER 9   Islam for Freedom and Against Forced Conversion of Religion .................................65 CHAPTER 10   Importance of Belief in Life After Death........................................................................68 CHAPTER 11   Possibility of Life After Death........................................................................................73 CHAPTER 12  Life After Death is Necessary.........................................................................................79 CHAPTER 13  Essential Ingredients of Belief in Life After Death .......................................................85 CHAPTER 14  The Purpose of Man’s Life.............................................................................................88 CHAPTER 15   Islamic Concept of God..................................................................................................91 CHAPTER 16   Qur'anic Arguments About the Existence of One True God (Tawheed).....................102 CHAPTER 17   Why Muslims Believe that Holy Qur'an is the Book from God...................................125 CHAPTER 18   Why Muslims Believe Mohammed (pbuh) is the Messenger of God..........................158 4II

ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 19   Islam Strongly Rejects Theory of Evolution...............................................................250      What is the Theory of Evolution....................................................................................250      Islamic Response to Theory of Evolution................................................................... 251    Miracles & Phophesies of the Prophets of God.......................................................... 251     (1)  An Example from the Life of Abraham (pbuh).................................................... 251     (2)  Some Examples from the Life of Moses (pbuh)................................................. 252     (3)  Some Miracles of Jesus (pbuh)......................................................................... 253     (4)  Miracles & Predictions of Some Other Prophets............................................... 253       (a)  Example of Prophet Noah (pbuh)............................................................... 254       (b)  Example of Prophet Hud (pbuh) & His People ‘Ad...................................... 254       (c)  Example of Prophet Saleh (pbuh) & His People Thamud............................ 255       (d)  Example of Prophet Lot (pbuh) & His People............................................. 256        (e)  Concluding Remarks................................................................................. 256      Islamic Concept of the Creation of Man.................................................................. 258       (a)  Story of the Creation of First Man (Adam, pbuh)............................................ 258      (b)  Story of the Creation of the Human Race,       the Progeny of Adam (pbuh).......................................................................... 260      (c)  The Deception of Evolution........................................................................... 262 CHAPTER 20  Explanatory Translation of Surah 'Al-Fatiha' (First Chapter of Qur’an)......................270 APPENDIX A   Islamic Concept of Salvation.......................................................................................271 APPENDIX B   Islam Rejects Christian Doctrine of Atonement of Sin Through  Belief in the Death of Jesus (pbuh) on the Cross........................................................276 5III

ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

APPENDIX C   Holy Qur'an Rejects Trinity and Divinity of Jesus (pbuh)................................................ 279 APPENDIX D  A Christian Minister's Conversion to Islam by Jerald F. Dirks....................................... 284 APPENDIX E   Priests and Preachers Entering Islam............................................................................. 290 (((


  Dialogue Between Islam & Christianity............................................................................296    A Discussion of Religious Dogma Between Intellectuals & Scholars from the Two    Religions that Resulted in Conversion to Islam of All Members of Christian    Delegation....................................................................................................................... 296 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................... 298

6 IV

ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind



do not claim to be a scholar of Islam because I did not attend any religious educational institute or seminary although I did study up to 10th grade in a Parochial school. I therefore acknowledge my limited and finite knowledge of Islam, but I did study the Holy Qur’an with exegeses (or commentaries and explanations) and I have studied books on the biography of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) written by some great luminaries of Islam. This is of course in addition to the study of the scriptures of other religions—primarily the New Testament, the Old Testament and the Torah (The Soncino Chumash­—The Five Books of Moses with Haphtaroth). I do not claim that this book is the most comprehensive exposition of Islam, yet it is precise, clear, and logical. I was driven to write this book for following reasons:

I learnt in my high school years that our God is one, our humanity is one and our religion is one. God sent more than one hundred twenty-four thousand Messengers and Prophets all over the world at different times of history with Adam (pbuh), the first man as His first Messenger and with Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) as His last Messenger. All these prophets or messengers repeatedly declared two things in unmistakable terms: One of the things they all declared was that they were mere human beings, possessing no super human power of their own except as what God temporarily granted them in the form of miracles and that they were commissioned to convey the Guidance of God to the people. It is known fact that an example is better than precept, these Messengers or Prophets had to be pure human beings- of flesh and blood- to serve as practical examples to mankind of what they were inspired to preach. The other thing which was emphasized by all the Prophets was that the basic message of all the Prophets was the same. Whenever the people deviated from this Original Message, God sent Prophets to invite them to the Original Divine Way. But today we find that the followers of different Prophets have different religions, different beliefs, different fundamentals, some even worship their own Prophet as God. There is a great confusion and misunderstanding about Islam despite the fact that Islam is basically the same religion as preached by Adam (pbuh), Moses (pbuh), Jesus (pbuh) and all other Prophets sent by God. I realized that there is a great need for an accurate account of this religion. More over after the 9/11 incident in 2001, there has grown greater interest in the West to know more about Islam. There is a great turmoil and bloodshed going on all over the world and there is desperate need to stop it. When our God is one, and we all are the children of the same one couple Adam and Eve, and our religion is one, then why is this bloodshed? It must stop and I am quite confident that InshaAllah (God willing) it will stop if we succeed in guiding the people towards the True Divine Guidance sent by God through His Messengers and if all the people truly and sincerely follow this Divine Guidance. I thank God for enabling me to make this humble attempt despite my own limitations. I pray to Him to accept this humble service, and guide the readers to a better understanding and make this book fruitful for the purpose it is written.

Abdul Hameed Dogar Director, Islamic Foundation Villa Park, Illinois, USA Muharram 1431 January 2010


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind



rue religion is the most precious asset of man. It embodies guidance from the Creator and Sovereign of the universe for leading peaceful life on earth. It not only permits the fulfillment of all natural demands of mankind in a disciplined way, but also makes their fulfillment very rewarding and meritorious. But as religion is also primarily a discipline, man did not appreciate it. Instead of getting disciplined and changed by the religion, man changed the religion itself according to his own passions and desires. Because of this perversion, corruption, and tempering, the God-given religion of man has fallen apart and is dying. A large part of humanity has deserted it, many others are only giving it a lip service and are on their way to say it goodbye. Religion is being exploited for self-interest and personal motives. For that end the true religion is sometimes branded as violent and its followers as extremists. This corruption of religion fuels enormous injustice, exploitation, persecution, usurping the rights and properties of others, wars, and killings of innocent people. The interested parties marshal their resources for wrong publicity and for mobilization of fear, hatred, disgust, and resurgent self-pride and arrogance. We are very fortunate that God’s Guidance to man for peaceful living on earth, which He revealed to all His Apostles and Messengers is still present intact without any slightest change, corruption, or perversion. We can find this Guidance in the most complete, comprehensive, and up-to-date form, with practical examples for all important aspects of our life, in the life and teachings of Mohammed (pbuh), who is His Last and Final Messenger to the entire mankind, for all times after him. In addition to being most authentic and reliable, his teachings are most rational, appealing to common sense and reason, are very simple and easily understandable, are free from myths and superstitions, are universal and practical for all the people for all the times, needing no amendments and modifications. One of his most important teachings is that our present life is not be-all and end- all, but to believe in Life After Death, Resurrection, and the Day of Judgment and our thorough accountability before God for everything we think, plan, say, and do openly and secretly. As a result of this Judgment, which is going to be very thorough, fair and impartial, in which there will be neither any intercession nor any atonement by anyone for anyone, God will send the guilty ones to the Hell which is a place of indescribable tortures and miseries, and He will send the others to Paradise which is a place of eternal happiness and bliss beyond description and imagination This concept of life after death and punishment in Hell for evil deeds is a great deterrent against evil and reward with entry into Paradise is a great motivation of doing good deeds and avoiding evil. Without a strong belief in this concept of life Hereafter, Resurrection, Day of Judgment, and in accountability before a Just and Impartial God, there can be no peace in this world. This concept of life after death is so important that we have devoted four chapters to this subject. But unfortunately, the followers of a very famous and old religion have intentionally and deliberately taken this concept out of the teachings of their religion. They do not believe in Resurrection, Life After Death, in the Day of Judgment, and any accountability before God, nor do they believe in Heaven and Hell. Another great religion has a concept of life after death, but the followers of that religion, against the teachings of their prophet, corrupted it so much that they rendered this concept meaningless. In disregard of the teachings of their prophet and the teachings of earlier prophets, they introduced the concept that their prophet has atoned for their sins. Both the above groups feel that no matter whatever evil they do in this world, they will not be punished by God in the next world. Our objective in writing this book is to remind ourselves and all the people of the world that God Almighty, who alone is the Creator, Maintainer, and Sustainer of the universe, without any shareholders and partners, He alone is the Superpower, and none else. The purpose of our life is that He and He alone is to be obeyed, worshiped, and served, and we are accountable to Him in the Life Hereafter for the use of all our faculties and His bounties.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 1 Divine Guidance is the Only Solution for Current Crisis


here is no doubt that science and technology have brought great material progress and prosperity. But since science turned its back on God and His guidance, it has given a decent burial to peace and tranquility.

Today the world is in turmoil. Mankind is at the brink of self-destruction. This is the result of man’s utter forgetfulness of God, and hence forgetfulness of all absolute moral values and their suppression by the belief that material progress and self-gratification are all that matter. Strong nations, under one pretext or another, are attacking weaker nations to usurp their material resources, and thus kill innocent people, make others homeless, and make children orphans and women widows. There is violence and bloodshed everywhere. People are sucking other’s blood, public morality is being shattered, and social well-being is destroyed. Secularism, materialism, paganism, and racism flourish. The strong devour the weak because “Might is Right” rather than “Right is Might.” All the powers and faculties with which God has endowed man are being used for the destruction of mankind. The gift of modern civilization is moral bankruptcy in the form of soaring crime rates, sky-rocketing divorce rates, evaporating family values, illegitimate children, single mothers, alcoholism, drug abuse, unrelenting suicide rates, child molestation, same sex marriages, loss of respect for parents and elders, robberies, murders, rapes, and the epidemic of AIDS. We witness today a marked society-wide shift in the values that measure truth and quality. The forefathers of the present generation spent much of their free time, whether at home, work, community center, or town hall, in discussions and debates on political ethics, societal morals, and methodology of reason. The present generations seldom discuss or deliberate these subjects. Rather, usual conversations in the modern workplace, community centers, and homes focus on money, sex, entertainment, or alcohol. Or people spend their time getting brainwashed by television and other harmful media. Today, deviant sexual groups that have been hated for centuries are not only accepted, but actually encouraged out of complacent liberalism, political correctness, and moral flaccidity. Once, sending children to school guaranteed a structured, nurturing, productive, and effective education. However, today parents are concerned about the failures of “modern” education, such as declining moral values and standards, and escalating drug abuse, crime rates, and violence in schools. Today, parents rightly worry that they are losing control of their children. They worry about the effects of modern education on their children. The legacy of these and countless other changes has been widespread social turmoil, disorientation, and a diminished sense of security. Family and traditional values are being viciously attacked and branded as obsolete. Today, children are being taught they should be their own authorities on questions of morals and values, with no regard for the fundamental ethical precepts that have been the driving force behind the progress of civilization for centuries. Today, everyone has a “right to his own opinion and his own way of life” as long as he is “comfortable” with it, even if this “way of life” harms, abuses, and destroys others and himself. Today, God and His guidance cannot be mentioned in the classroom. As a result, children grow up as atheists or secular. In the past, children learned most of their moral teachings at home from their parents, particularly from their mothers. In the present times, in most cases, both parents work, and they have no time to spend with their children to teach or pass on moral values. Moreover, the outside environment, such as television, radio, the Internet, and peer pressure, has a dominant influence on children’s morals and behavior. We appeal to all God-believing, God-fearing, and humanity-loving people to join hands with us in our attempt to rescue humanity and to restore peace in our homes, in our community, in our country, and in the whole world. Most of the people in the world today have one or more of the following traits:


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (i) They do not believe in God or Creator of the world. (ii) They believe in many gods and even worship idols made with their own hands. (iii) They believe in one God who is the Creator of man and the universe, but their concept of God is so poor, imperfect, and perverted that it is of no use or benefit. (iv) They believe that this life is the only life, that there is no Resurrection, no Day of Judgment, no accountability before God, and no Life After Death and that this life is the be-all and end-all. (v) They believe there is Life After Death and accountability before God, but they also believe that a saint or holy man will intervene on their behalf, or that they are “chosen” people, or that when someone has atoned for their sins, they will not be punished no matter what they do. (vi) They believe that they are superior to other people because of the color of their skin, their race, nationality, country of birth, or financial status. (vii) They believe that they are the chosen people of God, and they have the God-given right to capture any land, to subjugate people anywhere in the world, and to treat them any way they want, because all people other than their own race are meant to serve them and are inferior to them. (viii) They do not know the true purpose of their lives and the mission of man on earth. (ix) They believe that God has not prescribed any way of living for man and has not given any comprehensive guidance in the spiritual, moral, social, material, political, economic, and other fields of man’s existence. Or, if God did provide guidance, it is outdated or not good for them. They devise their own systems, ways of life, and constitution, which, according to their wisdom, observation, and experience is in the best interest of their community, nation, country, or state. Thus, they completely divorce God from all affairs of the state. They do what the majority decides—God has no say in that. They have separation of religion and state; religion or belief in God is one’s personal affair. All these beliefs, ideologies, and philosophies are the result of man’s forgetfulness, or due to the loss of Divine Guidance. They all contribute in various degrees to creating, promoting, and supporting all evils, conflicts, wars, injustice, oppression, aggression and exploitation. The truth is that this entire universe has a Creator and He is only one. Arguments and proofs of the existence of this Almighty God are provided in Chapter 16, a true and comprehensive concept of God is provided in Chapter 15, and the purpose of man’s life is discussed in Chapter 14. As far as the Life Hereafter is concerned, it is both possible and necessary. Details of Life After Death, its rationale, importance, possibility, and necessity are provided in Chapters 10 through 13. The All-Merciful and Compassionate God has not only made elaborate arrangements for our physical needs, but has also provided the necessary guidance for our spiritual, moral, and social requirements. He has not left us in darkness to grope, wander, and stumble. Since God is over and above human passions, since He is not racist and has no leanings or preference for any particular human group, class, race, tribe, country, nation, or individual (except on the basis of obedience to Him), since He does not entertain any grudge or animosity against any class of human beings, and since He is the Most Just and Impartial, His laws are Most Just and Impartial, affording equal opportunities to all human beings for material progress and spiritual excellence. Since God is above all needs, the law made by Him is free from any self-interest. Since God is All-Knowing, and He is well aware of the nature and needs of man, and He is free from any shortcoming, weakness, deficiency, mistake, and ignorance, and He is the Most Wise, the code of life given by Him is the best, perfect, and flawless. It needs no improvement, change, or amendment. Since God is Most Loving, Most Merciful, Most Compassionate, and Most Kind, guidance given by Him is the most beneficial, leading to the happiness and welfare of man. On the other hand, every man-made law entails self-interest and bias and suffers from a limited vision or outlook, and therefore may not be beneficial or practical for all people at all times. No matter how sincere human beings may be in making laws, they can never attain a truly balanced approach of justice and dignity. Their viewpoint is never impartial. It is


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind not possible for them to shake off their feelings of love and ill-will and to come out with an equitable and balanced social order that ensures the well-being of all without any distinction or bias. It would be instructive to refer here to an example. Look at the color problem. The world has not yet been able to adopt a rational and human approach towards people of color. For a time biology was used to sanction color discrimination. For two centuries the courts upheld the differentiation in the United States. Thousands of human beings were coerced, gagged, and tortured for the “crime” that their skin was black. Separate laws were administrated for whites and blacks. They could not even study under the same roof in the same school or college. It was only on May 17, 1954 that the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that color discrimination in universities was unjust and against the principle of equality of man. After committing heinous blunders for centuries, man came to the view that such discrimination is unjust and should be abolished. But even now there are many people who have not realized the truth of this assertion and still stand for segregation. This is how the human mind has dealt with this problem. On the other hand, Islamic Law (Shari’ah) has always declared this discrimination unjust. It shows the right path, the noble course, and saves man from error and blunder. This is the clear truth which Islamic Law (Shari’ah) told to man more than fourteen centuries ago, while unguided reason has succeeded only in touching the fringe of it after centuries of waste, loss, and blunders, after subjecting hundreds of thousands of people to indiscriminate segregation, and after degrading men and corrupting human society. The Shari’ah gives the simplest and shortest approach to reality and its disregard leads to utter waste and failure (for details, see Chapter 5). A question may be asked: “Has God really provided such guidance? If so, where is it?” The answer to this question is an emphatic “Yes!” Guidance is possible, is necessary, is important for man, and has actually been provided by God as discussed below. When we buy a product, such as a car, a sewing machine, or other machinery, along with the item we also get an instruction booklet prepared by its manufacturer. If we disregard the manufacturer’s instructions, we will damage the machinery, or we will not be able to make the best use of the product. This is a case of a machine made by a human being. Now consider our own selves. God, Who is the maker of human machinery, has also sent instruction booklets called Scriptures and Divine “engineers” called Messengers and Prophets for education and training. God, the Creator of the human body, is not a human being like us, but is entirely different from us. It is extremely important for us to strictly follow His instructions if we want to make the most of ourselves. For example, if you entrust an airplane to a person who does not know how to fly it, there is no doubt that you will soon come to grief. If a machine made of lifeless materials cannot be used without full knowledge of its nature and working, how could the world of a human being—who has an extremely complicated psychology, whose life has countless aspects and facets, every one of which has many problems and difficulties—be ruled and run by men who, far from knowing others, do not even know themselves well enough? When such novices assume the role of law-makers, and such men try to run human life, the fate of man is not likely to be different from that of the airplane entrusted to a person who does not know how to fly it. It is evident that wherever man-made laws have been enforced and followed, instead of the Laws of God, and wherever man’s affairs have been run by men in disregard of the Divine Commands, there has been no peace or tranquility, and these affairs have been improperly managed leading to violence and bloodshed, oppression and injustice. All the powers and faculties with which God has endowed men are being used for the destruction of mankind rather than for its welfare and progress. The reason why man has turned his world into a veritable hell is that, like a curious child, he has tried to fly an airplane about whose mechanism and working he knows little or nothing. God is so Loving, Caring, Compassionate, and Merciful that before bringing any animal into this world, He arranges for all its physical needs in advance, such as air, water, heat, light, and treasures in the earth for its food. Take, for example, the case of a human being. When, as a baby, he is in his mother’s womb, God arranges for him the air, water, and food he needs. Even before the baby steps into this world, God arranges not one, but two canals of milk to feed


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind him with the best child food. And God puts so much love in the mother’s heart that she is on call twenty-four hours a day, sacrificing her rest, comfort, and sleep. And when the child is a little older and needs different kind of food, God provides him that food and the teeth to eat it. Again, it is God Who guides or reveals to the baby how to handle his food when he first feeds himself with his mother’s milk. Unlike other animals, man’s needs are not merely material. He also has moral and social facets. God has given him faculties that have not been given to animals. God has blessed man with intellect, wisdom, freedom of choice and action, and the ability to think, speak, read, write, plan, learn, discover, and invent. We cannot believe that our Beloved God, Who is so Caring, Loving, and Who makes such elaborate arrangements for all our physical needs on such a large scale would be so careless or indifferent that He would not guide us to the proper use of our faculties, showing us the right and wrong way of living our lives and the purpose of our lives. Moreover, obedience to the Law of God is not optional, but obligatory for man. God is not only our Creator and sustainer, but also the Master, Ruler, Sovereign, and Law-Giver. If you happened to own a piece of property, you would naturally like to see it managed according to your desires. That is what the right to property entails. God, being the Master and the Ruler of the entire universe, including mankind, is the One Whose Law is the Law of the universe and for mankind. His command alone is worthy of obedience. We are mere subjects in His vast kingdom. None of the subjects of the All- Powerful God, whether individual, family, community, nation, country, government, or legislative body, has the right to arrogate to himself the position of a sovereign ruler and make laws for the people according to his own whims and caprices, and call upon the subjects of God to follow those laws instead of the Law of God. Those who do this, and also those who follow such man-made laws, commit acts of rebellion against God and are bound to be severely punished by God sooner or later. God provided this necessary guidance through His Messengers and Prophets who were raised in many communities at different times in the history of mankind. The Qur’an, Chapter 10, Verse 47 tells us: “A Messenger was sent to every nation or community....” Some of these Messengers and Prophets are mentioned in the Bible and some are mentioned in the Qur’an, but there are many more who are not mentioned in either the Bible or the Qur’an. The Qur’an, Chapter 40, verse 78 tells us: “O, Prophet, We have sent many Messengers before you; of them there are some whose stories We have relayed to you and others whose stories We have not relayed to you.” The Messengers and Prophets mentioned in the Bible are only those who were sent to one particular community or area. Time after time, the revealed guidance was either lost or corrupted through human negligence or interpolations, and new prophets with fresh Dispensations were sent and humanity continued to advance from infancy to maturity. At last, when man’s civilization reached the stage of maturity—when vast empires and extensive travel routes were established both on land and sea, and thus humanity was practically ready to become one family—instead of sectional guidance, a perfect, final, and abiding revelation addressed to all mankind and for all times was granted in the seventh century of the Christian era: “Say (O, Mohammed), O, mankind, I am Messenger of God to all of you.” (Holy Qur’an, Chapter 7, Verse 158). For other references to this, see the following verses of the Qur’an: 1 ) Chapter 6, verse 19 2 ) Chapter 34, verse 28 3 ) Chapter 21, verse 107 4 ) Chapter 25, verse 1

Among the companions of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), we find persons like Billal from Africa, Suhail from Europe, and Sulman from Asia (Iran). He preached his message not only to all the tribes of Arabia but also sent emissaries or messengers with letters to all the rulers of the neighboring countries in the sixth year of Hijra inviting them to Islam. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) sent Dihya B. Khalifa Al-Kalbi with a letter to Caesar, the king of Rome; Abdullah B. Hudhafa Sahmi with a letter to Khusro Perwez, the king of Iran; Hatib B. Abu Balta with a letter to Muqauqis, the ruler of Alexandria; Amr B. Ummayya with a letter to Nagus, the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia); Shuja B. Wahb Al-Asadi with a letter


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind to Harith B. Abu Shimr Al-Ghassani, the ruler of Syria; and Salit B. Amr with a letter to the chiefs of Yamana. The sending of these letters shows that the message of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), from the first day, is for the whole world, for every human being, and for every tribe and country. Mohammed (pbuh) is the last of this chain of messengers. The Qur’an, Chapter 33, Verse 40 tells us: “Mohammed is God’s Messenger and the seal [last] of all prophets.” The guidance given to him is the last Divine Book called the AlQur’an. The Qur’an reminds the reader repeatedly that its basic message is the same as given to Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets who preceded Mohammed, Peace be upon them all. Mohammed (pbuh) is not a founder of any new religion, nor were any of the prophets founders of separate religions. All the prophets have been presenting one and the same religion from God from the very beginning, and Mohammed (pbuh) is also presenting this same religion. The Qur’an proclaims itself to be a reminder and reviver of eternal truths contained in former scriptures that are either forgotten or perverted by their followers. Islam did not claim to be a religion taught for the first time by Mohammed (pbuh). The Qur’an says that this has been the creed of all the inspired prophets. Laws and rituals have been a variable element that suits the times and circumstances, but the basic truths of belief in one God, a life of obedience to His commands in this world, a belief in Life After Death, and our accountability and responsibility for our actions before God on the Day of Judgment in the Hereafter have been constant elements of all revealed religions. Everyone knows that rebellion against authority invites punishment, whether a parent ordering a disobedient child, a boss commanding a disrespectful employee, or a government imposing laws upon a rebellious population. The natural consequence of disobedience is the tightening of commandments and the application of penalties. Thus certain restrictive subsidiary laws were imposed on certain communities as punishments and were lifted from subsequent, less rebellious, nations. A typical example is the restrictions of the Jewish Sabbath, which were imposed on the Jews for their repeated transgressions and were lifted from less rebellious later generations. Other examples include the dietary restrictions of the Jews and the washing of new cooking vessels in a river before use, among others. Islam like the Judaic, forbids eating pork. However, many other Jewish dietary restrictions were eliminated in the law of the Holy Qur’an. On the other hand, certain new restrictions were added, such as the abolition of alcohol. According to the Islamic viewpoint, such new commandments were withheld from previous revelation, for Allah delayed certain restrictions until mankind developed the individual refinement and social maturity to be capable of satisfying the law. Earlier revelation of such commandments would have placed a burden upon mankind greater than it could have borne, practically assuring noncompliance. Knowing the weaknesses of creation as none but the Creator can, Allah was selective and gentle in weaning the human race on the restrictions of revelation, revealing the essentials of creed with consistency from the very beginning but imposing restrictive commandments in appropriate stages. In the Old Testament, the sons and daughters of Adam were initially allowed to marry. Only later was this incestuous practice forbidden. Noah and his people were allowed to eat all kinds of animals before boarding the ark, but later certain restrictions were applied. At one time, a man could marry two sisters, but later this practice was forbidden. Islam teaches that while the basic creed conveyed through revelation never changed, laws subsidiary to the creed may have been changed according to a Divine Plan which dictated progressive modification in prohibitions and commandments. Just as a child receives instruction in life appropriate to the various developmental stages of maturity and responsibility, mankind may not have been able to handle certain commandments and prohibitions at earlier stages in revelation. Thus, a person can readily conceive that the Almighty, possessing Divine Wisdom surpassing all human cognition, always knew best when and where to command what. The originality of Islam lies in the fact that it taught the world what the world had forgotten or perverted, and presented the guidance of God in its final, complete, perfect, and the most comprehensive form for all times and for all peoples.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 2 Is Religion a Thing of the Past? 

INTRODUCTION True Religion is Not a Thing of the Past, But a Perverted Religion is!


estern nations, which succeeded the Muslims in the stewardship of the world, labored under a serious disadvantage from the very beginning. They never had the good fortune to possess an unpolluted source of Revealed Knowledge or an uncorrupted fund of Divine Wisdom. The insignificant part of the teachings of Jesus Christ that had reached them had been further lost through distortions and interpolations. Western nations tried to compensate for the lack of the light of heavenly guidance with the learning of the Greeks and the Romans; the entire pagan legacy of ancient Greece and Rome had fallen to their lot. Therefore, most of what was left of the religious teachings of Jesus Christ was devoured by Roman paganism. What little was still left after that was lost in the dogmatic quarrels of the clergy. Because the Middle Ages in Europe saw bitter hostility between the church and free thought, the church and science, and the church and the intellectual world, the West thinks that all religions are a hindrance to society and incapable of solving our problems. Many people question whether religion can meet human needs in today’s world of science and technology. The spirit of the times goes against religious thought. But it is a spirit born and bred in the West, relevant only to the historical experiences of the West, with its perverted Christianity, and is entirely irrelevant to Islam. If Western thinkers turn against religion, they can be understood and excused on the grounds of their experiences with their own religion, Christianity. No such excuse is, historically speaking, valid for Muslims, as discussed in Chapter 4. It is unreasonable to condemn every religion based on experience with one religion. It is necessary to examine all other religions, so they are not condemned without a hearing. Nevertheless, with reference to Islam, this condemnation without a hearing has been happening. Since, due to intensive long-sustained propaganda, it was generally assumed that Christianity was the best religion—nay, the only religion—of civilization, it was natural for those honest minds for whom Christianity had failed as a religion to turn to newer versions of Christianity or to do away with all religion. The assumption, however, that Christianity as practiced in the West today or as it has been practiced in so many countries for so many centuries is the best religion, is a proposition worth an honest investigation. The ministry of Jesus lasted for only three years. He had neither time nor opportunity to grapple with the manifold moral and cultural problems of his nation, which was left to itself to find out by a long process of trial and error the rights and duties of man in the various spheres of life. Jesus grew up in the shadow of the Roman Empire. On the one hand, Jesus did not have the power to stand before the then powerful Roman government and challenge its secular laws, civilization, and culture. On the other hand, Jesus found that Judaism which, from Abraham (pbuh) downwards, had produced great prophets, was suffering an eclipse and had degenerated into a religion of rigid and lifeless rituals and ceremonies, external observations, and empty legalism from which the spirit had departed. He therefore embarked upon his mission by preaching and practicing love of God and man, exposing the superficialities and hypocrisies of the rigid legalists and worshippers of the letter of the law. For him, a pure heart full of love was the essence of a true religion. If the purpose of religion as love is properly understood and followed, we can get a just world order wherein one can live, develop, and prosper happily in an atmosphere free from fear, oppression, and exploitation, and make the everlasting world to come, called Aakhira, a pleasing paradise. Jesus confined his teachings to this vital mission and left aside the political, economic, social, and cultural life of the Jews to whom he was sent. There is no doubt that Jesus both deepened and broadened the essential spiritual attitude towards life. The high and broad principles of spiritualized morality that he inculcated are a leaven that should perpetually reform, purify, and exalt


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind human hearts and improve human life in all its various spheres. But he created just a ripple in the stream of his nation’s life and then disappeared. He had no opportunity to demonstrate to his people how to apply this attitude to social, political, and economic problems. His essential conviction was that once people realized the Kingdom of Heaven within their souls, everything else would be added unto it. There is a great truth embodied in this idealism, but human nature and human relations that are the resultants of it demand that a God-commissioned great teacher should demonstrate how these idealistic generalities are to be applied to moralize and spiritualize the complicated patterns of human existence. Neither Jesus nor Buddha grappled with practical problems. Destiny had left the accomplishment of this practical task to another great prophet who would demonstrate in every sphere of life how the synthesis of law and love can improve all institutions and human relations. Was not Jesus uttering a prophecy about Mohammed (pbuh) when he said in very clear words: “I have still many things to say to you, but you are not able to bear them or to take them upon you, nor to grasp them now. But when he the spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth. For he will not speak of his own messag—on his own authority—but he will tell whatever he hears (from the Father, he will give the message that has been given to him) and he will announce and declare to you the things that are to come” (John, 16:12- 13). We have scant material about the life of Jesus, covering only about three years of his ministry, and a considerable part of that material has become suspect. Many Christian scholars and seminarians openly acknowledge that: (a)  Gospel records in many places do not present Jesus as he really was. While the church was established soon after Jesus lived, the New Testament was created many centuries later. The Gospel texts are neither the writing of Jesus nor were they written under his command. (b)  Many of the “original” readings of various biblical texts are in sharp contrast to what most Christians read in the current Bible, although gradually some of this information is being incorporated into newer and better translations. (c)  The formation of the early “mainstream” church was shaped by geopolitical considerations. (d)  There existed many early churches and Christian movements that never accepted the concept of a triune God -head, the divinity of Jesus, the Original Sin, and salvation through belief in the death of Jesus (pbuh) on the cross. (e)  The religion of Jesus has been altered and misrepresented. The present versions of the Bible are the writings of the Christian and Jewish priests and they are not all divine. In addition to historical accounts of the Bible, there is a lot of internal evidence in the Bible that disproves a divine origin. Jesus did not come to found a new religion. His mission was to revive the true religion of Moses and the religion of those prophets who came before and after Moses. Therefore, Jesus did not form any new community other than that of the Israelites and followers of Mosaic Law, nor did he designate his followers by any distinctive name. Likewise, his early followers did not consider themselves to be separate from the Israelite community, they did not develop into an independent group, and they did not adopt any distinctive symbol or name. They worshipped in the Temple of Jerusalem along with other Jews. Jesus himself followed the Mosaic Law and so did his followers. Jesus is reported to have said that he had not come to undo the Law and not an iota of Law can be changed (Matthew 5:17). He was a Jew like other Jews; a rabbi like other rabbis. The founder of the church was St. Paul. Soon the process of alienation began on both sides. After the departure of Jesus, Paul, one of the followers of Jesus, declared independence from Mosaic Law, holding that faith in Christ alone was all that one needed for salvation. At the same time, the Jewish rabbis declared the followers of Christ to be heretics and excommunicated them. The followers of Christ gradually began to call themselves Christians and drifted more and more away from the true teachings of Jesus and Moses. These Christians invented irrational dogmas and a creed under an influence that was foreign to the spirit and outlook of Jesus. These are the product of pagan creeds and mysteries for which no basis can be found in the true teachings of Jesus or in the teachings of any of the great Israelite prophets. These dogmas are incomprehensible and so irrational, so against common sense and reason, that the present day enlightened man cannot accept them. In addition, these teachings shut the door to all material progress and scientific advancement. It is these dogmas, the perverted religion of Jesus (pbuh), and all other religions invented by man that are condemned by modern man as a “thing of the past.” As for a true, pure, and unperverted religion sent by God, such as Islam, it is definitely not a “thing of the past.” These Christian dogmas are discussed below.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind


According to this dogma that was never preached by Jesus (pbuh): (1)  The first-ever sin, committed by Adam and Eve under God-given freedom, was not forgiven by God. Adam and Eve will suffer eternal punishment in Hell for their sin. (2)  Not only Adam and Eve, but the entire human race until Doomsday will also suffer eternal punishment in Hell for this Original Sin, even though it was only Adam and Eve who committed this sin. (3)  This inherited sin is so deeply rooted in the nature of man that no human being can save himself from the consequences of this sin by virtuous living or by obedience to God. (4)  God wanted the sacrifice of a pure blood for the remission of this sin. Jesus, the only begotten son of God (according to their faith), was the only one whose blood was pure because he did not inherit original sin. (5)  God so loved the world that He sent His only begotten son to die for our sins on the cross, and thus, by giving the sacrifice of his pure blood, Jesus atoned for the sins of all mankind. (6)  Jesus volunteered himself for this sacrifice. (7)  No matter what you do, there is no salvation unless you believe that Jesus died on the cross for your sins. (8)  After this act, too, only that portion of humanity can be saved that believes in this vicarious atonement; for the rest, no amount of virtuous living or obedience to God can guarantee salvation. (9)  Thus, even all the children who die in infancy go to eternal punishment in Hell because they die without the belief in the death of Jesus on the cross. However, Jesus said about children: “Let them come unto me, for of such is the kingdom of heaven.” But this cruel dogma makes these innocents fuel for the fires of Hell. (10)  Similarly, there is no salvation for all the people who were born and died before the death of Jesus, including great messengers and prophets (Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and thousands more, including their true followers) because they all did not believe in the death of Jesus on the cross.

Comments (a)  This dogma is the most basic, fundamental, and important in the Christian faith, because on the acceptance of this depends salvation. Jesus never preached this doctrine; rather, it was invented by the church three to four centuries after Jesus lived. Had this been among the teachings of Jesus, it would have been trumpeted by Jesus everywhere again and again. But there is not a SINGLE clear or explicit statement by Jesus in any of the four Gospels wherein Jesus says: “I have come to die for your sins and if you do not believe in my death on the cross, there will be no salvation for you.” For example, think of a town near a riverbank with a dam upstream. Suppose, due to failure of this dam, this town is going to be completely submerged and many inhabitants will die if they do not leave the town before the flood hits. Now suppose you are deputed to warn the people about the danger in time. What will you do? You will forget your rest, sleep, and food, and take a loudspeaker to announce the danger and try your best to make sure that everyone gets the message loud and clear, without any doubt or ambiguity. If you do not understand the language of the people of the town, then you will ask someone who knows their language to help you to announce: “O people! A flood is going to kill you. Leave your homes and run to a safe place.” Is that not what you will do? So why did not Jesus trumpet his message of salvation? He did not because he never preached it! In Islam, the most important teachings are: (1)  There is only One God (2)  Belief in life after death and in our accountability before God on the Day of Judgment Each of these beliefs has been repeated over a hundred times each in the Qur’an.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (b)  Jesus taught that God is loving, just, and forgiving, but the Christian dogmatists who invented the doctrine of Original Sin made the God of Jesus so cruel, unjust, revengeful, and unforgiving that He is more so than Genghis Khan, Tamerlane, Hitler, Stalin, and any other cruelest of the cruel. (c)  According to this irrational doctrine, God is so unforgiving and stern that no matter how much you repent and ask forgiveness for the Original Sin that you did not even commit, you will not be forgiven and you cannot escape the eternal punishment of Hell. (d)  There is an implicit message in this dogma that God did not have the power to forgive the sin of Adam and Eve or the power to forgive the sin of mankind inherited from Adam and Eve. His stern sense of justice and His love for man should be satisfied by nothing less than the blood sacrifice of Jesus (His only son, according to their belief) who, in spite of his complete innocence, should allow himself to be punished to atone for the sins of mankind. This presumes all humanity had to be born tainted and sinful—the first act of peculiar justice of God. Then the remedy that is worse than the disease: the remedy lay in the murder of the most innocent of all creatures. It is akin to a physician breaking his own head to cure the headache of his patient. (e)  Denial of this dogma is tantamount to heresy and the number of heretics in this respect is increasing every day, because no sensible person with a true and correct sense of justice can stomach this irrational and cruel dogma. (f)  This doctrine is not only unjust, cruel, and irrational, but it is also immoral. The concept of Original Sin is not only patently unjust but also biblically unsupportable. It contradicts the Bible itself, as the following passages show: “The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall die for his own iniquity...” (Deuteronomy, 24:16). And “The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him.” (Ezekiel, 18:20). How could a Just and Merciful God blame and punish a person for something he did not do? Morality rests on the responsibility of an individual for his own actions. To use a Christian idiom, everyone must bear his own cross. How then could Jesus atone for the sins of humanity? Those who sacrifice for a good cause set noble examples for others, but they cannot atone for the evils committed by others. According to the dogma of Original Sin, Jesus atones for misdeeds that were not committed by him, but were inherited by mankind as a result of the first sin. Like all the great Israelite prophets, Jesus emphasized moral living as the only demand of God. But Christian dogma changed this outlook entirely and based salvation not on moral living, but on the belief in an irrational dogma, thereby divorcing morality from religion. After Jesus, all Law was repudiated by his followers, forgetting what Jesus was believed to have said about the scrupulous observance of all Law both in letter and spirit. (g)  If God prescribes a law and demands obedience, it is not for His benefit, but for the benefit of mankind. If He punishes a person for his faults and sins, it is not for His satisfaction as this dogma states, but to check evil and to reform or purify the sinner. Those who sincerely repent find God ever- ready to forgive them without demanding any compensation from them or from any other person on their behalf. To demand blood sacrifice as a price for forgiveness shows a complete lack of mercy. What is necessary to wash away sin is not blood, but repentance, remorse, persistent struggle against evil inclination, and determination to carry out the will of God as revealed to us through His prophets. (h)  God gives His commands with due regard for our capacities and natural limitations. Our moral purification in this world does not necessarily mean complete freedom from all failings. All we are expected to do is to sincerely strive for good and to avoid sin to the best of our ability, and the rest will be forgiven by the Merciful God. (i)  According to this doctrine, it is not the life and teachings of Jesus, but his death that is important for salvation. If Jesus had died from a sickness or natural cause, there would be no salvation for Christians. Ought not the Christians feel grateful or obliged to the Jews for having put Jesus on the cross and thus provided for their salvation? If the Jews had not manipulated to put Jesus on the cross, there would have been no salvation for the Christians (j)  Moreover, as the doctrine of Original Sin represents an unjust, revengeful, and cruel God, such a God could not ask His creatures to be just and merciful. God is meant to serve as an ideal of human conduct. If His justice and mercy have dictated all this, then worshipping such a God would not make the worshipper just and merciful. Because the early Christians were the true followers of Jesus, they were the embodiment of mercy, compassion, love, and justice (Qur’an, 57:27, 5:82-83). However, when the church introduced the dogma that assured Christians atonement


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind for all their sins and guaranteed them salvation merely through belief in the death of Jesus on the cross, it emboldened the followers to commit any crime without fear of punishment for their actions by God in the next world. Although even today many Christians pray, and some on a daily basis, their prayers or supplications are limited to benefits in this world. They pray for health, wealth, safety, love, and relief from various miseries in this world. They do not mention in these prayers guidance from God for a straight path, forgiveness of sins, protection from Hell, a place in Paradise, or success in the Hereafter. Probably this is why the Christian West committed so many atrocities in Africa and Asia, usurped their resources, enslaved millions of Africans, committed genocide of the Native Americans, killed thirty million people in World War I and fifty million in World War II, and made millions of people homeless, widows, and orphans. (k)  What is so strange about this whole issue is that the Original Sin and God’s anger with the human race due to this Original Sin remained hidden from all previous prophets and Jesus until the church discovered it after the Crucifixion. (l)  Didn’t Jesus receive part of the sin himself through his mother? (m)  Were all the prophets before Jesus sinners? Was God angry with them, too? And still God chose these prophets to guide mankind? (n)  According to this dogma, following the Law has nothing to do with our salvation and therefore the Law can be ignored. However, Jesus lays great emphasis on the Law and states that there is no salvation without following the Law. See the following references. Also see comments in “O” and “P” below. Jesus (pbuh) said: “Do not think that I have come to do away with or undo the Law and the prophets; I have come not to do away with or undo, but to complete and fulfill them” (Matthew, 5:17). “For truly, I tell you, until the sky and earth pass away and perish not one smallest letter nor one little hook [identifying certain Hebrew letters) will pass from the Law until all things (it foreshadows) have been accomplished” (Matthew, 5:18). “Whoever then breaks or does away with or relaxes one of the least important of these commandments, and teaches men so, shall be called least important in the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who practices them and teaches others to do so shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven” (Matthew, 5:19). Also see the following verses for more on Jesus following the Law and Commandments of God: Matthew, 12:50, 19:1719; Mark, 3:34-35, 10:17-19; Luke, 10:25-28; John, 8:39. by:

(o)  According to the teachings of Jesus, the way to salvation is not through belief in the death of Jesus on the cross, but (I)   Leading a life of obedience to God at all times in all matters and affairs, and following His Law and Commandments as referenced in “N” above. (II) .Being righteous and doing good deeds as commanded by Jesus in the following verses: .

(1)  Matthew, 5:6-7, 5:9, 5:16, 5:20, 5:22-26, 5:28-30


(2)  Mark, 9:43-47


(3)  Luke, 11:42, 12:57

(III) .If you happen to do wrong or commit a sin, repent before God and ask His forgiveness. For emphasis by Jesus on repentance of our sins before God and asking Him for forgiveness, see the following references: Matthew, 6:12-15, 18-3; Mark, 2:17, 6:12, 11:25-26; Luke, 5:32, 11:2-4, 13:3-5, 15: 10.    (p)  Most Christians follow St. Paul and not Jesus. Jesus (pbuh), himself being a Jew, strictly followed the Mosaic Law. Despite all this, St. Paul who used to persecute Jesus (pbuh) and his followers, abolished this Law entirely after the alleged crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus (pbuh). St. Paul invented a new religion and completely changed the teachings of Jesus (pbuh), Moses (pbuh), and all earlier prophets, as shown by the following excerpts: “...not a single human being will be made righteous in God’s sight through observance of the Law. For through the Law comes the knowledge of sin” (Romans, 3:20).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “...a person is not made righteous through the works of the Law, but only through faith in Christ Jesus, we have believed in Christ in order that we might be made righteous by faith in Christ and not through works of the Law; For by works of the Law no person will be justified” (Galatians, 2:16). “It is the message of faith, which we preach that if you confess with your lips the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes so that he is made righteous and with the mouth confession is made for salvation” (Romans, 10:9). “For we come to the conclusion that a man is justified by faith without the works of the Law” (Romans, 3:28). “Christ has ransomed us from the curse of the Law in as much as He became a curse for us, for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree’’ (Galatians, 3:13). In other words, what Paul really says to his followers (most of those who call themselves Christians are Paul’s followers, and not the followers of Jesus) is that they should forget the old Law, whose inconvenience people have suffered and tolerated for too long, and start living by the new religion of their own desires, and start enjoying worldly pleasures restricted and prohibited by earlier commandments. Paul’s religion is made very attractive, with salvation easy and effortless. Paul changed the Christianity of Jesus (pbuh) to such an extent that he appears to be teaching: Follow Jesus or follow Paul, but both cannot be followed simultaneously because they contradict each other as discussed below: Paul is a self-exposed hypocrite: “Although I am free from everyone, I have enslaved myself to all of them in order to win a larger number. To the Jews I behave as a Jew to win Jews, to those under the Law as one who is under the Law, although I am not under the Law, to gain those who are under the Law. To those who are without law I am as without law, although not lawless toward God but committed to Christ’s Law, in order to win those who are without Law” (1 Corinthians, 9:19). Paul abolished the Law that was followed and preached by Jesus (pbuh) and corrupted the whole religion, giving it a new form. The main ambition behind all this was, in his own words, “to win a larger number” of followers; the followers of a new religion, “the Pauline Christianity.”

TEACHINGS OF JESUS DISHONORED Paul not only distorted the teachings of Jesus Christ (pbuh), he dishonored them by arguing that Jesus (pbuh) gave immature and defective teachings to his followers, and that they were not worth following. Instead, he said the people should follow his teachings, which according to him, are mature and complete: “Of course, anyone who feeds on milk is inexperienced in the matter of righteousness, for he is an infant. But solid food is for the mature person, for those whose faculties have been trained by practice to distinguish between good and evil. Therefore let us leave behind the elementary teachings of Christ and advance towards maturity” (Hebrews, 5:13). James the Apostle, head of the church and brother of Jesus taught that faith alone was not sufficient for salvation (Galatians, 1:19). James (2:14-26), “Faith Without Works is Dead,” contains a passage in which James sarcastically compares those of faith but lacking good works with demons, saying, “You believe that there is one God. You do well. Even the demons believe—and tremble!” (James 2:19). Modern words might read more like, “You believe in God? So what? So does Satan. He believes with such certainty that he trembles—how are you different from him?” The defining feature of a righteous person is “...that a man is justified by works, and not by faith only” (James, 2:24). Why? Because: “For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also” (James, 2:26). James admonished Paul for his blasphemous teachings and warned him of the meeting of the assembly to decide his punishment (Acts, 21:21-22). James also advised Paul to “repent and purify himself of sacrilege, walk orderly and keep the Law before it is too late” (Acts, 21:23-26). Some people think that the light that Paul saw and the voice that he heard on his way to Damascus (Acts, 9:3 -9) were not of Divine origin, but were a convincing ploy of Satan. Satan had played a similar game with Jesus (pbuh) when he took


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Jesus (pbuh) up on a very high mountain (Matthew, 4:810). However, Jesus (pbuh), being a Messenger of God, was under the protection of God and was, therefore, not deceived by Satan. Even Paul admits: “...Satan himself transforms into an angel of light...” (2 Corinthians, 11:14-15). So Paul was not sure whether it was an angel of light or Satan who talked to him. Satan is very cunning, clever, and mischievous. Before this vision, Paul was openly persecuting and killing the followers of Jesus (pbuh), but after this vision, Paul started destroying Christianity from within by contradicting the concrete and accepted teachings of Moses (Moses) and Jesus (pbuh). Satan misled and deceived our father Adam and many other people. For example, once there was a pious and Godfearing Muslim, Abdul Qadar Jilani, who once was in a barren land where there was neither water nor food. He was extremely thirsty. Suddenly a cloud came and it began to rain. He quenched his thirst and thanked God. In this cloud he saw a light that extended all the way to the horizon. From this light came a voice saying: “O, Abdul Qader, I’m your lord (God), I’m so much pleased with your great worship and obedience to me that I now lift all the prohibited commands from you and make everything permissible for you.” Upon hearing this, Abdul Qader said: “May God protect me from you O, Satan, the cursed one, get away from here.” The whole light disappeared in smoke and a voice came: “I have misled dozens of people in this desert, but your knowledge saved you.” Hearing this, Abdul Qader said: “O, the cursed one, you want to deceive me again (by creating in me a false pride of being superior, arrogant, and a learned person). It is not my knowledge but my God who saved me, out of His Mercy, from your deception.” Later, when someone asked Abdul Qader Jilani how he recognized that it was Satan, he replied: “from Satan’s words, I now lift all the prohibited commandments and make everything permissible for you.” He further added, “God does neither command nor does He like evil.” (“Fayuze Yazdani,” 1964, published by Madina Publishing Co., Bandar Road, Karachi, Pakistan.

(B)  ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF SALVATION The Only Correct Road to Salvation is Correct Faith and Righteous Deeds See Appendix A for a discussion of this topic.


(D)  CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF TRINITY The doctrine of triune God or three headed God as stated by the Athanasian Creed is as follows: There is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But the godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one; the glory equal, the majesty coeternal. “The Father is God, the Son of God is God, and the Holy Ghost is God, but one God.” When you ask the Christians, they say, “It is a mystery.” They have no answer. If they are all the same, why have three? The biblicists concede that the very concept of Trinity is beyond rational comprehension.

Comments: Christian dogmatists say that Christians should believe in the Trinity as a matter of faith, otherwise you are not a good Christian. God gave us a brain and intellect to think and reflect, so why does He expect us not to use it when it comes to worshipping Him? This is why after the promulgation of the doctrine of the Trinity, a large number of Unitarians (who deny the Trinity) and intellectuals were killed throughout the history of Christianity. If there had been three attributes of the same God, Christian monotheism would be understandable. But neither God the Father, nor God the Son, nor God the Holy Ghost is an attribute. Rather, they are definite persons and, as far as human understanding is concerned, are mutually exclusive individuals. This makes Christian’s monotheism full-fledged polytheism. This dogma makes God out of Jesus. In reality, it was the claim of deity for Jesus that led to this doctrine of the Trinity. There is not a single explicit statement by Jesus in the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Gospels wherein he says: “I am God, your Creator, and you should worship me.” On the other hand, there are dozens of references in the Gospels that contradict the divinity of Jesus. This doctrine runs counter to the concept of God given in the Old Testament. The Christian notion of godhead is not only deeply mystifying, but also flagrantly blasphemous. It is an utter mockery of the oneness of God. Some Christians say that Jesus is God because he was born without a father. We Muslims believe in the virgin birth of Jesus (i.e., God created Jesus without a father), and we also believe that the creation of Jesus is just like the creation of Adam, who was created without a father and mother. There are other Christians who say that he is God because he performed many miracles, and that he even brought the dead to life. We Muslims believe in the various miracles of Jesus, and not just those miracles mentioned in the Gospels, but also in those miracles mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, which are not even entioned in the Gospels. God gave different miracles to different prophets, even bringing the dead to life as described in the Old Testament (1 Kings, 17:22; 2 Kings, 4:34; 2 Kings, 13:21). Another well-known example is the miracle of Moses splitting the ocean, the Red Sea (Exodus 14:22). But these miracles were performed by the will, permission, and power of God, and not through any personal divine power of any prophet or of Jesus. The New Testament states: “Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested by God” (Acts, 2:22). It is a great insult and humiliation to God to believe that He lived as a child in the womb of a woman for nine months, was born like any other child, was circumcised, baptized, ate, drank, slept, rested, used the washroom, wept, was subject to fear and other emotions, and was then overpowered by his enemies, killed, and remained dead for three days. No sensible person who believes in one True God can stomach this polytheism. This doctrine is a clear proof that the founders of traditional Christianity have painted Jesus and his creed in colors drawn from the pagan paint box. Sometime back, I was invited for a presentation on Islam by a church in a suburb. After my presentation, the priest who had invited me took me aside and said: “I, and there are many others like me, do not believe that Jesus was God.” After that he said: “I, and there are many others like me, do not believe in the Original Sin.” Promoters of Christianity generate millions of dollars in donations annually. This is a big business, and those who are part of this business have a vested interest in keeping it going. However, the vast majority of Christians are well-intentioned people, but they do not have the time to study what is really in the Bible. Jesus was born to a certain woman, at a certain time, and in a certain place. If Jesus was ever created, regardless of when or where it occurred—whether before or after the Incarnation or at the beginning of creation—it nullifies the claim that Jesus is God. God is eternal and uncreated.

GOSPELS REJECT TRINITY AND DIVINITY OF JESUS (pbuh) The verses below prove that the Gospels reject the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus (pbuh). (1) Jesus was asked: “Which commandment is first and most important of all?” Jesus answered: “The first and principal one of all commands is, ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord Our God is One Lord’.” (Mark, 12:28-29) (2) Jesus says in the Gospel of John, “But go to my Brethren and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and to your Father, and to my God and to your God’.” (20:17) (3) Jesus says: “Why do you call me good? There is no one good except God alone” (Mark 10:18; Luke 18:19) (i.e., only God is Perfect and Infallible, and everyone else is fallible and imperfect). (4) The condition of Jesus on the night he was to be arrested is described in the Gospel of Matthew: “Then Jesus went with them (his disciples) to a place called Gethsemane, and he told his disciples, ‘Sit down here, while I go over yonder and pray.’ And with him Peter and two sons of Zebedee, he began to show grief and distress of mind and was deeply depressed. Then he said to them, ‘My soul is very sad and deeply grieved, so that I am almost dying of sorrow. Stay here and keep awake and watch with me.’ And going a little further, he threw himself upon the ground on his face and prayed saying, ‘My father, if it is possible, let this cup pass away from me nevertheless, not what I will but as you will and desire.’ And he came to the disciples and found them sleeping and he said to Peter, ‘What! Are you so utterly unable to stay awake and watch with me for one hour?’ Again a second time he went away and prayed, ‘My father, if this cannot pass by unless I drink it, your


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind will must be done.’ And again he came and found them sleeping. So leaving them again he went away, and prayed for the third time, using the same words” (Matthew, 26:36-44). Our Christian friends are never tired of parroting that Jesus (pbuh) came into the world expressly to offer himself as a willing sacrifice to atone for mankind’s sins. If that was true, why did he hesitate and pray for the reversal of the fate prescribed for him? And why did Jesus (pbuh), the God-man, need an angel to strengthen him (Luke, 22:43)? (5) Jesus says that only God should be worshiped and served: “Again the devil took him (Jesus) up on a very high mountain, and showed him all the kingdom of the world and the glory. And he (the devil) said to him (Jesus), ‘These things are taken together I will give you, if you will prostrate yourself before me, and do homage and worship me.’ Then Jesus said to him, ‘Be gone Satan! For it has been written, you shall worship the Lord, your God, and Him alone shall you serve’’ (Matthew, 4:8-10). (6) “Jesus says that God alone is God” (John 5:44). (7) When Jesus was put on the cross, he cried and he asked God for help, like any other person: “Jesus cried with a loud voice, ‘Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani?’ (My God, my God, why have you abandoned me, leaving me helpless, forsaking me, and failing me in my need?)” (Matthew, 27:46). Note: God helps others, and does not need any help from anyone. These are not the words of a man who willingly died for our sins. One does not cry in desperation and does not express displeasure when one’s wishes are being fulfilled. The use of the words, “forsaking” and “abandoned” by Jesus (pbuh) shows that the situation was neither as anticipated by him, nor under his control. Jesus (pbuh) says: “Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find it; knock and the door will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened.” And: “Which of you, if his son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a snake?” (Matthew, 7:7-10) And Jesus (pbuh) did ask earnestly, as repeated in Luke (22:44): “And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.” Can anyone imagine that God would answer a prophet’s plea for rescue with a short weekend on a cross instead? If Jesus (pbuh) is God, one wonders why God would permit death to overtake Him when He had the power to save Himself? Or, did God commit suicide? Muslims believe that Jesus was never crucified (Qur’an, 4:157). If Jesus (pbuh) did pray as the Gospels say, then his prayer was accepted and God saved him from suffering and humiliation on the cross. There are so many discrepancies in the description of the crucifixion and resurrection that it makes the doctrines of crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus (pbuh) unreliable (also see the Gospel of Barnabas). (8)   “In the morning, long before daylight, he got up and went out to a deserted place, and there he prayed” (Mark, 1:35). If Jesus (pbuh) is God, whom did he worship? And why? Did he pray to himself? (9)   Jesus’ knowledge was limited. He says, about the last day: “But of that day and hour no one knows not even the angels of heaven, nor the son, but only the Father” (Matthew, 24:36). (10)  Jesus says: “I lost my healing power because someone touched my clothes” (Mark, 5:30-32; Luke 8:45- 46). Note: God’s power is permanent, He does not lose it. (11)  “He was not able to do even one miracle there” (Mark, 6:5). (12)  After Jesus had gone indoors, his disciples, asked him privately, “Why couldn’t we drive it out?” He replied: “This kind can come out only by prayer.” Note: If Jesus was God, he could have said, “I am God, I can do it.” (13)  Jesus refers to himself as a prophet in the Gospels and people call him a prophet, as documented in the following


n   When Jesus was rejected in his own country or city, he said: “A prophet is not without honor except in his own

country and in his own house” (Matthew, 13:57).

n   When Jesus entered Jerusalem the whole city was stirred and asked: “Who is this?” The crowd answered:

“This is Jesus, the Prophet from Nazareth in Galilee.” (Matthew, 21:10-11).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind n “And although they (priests and Pharisees) were trying to arrest him [Jesus] they feared the throngs, because

they regarded him as a prophet” (Matthew, 21:46).

n Jesus says about himself: “Nevertheless I must continue on my way today and tomorrow and the day after that,

for it will never do for a prophet to be destroyed away from Jerusalem...” (Luke, 13:33, 7:16, 7:39, 24:19; John, 4:44, 6:14, 7:40).

n Referring to Jesus, people say “A great prophet has appeared among us” (Luke, 7:16). n “Now when the Pharisee who had invited him [Jesus] saw it, he said to himself, if this man were a prophet he

would surely know who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him, for she is a notorious sinner” (Luke, 7:39, 4:23-24; Mark, 6:15, 8:28).

(14)   In the gospel of John (14:24), Jesus (pbuh) says: “The father is greater and mightier than I am.” If you equate Jesus to God, you deny the Bible and the Gospels. (15)   In the Gospel of Matthew (23:9-10) Jesus says: “And do not call anyone [in the church] on earth father, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. And you must not be called master [leader], for you have one master [leader], the Christ.”    (16)  Jesus refers to himself again and again in the Gospels as a “son of man” (Matthew, 8:20, 9:6, 17:9, 17:12, 17:22, 19:28, 2:18, 2:28, 24:27, 26:24, 26:45, 26:64). It is obvious that the son of man can only be a man, not God.    (17)  The Gospels refer to Jesus as the Messenger of God as documented in the following verses: n “This is because I have never spoken on my own authority or of my own accord or self-appointed, but the Father

Who has sent me has Himself given me orders what to say and what to tell” (John, 12:49).

n “...He who rejects me rejects Him who sent me” (Luke, 10:16). n “Jesus answered them and said, ‘My doctrine is not mine, but His who sent me”’ (John, 7:16). n “....My food is to do the will of Him who sent me...” (John, 4:34). n . “I can of myself do nothing. I do not seek my own will but the will of the Father who sent me” (John, 5:30). n “For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of Him who sent me” (John, 6:38). n In the Gospel of John (14:24), Jesus says: “... and the teaching which you heed and hear is not mine but [comes]

from the father who sent me.”

    (18)  Throughout the four Gospels, Jesus does not refer to himself even once as God or the “begotten son of God.” No doubt he refers to himself as the son of God, but the Gospels explain what he means by the “son of God.” For example: “Blessed are the makers and maintainers of peace, for they shall be called the sons of God” (Matthew, 5:9). And: “But love your enemies, do good to them, and lend to them without expecting to get anything back. Then your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High, because he is kind to the ungrateful and wicked” (Luke, 6:35). Also see Luke, 20:34-36, Matthew, 23:9, and Luke, 3:38. Also in the Old Testament, God says: “Israel is my son, is my first born son, Ibraham is my son, is my first born son, Solomon is my son,” etc. (Exodus, 4:22; Jeremiah, 31:20, 31:9; 1 Chronicles, 28:6; 2 Chronicles, 22:7-10). The Old Testament even refers to David as the begotten son of God (Psalms, 2:7). If Jesus (pbuh) was the son of God in the literal sense, then there must have been a time when Jesus (pbuh) did not exist. If Jesus (pbuh) was created of the Father, then there must have been a time when the Eternal Father preexisted, so He later created Jesus? Since God is Eternal, Jesus (pbuh) cannot be considered to be partners in God-head if he was, in fact, created. The Creator and His creation are not the same, and so cannot be partners in divinity. (19)  The proof that the Christians provide for the divinity of Jesus is that Jesus said, “I and father are one,” which really means, “I preach the same thing that father wants me to teach or which he reveals to me.” Also see John, 17:11, 17:21, and 17:23, in which Jesus says he and his disciples are one or they are one with God. According to this “proof” that Jesus is God, the Old Testament says Moses is God: “Then the lord said to Moses, Behold,


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind I make you as God to Pharaoh [to declare my will and purpose to him) and Aaron your brother shall be your prophet” (Exodus, 7:1). (20)  Jesus thanks God and acknowledges that the power of performing miracles has been given to him by God and is not his own. He also thanks God for various favors of God. (Matthew, 11:25-27; John, 17:1-2; John, 11:41-42). Once the intellectual shackles of the Middle Ages were broken, the thinkers among the Europeans could not reconcile themselves to a humanized god-father. After a period of enlightenment, European thinkers instinctively shrank from the concept of God as presented in the teachings of the church. As this was the only conception to which they had been exposed or accustomed to, they thought that every religion was like that. Therefore, they began to reject the very idea of God, and with it they rejected every religion, becoming atheists, agnostics, communists, Nazis, nationalists, secularists, and irreligious. Some Christians have started preaching that belief in the divinity of Jesus is not essential to being a true Christian. According to the London Daily News (June 25, 1984): “More than half of England’s Anglican bishops say Christians are not obliged to believe that Jesus Christ was God, according to a survey published today.” Noteworthy is the fact that this is not the opinion of lay clergy, but of bishops, leaving many parishioners wondering who to believe, if not the majority opinion of the higher ranks of their own clergy.

(E)  HOLY QUR’AN REJECTS TRINITY AND DIVINITY OF JESUS (pbuh) See Appendix C for a discussion of this topic.

(F)  ASCETICISM AND MONASTIC LIFE Another dogma invented by the church after Jesus, and which played a prominent role in turning people away from Christianity, is life-negating asceticism and repudiation of the world. Although there is no scriptural authority for clerical celibacy—the marriage of priests being explicitly recognized in the Old Testament—reformers based their arguments on the doctrine that no man can serve two masters. He who is bound to the world by permanent ties would become enslaved to the world. This philosophy dichotomized human life into spirit and flesh. Its salient features are: ( a ) Sexual urge is of the devil and a hindrance to spiritual life. ( b ) The ideal Christian is one who becomes a monk (or nun) and does not marry. Celibacy is superior to matrimonial

and mundane life.

( c ) Those who perform religious service in the church should not marry. ( d ) The bond of marriage between man and woman is a filthy thing. One should remain chaste. Chastity means that one

should strictly abstain from sexual relations even between husband and wife.

( e ) One who seeks love of God should break off all relations of human love that bind him in the world to his parents,

his brothers, his sisters, and his children.

( f ) To possess property of any kind is a sin for a religious person. The criterion of moral excellence is to live as a poor

person and ascetic.

( g ) The withdrawal from pleasures and all material comforts, self-denial, curbing of desires, and torturing the body by

different sorts of harsh disciplines is a climax and a proof of a person’s spirituality.

( h ) Worshipping saints replaced the ancient deities. Images of Christ and Mary began to be worshipped instead of God.

Thus it divided life into two compartments—the religious and the secular. As a result, a wedge has been driven between those who select one or the other of these modes of life. Frequently, the two groups were at loggerheads with one another, for the “world” and “religion” were to them incompatible spheres of human life. Every man was forced to choose one or the other, since no one could be expected to travel in two boats at the same time. The prevalent view was that the path of salvation lay not through the rough and tumble of life, but only in isolation


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind from the social, economic, and political problems of worldly pursuits. No concept of religion that barred the gates to material progress and acquisition of power, riches, and fame could be of interest to intelligent, capable, and ambitious persons. Forced by this dichotomy to choose between the “world” and “religion,” a large number of the most able people dissociated themselves from the rigors and constraints of religious and ascetic life. By withdrawing themselves from the pursuit of virtue, such men frustrated the integration of secular and religious affairs. Morality appeared to vanish from the conduct of public affairs. The state eventually revolted against the church and made itself free from all obligations to it. This hideous schizophrenia not only divorced what was called “worldly” from the benefit of spiritual wisdom, but it also gave birth to the faithlessness and agnosticism of modern Europe, which is now threatening, because of its political and cultural supremacy, to inundate the entire world. The present wave of gross materialism, loss of faith, and moral debasement can be seen as a direct consequence of the division between spirit and matter affected by older civilizations.

COMMENTS ON ASCETICISM AND MONASTIC LIFE Islam rejects and condemns the ascetic view of life, and proposes a set of methods and processes for the spiritual development of man by living in this world, not outside of it. The place for the growth of the spirit is in the midst of life and not in solitary places of spiritual hibernation. For more details see “Islamic Concept of Worship” in Chapter 4. (1) This asceticism was the result of the perversion of the teachings of Jesus. Jesus’ message was basically the same as that of Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, and the other messengers who preceded him. None of the biblical prophets preached this life negating asceticism. God says in the Holy Qur’an, 57:27: “After them (Noah and Abraham) We sent Our Messengers one after the other, and followed them with Jesus son of Mary and gave him the Gospel and put in the hearts of those who followed him, compassion and mercy, but monasticism they themselves invented, We did not prescribe it for them. They invented it themselves in order to seek Allah’s goodwill ....” (2)  Islam, which embodies the true teachings of all the prophets, repudiates asceticism as a source of spiritual wellbeing and rejects the dichotomy of human affairs into spiritual and temporal. Islam tells the world that every worldly affair undertaken with sincerity to please God and in accordance with the code of morals revealed by Him through His Messengers is meritorious in the sight of God. (3)  It is wrong to think that religion demands withdrawal from the world for remembrance of God. Islam commands action, not inaction; exertion, not indolence; acceptance of responsibility and doing one’s duty instead of shrinking selfishly from these duties. (4)  Islam does not scorn wealth and power, but teaches us how to make proper use of both. Islam does not teach us to annihilate our desires; rather, it commands us to discipline them. (5)  Islam, which is a true religion of mankind, is not a religion in the general sense; rather, it is a complete way of life based on a unique concept of man’s place in the universe. Man, according to Islam, is the representative of God on earth — His vicegerent or deputy. The only purpose of creating man and sending him to earth is to work for and act on this assignment. (A comprehensive discussion of the purpose of life of man is given in Chapter 14.) This assignment is to worship, obey, and serve Him; to enforce His law upon himself and that portion of His creation that falls under his jurisdiction; to try to the best of his capacity to eradicate evil, injustice, aggression, oppression, and exploitation; to work to the best of his ability to promote good, establish peace, and make the Law of God supreme (not man-made law); and thus establish the Kingdom of God on earth. God has given man the necessary potential, talent, and capabilities to discharge this duty, and He has put all things on earth at his disposal, giving him the power and authority to use them to manage the affairs of and to rule on earth on His behalf according to His will; to explore new things; to make new inventions and discoveries; to create constructive and beneficial changes on earth; to bring progress and prosperity; to make earth a better place to live; and thus to serve the Creator in the best possible way and thank Him most profusely. (6)  God is watching us all the time, as though He is videotaping us or we are on candid camera. One day, after death, we all shall be brought back to life for judgment concerning the assignment given to us in this world. Those who performed this assignment to His satisfaction will be sent to Paradise, a place of eternal happiness and bliss. The rest will be sent to Hell, a place of eternal miseries and tortures. Thus, man has to be very actively involved in the affairs of this world and not sit aloof


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind somewhere in a jungle, working on his personal spiritual uplifting without any interest in what is happening around him. (7)  We have body and soul and we have to satisfy the genuine needs of both in such a way as to uplift the spirit and enhance the quality of human life. (8)  Islam wills us to be a community of the “middle way:” “And it is thus that We appointed you be the community of the middle way, so that you might be witness before all mankind and the Messenger might be a witness before you...” (Qur’an 2:143). It is a community that keeps in balance the two extremes of materialism and spiritual asceticism. The Muslim community occupies the middle ground in its beliefs and outlook on life. It treats man as a balanced combination of body and soul and allows him the opportunity and means to satisfy them both in moderation. Within this framework of balance and moderation, every constructive talent, ability, aptitude, and activity is nourished and encouraged to grow and play its part in society. (9)  God says in the Holy Qur’an: “Children of Adam! Take your adornment at every time of prayer and eat and drink without going to excesses. For Allah does not like those who go to excess” (7.31). While performing prayer, people are required not only to cover the private parts of their body, but also to wear clothing that serves the two-fold purpose of covering the body and of giving one a decent appearance. The directive to pray in a proper and decent dress is aimed at refuting the misconception entertained by ignorant people through the ages that man should worship God either nude or semi-naked, or at least have a shabby appearance while worshipping. In this verse, people are told the opposite. At the time of worship they should not only be clothed and free from indecency, but also should wear decent clothing. God does not want to subject man to want, misery, or starvation, or to deprive him of the good things of this worldly life. On the contrary, it pleases Him that man should appear in good, decent dress and enjoy the clean food provided for him by God. There is nothing sinful in this. As for sin, it consists of transgressing the bounds set by God. This transgression could be committed either way: by making the lawful unlawful or by making the unlawful lawful. “O children of Adam! Indeed We have sent down to you clothing to cover your nakedness and garments which provide protection and adornment. But the finest of all is the garment of piety” (Qur’an, 7:26). The general principle is to satisfy your nature, but without exaggeration. This limitation applies to clothing and adornment. Human beauty is that of clothing and cover, while animal beauty is that of nudity. Human beings today are sinking into the depth of ignorant reaction that sends them down to the level of animals. Fashion houses, films, pictures, novels, and magazines are at the forefront of this campaign of promoting nudity. “[O Mohammed ask them]: Who has forbidden the adornment which Allah has brought forth for His creatures or the good things from among the means of sustenance?’ Say: ‘These are for the enjoyment of the believers in this world, and shall be exclusively theirs on the Day of Resurrection. Thus, do We clearly expound Our revelations for those who have knowledge’’ (Qur’an, 7:32). Since it is God Himself Who has created all good and pure things for man, it obviously could not have been His intent to make them unlawful. Now, if there is any religion or ethical or social system that forbids those things or considers them an insurmountable barrier to man’s spiritual growth, it has an intellectual orientation which itself is proof of it not having been prescribed by God. This is an important argument which the Qur’an advances in the refutation of false creeds. An appreciation of this argument would help one understand the Qur’anic line of argumentation. All the clean and beautiful things created are meant, in principle, for the believers in this world, for they are God’s faithful subjects, and it is fidelity to God that makes one deserve to enjoy things which are God’s. However, all people are being tested in this world. Hence, even those who are disloyal to God are granted respite to mend their ways and are therefore not denied His worldly bounties. In fact, with a view to testing those disloyal to God, these bounties are at times lavished upon them even more abundantly than on God’s faithful servants. But the next life will be totally different. There, one’s station will be determined entirely by one’s righteousness and justice. God’s bounties in the next life, therefore, will be for the faithful alone. As for the unfaithful—those who were disloyal to God even though every fiber of their being was nourished by the sustenance provided by Him—they will have no share whatsoever of those bounties in the next life. These two verses prove the principle of moderation in Islam. They establish man’s right to enjoy food, drink, clothing, etc., within the limits that serve the interests of both body and soul. They also imply certain rules that make life easy and help to raise human standards materially and spiritually. Furthermore, attributing the word “adornment” to God means that it is not only legitimate, but also that God wishes people to enjoy it. Still another point of interest derived from the Qur’anic verse is that Islam calls upon people to enjoy the good things in life rather than be satisfied with only the essentials. Islam calls upon people to look forward to a better standard of living,


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind to a decent and dignified life. To attain this objective, one has to work more, produce more, and exercise initiative and enterprise. This all leads to the development of the economy and the progress of civilization. The result is peaceful and honest competition worthy of God’s appreciation. This meaning is emphasized by the verse that says that the good things in life are provided for the believers, and that the believers shall not be punished for this enjoyment on the Day of Judgment. The reference to the believers in this verse is intended to signify that believers know God’s restrictions and abide by His rules. (10)  A fundamental principle of Islam is that “there are rights upon you of your own self.” Three persons came to the house of the Prophet’s wives asking about the Prophet’s acts of worship. When they found out, they said: “Where do we stand in relation to the Prophet? God has forgiven him all his sins, both the early and late ones.” One of them said: “I will spend my nights in prayers.” Another said: “I will fast the whole year.” The third said: “I will never marry.” When the Prophet (pbuh) was told about the decisions of the three persons, he said: “By God, none of you could be more fearful of Allah (swt) than myself. Yet I fast and break the fast; I pray part of the night and sleep the rest, and I marry. Whoever rejects my way of life does not belong to me”. (Hadith Book, by Imam Bukhari). There are rights upon us of our own selves, our families, and our children. Islam does not believe in suppressing even sexual desires; it enjoins man to control and regulate these desires and to seek fulfillment in marriage. It forbids him from both self-persecution and total self-denial, and permits him, nay, bids him, to enjoy the rightful comforts and pleasures of life and remain pious and steadfast in the midst of life and its problems. To seek spiritual elevation, moral purity, nearness to God, and salvation in the life to come, it is not necessary to abandon this world. Instead, the trial of man lies in this world and he should remain in its midst and follow the way of Allah (swt) here in it. The road to success lies in following Divine Law in the midst of life’s complexities and not outside of them. Islam forbids all those practices, activities, and things that are injurious to man’s physical, mental, or moral existence. It forbids the consumption of alcohol, intoxicating harmful and habit forming drugs, blood, flesh of pig, beasts of prey, poisonous and unclean animals, and the carcass, for all these have undesirable effects upon the physical, moral, intellectual, and spiritual life of man. While forbidding these things, Islam enjoins upon man the use of clean, healthy, and useful foods and products, and asks him not to deprive his body of such foods, or of proper rest and sleep, for man’s body, too, has a right upon him. (11)  Charity is another field where moderation is required. According to Islam, charity should not lead the donor to become destitute himself, which puts a limit on charity. “Make not thy hand tied [like a niggard) to thy neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost so that thou become blameworthy and destitute” (Qur’an, 17:29). “[The true servants of God are] those who are neither extravagant nor miserly in their spending but keep the golden mean between the two.” (Qur’an, 25:67). Muslims should have such a sense of balance and moderation that they should not shrink from spending when it is genuinely needed, and they should abstain from spending when it is not truly needed or is not justified, such as for show, out of vanity, on sheer luxury, or for sinful purposes. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “It is wrong for a man to give away all his wealth to become a burden on the community.” [Hadith Book by Imam Bukhari). By saying this, the Prophet (pbuh) aimed to show that charity should not cause poverty, which in turn damages the structure of society. Another verse upholding the principle of moderation says: “Give to the near of kin his due [i.e. charity] and also the needy and the wayfarers. Do not squander your wealth wastefully; for those who squander wastefully are Satan’s brothers and Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.” (Holy Qur’an, 17:26). A further note is necessary before concluding this discussion of Islamic moderation in charity. Under special circumstances and in the service of specific public or community interests, Islam allows certain people—the great, truly generous, and highly placed—to exceed the proper percentage in charity to the extent of giving up all their wealth.

(G) SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE (1)  Traditional Christianity in Europe opposed free thought, was oppressive, intolerant, tyrannical, and divided into many sects, thus producing disputes, persecution, and wars. (2)  Christianity remained a persecuted religion until the Roman King Constantine converted to Christianity in the 4th Century, when Christianity became a state religion. After this, all Europe was gradually Christianized by force.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (3)   Since the word of God as revealed to Jesus was lost, the church took the liberty of proclaiming its own modified version of the teachings of Jesus. (4)   Present day orthodox Christian creed passed through conflicting versions that were enforced through an oppressive organization of the Christian church and through the council and authority of devout Byzantine or Roman emperors. (5)   Christian dogma was enunciated, supervised, supplemented, and defended through the organization of the church in close collaboration with the administration of the empire. (6)   Persons who dared to oppose the decrees, definitions, or religious authority of this organization were subjected to depositions, anathemas, excommunications, exile, and death. (7)   If a man with a conscience refused to conform to these man-made practices of the church, or simply sought improvement in the conditions of society (independent of the church), he was likely to be persecuted or burned as a heretic. (8)   The tyrannical persecution committed by the church to impose conformity with church teachings is horrifying even in its narration. (9)   The inculcation of hatred for human beings who dared to differ in religious interpretations was sanctioned by the additional virtue of having one’s sins remitted if one was as barbarous as the church wanted him to be. (10)  Christianity was based upon revelation, but what had, in fact, been revealed? No one seemed to know, or rather— even worse—everyone seemed to know that his own version was the only correct one. (11)  The theory of salvation in this and the other world was linked with the authority and control of the extremely intolerant and thoroughly aggressive priests of a particular church. The sacraments could only be administered through these authorized priests. (12)  The necessary medium of bishops for proper communion with God prevented a direct relationship between the one indivisible God and His creatures. (13)  The church became a shroud drawing, a veil around the genuine teachings of Jesus to prevent them from reaching the people under its dominion. (14)  Historical Christianity, drifting away from the original teachings of Jesus, gradually built for itself a special idea of revelation, so that its faith continued to be and still continues to be perpetually exposed to the challenges of reason and science. Christianity has still not succeeded in extricating itself from these numerous intellectual attacks. (15)  As the revelation of God has already been converted into a “mystery,” no guidance can come from it. At best, it is referred back to the church and its rituals or to one’s misguided conscience. (16)  If the individual is free to change his mind from time to time, so is the church free to change its laws, doctrines, and practices. (17)  The flexibility of interpretation, if on certain occasions was intended to preserve the domination of Christianity in European society, also became the basis of numerous conflicts between different sections of the Christian community, because God’s grace at different times and in different contexts comes to be differently interpreted by different people. (18)  As such, the Christianity split into many different sects. (19)  Disagreements on doctrines and practices created a rift in the Catholic church during the period from 1378-1417 A.D., when there were three rival Popes. This ended at the Council of Constance. This Council saw the rise of the Consigliore Theory (the doctrine that the ultimate authority in the church rests upon the General Council, and not on the Pope). In 1437, the Pope denunciated the Council and again became the supreme head of the church. (20)  After this reformation, the church started committing serious abuses. It sold important positions in the church and indulged in corrupt financial practices. An office of priesthood could be purchased with money or a worldly favor. (21)  Medieval church was like an international state reaching across national boundaries into the life of every local


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind community. It could pronounce the sentence of death. If people attempted to leave Christianity, they were likely to be burned alive. The church was supported by involuntary contributions through tithes and taxes. (22)  Privileges of priests were protected by exempting them from trial in civil courts. The church could impose control on dissident individuals. (23)  Apart from the purely “religious” forms of authority claimed by the church against its dissidents, it could also exercise political power by supporting one ruler or king against another, and thus continued to be an important instrument of power in Europe. (24)  People were disgusted with the excesses of the clergy and wished to revert back to the teachings of Jesus. But they were persecuted for trying to preach or follow any form of worship that was independent of the Church of Rome. (25)  The struggles for liberty of conscience culminated when Martin Luther protested against the dispensation of indulgences of the church and finally broke away from the church. (26)  Martin Luther supported the new nationalism by advocating German control of German ecclesiastical matters and urged recognition of the authority of civil rules; made an uncompromising attack on the papacy; denied the authority of the priesthood to mediate between God and man; and rejected sacraments. (27)  Religious differences within the Christian church, therefore, have been the basis of modern nationalism, too. (28)  When the conflict between Protestant Reformation and the Roman Catholic Church had become acute, a temporary understanding was reached through the Peace of Augsburg (1555). But this peace demonstrated that it was not an individual’s freedom of conscience that gave him the right to believe what he wanted, but the Prince’s decision as to the religion of people living under his control; and all church property held by abbots or bishops was to be forfeited by them if they changed their faith. (29)  Religion thus became a national affair, particularly in Protestant countries. Once the authority of the Church of Rome had come to be questioned on the grounds of freedom of conscience, the way opened for the establishment of national Protestant churches in other European countries. (30)  All these national Protestant churches, in their turn, became tyrannical in preventing any departure from their authority or from their own brand of national Protestant faith. (31)  Even a slight modification by Protestant reformers to the teachings of a Protestant sect brought such severe wrath that the Remonstrants were denied the church and their leaders were persecuted and exiled. Survival of any independent form of belief was impossible under any Christian church, whether Catholic or Protestant. (32)  Thus there was civil war in almost every Christian country in Europe, and the experience of orthodox Christianity under a new dispensation had equally demonstrated that it was not possible for people of different religious professions within the Christian world to exist peacefully together. A natural shift towards a separation of the state from the church was inevitable. This is the basis of modern secularism. (33)   Secularism, thus, is only an escape from the dreadful experiences of Europe in its effort to implement the teachings of the orthodox version of Christianity within the context of its society. It is an escape from the irreconcilable claims of individual conscience and priest craft, and the claims of rival churches within the same community. In addition, the scientific revolution overturned the church’s beliefs about the universe and man. The lesson from the long history of Christian society in Europe has been that it is not easy to carry church and state together because the very foundation on which the edifice of the church has been raised is itself questionable. (34)   The revolt against Christian dogmatism and authoritarianism resulted in the modern sociopolitical ideologies that separated the state from the church, or it altogether denied the truth of religion. Thus it was the problems within Christianity that led to the doctrine of the separation of church and state. Had the church taken fresh inspiration from the original spirit of religion (which is always progressive and was finally revealed in the message of Islam, which was available in Europe at the time), and had it readjusted itself to new scientific and historic advancements, it might not have been separated from the state. Unfortunately, the church confined itself to the fulfillment of its own narrow interests and ignored the light of Islam available next door. This led to the separation of church and state in the entire West, where Christianity was and is the dominant religion. Taking away from God the authority to legislate any state law is denial of the Sovereignty of God, and is an act


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind of great rebellion. No ruler or state tolerates rebellion; maximum punishment is given to the rebels. God’s punishment to His rebels is going to be eternal and severe in the Hereafter. Those who divorced God from state affairs did so from ignorance created by the perverted teachings of Christianity, but ignorance of law is no acceptable excuse. Such problems are not created by the teachings of Islam as given to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) because: (a)   These teachings are preserved in the original form in the language in which they were revealed and are most authentic. (b)  They are most comprehensive and up-to-date. (c)  These teachings include all the basic teachings of all the earlier prophets, including Jesus, Moses, Solomon, David, Jacob, Isaac, Abraham, and others. (d)  These Islamic teachings are available all over the world and are easily accessible through modern technology. (e)  No excuse for the separation of religion and state will be accepted by God. Further discussion on this is presented in Chapter 1, “Divine Guidance is the Only Solution,” and Chapter 3, “Essential Features of True Divine Guidance.”

(H)   OBSCENE AND OFFENSIVE TEACHINGS IN THE BIBLE There are some good teachings in the Bible—both the Old Testament and the New Testament. However, the Bible is far from being a complete code of life for man. Even in the field of morality, the guidance provided by the Bible is hopelessly inadequate and sometimes even immoral. There are some glaring discrepancies and contradictions; certain statements do not appeal to reason or common sense; certain statements are contrary to scientific truth or realities. The Old Testament maligns the character of those very people who are God’s Messengers. The Book accuses them of heinous sins, such as polytheism, sorcery, fornication, deceit, and treachery. There are tales of naked drunkenness, incest, and whoredom, which no man or woman of modesty and integrity could read to his or her mother, much less to their own children. Let alone prophets and messengers of God, even an ordinary believer who is a decent human being will not do so. Below are some examples of these obscene and offensive teachings: (1)  About Noah (pbuh), a prominent and famous Prophet (Messenger) of God: “Noah a man of the soil, proceeded to plant a vineyard. When he drank some of its wine, he became drunk and lay uncovered inside his tent. Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers outside” (Genesis, 9:20- 22). (2)  About Lot (pbuh), a Prophet of God and nephew of Abraham (pbuh): “Lot and his daughters left Zoar and settled in the mountains, for he was afraid to stay in Zoar. He and his daughters lived in a cave. One day the older daughter said to the younger, ‘Our father is old, and there is no man around here to lie with us, as is the custom all over the earth. Let’s get our father to drink wine and then lie with him and preserve our family line through our father.’ That night they got their father to drink wine, and the older daughter went in and lay with him. He was not aware of it when she lay down or when she got up. The next day the older daughter said to the younger, ‘Last night I lay with my father. Let’s get him to drink wine again tonight, and you go in and lie with him so we can preserve our family line through our father.’ So they got their father to drink wine that night also, and the younger daughter went and lay with him. Again he was not aware of it when she lay down or when she got up. So both of Lot’s daughters became pregnant by their father. The older daughter had a son, and she named him Moab; he is the father of the Moabites of today. The younger daughter also had a son, and she named him Ben-Ammi; he is the father of Ammonites of today” (Genesis, 19:30-38). (3)  About Judah, the great grandson of Prophet Abraham (pbuh), grandson of Prophet Isaac (pbuh), and son of Prophet Jacob (pbuh), and the great grandfather of Prophet David (pbuh), Prophet Solomon (pbuh), and Prophet Jesus (pbuh): The Old Testament (Genesis, 38:12-30) says that Judah committed adultery and incest by sleeping with his widowed daughter-in-law named Tamar, and that Perez and Zerah were born to Tamar after this incestuous fornication with her father-in-law Judah. According to the Third Book of Moses (Leviticus, 20:12), both Judah and Tamar should have been put to death, but they were not. Nobody is or should be above the law, but it seems that there are different standards for different people in Christianity. The Bible says: “A person begotten out of wedlock shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord; even to his tenth generation shall his descendants not enter into the congregation of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 23:2). David is the ninth generation of Perez, who was born out of wedlock (Matthew, 1:3-6). (4)  About David (pbuh), a great Prophet and great grandfather of Jesus: David committed adultery with Bathsheba, the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind wife of his neighbor, Uria, who became pregnant with Solomon, and then David (pbuh) manipulated to get her husband Uria killed (II Samuel, 11:2-27). According to Leviticus (20:10), both David and Bathsheba should have been killed, but were not. Thus, accordingly, Solomon (pbuh) was not only the tenth generation of illegitimacy through Perez, but also the first generation of illegitimacy through David (pbuh) and Bathsheba. The Holy Qur’an, on the other hand, speaks very highly of David and Solomon, and tells us they were pious, God-fearing, and obedient servants of God and His prophets. (5)  About Solomon (pbuh), a Prophet of God who is the builder of the famous temple (or the house of worship) in Jerusalem, who is highly praised in the Old Testament, and who is considered a hero both by the Jews and the Christians: Solomon became an idol worshipper out of his love for his pagan wives (King, 11:1-8). Also, anyone who reads the entire Book of Solomon’s “Song of Songs” will not find a shred of God’s guidance for righteousness; on the other hand, it is all about romance and describes the hidden parts of a woman’s anatomy and has strong immoral sexual overtones. (6)  The Old Testament describes the story of an incestuous rape by a brother (Amnon) of his half sister (Tamar). Both are the children of David, the great grandfather of Jesus (2 Samuel, 13:10-14). (7)  In 1985, a pamphlet was published in South Africa entitled, “Candid Outbursts—Freedom of Love and Sex.” The Publication Control Board of South Africa banned this pamphlet’s publication when the Board saw its sexual contents. However, the Board did not recognize that the excerpts published in the pamphlet were quotes from the Bible (New International Version, Ezekiel, 23:1-24). This chapter contains such obscene material that we feel ashamed even to reproduce it here. For more references in the Bible concerning insults and the humiliation of God’s chosen people, and about prostitution and other obscene material, see the following: (a)  Proverbs, 7:10-22 (b)  Judges, 16:1-31 (c)  Isaiah, 20:3-4; 23:16 (d)  Ezekiel, 16:17-37 (e)  II Samuel, 16:14-23 (f)  Jeremiah, 29:20-23 (g)  Hosea, 1:2-3; 4:14 (h)  Isaiah, 23:16 (i)  Hosea, 4:14 Comments These are all tales full of lies about these great prophets of God. The mission of prophets is to set practical examples of their teachings for their followers and to serve as role models. Our question is: What is the wisdom in relaying this type of story? What is the lesson these tales convey? Can this be a book of guidance? Can it be a revelation from God? Is this the truth that leads people to the straight path, the path of obedience to God? No wonder the author of Jeremiah bewails, “How can you say, ‘We are wise, for we have the law of the Lord,’ when actually the lying pen of the scribes has handled it falsely?” (Jeremiah, 8:8). So this is the Old Testament wherein one of its authors says that not all the Book is from God, but it has been corrupted by the “false pens of scribes” and is therefore an unreliable source for the word of God.

(I)  NEW TESTAMENT INSULTS JESUS (pbuh) There are many verses in the Gospels that insult and degrade the personality of Jesus (pbuh). We, as Muslims who know the status of Jesus (pbuh), are startled and offended at the incidents narrated in the Gospels. We believe that these allegations about Jesus (pbuh) are the result of distortions and interpolations in the Holy Book, which make the existing New Testament an unreliable source of the word of God. (a)  The New Testament presents Jesus (pbuh) as a person who lost faith in his Creator, questioning Divine Decree with the words: “My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?” (Matthew, 27:46). It also presents Jesus (pbuh) as a coward or a timid person. There are many examples in the history of mankind that demonstrate that righteous men and women endured equal or greater sufferings, persecutions, and death on the path of what they believed to be obedience to Almighty God. There are innumerable stories of such martyrs who died with more honor, dignity, boldness, and courage than Jesus (pbuh). The Gospels want us to believe that Jesus died questioning (with his last


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind words) the decree of his Creator. This shows that either the Gospels quoted the wrong man or the words attributed to Jesus (pbuh) are not true. In either case, the New Testament is not trustworthy. (b)  It is unbelievable that Jesus should be disrespectful to his own mother when he rebuffed her, as if she was not one who: “...does the will of my Father in Heaven...” or “....hear[s] God’s word and put[s] it into practice...” (Matthew, 12:48-50; Mark, 3:31-35; Luke, 8:20-21). (c)  Jesus (pbuh) is represented as cruel and as a usurper of the properties of others, as when Jesus (pbuh) was feeling hungry, he went to a fig tree with the hope that he might get some fruit. As it was not the season for fruit he was disappointed. At this, Jesus (pbuh) cursed and the tree withered (Matthew, 21:18- 19; Mark, 11:12-14). The lack of figs was no mistake or fault of the tree. Jesus’ disappointment was, according to the above representation, due to the ignorance of Jesus because it was not the season for fruit. Instead of feeling ashamed of his own ignorance, Jesus is represented as a person of such a low character that he did not hesitate to curse even a lifeless tree without any fault of its own. Moreover, this fruit tree was not the property of Jesus. Fruit trees were, and still are, valuable assets in those areas. To destroy someone else’s property without any fault of the owner does not behoove a good person, much less a prophet who is supposed to be a model for his followers. (d)  Jesus (pbuh) preached in Matthew (5:44): “... Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” But the Gospels present Jesus (pbuh) as a person who has no regard for his own teachings. In Matthew (12:34) Jesus (pbuh) calls people: “You brood of vipers, how can you who are evil say anything good? For out of the overflow of the heart the mouth speaks.” In Matthew (23:25-27), Jesus (pbuh) calls some people hypocrites: “Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of dead men’s bones and everything unclean.” And in John (10:8): “All who ever came before me were thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them.” Is that practicing brotherly love? Loving others does not accord with calling names. (e)  The Bible represents Jesus (pbuh) as a wine drinker and wine maker. Christians boast that the Bible is the best book of morality in the world, but unfortunately, nowhere does it prohibit the three gateways to nearly all crimes and sins: wine, gambling, and shameful, exciting displays of physical beauty. Wine, in fact, forms a necessary element of the Holy Communion, and the first miracle of Jesus (pbuh) as recorded in the Gospels was the converting of water into wine (Luke, 7:33-34; John, 2:1-11). (f)  The Gospels present Jesus (pbuh) as a racist and a very rude person. We find Jesus (pbuh) abusing a woman who has no fault: “And behold, a woman who was a Canaanite of that district came out and with a (loud, troublesomely urgent) cry begged, ‘have mercy on me, O Lord, son of David! My daughter is miserably and distressingly and cruelly possessed by a demon!’ But he did not answer her a word. And his disciples came and implored him, saying, ‘Send her away, for she is crying after us.’ He answered, ‘I was sent only to the lost sheep of the House of Israel.’ But she came and kneeling, worshipped him, and kept praying, ‘Lord, help me!’ And he answered, ‘It is not right—proper, becoming or fair—to take the children’s bread and throw it to the little dogs.’ She said, ‘Yes, lord, yet even the little pups eat the crumbs that fall from their (young) master’s table” (Matthew, 15:22-27; Mark, 7:26-27). Is this the morality of Jesus (pbuh) as a spiritual head who is to serve as a model, that if a person begs something from you which you can afford to give, then instead of giving, you should not even show courtesy? (g) “When they were getting near to Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany to the Mount of Olives, He sent ahead two of His disciples, and instructed them, ‘Go into the village in front of you, and as soon as you enter it you will find a colt tied which has never been ridden by anyone, unfasten it and bring it (here). If anyone asks you, “Why are you doing this?” Answer, “The Lord needs it, and He will send it back here presently.” So they went away and found a colt tied at the door out in the [winding) open street, and they loosed it. And some who were standing there said to them, ‘What are you doing, untying the colt?’ And they replied as Jesus (pbuh) had directed them, and they allowed them to go” (Mark, 11:1-6; Luke, 19:30-35). An ordinary righteous person under this situation would have done the following: (i) . He would ask the owner: “Can we borrow or rent your colt for a certain time—hours or days?” (ii). The owner may or may not agree. If the owner agrees, then he would ask the owner how much is to be paid to him.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(J)   CONCLUSIONS Because of: (i) . The loss of the original message of Jesus (pbuh); (ii) . The invention of irrational dogmas and creeds by the church, such as the concept of Original Sin, the Christian Doctrine of Trinity, the Christian scheme of salvation through belief in the death of Jesus (pbuh) on the cross, deserting the Law of God, and the life-negating dogma of asceticism and monasticism, which shut the door to material progress, free thought, and scientific development; (iii). Innumerable Christian sects coming into existence, with each sect claiming that its own version of Christianity is the only true one, making each sect oppressive, intolerant, and tyrannical, and producing disputes, persecution, and wars; (iv). The lack of essential features of True Divine Guidance in the perverted teaching of Jesus (pbuh), as discussed in Chapter 3; (v). Contradictions and discrepancies in the Bible; (vi). The distortion of and interpolation in the original Message of God, leading to statements contrary to scientific truths and historical realities, obscene and immoral teachings, and insults to God’s Messengers; (vii). Advancement in education, knowledge; and rationality; people started deserting Christianity. The Chicago Tribune in the World section reported: “Fading Faith: The Decline of Christianity in Europe” (May 11, 2006 p. 13). Callum Brown, a historian at the University of Dundee in Scotland, says: “Britain is showing the world how religion as we have known it can die”. The decline is all the more striking because a century ago, Britain was a nation steeped in piety. Historian R.C.K. Ensor says: “No one will ever understand Victorian England who does not appreciate that among highly civilized countries it was one of the most religious that the world has ever known.” The eight percent of British Christians who go to church is projected to fall to two percent by 2040, according to a new study by Christian Research. By then, twothirds of the practicing Christians in Britain will be over 65 and easily outnumbered by practicing Muslims. Britain’s iconic cathedrals are now museums, ministering to tourists rather than souls. Many churches are empty and falling into disrepair— a burden on church coffers. Some have been deconsecrated and converted into apartments, pubs, and, in one case, a training academy for circus performers. Critics say the Church of England is so loose on doctrine that one scarcely has to believe in God to belong.” Today, the worldwide Anglican Communion is facing a possible schism over the election of a gay bishop by American Episcopalians—a move opposed by Anglican conservatives, especially in Third World countries. In addition, The Chicago Tribune has published the following news: “Vows Dispute: A wedding like ceremony between two male priests broke the church of England’s rules ‘in just about every respect,’ a spokesman for the Anglican body said. The two clergymen exchanged rings and vows last month in London, according to the Sunday Telegraph” (June 15, 2008, Section 1). Some states, and some European countries, have legalized gay marriages. The Church of England is not alone. Mainstream Protestant churches in the U.S. also struggle with declining membership. On the other hand, Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world because it is free from myths, ambiguities, and superstitions, and its teachings are simple, easily understandable, rational, appealing to common sense, and its reasoning is scientific and progressive. For more comprehensive treatment of the beauty and charm of Islam, see Chapter 4: “Islam is the Only Hope for the Future.” Because of the virtues of Islam, people of all professions and intellectual levels, and even Christian preachers and priests, are entering Islam. Two stories of conversion of American Christian priests to Islam are in Appendix D and Appendix E. Also, see Appendix F “Dialogue Between Islam & Christianity: A Discussion of Religious Dogma Between Intellectuals & Scholars from The Two Religions That Resulted in Conversion to Islam of All Members of Christian Delegation.” In conclusion, with the exception of the religion of Islam as preached by Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), all other religions brought by various prophets and messengers of God are now mere legends of the past, because they have been changed, distorted, and corrupted by their followers.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 3 Essential Features of True Divine Guidance


here are many religions in the world. These religions, as believed and practiced by different groups, contradict one another. All of them cannot be right. The followers of each of these different religions are convinced that their religion alone is the true religion. How can we determine which religion is true and which is not? If we follow a false religion, it will not solve our problems and may even worsen them. God sent only one religion. The differences are man-made, not Godmade. Following are the acid tests for a true religion.

(A)  ITS TEACHINGS SHOULD BE AUTHENTIC There should be strong historical evidence to prove without a shadow of doubt that the existing teachings of a religion are exactly the same as were delivered by the messenger or prophet of that religion and have not undergone any changes. How did the Messenger of God deliver the message to the people? Was it delivered verbally or in written form? Or both? Was it dictated to another to write? If it was delivered only verbally, did someone listening at the time write it down while the message was spoken? If not, when and where was it written, and by whom? Was the message recorded faithfully in its entirety without change? If there was more than one writer, did they write the same thing? Were there contradictions among the writings? Are the statements and assertions made in these books in agreement with historical and scientific facts?

(B)  BASIC BELIEFS AND DOCTRINES OF A RELIGION SHOULD BE LOGICAL The fundamental beliefs and doctrines of a religion should be intellectually justifiable, acceptable to wisdom, appealing to common sense and reason, and free from myths, skepticism, ambiguities, mysteries, and superstitions. The basic creed should be simple and easily understood. We live in a time of science and enlightenment, of reason and philosophy. Our acceptance or rejection of any particular religion must be guided by our experience and our reason. These tell us how much that religion agrees with man’s ultimate needs, both physical and spiritual. A religion that does not satisfy these criteria will remain the religion of only those people who are illiterate, naive, and lack common sense, wisdom, and judgment. The followers of such a religion will remain backward and oppressed, and will not be able to progress and prosper because of their lack of vision, power of determination, and action. However, as the people advance in knowledge and wisdom, their hollow doctrines and notions crumble, the foundations of their faith shake, and their spiritual system that is the basis of their personal and national morality starts caving in. As a result, the majority desert their religion, only paying it lip service, and leave it only to a small group of believers and professional preachers to follow.

(C)  THE TEACHINGS SHOULD LEAD TO WORLDLY PROGRESS A true religion, in addition to providing a strong foundation for a high caliber moral structure, should also motivate and energize the believers to work for a successful worldly life. A religion that does not prepare its followers for successful life in this world limits its influence only to spiritual and moral values. The followers of such religion will not prosper in the material world or, if they do, they will soon stray from the influence of their religion. Some religions of this kind have hindered progress in worldly affairs and followers had to desert their religion to progress in the material world.

(D)  THE RELIGION SHOULD COVER ALL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LIFE Divine guidance is for human life in its entirety, spiritual and material, religious and worldly. A true religion cannot exist in isolation from society, nor can its adherents be true believers unless they practice their faith in their social, legal, economic, political, national, and international relations, while in peace and at war.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(E)  TEACHINGS SHOULD BE UNIVERSAL AND PRACTICAL A true religion has general universal rules and principles that are good and practical for all times and places, leaving the details of their application to be determined by the processes of time and by the emergence of individual problems. The basic and general principles should keep pace with the needs of the time and should not become out of date or obsolete.

(F)   GUIDANCE SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN THE FORM OF PRACTICAL EXAMPLES IN THE LIFE OF THE MESSENGER OF GOD The mission of a Messenger of God is not merely to convey the message verbally, but also to put the message into practice. This shows the people by example and practical demonstration how to implement ideals in actual life situations. The ineffectiveness of mere sermons is a commonly accepted fact. If a religious man ever affects the lives of others spiritually, it is not by what he says, but by who he is and what he does. In the life of man, social relationship has been, and shall always remain, the pivot of civilized existence, and hence every religion must seek to regulate it. The primary role of a religion is to unfold the relationship, on the one hand, between man and his Creator, and on the other hand, between man and man. In short, religion is meant to teach us the obligations we owe to God and our rights and duties with reference to our fellow beings. We need precedents for waging war and making peace, for leading our life in affluence and poverty, for living as married couples and celibates, for communion with God and social relationships with our fellow beings, for behavior in victory and defeat, for living with anger and in forbearance, for feeling loneliness and companionship, and for every problem we may face. We require practical examples of those who have had these experiences and can demonstrate solutions rather than those who have nothing to offer except sweet words. That is why God did not send merely a Book, but sent a man with every Divine Book. So that a Messenger of God may serve as a comprehensive guide in all the practical affairs of life, it is important that every detail of his private and public life, of his actions and utterances, is accurately documented and faithfully preserved to our day.

(G)  CONCLUSION As discussed in the next chapter, of all the existing religious in the world, the final version of the religion of Islam as preached by Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the only religion that meets all of these criteria.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 4 Islam is the Only Hope for the Future INTRODUCTION


he rise of Islam is perhaps the most amazing event in human history. Springing from a land and a people, previously unnoticed, Islam spread within a century over half of the earth, shattering great empires, ousting long-established perverted religions, remolding the souls of various races, abolishing all color distinctions, and building a whole new world—the world of Islam. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), who was commissioned by God as his Messenger to mankind in the year 610 A.D., was socially, economically, and politically a man without any worldly might. Yet this unlettered man from a desert brought together, within twenty-three years of his Prophethood, the scattered inhabitants of twelve hundred thousand square miles. He achieved this without the help of the mass media, such as the radio, television, press, or telephone. With camels and horses as the only means of transportation during his lifetime, he laid the foundation of one of the brightest civilizations the world has known. The people of Arabia of those days were illiterate, unruly, uncultured, and deeply engaged in inter-tribal warfare. He brought them all under one banner, one law, one religion, one culture, one civilization, and one form of government. A nation that had not produced a single great man for centuries, under the influence and guidance of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), gave birth to thousands of noble souls who went forth to far off corners of the world to preach and teach principles of religion, morals, and civilization. He accomplished this feat not through any worldly lure, oppression, or cruelty, but by his selflessness, sincerity, steadfastness, captivating manners, rational teachings, and moral strength. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the most influential man in the entire history of mankind. He appeared on the stage of history as a unique philosopher, a wonderful reformer, a renowned molder of culture and civilization, an illustrious politician, a great leader, a judge of the highest eminence, and an incomparable military general. He brought in the greatest, the most beneficial, and the most comprehensive and all-embracing revolution in the world. He is the greatest benefactor of mankind. He gave to humanity a new life, a new light, a new faith, a new society, and a new culture. To the sad and suffering humanity he brought comfort, joy, and consolation. The liberal and revolutionary aspects of Islam and its Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), which transformed society in the seventh century, are still today amongst the most potent forces at work for the betterment of humanity. These forces brought not only a new ideology, but inspired the energy and confidence that radically altered man and the society in which he lived. They provided the impetus for a new age of culture, civilization, arts, learning, and material and spiritual progress. When Islam emerged, the world was full of erroneous beliefs and philosophies, and of false religions based on legend and mythology. Very little of it was true or even rational. When it came to the concept of God and His relationship with man and the world in particular, there was miserable confusion’. This led to confusion in man’s understanding of the world and of his own position and role within it. Unaware of any ultimate purpose, man had directed his whole intelligence and behavior to the acquisition of material wealth, fame, and power. The only virtue lay in the pursuit of pleasure; happiness had become identified with the satisfaction of worldly desires. The need for a rational, clear, and consistent system of beliefs is quite apparent when we study those dark periods of human history when there was no such system. Hindus had made a separate god for every attribute of God, and thus had an army of countless gods. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) corrected this by preaching that God is only one, while His attributes are countless and inseparable from God. Followers of Zoroaster had made two gods—one for everything good and righteous and another for the bad and evil. They further believed that there is a perpetual struggle between these two gods. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) reformed this concept by preaching that there is only One God who is the Creator of everything, both good and evil. God created man to be innocent with a pure nature and the potential for virtue and evil. He showed man the right way and the wrong way and gave him the freedom of choice. It is up to man to choose a path of virtue or of wickedness.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Christianity, which after Paul had claimed the suppression of Law by Love, was focused on the determination of the nature of the Trinity, and was either actively engaged in persecuting heretics or in finding salvation in ascetic denial of the world and mortification of the flesh. From the concept of one true God preached by Jesus, his followers had made three major gods (god the father, god the son, and the Holy Ghost) and a large number of smaller gods in the form of saints, popes, and priests. Their concept of God was degrading, insulting, and humiliating to the All-Powerful and All-Knowing Creator of the universe. Their god eats, drinks, uses the washroom, sleeps, rests, prays, fasts, and is subject to emotions, desires, fear, and anger. He is overpowered by his enemies, he cries in pain and calls for help, he is born and he dies, he walks and talks, his knowledge is limited, and he comes in human form to live like a human being among the people. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) rectified this perverted concept of God by saying: “Say: He is Allah, the One and Only Who is Unique, He does not need anything and everyone else needs Him, He does not beget, nor He is begotten, there is nothing like Him nor anyone is of His match.” (Holy Qur’an, Chapter 112) Judaism was the same as Christianity, if not still worse, as it had caused the revolt of Jesus against it! It offers a heap of innumerable laws and rituals that are callous, cruel, and depleted of any inner spiritual attitudes. From God of the entire universe, the Jews had made a tribal God who loves Jews more than the rest of mankind or who gives preferential treatment to the Jews because of their race. This is irrespective of their morals and behavior and whether or not they obey His commands. Also, their scripture makes contradictory statements about God. On the one hand, He is All-Powerful, All-Knowing, Invincible, and Merciful. On the other hand, He walks and talks like a human being, He is defeated by a man in a wrestling duel, (Holy Bible, Genesis, 32:22-30, The New King James Version by Thomas Nelson Publishers, New York).He regrets and feels grieved at His own actions, (Genesis, 6:6-7). He is cruel and merciless in ordering the children of Israel to destroy many towns and villages, killing young and old, children and women, and all animals and leave alive nothing that breathes (Deuteronomy, 20:13). Mosaic Law inflicted the death penalty even for the insignificant mistakes of people and small offenses. For example, a disobedient son could be killed (Deuteronomy, 21:18-21). The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) not only removed all these contradictions and misconceptions about God, but also gave a detailed, comprehensive, and correct concept of God with convincing arguments and rational explanations that we do not find in any earlier scripture (see Chapters 15 and 16). In general, Mosaic religion had become a creed of legalism, ritualism, and stern justice that was untempered with mercy, making the Jews hard-hearted. Jesus and Mohammed (pbuh) both reprimanded them for having made religion devoid of love and depleted of spirit. To remedy this disease, Jesus preached love, forgiveness, and extreme nonviolence. He preached to resist evil not with force, but to yield to the aggressor who slaps your face, takes away your clothing, or drives you in forced labor, so that the aggressor becomes ashamed of his conduct and is conquered by love. Jesus taught his followers not only to love their friends, but also to love their enemies. The indiscriminate massacre of enemies inculcated in the Old Testament was one extreme. Totally yielding to the enemy and attempting to love him was the other extreme. In one case, law was loveless, and in the other case, love was lawless. Islam adopted the middle path of inculcating justice tempered with mercy. Society cannot be held together without law and justice, nor can life be refined and spiritualized without love. Islam also gave a legal system designed to promote man’s legitimate liberties, rather than enchain life. A comparison of Mosaic Law with Islamic Law as given in the Holy Qur’an or as promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) shows that in almost all cases Islamic Law is the more humane and the more liberal. The Holy Qur’an has declared that its mission is to remove chains and halters from the body of humanity to grant it legitimate liberty within, what the Qur’an calls “the limits of God.” For instance, fasting for a month is prescribed for all, but travelers and people in poor health or who are physically weak are excused from fasting. The Prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh) made a clean sweep of the existing order of the world. Man’s desires and longings centered on a new objective. Love of God took possession of his being; the pleasure of God became the everlasting thirst of the human heart; mercy and kindness to God’s creatures became the prime objective of his endeavors. It was only


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind after the advent of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) that the countries that submitted to Islam adopted the pursuit of spiritual values as a way of life. In Arabia, Persia, Syria, Egypt, Turkistan, Iraq, North Africa, and Spain thousands of souls undertook the search for higher and tender virtues. During this period, innumerable men of God preached love of the Lord, kindness, compassion, the merits of virtuous living, the acquisition of Divine knowledge, the rejection of cruelty and indecency, and the grace of humility and modesty. They taught the lessons of human dignity and the brotherhood of man, and sought to bring about the kingdom of God on earth. In Islam alone one sees a ray of hope. With the solitary exception of the followers of Islam, all the communities in the world have lost touch with their heritage of Divine guidance. The light of the apostolic teachings has departed from their hearts. The passage of time has severed their connections with the real origins of their spiritual inspiration. Lessons learned from previous religious reform movements among the various nations preclude the possibility of religion bringing a fundamental change in their outlook. Their primary ideals are rigidly opposed to a religious conception of life. In contrast, the entire spiritual inheritance of the Muslims is preserved in its pristine purity. A full record of the life and traditions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and of the lives of his companions, which holds the understanding of the memorable rise of Islam, is still available to Muslims without the least pollution. Moreover, a chain of religious redeemers and reformers has been continually operating among them, sustaining their spirits, nourishing their souls, and guarding them against a relapse into ignorance. If there is anyone who can stand up to the challenges of paganism, secularism, and materialism, and offer to the world an alternative plan of life, it is Muslims and Muslims alone. Islam is an eternal plan. It will remain valid for all times. By virtue of their religion, Muslims are the moral guardians of mankind and they will return to their duty when they awake from sleep. That day will be a day of reckoning for the nations of the world. They possess a spark which, if and when it blazes, will burn down the whole structure of ignorance. Islam stands for complete submission to God. God demands that man should submit, without reservation, the whole of his being to His will. Man’s outlook, intellectual pursuits, behavior, interaction with other people, and modes of endeavor should all be completely subordinate to Islam. God does not accept the splitting of human life into separate compartments, some governed by the teachings of Islam and others exempt. God alone is the true Ruler and Sovereign and is in charge of the whole universe. Those who rebel against His sovereignty and usurp it for themselves should be opposed. God says in the Holy Qur’an: “Believers! Enter wholly into Islam [surrender to God]” (Chapter 2, Verse 208). This submission is at all times, in all places, in all affairs, and under all circumstances, and those who surrender to God are called Muslims. Islam also means peace. A Muslim is, therefore, one who lives in peace with God, and is kind and considerate to his fellow human beings and lives in peace with them. Islam is not a new religion; rather, it began with the life of man on earth. Jesus, Moses, David, Isaac, Abraham, Noah, Adam, and all other messengers and prophets of God and their true followers surrendered to God and are therefore all Muslims. But every time God sent this guidance, people forgot, lost, altered, corrupted, or perverted this guidance. This message (Islam) which in its final, complete, perfect, and most comprehensive form was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), is present in its original form today and is easily accessible everywhere. The message of Mohammed (pbuh) is for all people for all times. It is a panacea for all the ailments of mankind and is the only hope for the future.

(A)  DIVINE GUIDANCE IS THE FOUNDATION OF ISLAM The Islamic way of life is not invented by man, but is revealed and prescribed by God and demonstrated in great detail through His Messenger Mohammed (pbuh). The basic creed of Islam is: “I bear witness that there is only One God who alone is worthy of worship, obedience, and service, and I bear witness that Mohammed (pbuh) is His servant and messenger.” This creed is simple, clear, easy to understand, and rational. This creed also tells us that Mohammed (pbuh) is not a god, not a sub-god, not even an auxiliary of God, but rather a servant of God. He is a human being, but set apart from the rest of humanity by virtue of his apostleship and inborn morality. The Muslims love him intensely, highly respect him, and unquestioningly obey him, but we do not worship him. Now compare this simple doctrine to the Church dogma of the Trinity (which was never preached by Jesus), which, as discussed earlier, is so irrational, conflicting, and confusing that people are not mentally or intellectually capable of understanding it. Christians themselves do not understand it, and they call it a “mystery.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind God says in the Holy Qur’an: “Say (O’ Mohammed) surely God’s guidance is the only true guidance and we have been commanded to submit ourselves to the Lord of the entire universe” (Chapter 7, Verse 71). This determines the unique source to which every Muslim should turn for guidance in all affairs. Whatever is beyond God’s guidance is error, and none other than He can guide. The Islamic concept is thus confined to this one source, not taking anything from anyone else. In other words, it stands unchanged and uncorrupted by human hands. This religion satisfies all the requirements for true Divine Guidance as discussed in Chapter 3, and is the only religion that satisfies these requirements. Necessity, importance, virtues, and excellence of Divine Guidance were emphasized in Chapter 1. Since Islamic law is God-made, it bears the mark of His omnipotence, His Perfection, His Magnanimity, and His Complete Knowledge of what exists around us, of the past, present, and future. This means that the Islamic laws are the most perfect, most impartial, and most beneficial for all mankind, suiting the present and the future alike. These laws do not become outdated and do not need any change, alteration, or modification to suit advancing societies, progress in science and technology, or diversified conditions and circumstances. An important outcome of this perfection is that Islam is a panacea for all the ailments of mankind. Because of the elasticity and universality of the God-Given and God-Inspired laws, these laws embrace all the requirements of human societies, regardless of time, space, societal evolution, and the multiplicity and diversification of human needs. On the contrary, all man-made laws bear the limitations, weaknesses, and shortcomings of human beings, and, accordingly, these laws are always susceptible to modifications in social evolution. Such man-made laws are, again and again, subject to change due to inevitable social evolution. Islamic law does not include detailed provisions for small matters, as is the case with man-made laws, but it achieves its goal by giving the Divine Statutes in elastic general terms and provisions. The principal injunctions stipulated by Islamic jurisprudence are the general percepts of Islamic legislation; it is left to the jurists and legislators to build the legal structure on these foundations and in accordance with these broad regulations, enacting legislation for the details and smaller issues within the Islamic principles of jurisprudence. For example, the Qur’anic injunction concerning democracy directs believers to conduct their affairs by consultation among themselves (Chapter 42, Verse 28; Chapter 3, Verse 159). This is a definitive statement that leaves the Muslim community with no doubt that mutual consultation is central to conducting all collective affairs, large or small, even when the interests of only two persons are involved. In a domestic affair, husband and wife should act by mutual consultation. When a matter concerns the whole family and the children are grown up, they also should be consulted. If it concerns a tribe or a fraternity, or the population of a city or a nation, or all those people whose rights and interests relate to collective matters, they all should have full freedom to express their opinions. What form this consultation takes and how this principle is implemented are matters that can be adapted to the prevailing conditions of any particular place, situation, and time. Thus there is great latitude and flexibility. Some principles follow. ( 1 ).If it concerns a large number of people, and it is not possible to consult all of them, then reliable, trustworthy, and

authorized representatives (individuals, local councils, or committees, according to any agreed-upon method) can be made a party to the consultation process.

( 2 ).The person who is entrusted with the responsibility of conducting the collective affairs should be appointed by the

common consent of the people, and this consent should be their free consent and not obtained through coercion, temptation (by offering money or favor, or by promising some position), deception, or fraud.

( 3 )  Such a person should remain at the helm of affairs only as long as the people want him or her to remain in that


( 4 ).The people who are appointed as advisers to the head of the state should be those who enjoy the confidence of the

nation. (Obviously, the people who win representative positions by suppression, by expending wealth, by practicing falsehood and fraud, or by misleading people cannot be regarded as enjoying this confidence.)

( 5 ).Positions of responsibility should be entrusted only to those who are honest, trustworthy, qualified, competent, and

capable of carrying out the burden of such positions or public offices. These positions should not be awarded on


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind the basis of friendship, relationship, connections, color, race, clan, or bribery (Holy Qur’an, Chapter 4, Verse 58). Every person who holds public office or has other public responsibility must realize that this position or responsibility is a trust for which he or she is responsible not only to the people but, more importantly, to God to Whom he or she is answerable on the Day of Judgment. ( 6 ).The people should be kept fully informed of how their public affairs are conducted. They should also have the full

freedom to check and protest an error, weakness, or a deficiency, and if they do not see the needed change, they must be able to change their rulers.

(7) This consultation is not independent or autocratic. It is necessarily subject to the bounds that God Himself has set by His legislation, and is also subject to this fundamental principle: “It is for God to give a decision in whatever you may differ,” and “If there arises any dispute among you about anything, refer to God and the Messenger.” (Holy Qur’an, Chapter 4, Verse 59) According to these general principles, Muslims can hold consultations in matters concerning Islamic law with a view to determining the correct meaning of a text or a verse, and to find out the way of implementing it so as to fulfill its requirements rightly, but they cannot hold consultations in order to give an independent judgment in a matter that has already been decided and settled by God and His Messenger.

(B)  THE TEACHINGS OF ISLAM ARE MOST AUTHENTIC & COMPREHENSIVE Of all the Messengers of God, Mohammed (pbuh) is the most historical. He lived and died in full light of history (born 570 A.D. and died 632 A.D.). In the entire history of mankind, there are none before or since the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) about whose life history so many books have been written. More books have been written in the most languages about the life history of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) by friends, foes, admirers, critics, followers, and others than of any other religious or historic person. Not only among all the prophets, but in the entire history of mankind, there is none whose details of life and whose daily activities (all of what he said and did) have been recorded in such a great detail, so thoroughly, and so accurately as those of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and which have been preserved so carefully and reliably. From the day he was born to his last day on the earth we possess a record of his life and activities, of his personality and character, of his teachings and his struggle, which is so detailed that even the minutest events of his private life are to be found there. Indeed, the comprehensiveness of information about the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) life is so astounding in its dimensions that it forms a unique phenomenon of human history. This historicity of Islam, its scripture, and its Teacher is the first basic characteristic of Islam as a religion—a characteristic that is denied to all other religions, including Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. The Prophet (pbuh) gave definite instructions to his followers that whatever they saw him doing and heard him saying, whether he was among them or alone, in the mosque or in the battlefield, leading prayers or conducting wars, in public or private, should invariably be brought to the notice of others. His wives, as a consequence, freely talked about his private life. About 70 of his companions dedicated their lives to Islam and lived close to his house in the courtyard of the mosque so they could learn all about him. A group from among these seventy people was always in attendance of the Prophet (pbuh) so that nothing escaped their attention while others were temporarily away to earn their livelihood. In addition to these seventy companions, there were many people in Madina who prayed behind the Prophet (pbuh) five times a day and in the larger gathering on every Friday for ten years. All of them had the opportunity to observe his actions, habits, and customs, and had the opportunity to ask questions of him. Moreover, there were occasions when much larger numbers gathered around him. For example, ten thousand companions accompanied him when he traveled to conquer Mecca. There were 30,000 in the battle of Tabuk and 100,000 during his farewell Pilgrimage. Everything about his life, from the closet of his sleeping chamber to the market place, and every incident, great or small, important or insignificant, have been meticulously preserved and handed down from generation to generation. No biography of any great man can offer such richness of detail reported by hundreds of his contemporaries to the generation that followed. The biography of no other human being is so well preserved as that of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). That Islam has safely preserved not only the life story of its Prophet (pbuh), but also everything even remotely connected with him is simply a marvel of Islam.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind History records the lives of about 11,000 companions of the Prophet (pbuh) who have transmitted some sayings or acts of the Prophet (pbuh) to others. The names of some of the companions and the number of traditions they transmitted are given below. Abu Huraira Abd Allah B. Abbas Aisha ‘Abd Allah B. Umar Jabir B. ‘Abd Allah Anas B. Malik Abu Said Al Khudri

(d. 59 H / 678) (d. 68 H / 687) (d. 58 H / 677) (d. 73 H / 692) (d. 78 H / 697) (d. 93 H / 711) (d. 74 H / 693)

5,374 2,660 2,220 1,630 1,560 1,286 1,170

The moment one enters the fold of Islam, one finds the life of the Prophet (pbuh) before him, pointing the way to be followed in different situations and circumstances. People living today and those who will come tomorrow can seek guidance from the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) with full confidence for all aspects of their lives and learn lessons from his example. One shining example of this reliable and careful preservation is that the entire Qur’an was not only written down during the life of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) but was also completely memorized by a larger number of his companions. The reason for this is that the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) not only verbally delivered the message but also dictated it as and when it was revealed to him by God. At this time he also asked his companions to memorize it. This practice of memorizing the entire Qur’an, which started with the life of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) continues to this day and will continue forever. Thousands of Muslims all over the world today can recite the entire Qur’an without looking at the book. If you compare two copies of the Holy Qur’an from two different locations anywhere in the world you will not find the slightest difference, even in periods and commas. Thus we are one hundred percent sure that the teachings of God given to Mohammed (pbuh) stand uncorrupted and unchanged. They are authentic and reliable, and are present in their original form exactly as they were revealed. If all the printed copies of the Qur’an were to be unfortunately destroyed today, the Book would remain. It is the one Book that is memorized from cover to cover by millions of people. There is no other divine book dictated by any prophet to whom it was revealed, nor is there anyone who has memorized any other divine book. The Qur’an is not the Message of God produced in the words of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh); rather, it is the Message of God in the words of God that He revealed to him in Arabic, a living language that millions of people know, understand, and speak. God says in the Qur’an: “Indeed We have revealed this Book and indeed We shall protect it (against any corruption or change)” (Chapter 15, Verse 9). The fact that this Book has survived all the ups and downs of so many centuries and has remained intact, without the slightest distortion of even a single word, may be considered a testimony to its Divine Source. People have corrupted, in some way or another, all Divinely revealed Books that historically precede the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). Interpolations, additions to the originally revealed principles, and information from human sources are so intermingled with the text of their scriptures that their Divine characteristic is lost. The life histories of the earlier prophets have been so mixed with fiction that it has become impossible to get an accurate and authentic account of their lives. Their lives have become tales and legends, and no trustworthy record is available anywhere. It cannot even be said with certainty when and where a certain prophet was born, where and how he lived, and what guidance he gave to mankind. Even the followers of these earlier prophets admit that they do not possess the original books, and that their existing books contain materials and quotes ascribed to their prophets that those prophets in fact never uttered. Take, for example, the case of Christianity. Christians believe that the New Testament is Divinely inspired and is the most authentic and most reliable source of the teachings of Jesus and his life history. But there are hundreds of Christian scholars and Christian researchers who deny that. A group of 72 Christian scholars of the New Testament who attended Christian theological schools (most of whom hold Doctors of Divinity or equivalent degrees), and who spent their entire lives, after education, in teaching and preaching Christianity, have come to the following conclusion after long research and study: “Eighty-two percent of the words ascribed to Jesus in the gospels were not actually spoken by him” (see “The Five Gospels by the Jesus Seminar,” MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, 1993).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(C)   ISLAMIC TEACHINGS ARE RATIONAL AND APPEALING The teachings of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) are very simple, easily understandable, and are free from myths, superstitions, and ambiguities. These teachings are rational, convincing, and appealing to common sense and reason. The Holy Qur’an recognizes revelations as a source of knowledge higher than reason. But it also admits that the truth of the principles established by revelations may be judged by reason, and in doing so, it repeatedly appeals to reason and denounces those who do not use their reasoning faculties. That is why Islam does not give much importance to physical miracles—these miracles force a person to accept something without being intellectually satisfied. God likes people to use their intellect and to recognize the Truth with the help of the signs in His Book, as well as signs spread throughout the Universe and within human beings themselves (see Chapter 16). When people are convinced and their hearts testify that whatever has been taught by the Prophets of God is indeed true and all beliefs opposed to it are false, it is only then that they should decide to accept the Truth and reject falsehood. This is why God has planted in man’s nature the twin urges to do good and evil and has opened for him both paths: the path of piety and that of sin. It is for the same reason that God has given Satan freedom and respite until the end of time, so that Satan may try to mislead mankind. Again, it is for the same reason that God has instituted Prophethood, Revelation, and a tradition of calling people to the Truth and righteousness. Furthermore, it is also for this reason that God has endowed man with all the faculties necessary to make an intelligent choice, and having done so, He has left man to face the test: to choose the path of Faith and submission or unbelief and sin. God did give different miracles to different prophets to help them in carrying their messages. However, only those people who actually see the miracles are convinced by them. With the passage of time, people either forget them or begin to question their authenticity. With the revelation of the Qur’an, a new era started—the era of reasoning and enlightenment. Reliance on sentimentalism and emotionalism shifted to reasoning, reflecting, deducting, and understanding. Hundreds of the total 6,236 verses of the Qur’an emphasize reflecting, pondering, knowing, and understanding. The Qur’an itself is the greatest intellectual miracle for today and forever. The Qur’an does not merely command us to believe in something, but it also gives convincing reasons and arguments as to why we should believe in it. According to the Qur’an, those who do not use their God-Given intellect to distinguish truth from falsehood, right from wrong, and reality from myth, and who follow someone or something blindly are worse than animals. The Qur’an says: “Indeed the worst kind of beasts in the sight of God are the people that are deaf and dumb, and do not use their reason and common sense or wisdom” (Chapter 8, verse 22). The Qur’an awakens in man the faculty of reasoning and exhorts him to use his intellect. The Qur’an, for example, gives convincing arguments about the existence of God, why there is only one God, why we should believe that the Qur’an is the Book revealed by God, why we should believe that Mohammed (pbuh) is the Messenger of God, and why we should believe in Life After Death and in the Day of Judgment. The Qur’an’s teachings are simple, appealing, and rational. Because of these virtues of Islam, it is the fastest growing religion, despite deliberate lies, false publicity, and propaganda by the media against Islam and Muslims. Nowhere in the world today is Islam in a dominant position as a system of life. Despite that, because of its charm, attraction, simplicity, and rationality, it is spreading at a greater rate than any other religion in the four corners of the world. People of all professions and all intellectual levels, the affluent, the downtrodden, and the oppressed alike are attracted to Islam. There are examples of Christian priests and bishops who went to Muslim countries to convert Muslims to Christianity, but themselves became Muslims once exposed to unbiased and true Islamic literature. During the first Gulf War, about four thousand U.S. soldiers converted to Islam. Similarly, during the Russian attack on Afghanistan, thousands of Russian soldiers converted to Islam. According to an authoritative study carried out by the Sunday Times (Feb. 22, 2004), there are now 14,200 white converts to Islam in Great Britain. Jonathan Birt, son of Lord John Birt (former Director General of the BBC), and Emma Clark, granddaughter of former Prime Minister Herbert Asquith, are only two examples of the mostly elite white Britons who have converted to Islam. According to this Sunday Times report, some of the country’s top landowners, celebrities, and


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind the offspring of senior establishment figures have embraced Islam after becoming disillusioned with Western values and the wishy-washy teachings and standards of contemporary Christianity. In the Middle Ages, after the Tatars completely smashed the Muslim empire, these same Tartars converted to Islam and became the torchbearers of Islam. Thus, Muslims lost the battle, but Islam won the war. Similarly, after the Crusaders took over Palestine, their descendants converted to Islam. Today, Western Christianity is fighting a losing battle against Islam, despite the fact that various Christian denominations spend billions of dollars every year to convert people to Christianity by luring poor people with material benefits, such as jobs, free education, and free health care. The spread of Christianity in Europe was by force, and in other parts of the world by colonization and exploitation. Muslims do not have such assets and resources. They spend probably one-thousandth of the money spent by Christian churches, and maybe one Muslim to one thousand Christians are working to convert others. For more than a century, the military, political, and economic domination of the continent of Africa has backed the organized efforts of a large number of Christian missions that are financially supported by the proselytizing zeal of prosperous Western nations; but these missionaries still did not succeed in Christianizing Africa. In contrast, against this all-out campaign, Islam has succeeded immensely in Africa without any political power, without military and economic weapons, and without a single organized mission. Some Christian missionaries themselves state, with expressions of dismay and regret, that for every one African convert to Christianity, ten Africans go to Islam and it shall not be long before Africa becomes overwhelmingly Muslim. The reason for this spectacular and amazing success of Islam is that its teachings are simple, rational, and appealing to reason and common sense.

(D)   ISLAM PROVIDES PRACTICAL EXAMPLES The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) probably is the only prophet whose followers take him as a model for their entire lives. He is a better example than any other spiritual guide. This is not only because he presented exalted ideas and beautiful ideals, but also because he put them into practical form and demonstrated their utility in all spheres of life. A distinguishing feature of the life of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is that there is nothing he preached and demanded from others that he did not practice himself. His life is so rich in practical demonstrations that hardly any problem arises in the lives of individuals, communities, and nations on which the guidance of the Prophet (pbuh) is not available. We do not find such guidance or models in the life of any other prophet. If a religious man ever affects the lives of others, it is not by what he says, but by who he is and what he does. Human beings do not judge each other by the principles that they announce or preach, but by the shape those principles take in their conduct. Anybody can enunciate any number of fanciful notions, attractive concepts, and appealing philosophies, but not everyone can live up to them. The actions of a person demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of his teachings. The sincere follower of every great prophet holds his spiritual guide as an example, desires to imitate him, and seeks his guidance in the struggles and conflicts of life. But if he has received from his exemplar only broad moral and spiritual ideas, and their application to the various spheres of life is left to this individual’s own judgment, there is a greater risk that his judgment will be twisted by personal interest and prejudices. Vicious, cruel, and egotistic individuals wreak havoc with principles when their interpretation, as well as their application, is left to the individual. For example, politeness is a desirable moral value, but we have to know when politeness turns into weakness. Similarly, firmness is a desirable attribute, but we have to know when it turns into arrogance. We have to know how to balance our duties towards God with our duties towards people. On the other hand, we have seen how good qualities such as love can turn humans into the very opposite. Take, for instance, the beautiful teaching of Jesus that the essence of spirituality is nonviolence and love, to the extent that even enemies are to be loved. Then look at the religious wars and persecutions of Christians by Christians. There have been cruel fanatics in the history of every religion, but persecution and torture in the name of religion that has been practiced by Christians with all conviction and sincerity is unparalleled in the history of intolerance and fanaticism. Excruciating tortures were invented by the Inquisition in Spain, Italy, and elsewhere.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind How can one forgive his enemies unless he has first subdued them? What do charity, benevolence, and philanthropy of a person mean if he is not blessed with anything to spare? Similarly, if a person did not marry and had no children, he cannot be an ideal model for a husband, for a loving father, or for the issues pertaining to family life. How can one be taken as a model of mercy, kindliness, and forgiveness if one never had an opportunity to pardon anyone? In the life of a man, social relationships have been, and shall always remain, the pivot of civilized existence, and hence every religion must seek to regulate them. The primary role of a religion is to unfold the relationship between man and his Creator, and between man and man. In other words, religion is meant to teach us the obligations we owe to God and our rights and duties with reference to our fellow beings. We need precedents for waging war and making peace, for leading our lives in affluence and poverty, for living as married couples and celibates, for communion with God and social relationships with our fellow beings, for behavior in victory and defeat, for living with anger and in forbearance, for feeling loneliness and companionship, and for every problem we may face. We require practical examples of those who have had these experiences and can demonstrate solutions rather than those who have nothing to offer except sweet words. The Holy Qur’an not only offers the fundamentals of Islamic religious faith and its views about God, man, and the world, but is also a record of the struggle of the Prophet (pbuh) to uphold and promote his cause against formidable odds. It tells us how the Prophet (pbuh) met every challenge and dealt with changing circumstances in light of his principles. But the Qur’an is not an encyclopedia of all the major and minor events of his life. Throughout his prophetic life, individuals brought before him their problems for advice, and multifarious situations arose that needed to be dealt with in the best possible manner. These were recorded in the Hadith books. The Hadith books, in general, are considered a record of the Prophet’s (pbuh) advice, either offered voluntarily or in response to the inquiry of a questioner. Hadith is the implementation and amplification of the fundamental principles enunciated in the Qur’an, and after the Qur’an is to a great extent the best source for the biography of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), and of his message and teachings with practical examples. In the life examples of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), there is a model for a person of every walk of life—a father, a son, a husband, a teacher, a preacher, a conqueror (in conquest), a person in defeat, a leader, a guide, a reformer, a judge, a head of a state or ruler, a trader or a businessman, a politician, a soldier, a military leader and commander, an educator, an economist, a worshiper, a rich person, a poor person, and an orphan. His guidance is most comprehensive and practical and of universal application. We do not find these in the life of any prophet other than the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). It does not mean that the other prophets lacked these qualities, but we do assert that the record of their lives and activities as it exists today throws no light on these aspects of their lives. This perhaps was the planning of God, because all the previous prophets were sent only for their own people and for a certain time. Their teachings were of a temporary nature, neither comprehensive nor practical enough for all the times and for all the people in the world, therefore Allah (swt) did not preserve them, but let them gradually disappear, become lost, or be changed.

(E)  ISLAM’S EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION AND SCIENCE­—ISLAM LEADS TO MATERIAL PROGRESS AND PROSPERITY Islam is a religion of nature; it leads not only to spiritual progress but also to material progress and prosperity. The history of Muslims bears testimony to this. Islam lays great stress on knowledge and education. The very first revelation to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was: “Read in the name of your Lord who created man from a blood clot. Read and your Lord is most generous who taught man by the pen” (Chapter 96, Verses 1-4). One of the prayers taught to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in the Qur’an by God is: “O’ Mohammed say, Lord increase me in knowledge” (Chapter 20, Verse 114). The Qur’an has repeatedly emphasized the value of thinking, pondering, and reflection on the various natural phenomena. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) has said: (1)  Seek knowledge from cradle to grave. (2) The ink of a scholar is more sacred than the blood of a martyr.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (3) Seek knowledge even if you have to go to China. (4) Seeking of knowledge is an obligatory duty of every Muslim male and female. Islam has, therefore, conferred on science something of the sanctity of worship. It was due to this emphasis of Islam on learning and knowledge, and due to the realization that man is God’s vicegerent on earth, that Muslims in very early history took vigorous strides towards the expansion of knowledge and the advancement of the sciences. The Muslim state so patronized and encouraged the pursuit of study and scientific research, that centers of learning and universities sprang up throughout the empire of Islam and Muslims became pioneers in all branches of science and knowledge at a time when Europe was experiencing the Dark Ages. Islam dominated the world for five hundred years by its power, its learning, and its superior civilization. Heir to the scientific and philosophical treasures of the Greeks, Islam enriched these treasures and brought them to Western Europe. Thus, Islam was able to widen the intellectual horizon of the Middle Ages and make a profound impact on European life and thought. A renowned British historian extensively discusses the contribution of Islam (i.e., of Arabs and other Muslims), in Chapters XL and XLI of his book, History of the Arabs, (10th Ed., 1970), published by R&R Clark, Ltd., Edinburgh. In a nutshell, he says: “No other people made as important a contribution to human progress as did the Arabs—for centuries Arabic was the language of learning, culture and intellectual progress for the whole of the civilized world, with the exception of the Far East.” He furthermore says: “ From the ninth to the twelfth century there were more philosophical, medical, historical, religious, astronomical and geographical works written in Arabic than in any other human tongue.” However, Arabs did not create this civilization alone. It was and still is the work of people of many different faces and tongues, brought together under Islam into one spiritual and unique community. It was the Muslim’s advances in science and the diffusion of knowledge that ignited the beginning of our contemporary progress in science and technology. The deterioration and decline of the Muslim nation began after the people deserted Islamic principles and teachings. Muslims controlled science based on the ethical principles of Islam, and not for the purpose of gaining power. Science was subordinated to Islamic law in order to ensure that the tremendous power of science is used for human and constructive purposes. The Muslims humanized science and the spirit of God was breathed into it, to use the phrase of the Qur’an. In contrast, since the church strictly opposed science in Europe and the clergy severely persecuted and killed many scientists, science and technology started in Europe as a revolt against the clergy and the church. Scientific developments in the West therefore lack spirituality and kindness. The western societies have turned science into a “god.” In the fulfillment of their national or personal interests, they have used science mercilessly and indiscriminately, and killed millions of innocent people, made millions of people homeless, made millions of children orphans, and made millions of woman widows.

(F) ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF WORSHIP Islam is a religion of nature. The Islamic concept of religion as a complete way of life has considerably and uniquely widened the scope of worship. It has spiritualized all aspects of human existence. Worship is not confined to specified prayers and rituals that are to be performed on particular occasions. Every action that is taken with the intention of pleasing God and without breaking his commandments is an act of worship for which man will be rewarded. Islam does not seek to crush our natural desires nor does it leave them uncontrolled and unrestricted. Rather, Islam disciplines and guides these natural desires along the right channels. For example, God who put sexual urges in human beings neither wants us to crush those feelings, nor does He allow us to let them go wild and uncontrolled. Instead, He wants us to satisfy them within the marriage bond and not outside of it. Earning our livelihood is not only permissible and desirable, but is also an obligation. The time spent in doing this is time spent in worship. Worldly goods, including wealth, are a blessing if they are rightly and justly acquired and used. Islam is against squandering, extravagance, and luxury, and wants Muslims to fulfill genuine simple needs and spend their surplus on promoting others’ well-being and relieving the needs and suffering of fellow human beings. We can earn as much money as we want, provided that:


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind ( a ). We do not hurt other people financially, physically, or morally. For example, we cannot earn even a penny by

robbing, stealing, cheating, lying, or by fraud. Similarly, we cannot earn any money by selling drugs, alcohol, or other such goods that are harmful to human health and morals. We cannot make money by investing in such activities or businesses that promote, directly or indirectly, immorality, indecency, violence, or lewdness, including those means employed to awaken sexual passions, be they poetry, songs, fiction, pictures, television programs, or theater. This includes clubs and hotels that provide dancing or other forms of obscene entertainment involving the mixed participation of men and women.

(b). After earning money, we cannot say: ‘We worked hard, it’s our money and we can spend it wherever we want.’

Islamic concept is that God is the real Owner or Master of all that we earn, and we only become custodians of our earnings. We have to render an accounting of every penny to God. We can spend a reasonable amount on all our genuine needs, but we can neither be spendthrifts nor wasteful, nor can we spend on prohibited items such as those mentioned above.

It is God Who gave us faculties to earn; we could have been born blind, handicapped, or with mental disability. Again, it is God Who provides us with opportunities for work. There are many who are without jobs. Similarly, eating, drinking, sleeping, enjoying innocent recreation, marriage, and all other worldly actions that satisfy man’s physical needs and even yield sensuous pleasures are all acts of worship if they are performed with the intention of pleasing God within the legitimate means, limits, and restrictions imposed by God. It is an act of worship to keep ourselves in good health by providing ourselves with proper food, sleep, rest, and physical exercise so as to enable us to shoulder the responsibilities that have been placed upon us by God as His agent or vicegerent on earth. Thus it is possible that a man may advance spiritually even when he is fully enjoying the pleasures of worldly life. The reason is that during all this enjoyment, his heart will be in communion with God by virtue of the purity of his intentions and by being completely attached to the service of God. In addition to five daily obligatory prayers in Islam, there are many other daily supplications for different occasions that we face every day. For example, we pray every day when we: wake from sleep, leave the bed, see the light of dawn, intend to do something, begin our travel, get sick, face adversity, sneeze, hear another person sneezing, enter the restroom, leave the rest room, mount an animal or enter any means of transportation, take off our clothing, put on our clothing, start eating, finish eating, start drinking, finish drinking, look in the mirror, leave our home, enter the mosque, leave the mosque, enter a town, receive pleasing news, receive displeasing news, and so on. This enables us to be, at all times, God-conscience and to perpetually remain in the state of submission, obedience, and devotion to God—even during our worldly pursuits—and this is the very essence of worship. When a person knows that even enjoyment and pleasure can become acts of worship merely by virtue of purity of intentions and motives, it becomes easy for him to render obedience to God continually and to direct all his attention to seeking Divine pleasure. For he knows that devotion to God does not necessarily mean abandonment of worldly life, its comforts, or its pleasures. While Islam is not a religion of self-denial, it teaches us, nonetheless, to not attribute to earthly life the exaggerated value that modern civilization attributes to it. This world and its pleasures are not an end in themselves but a means to the end, which is the pleasure of God. The Holy Qur’an says: (1)  “Eat and drink but do not exceed the limit or be extravagant and wasteful, indeed God does not like those who exceed the limit” (Chapter 7, Verse 31). (2)  “Say who has forbidden the beautiful gifts of God, which He has created for His servants? And the things clean and pure, which He has provided for sustenance” (Chapter 7, Verse 32). (3)  The Qur’an teaches us to pray “Our Lord, give us the good in this world and the good in the Hereafter” (Chapter 2, Verse 201). (4)  “When you hear call for (Friday) prayer come for prayer, and when you finish your prayer, go and earn your livelihood” (Chapter 62, Verses 9-10). (5)  “Seek the abode of the Hereafter in that which God has given you and neglect not your portion of this world” (Chapter 28, Verse 77).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind    (6)  “And among the signs of God, one is this that He created for you your spouse so that you may find peace, tranquility and rest in them” (Chapter 30, verse 21). The Prophet (pbuh) said: (a)  “Even when a person affectionately puts a piece of food in the mouth of his wife in order to strengthen bonds of matrimonial love, God rewards him for that.” (b)  “A believer who is possessor of strength is better and dearer to God than a believer who is weak.” (c)  “Your body has a right upon you; therefore provide your body with proper food, rest and sleep. Similarly your family has a right upon you; therefore, fulfill your duties towards your family.” (That is, these are all acts of worship for which you will get reward from God).

(G)  ISLAM STANDS FOR BROTHERHOOD AND EQUALITY OF MANKIND The Islamic principles of the unity of God and the unity of mankind are the two natural foundations for building peace, progress, friendship, and cooperation among different peoples and nations. Together they create a bond of brotherhood between human beings—that of one Lord and one father. Oneness of God is the spiritual principle of human equality, with a common lineage of high and low, white and colored, it places all men on the same plane of humanity. Islam not merely preaches, but actually practices equality and brotherhood of mankind. We all are children of one couple, Adam and Eve, and are therefore all like brothers and sisters. We are equal irrespective of our skin color, race, language, nationality, descent, and any other distinction. Therefore, there should be love, compassion, sympathy, cooperation, and respect among us and not enmity, hatred, persecution, exploitation, oppression, or discrimination. This golden teaching of Islam, if properly followed, will eliminate conflicts and develop cordial relations leading to peace and tranquility. This subject will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5.

(H)  ISLAM’S UNIQUE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE There is no other religion, system, government, or law anywhere in the world that guarantees absolute impartial justice to all as does Islam. Islamic law of justice is so fair and impartial that it treats all people alike: relatives and strangers, friends and foes, the rich and the poor, Muslims and non-Muslims, blacks and whites, citizens and aliens, rulers and the ruled, servants and masters, the strong and the weak, laborers and capitalists, and employers and employees. A comprehensive treatment of this subject is given in Chapter 6.

(I)  ISLAM IS A RELIGION OF PEACE One of the greatest misconceptions or allegations concerning Islam is that it is a religion of terrorism. Islam is a religion of peace, justice, brotherhood, and tolerance, and it envisions a peaceful world wherein each person’s dignity and freedom is protected equally. Islam is strongly opposed to the killing of innocent people. Respect for human life and dignity is one of the fundamentals of Islam. Islam does not like war; it wants peace. However, peace in Islam does not mean the absence of war, but it does mean the absence of oppression, injustice, and tyranny. If only all nations of the world had learned to accept the teachings of Islam, peace would already reign supreme in our community of nations. Anyone who cherishes peace and admires its essence and value, and is not a victim of selfishness, greed, injustice, and corruption, cannot but love to be a Muslim. The subject of war in Islam is discussed in Chapter 7.

(J)  ISLAM EXTENDS HAND OF PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Islam offers friendship, cooperation, and peaceful coexistence. Islam commands Muslims to cooperate with everyone, regardless of a person’s religion or creed, in all such activities and projects that are virtuous and beneficial to humanity and other creatures on earth. According to the teachings of Islam, nobody is a true Muslim unless he or she believes and respects all Messengers and prophets who came before the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), and who were sent to people all over the world at different times in history (such as Jesus, Moses, Solomon, David, Abraham, Noah, and many others). All these Messengers were sent by the same One God, and with the same fundamental message. If, say, a hundred people came to a stage and they all made the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind same statement, and if you accept the statement of any one of them, you actually accept all of them; and if you deny any one of them, then you deny all of them. Islam extends the hand of cooperation (worship, obedience, and service to one God) to the followers of previous religions. More details of this aspect of Islam are given in Chapter 8. As discussed in Chapter 9, Islam gives complete freedom to the followers of all other religions to practice their religion, and is strictly against forced conversions.

(K)   ISLAM ANSWERS ALL QUESTIONS Islam has answers to all the questions that have been perplexing the mind of man for ages: (a) Who created this world? (b) Who sent me here? (c)  What is the purpose of my life? (d) Am I free to do anything I want? (e) Am I responsible or accountable to anyone for my actions and behavior? (f) Is death the end of my life? (g) What happens after death? (h) If there is life after death, what type of life is that? Answers to these and other related questions as given by Islam are provided in Chapters 10 through 14.

(L)   ISLAM IS A COMPLETE WAY OF LIFE Islam is not a set of dogmas, mythological beliefs, or mere rituals, but it is a complete and comprehensive way of life that gives guidance for all aspects of life: moral and material, individual and social, national and international, peace and war, political and economic, and legal and cultural. Islam does not divide life into watertight compartments; there is no dichotomy in Islam between the temporal and the spiritual. Islam is a faith, a law, a way of life, a “nation,” and a “state” with a system of jurisprudence that is continually evolving for the administration of this world and the satisfaction of human needs under the sovereignty of our Creator. The teachings of Islam are very scientific, modern, progressive, and relevant for all times. Some religions began as orders of monks having nothing to do with the affairs of the world. These religions never formulated any ideals of a social, economic, and political order, and their spiritual and ethical ideals and outlooks were other-worldly and aimed at personal salvation. Islam (which represents the true teachings of all the Messengers of God) is against celibacy and monastic life and has been from its very beginning a civil society with all the necessary civil laws but revelational in origin. Since, according to Islam, man is the Khalifa (vicegerent, agent, or representative of God on the earth), it is man’s obligation to be actively involved in all affairs of this world; to work for God’s pleasure; to enforce the Divine Law in that cross-section of world affairs whose management has been entrusted to man; to create and maintain conditions where peace, justice, and virtue may flourish; to suppress and eradicate evil and disorder in all their forms; and to foster those virtues which are liked by God and which He desires should prevail in this world. To learn about the broad and basic principles of the moral, political, economic, social, and spiritual teachings of Islam, an excellent reference is The Islamic Way of Life, by Sayyid Abul-A’la Mawdudi, published by the Islamic Foundation, Leicester, U.K.

(M)   FORGIVENESS IN ISLAM The Islamic way of life consists of a set of rights and obligations and every Muslim is enjoined to live up to them. Broadly speaking, these rights and obligations are of four kinds:


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (1) The rights of God, which every person is obliged to fulfill. (2) His own rights upon himself. (3) The rights of other people upon him. (4) The rights of those powers and resources which God has placed in his service and has empowered him to use for his benefit. All these rights and obligations are part of the Islamic law called Sharia ‘ah, which have been ordained by God in the Holy Qur’an and have been explained, clarified, and elaborated by His last Messenger Mohammed (pbuh) through his words, actions, and traditions. Sharia‘ah (the Islamic code of Law) has discussed these rights and obligations exhaustively. Since the subject here is “Forgiveness in Islam,” the discussion below is limited only to this aspect of these rights and obligations. If we happen to violate these rights or fail to fulfill our obligations, Sharia ‘ah has made provisions for forgiveness, which relieves the offenders from the consequences of these sins. Forgiveness in Islam falls under two major categories: (1)  God’s forgiveness of our sins. (2)  Man’s forgiveness to man. These two types of forgiveness are discussed below.

God’s Forgiveness of Our Sins One of the great services that Islam rendered to humanity is delivering it from the unnecessary and imaginary terror of sin. There is no doubt that God, as presented in the Old Testament, inspires more terror than love. He punishes whole families and groups ruthlessly for real and imaginary sins. But sin, as something that enters the soul and is inherited from Adam downward by every child that is born, is an invention of perverted Christianity. This invention makes the loving, merciful, and forgiving God of mankind very cruel, unjust, and unforgiving (refer to “Original Sin” in Chapter 2 for more details). The Qur’an refutes the doctrine that certain consequences necessarily follow from sins and that man must in all cases bear them. In fact, this is one of the most misleading doctrines invented by human imagination. If it were true, it would mean that a sinner would never have the opportunity to have his repentance accepted. It is a mechanistic view of reward and punishment and thus prevents and discourages the sinner from trying to improve. The Qur’an, on the contrary, tells man that reward for good actions and punishment for bad ones rest entirely with God. The reward that one receives for good acts is not the natural consequence of those acts; it is rather due to the grace and benevolence of God. It is entirely up to Him to reward a good act or not. Likewise, punishment for evil deeds is not a natural and unalterable consequence of man’s acts. God has full authority to punish man for his sins or to pardon him. God’s grace and mercy, however, are interrelated with His wisdom. Since He is Wise, He does not use His powers arbitrarily; hence, whenever God rewards a man for his good acts, He does so because the good was done with purity of intention and for the sake of pleasing God. If God refuses to accept an act of apparent goodness, He does so because that act had merely the form or appearance of goodness, and was not motivated by the desire to please God. In the same way that God punishes man for those sins which he commits with rebellious boldness and which whet his appetite for more sin rather than lead him to repentance, similarly, in His mercy, God pardons those sins which are followed by genuine repentance and readiness on the part of the sinner to reform. There is no need for the criminal to despair of God’s grace and mercy, no matter how great a criminal he is. Nor is there any reason for even the most rabid disbeliever to despair, provided he recognizes his error, repents of his disobedience, and is ready to replace his former disobedience with obedience. God is neither callous nor merciless. He has no enmity toward His own creatures. It cannot even be conceived that God would want to punish people just for the fun of it. It is only when people exceed all reasonable limits and exercise no restraint in their wickedness that God punishes them, and then only reluctantly. He is so prone to forgiveness that no matter how sinful a person may have become, God’s mercy encompasses him if only he sincerely repents and turns to God, for God’s love and compassion for His creatures is immense. The Prophet (pbuh) fully illustrated this by two examples. One is that of a man who lost his camel in the middle of a desert. When a sinner repents and turns to God, He is even more joyous than this owner of the camel who suddenly finds


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind his lost beast in a moment of total despair (See Sahih Muslim, at-Tawbah, Ba’ad fil Hadd `Ala at-Tawbah, Traditions 1-8). The second example is perhaps even more moving. `Umar (ra) told of a time when a few prisoners of war were brought to the Prophet (pbuh). One was a woman whose infant child had been left behind. Her motherly compassion overwhelmed her to such an extent that she would grab any baby she could lay her hands on, would clasp him to her bosom, and start suckling him. When the Prophet (pbuh) saw the woman in such a state of mind he asked his companions whether they thought she would cast her children into fire. The companions replied in the negative. They said that rather than throwing her children into a fire, she would make every possible effort lest they slide into it. The Prophet (pbuh) added: “God is even more merciful to His servants than this woman is to her child” (Sahih Muslim, at-Tawbah, Baab Sa’at Rahmatu Allah). Some reflection may help one to appreciate that it is God Who has created compassion in the hearts of parents for their children. Had God not created this compassion for children, parents may, in fact, have been quite inimical to them. For a child is indeed one of the greatest causes of parents’ discomfort and annoyance. If one remembers that it is God Who planted love and compassion for children in the hearts of parents it is quite easy to grasp the extent of God’s love and compassion for His creatures. An incident about an old man has been related in the Traditions. He came before the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, all my life has passed in sin; there is no sin which I have not committed; so much so that if my sins were to be distributed over the people of the whole world, they would all be doomed. Is there any way for my forgiveness?” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked him, “Have you embraced Islam?” He said, “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah.” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, “Go back, Allah is All-forgiving and has the power to change your evil deeds into good deeds.” He asked, “Is it about all my crimes and errors?” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) replied, “Yes, it is about all your crimes and errors” (Ibn Kathir). By the grace of God, the door of repentance and return remains open to man at every moment. Should he remember after a slip or a lapse of memory, or should he repent after having fallen into sin, he finds the door open. God will accept his repentance and will forgive him for his slips. When he maintains the right path thereafter, God substitutes good deeds for bad ones, and multiplies his reward as many times as He pleases. God has not made man’s original sin a curse that chases him and his off spring, for there is simply no permanent, everlasting, or inherited sin. No one bears the burden of another. The doctrine of forgiveness of sins was one of the most bounteous gifts of Islam to mankind. The Prophet (pbuh) declared that sins are but temporary deviations from the right path inherent in the nature of man, and are brought about by ignorance, mistake, man’s own desires, and the promptings of the devil. But man’s deeper desire is to regret his mistakes and seek pardon from God with a contrite heart. To be broken in spirit by a sense of guilt and to seek forgiveness shows the innate goodness of human nature and attracts the mercy of God. This gospel of hope and good tidings was a revolutionary message to a despondent humanity condemned forever by the guilt of original sin and past misdeeds. How profound a change it brought on the prevailing atmosphere of gloom and depression is illustrated by the fact that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) came to be known as the “Apostle of Repentance.” Repentance, he said, did not involve faintheartedness, nor did it arise from fear of disapprobation, but was a bold and daring step taken by the first man, Adam (pbuh), which showed the innate nobility of his nature. Repentance was sanctified as one of the acts of devotion due to God. So forcefully did the Holy Prophet (pbuh) preach the virtue of repentance that even those who seemed irredeemably sunk in sin turned in repentance to God and attained a sublimity of spirit that was envied by others. Describing the clemency of God, which is ever willing to forgive sinners, the Qur’an speaks with such alluring charm that one wonders whether God loves best those who seek His forgiveness after deviating from the path of virtue. God’s magnanimity to those who turn to Him for forgiveness is endless. He is forgiving and of great mercy. Both the Qur’an and the Hadith (Traditions of the Prophet, pbuh) make it clear that one may repent and seek pardon during the present life. It is not possible to do so in the Hereafter. Even in this life, however, the opportunity for repenting and seeking pardon is available only as long as one is not in the throes of death. When a man becomes certain that he is on the verge of breathing his last, his repentance is of no avail. For as soon as a person reaches the frontiers of death, the term for doing good comes to an end. Only one thing follows that event—God’s Judgment (reward or punishment). There are many verses in the Qur’an on the subject of repentance and God’s forgiveness and mercy. We quote below only a few verses. “O, My servants, who have wronged their own souls (committed sins), do not despair of God’s mercy. Surely, God forgives all sins. He is the All-Forgiving, All-Merciful” (Chapter 39, Verse 53).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “[Those who commit various evils, they will be surely punished.] Different, however, will be the case of those who repent and believe and do good deeds; [God will not only forgive their evil deeds but also] God will replace their evil deeds by good deeds; God is Most Forgiving, Infinitely Merciful” (Chapter 25, Verse 70). “But, without doubt, I am He that forgives those who repent, believe, do righteous deeds, and who are then on true guidance” (Chapter 20, Verse 82). “Ha Mim. The revelation of this book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Knowing, the Forgiver of sin and Acceptor of repentance. He is stern in punishment and is highly Bountiful. There is no deity besides Him. To Him shall all return” (Chapter 40, Verses 1-3). One of the attributes of God mentioned in the last verse above is that He is “Forgiver of sin and Acceptor of repentance.” This attribute brings hope, as already mentioned, so that the people who have led lives of sin should not despair, but should reform themselves with the hope that if they refrain from their behavior even now they could still be redeemed by Allah’s mercy. One should understand well that forgiving of sins and accepting of repentance are not necessarily one and the same thing, and in most cases Allah forgives sins even without the repentance. For example, a person commits errors as well as good acts, so his good acts become the means of forgiveness for his mistakes, whether or not he had the opportunity to repent for his mistakes. Likewise, all the troubles, hardships, diseases, and calamities that afflict man and cause him grief in the world serve as penance for his mistakes. That is why the mention of forgiveness of sins has been made separately from the acceptance of repentance. But one should remember that the concession of forgiveness of errors without repentance only refers to those believers who are free from defiance and who committed sins due to human weakness and not due to persistence in pride and sin.

Man’s Forgiveness of Man Forgiveness between man and man has two aspects:

(1)  We wronged others.

(2)  Someone else does wrong to us.

When we happen to wrong other human beings, it is essential that we ask for their forgiveness, offer our apology, and compensate them for the harm or damage we may have afflicted them, if necessary and possible. If we die without asking or achieving forgiveness, then we will have to pay a very heavy price in the Hereafter on the Day of Judgment. All those persons whose rights were violated by a man in this world who died without asking for forgiveness from his victims will stand as plaintiffs in the court of God on the Day of Judgment. He will be demanded a compensation for those victims for the harm done to them, be it physical, financial, mental, psychological, or any other kind. In proportion to the harm done to these plaintiffs, God will give them a quantity of good deeds from those earned by the defendant in this world. When all the good deeds of the defendant are doled out to the plaintiffs and still there are some who have not yet been compensated, then these plaintiffs will give the defendant an equal amount of their own evil deeds. Thus, at the end, this defendant will have no good deeds and all that will remain with him will be his own evil deeds and the evil deeds of those persons whom he wronged in this world. Eventually, such a person could end up in Hellfire despite his daily prayers, his charity, his fasting, his pilgrimage, and his other virtuous deeds. If someone does wrong to us, then we have three choices: (1)   We can take revenge, but this revenge should be equivalent to the harm done to us and not more. (2)  We may forgive that person. (3)  We not only forgive that person, but also return the evil with good. These lessons are explained in the following verses of the Holy Qur’an: “If you take retribution, then do so in proportion to the wrong done to you. But If you can bear such conduct with patience, indeed that is best for the steadfast.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “(O Mohammed!) So bear with patience and your patience is only because of the help of Allah, and do not grieve over them, nor feel distressed by their evil plans. For surely Allah is with those who hold Him in fear and do good” (Chapter 16, Verses 126- 128). “And O Prophet, goodness and evil are not equal. Repel evil with what is best. You will see that he, with whom you had enmity, has become your closest friend. But none can attain to this quality except those who endure with patience, and none can attain to this rank except those who are men of great good fortune. And if you feel an incitement from Satan, seek refuge in Allah: He hears everything and knows everything” (Chapter 41, Verses 34-36). “Whatever you have been given, is merely a provision for the transitory life of this world, and that which is with Allah is better as well as more lasting. That is for those who have believed and put their trust in their Lord; who refrain from gross sins and indecencies; who, when they are angry, forgive; who obey their Lord, establish the Salah, and conduct their affairs by mutual consultation; who spend out of what We have given them as sustenance,. who, when they are oppressed, help and defend themselves. The recompense of evil is a like evil; then whoever pardons and seeks reconcilement, his reward is with Allah. Allah (swt) does not like the wrongdoers. And those who avenge themselves after they have been wronged, cannot be held blameworthy, for blameworthy indeed are those who oppress others and commit excesses in the land without any right. For such people there is a painful torment. However, the one who practices patience and is forgiving, these indeed are works of great courage and resolution” (Chapter 42, Verses 36-43).

(N)   NO PRIESTHOOD IN ISLAM In Islam, God is not distant from his people, and He needs no intermediate. Islam does not therefore need clergy, church priests, or sacraments. What is the good of a mediator between man and his Maker, Who has known him before his birth, Who is his Care-Taker, Provider, Guardian, Nourisher, and Sustainer, Who watches and listens to him at all times and places, and Who knows the secrets of his heart and is nearer to him than his jugular vein? One of man’s most persistent faults is that he has conceived God to be similar to those worldly rulers who immerse themselves in lives of ease and luxury in their grand places. Such rulers are normally far removed from their subjects. For all intents and purposes, they are well beyond the direct access of their subjects. The only way for their subjects to reach them is through the auspices of their favorite courtiers. And even if a subject succeeds in conveying his pleadings through a courtier, these rulers are often too arrogant to directly respond to such pleadings. This is one aspect of the function of a courtier—to communicate to a ruler the pleadings of his subjects and to communicate to the subjects the response of the ruler. Since God was often conceived in the image of such worldly rulers, many people fell prey to the false belief that God is well above the reach of ordinary human beings. This belief spread further because many clever people found it quite profitable to propagate such a notion. No wonder many people felt God could only be approached through powerful intermediaries and intercessors. The only way that a person’s prayer could reach God and be answered by Him was to approach Him through one of the holy men. It was, therefore, considered necessary to grease the palm of the religious functionaries who supposedly enjoyed the privilege of conveying a man’s offerings and prayers to the One on high. This misconception gave birth to a pantheon of small and large deities and intercessors who are supposed to act as intermediaries between man and God. This misconception has given rise to institutionalized priesthood, according to which no ritual, whether relating to birth or death, can be performed without the active participation of the priests. Islam strikes at the root of this ignorant system and totally demolishes its intellectual infrastructure. It does this by emphasizing two facts: God is extremely close to His creatures and He answers their prayers. Thus, it refutes many misconceptions about God, such as that He is far away, altogether withdrawn from human beings, and does not answer their prayers if they directly approach Him. God, no doubt, is transcendent, and yet He is extremely close to every person. Everyone will find Him just next to him. Everyone can whisper to Him the innermost desires of their hearts. Everyone can address their prayers to God both in public and in private, by verbally expressing those prayers or addressing them to Him without uttering a single word. Moreover, God answers the prayers of all His creatures directly. God’s court, with all its majesty, is just around everyone’s corner, close to one’s threshold, and always open to all. Even though people can neither see God nor subject Him to any other form of sense perception, this should not make them feel that God is remote from them. On the contrary, He is so close to each and every person that whenever any person so wishes he can communicate with his Lord. So much so that God hears and responds even to the prayer that remains within the innermost recesses of the heart. God, the omnipotent Lord and the absolute Master of this vast universe, Who wields


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind all power and authority, is so close to human beings that they can always approach Him without the intercession of any intermediaries, and can put to Him their prayers and requests directly. H.G. Wells says, “Islam to this day has learned doctors, teachers, and preachers; but it has no priests.” And the New Catholic Encyclopedia says, “Islam has no church, no priesthood, no sacramental system, and almost no liturgy.” There is no papal equivalent in Islam. There are no intercessors between man and God. You can say ‘we dial direct and do not go through an operator.’ There are men and women occupying different levels on the steep slope of religious knowledge, at the peak of which are scholars who serve to define answers to religiously challenging issues. However, scholarship does not necessarily imply any greater closeness to God than that of a simple and pious, though uneducated, Muslim. Congregational prayer is led by an Imam, but this word Imam means nothing more than “somebody who goes out in front”—in other words, a leader of the prayer. The Imam is not ordained and does not administer sacraments. His function is nothing more than to synchronize prayer by providing leadership in the recitation and rituals. This is a position that does not require any particular office or appointment, and that can be fulfilled by any adult member of the congregation.

(O)   ISLAM TEACHES ACCOUNTABILITY BEFORE GOD FOR ALL OUR ACTIONS One of the basic and most important teachings of Islam is that we are answerable to God on the Day of Judgment for all what we do and say. We can deceive our parents, children, relatives, friends, the police, the government, and the state, but we cannot hide anything from Him. He is watching and listening to us at all times and in all places. One can say that we are continuously being videotaped by Him, or that we are on “candid camera.” Those who do not live according to His guidance and commands will be thrown into hell, which is a terrible place. Those who worship, obey, and serve Him according to His guidance will be rewarded by eternal life in paradise. All Muslims pray five times every day. In these five daily obligatory prayers, the Muslims remind themselves at least 32 times of the Day of Judgment after Resurrection, and of God’s punishment and recompense according to our actions, when we say: “Our Lord, You are the Master of the Day of Recompense.” One of our most common supplications is: “Our Lord, give us the good in this world and the good in the next world.” When we wake up from sleep, we say: “Praise be to God who gave us life after death (sleep is sister of death) and to Him is the Resurrection.” When we ride (for travel), we say: “Glory be to Him Who has subjected these (means of travel) to our use, for we could have never accomplished this (by ourselves). And to our Lord shall we be sent back.” While reading the Holy Qur’an, it is impossible to read a few pages without being reminded about life after death and about our accountability before God on the Day of Judgment in the Hereafter. When we go to visit the relatives of a deceased Muslim, our most common prayer is: “May God forgive the sins of the deceased, protect him (her) from the Hellfire, and give him (her) a place in Paradise.” This belief in our accountability for all our actions before Just and Impartial God and punishment and reward in the Hereafter according to our actions is a powerful inducement to practice virtue and a deterrent against evil. For a more comprehensive discussion about this, see Chapters 10 through 13.

(P) CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, we would like to state that with the exception of the religion of Islam as preached by the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), all other religions brought by various Prophets and Messengers of God are now mere legends of the past, because they have been changed, distorted, and corrupted by their followers. On the other hand, Islam is the fastest growing religion in the World because it is free from myths, ambiguities, and superstitions, and because its teachings are simple, easily understandable, rational, appealing to common sense and reason, and are scientific and progressive. Because of the virtues of Islam, people of all professions and intellectual levels, and even Christian preachers and priests, are entering Islam. We have provided two stories of conversion of American Christian priests to Islam (see Appendix D and Appendix E).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 5 Islam on Brotherhood and Equality of Mankind


slam considers the whole of humanity to be one family and treats all mankind as one community. The Holy Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was the first to demolish narrow visions of geographical, racial, and political nationhood, and he taught the lessons of broad-mindedness and international brotherhood to the world-at-large. As reported by Baihaqi and other books of Hadith, addressing over one hundred-thousand of his followers at the time of Haja-tul-Widah (Farewell Pilgrimage), the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said: “0 people, verily your Lord is one and your father is one. All of you belong to Adam, and Adam was made of clay. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab or for a white colored over a black colored, or for a black-skinned over a white-skinned, except in piety. Verily the noblest among you is he who is the most pious.” The following three verses from the Holy Qur’an demonstrate this further.    Chapter 49, Verse 13 (Surah Al-Hujurat) “O mankind! We created you from a single [pair] of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other [not that ye may despise each other]. Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is [he who is]the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted [with all things].” Chapter 4, Verse 1 (Surah An-Nisa) “O mankind! Fear your Lord and keep your duty to Him who created you from a single being [i.e. Adam] and out of it He created its mate [i.e. Eve]; and out of these two spread many men and women [on the globe].” Chapter 17, Verse 70 (Surah Bani-Israeel) “We have made all the children of Adam [i.e. all human beings] respectable and dignified.” These verses command all mankind to reform the great evil that has always caused universal disruption in the world: prejudices due to race, color, language, country, and nationality. We are told that all mankind has one origin and that all people are the flesh and blood of each other. The entire human race is like one household, the household of Adam. God created all people from Adam and Eve, and therefore we all are children of the same parents (i.e., Adam and Eve). We are all equal and like brothers and sisters to each other, irrespective of our nationality, race, color, descent, language, country, and financial status. Therefore, there should be love, compassion, sympathy, cooperation, and respect between us; not hatred, enmity, persecution, and exploitation. Islam is a colorblind and race-blind religion. Superiority in the eyes of God depends on one’s fear of God, piety, and obedience to God, and not on race, color, nationality, or descent. Never before Islam has any movement abolished social and class distinctions altogether and practiced complete equality, as does Islam. Muslims practice and demonstrate this equality and brotherhood during five daily prayers and during weekly Friday prayer held in every mosque around the world. In these prayers, we all stand and pray before God, as equals, shoulder to shoulder, without any differences, preferences, or priorities on the basis of color or race, or social, economic, or political characteristics. We also demonstrate this brotherhood and equality and the universality of Islam once every year, when Muslims of all colors, from all walks of life, from all trades and classes, and from every corner of the globe assemble in Makkah for the annual pilgrimage. In the verses referenced above, God draws our attention to the following: (1)  All of mankind shares together in a single kinship because all humans originate from the same male and female; all races found in the world are, in fact, branches of one initial race that started with one mother and one father. (2)  In this process of creation, there is no basis whatsoever for the divisions and distinctions that mankind has engaged in because of false notions and selfishness. One and the same God has created all; all have been made from one and the same substance. It is not that some people have been made from some pure and superior substance and some other people from some impure and inferior substance. All have been created in one and the same way, and all are the offspring of the same one parents. It is not that in the beginning there were many couples who gave birth to different populations in the different regions of the world.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (3)  With the spread of this one initial race on the globe, it was natural there should be differences of colors, features, languages, and ways of living among people due to differences in climate, weather, and environments. (4)  It is also natural that those living in the same region, speaking the same language, and sharing the same culture, should be closer in affinity to each other than to those living in remote regions. (5)  This natural difference cannot and should not become the basis of any superiority of one people over the other, where the people of one color look down upon the people of other colors, or that one nation takes preference over another without any other reason. (6)  The only basis of superiority and excellence that there is, or can be, between man and man is that of moral excellence. The birth of a person in a particular country, nation, or tribe is only accidental. The real thing that makes one person superior to another is being more God-conscious, avoiding evil, and following the better way of piety and righteousness. Such a man, whatever his race, nation, and country, is valuable and worthy on account of his personal merit. And a man who is the reverse of him in character is an inferior person, whether he is black or white, born in the East or the West. (7)  Instead of starting all mankind from one soul, if God wanted, He could have created many men and many women at the outset and paired them together. But God created us all from one soul, so that there may be a strong bond of brotherhood, love, mercy, sympathy, and compassion among us. In addition, if people had originated from different parents instead of one and the same parents, some might have claimed superiority over others saying that they descended from couples that were made from superior material. (8)  Despite that, people discriminate on the basis of their birth in a particular family, tribe, race, geographical region, or nation whose people have a particular color or speak a particular language. Then, the discrimination between one’s own people and others is not only confined to showing greater love and cooperation to one’s own people than to others, but this discrimination has assumed the worst forms of hatred, enmity, contempt, and tyranny. New philosophies have been propounded for it, new religions invented, new codes of law made, and new moral principles framed. So much so that nations and empires have made these distinctions a permanent way of life and practiced them for centuries. The Jews, on this very basis, regarded the children of Israel as the chosen people of God, and even in the practice of their religious rites looked upon non-Jews as inferior to the Jews in rights and ranks. A similar discrimination gave birth to the caste system among the Hindus, according to which the superiority of the Brahmins was established, and all other human beings came to be regarded as inferior and unclean, and thus the Shudra Hindus were cast into the depths of disgrace and degradation. The atrocities committed against the colored people in Africa and the U.S. by the white race is well known. The treatment that the Europeans meted out to the Native Americans and to the weak nations of Asia and Africa had the same underlying concept. They thought that the life, property, and honor of all those who had been born outside the frontiers of their own country and nation were lawfully theirs and that they had the right to plunder and take them as their slaves and exterminate them if needed. If what was manifested by the racism of Nazi Germany and the concept of the superiority of the Nordic or Aryan race in World War II is kept in view, one can easily judge how stupendous and devastating is the error for whose reform these verses of the Qur’an were revealed. Besides interfaith justice, Islam also inculcated interracial, intertribal, and international justice. It is acknowledged by all eminent historians and sociologists that no other culture, religious or secular, has ever succeeded in overcoming racial or color prejudice to the extent that Islam has succeeded. Tribal pride, which is magnified in modern times in national pride and prejudice, was successfully curbed by Islam, and eternally hostile tribes of Arabia were welded into fraternity by common belief and a common way of life. The Negro Bilal became a peer of the aristocratic Quraysh. Professor Toynbee, the famous British historian, says that the Islamic world community shall continue to be an exemplar for the rest of the humanity because it freed humanity from one of its greatest curses. He says that the Anglo-Saxon race is the worst criminal race in this respect. The oppression of African Americans in the United States and the racial segregation of South Africa could never have arisen in a Muslim domain. Democracy, as well as Christianity, is jeopardized by its inhuman prejudice, which determines the rights and privileges of human beings by the pigmentation of their skin. (9)  If God had wanted, He would have created the first woman directly from the earth as He created the first man, instead of creating her from the first man. But God created her from the first man, so man cannot say that a woman is inferior to man. Had mankind appreciated this fact, they would have spared themselves all those grievous mistakes under which


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind women have long suffered. Man would not have coined such absurdities about women, branding them as the source of impurity, the origin of evil, and the organ of Devil. For example, after the events of September 11, 2001, I was shocked when I received a letter from a man who holds a Ph.D. asking me, “According to Islamic teaching, do women have souls just like men?” The reason for such a query was that he wanted to confirm if Islam has a similar concept of women as what he had been learning from the perverted teachings of Christianity. By creating woman from man, God has told us that they both share a single nature. The only difference is in their abilities and the roles they have to play. Women were deprived of their human status and all human characteristics, together with all the rights to which their humanity entitles them, for no other reason than an absurd, groundless belief that temporarily took hold of man’s mind. When mankind realized his gross mistake and set about correcting it, we find that the other extreme was adopted; one whereby women were left without any checks or controls. They had forgotten that man and woman are two mutually complementary human beings. They are not identical individuals, but a pair, each part of which complements the other. The Divine Constitution brings mankind back to this elementary fact after it has strayed far from it. (10)  These verses also suggest that family is the cornerstone of human life, and this new creation on earth begins with one family of male and female and not with male and male nor with female and female. (11)  These verses remind us of our origin and of the fact that we belong to our Creator who has established us on this earth. Man came into this world after a period of time when the world existed without him. Prior to his arrival, he had no definite existence and no will with which to decide whether to enter this world or not. Man’s arrival in this world is thus the result of a will other than his own. This will that has brought man into this world outlined for him his way of life and gave him the ability to deal with the universe. It is the only will that can influence human life in any way it wishes, knows everything about man, and can best manage his affairs. It is the only will which has the right to define for man his source of life, to promulgate laws and regulations for human life, and to lay down values and standards for man. To this will alone people must refer whenever they differ over anything. When they do this, they refer to one constitution, which God wants mankind to implement. (12)  In the very beginning of the verse of Surah Al-Nisa (Qur’an, 4:1), God warns us to fear Him, which implies that if we fail to live by the guidance provided by Him, then a severe punishment is waiting for us in the Hereafter.

CONCLUSION In conclusion, modern technology has annihilated distances, and the world has shrunk into a single village. The risks of its destruction have multiplied in direct proportion to the high degree of its unification. This close proximity of various nations and communities to each other is explosive in nature. The only way to live in peace is to liquidate the mentality that splits humanity into various racial groups, as discussed above. To symbolize this global feeling of universal brotherhood, Islam made the pilgrimage to Mecca, a pillar of the faith and a duty for every Muslim who can afford the journey. It is an international and inter-racial gathering of about half a billion individuals, white, black, yellow, and brown; men and women; rich and poor; rulers and the ruled. Garbed in simple and identical sheets, all having discarded their distinctive robes, they prostrate in obedience to one God, the Creator of one humanity. Islamic fraternity is not coextensive with the whole of humanity, but it is an exemplar for other nations and religious communities. When they become fraternal to this extent and leave off racial and caste prejudices, and repudiate the color bar, they will become socially healthy and well-integrated. When nations have succeeded in overcoming these invidious distinctions, granting social equality and equality of opportunity to their own citizens, then the goal of international and interfaith brotherhood shall draw near. The only way we can get rid of this racist mentality is by following the Islamic concept of unity of human origin, as discussed here. Unless humanity accepts this concept, it cannot devise a way for living together on such a universal scale. In other words, its future belongs to Islam. Islam is the religion of the future. Also see Chapter 18.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 6 Islam on Justice


slam has laid great emphasis on justice. The right of every person to get his due and the obligation to give others what is due to them is the basis of justice.

Many people do not have a clear and right concept of justice. If, from the outset, we have a distorted concept of justice and laws are made according to that perverted conception, the enforcement of such laws is, in reality, a violation of justice. Even the most unjust systems in human history have claimed to be based on justice. Many a persecuted victim of perverted notions of justice has uttered the cry: “0 justice! What injustice is perpetrated in thy name”? If a code of laws, like the Hindu code of Manu, is based on caste and class privilege, then the differential treatment is falsely stamped with justice. For example, racial domination and segregation in South Africa under apartheid was considered legitimate, not only by the white economic exploiters and self-seeking politicians, but also by a large number of clergy. The persecution and holocaust of the Jews was justified by the Nazis as an act of just retribution because as an alien non-Aryan minority they had not identified themselves with German nationalism, and hence had no right to economic and professional dominance that was disproportionate to their numbers. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) has said that when a man commits a sin, a black dot is formed on his heart. If the sinner repents, reforms, and gives up this sin, then that black spot is washed away. But if instead of repentance, he continues to commit more and more sins, then more and more black dots are formed on his heart. Then ultimately, a stage is reached when his entire heart is covered with black dots, and he is incapable of seeing any spiritual light. In a way, God seals such a heart, rendering it incapable of seeing any Divine Guidance. To these sinners, broad daylight looks like a pitch-dark night and vice versa; virtue looks like a sin and sin like a virtue. Such is the case of these people. Also considered a just act was the genocide of the Bosnians in the mid-1990s, spearheaded by Serbs and Croats with the tacit complicity of major world players. There are many countries in the world today wherein the spirit of nationalism and patriotism is so strong and dominant that their perverted definition of justice is: “Every possible action irrespective of its harm to others is just and right so long as it is in the interest and welfare of their country.” The Inquisition in Spain and Italy and other places in Europe tortured nonconformists who were believed to be heretics fit to be fuel for the fires of Hell. They were mutilated and burned without any remorse because it was considered to be just and even merciful for the soul of the sinner. All such cruelties happen in the name of justice during peace time; war distorts the concept of justice still further, making every immoral and cruel act just. Given below are some selected guiding principles from the Holy Qur’an to solve the current spiritual, social, and moral human crisis. There will never be viable peace in this world without following these God-given principles, not merely by individuals, but more importantly, by communities, nations, countries, and governments. Under normal circumstances, it is not a problem for many people to be just. However, we human beings face a real test of our morality when we face conflicting emotions such as love and hatred, personal likes and dislikes, and benefits and harms accruing from justice. There are many verses in the Qur’an that stress the importance of justice; however, below are only four of these verses: Chapter 4, Verse 135 (Surah Al-Nisa) “O you who believe! Be always steadfast and firm in upholding equity and justice, bearing witness to the truth for the sake of God [not for the sake of any one else, nor it is to serve the interests of any one, free from all desires and considerations] even though it may either be against yourselves or against your parents or against your close relatives or even though it may be against a rich person [from whom you may expect a favor, benefit, or fear of harm] or even though it may


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind be against the poor (whom you may be tempted to favor out of sympathy, mercy and compassion, for God is their caretaker, a better protector of them than you and has a better knowledge of what is good for them). So do not, then, follow your own desires and lusts lest you deviate from justice. If you distort [the truth] or decline to do justice, then know that God is indeed well aware of all that you do [and will severely punish you in the Hereafter].” Chapter 5, Verse 8 (Surah Al-Maida) “O you who believe! Be steadfast for the sake of God and bear true witness with justice and never let the hatred or enmity of anyone incite or seduce you to do injustice. Act justly, that is nearer to God-fearing and fear God. Surely God is well aware of all what you do [and will severely punish you in the Hereafter if you deviate from Justice].” Chapter 16, Verse 90 (Surah Al-Nahl) “Surely, God enjoins justice, benevolence (kindness) and the doing of good to kith and kin, and forbids all that is shameful, evil [all that runs counter to reason] and oppressive. He exhorts you [repeatedly] so that you might bear [all this]in mind.” Chapter 4, Verse 58 (Surah Al-Nisa) “Indeed God commands you to deliver whatever you have been entrusted with to their rightful owners, and whenever you judge among people, to judge with justice. Surely, excellent is the counsel that God gives you. Indeed God is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.” Comments on Verses 4:135 and 5:8 In these two verses, responsibility is put on all believers, whether they are individuals, communities, nations, or governments, as follows: ( 1 ) To be firm and steadfast in doing justice. ( 2 ) To establish justice. ( 3 ) To maintain justice in its absolute sense and to bear witness to truth in every situation, under all conditions, and at all times. ( 4 ) To uphold and establish justice themselves, and to see that others do the same. ( 5 ) To uphold justice so that nobody inflicts injustice on anybody. ( 6 ) To stop the perpetrators of injustice from inflicting injustice, and to support the victims of injustice. ( 7 ) This means that whenever and wherever injustice is committed, it is obligatory for believers to stop that injustice using all possible ways, means, and resources, including the use of force if necessary and possible. ( 8 ) The mission of all messengers, prophets, and scriptures was to make every human being adopt justice as his or her hallmark within his or her circle of influence or control. ( 9 ) The true sense of justice and bearing witness to truth is that every holder of a right should be given his or her due, in full, with strict impartiality and without being affected by any self-interest or affected by feelings of love, hatred, or fear, so that justice prevails in the world, with peace coming in its wake. ( 1 0 ) Verse 4:135 places a Muslim firstly in opposition to himself and secondly against his feelings towards his parents, relatives, tribe, community, nation, and motherland. ( 11 ) Furthermore, Verse 5:8 requires him to be just, impartial, and bear true witness despite any feelings of hatred, hostility, or prejudice towards anyone. This, indeed, is a tough standard of self-restraint, tolerance, and morality. ( 1 2 ) There is no faith or system on earth that guarantees absolute justice to detested enemies in the same way as this


( 1 3 ) It is this fairness that prevents aggression and oppression anywhere on earth, treating all people equal: relatives and


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind strangers, friends and foes, rich and poor, Muslims and non-Muslims, blacks and whites, citizens and aliens, rulers and the ruled, servants and masters, the strong and the weak, the laborer and the capitalist, the employer and the employee. ( 1 4 ) Similarly, to appear as witness shall not be avoided if witness is needed to help the victim of injustice to have his or her usurped rights returned. ( 1 5 ) The witness shall be true and factual, whether for or against anyone. ( 1 6 ) Those who hold the reins of authority and dispensation of justice in their hands shall treat both parties to the case before them equally and equitably. ( 1 7 ) These were not mere recommendations or ideals, but a reality that believers should practice in their daily lives. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the great harbinger of this message, demonstrated the feasibility of this high standard of justice by setting up practical examples and bequeathing this message to posterity, not as some unproven theory, but as a practical and functioning system. ( 1 8 ) The history of mankind has never before, nor ever since, witnessed any such standard put into practice and becoming a reality, except during the shining periods in history when Islam was practiced as a way of life. ( 1 9 ) History gives us numerous cases and examples that testify that these duties and commandments outlined by God in these verses were transformed into a practical system, fully implemented in the daily life of the Muslim community. They were not mere ideals to which homage was paid, nor were they just individual examples. They left their mark on life practices to the extent that people felt that this was the only way to live. When they act in accordance with these principles, as the saying goes, the lion and lamb drink from the same water trough. ( 2 0 ) The secret to successfully transforming these golden principles into a practical system lies in the teaching at the end of these two verses. Verse 4:135 ends with the reminder that God Almighty is All-Aware of what you do. Near the end of Verse 5:8 is the instruction to observe the fear of All-Powerful God, and the reminder that God (powerful, mighty) is aware of what you do. ( 2 1 ) The concluding statements of these two verses alert believers to focus all their attention to the supreme subduing power of Almighty God and the ultimate reckoning of the fateful Day of Rewards and Punishments (more clearly addressed in many verses in the Qur’an), so that they may think, stop, and deter, or be prepared to face the consequences. On that Day, God will reward believers by sending them to Paradise and will punish the disbelievers by sending them to Hell. This is a reward to compensate good believers for what they miss of the luxuries and riches of this life when they fulfill their obligations. ( 2 2 ) This reward provides encouragement to follow the Divine Law and reduces to insignificance all the hardships faced by believers. They need to look to this divine system of justice and reward so that they are able to overcome all temptations and impediments to following God and the law ordained by Him. Also, fear of eternal punishment in Hell provides a great deterrent. ( 2 3 ) In recapitulating, the Glorious Qur’an has declared the establishment of justice and fairness as the very purpose of a universal order in the world and proposed a unique system which, if adopted and put into practice, would transform this bloodthirsty and wicked world into a society of virtuous people which, in turn, would become a paradise now, much sooner than the promised Paradise of the Hereafter. ( 2 4 ) The principles of universal justice by one and all enunciated through these verses form part of the many distinctions of the Glorious Qur’an. Can such a book teach, preach, or condone terrorism, the killing of innocent people, or any evil in any shape or form anywhere? There is a great gulf between what this wonderful book really is and what the enemies of Islam are working hard to project. Out of sympathy for those who misrepresent this book of God, we feel obliged to inform them that it is in their own interest to make a sincere, honest, and dispassionate study of this Book before making any statement, or else be prepared to stand in the witness stand to prove their allegations against Islam and God on the Day of Judgment and suffer the consequences of their lies. ( 2 5 ) It is in the best interest of the people of the world to realize that science and its progress can take them to all sorts of frontiers. They can climb the skies, camp on stars, and visit the depths of oceans; but peace, which should be the real end product of all modern technology and efforts is something that they would fail to find on far away stars or in ever-new inven-


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind tions. It is here, clear and true as ever, in the message brought by the unlettered and unschooled Prophet of Arabia fourteen hundred years ago. Abandoning such a valuable teaching would deprive the modern progress-claiming, high-flying, and satellite-borne world from the blessings of genuine peace on earth. ( 2 6 ) Day by day, the astonishing discoveries of science confirm the most perfect power of Almighty God and clearly demonstrate the state-of-the-art mastery of His creation that has no match. Before the skill and range of such creativity, every human claim to progress stands humbled. ( 2 7 ) Peace in the world has never been achieved through penal codes, nor will it ever be. The guarantee of universal peace can be delivered by nothing but the belief in the Hereafter, our accountability before a Just and Impartial God, and the fear of God’s punishment for our injustice and oppression. Everyone pulsates with the crucial sense of individual responsibility before God on the Day of Judgment. Fear of God is more effective than the combined powers of government and law. ( 2 8 ) There is a great gulf between a system devised by God to be implemented in human life and man-made systems. The gap between the effects on people’s lives of these man-made systems on the one hand, and of the Divine system on the other, is too wide to bridge. ( 2 9 ) People may advocate for certain principles, but such advocacy is one thing and practicing these principles in reality is another. Indeed, it is often the case that people do not put into effect the principles themselves that they call on others to adopt. It is not merely that people should be told to implement certain principles, but more important is where this call comes from, and what kind of authority it has over consciences and feelings. ( 3 0 ) Another instrumental factor is people’s understanding that there is an ultimate arbiter who judges the net result of the efforts they put into practicing these principles. The true value of religion’s call on people to implement its principles comes from the influence that religion exercises over people. But when a call is made only by a certain person, we have to ask what support such a call has, what authority it has over people’s minds, and what reward it can promise to those who work hard to implement these principles. ( 3 1 ) Thousands of people may call for justice, purity, liberation, self-denial, tolerance, love, sacrifice, and so on. Their call, however, motivates no one because it lacks proper support. It is not the call itself that is most important, but rather the power behind the call. People may listen to others advocating for certain ideals, but what is the practical outcome? The fact is that they know by nature that the advocacy comes from people like them, who share with them the same degree of ignorance and weakness and who have similar prejudices of their own. At the end of the day, such advocacy has only a minimum effect on their lives.

Comments on Verse 16:90 In the first part of this verse, three principles have been enjoined that provide the basis for the sound ordering of human society: justice, benevolence, and liberality to relatives. (1)  The first and foremost principle is “justice,” which comprises two independent truths. One, that there be balance and right proportion among human beings in respect to their rights. Two, that every person be granted all the rights to which he is entitled: moral, social, economic, legal, political, and cultural. All such rights are granted with sincerity and without any discrimination or distinction. (2)  The second principle is “benevolence,” which literally means, “to do good.” It broadly embraces all good acts, such as politeness, generosity, sympathy, tolerance, courtesy, forbearance, mutual accommodation, mutual consideration, giving to others more than their due, and being content for oneself with a little less than what one is entitled to. This principle of “benevolence” goes a step further than the principle of “justice,” and, hence, is in some respects even more important for man’s social life than justice. If “justice” is the foundation on which the structure of human society should be based, then “benevolence” represents the beauty and perfection of that structure. “Justice” wards off the bitterness of discord and disharmony from human life. “Benevolence” adds pleasure and sweetness to human life. No society can be sustained merely on the principle that every member of it should be jealously watchful of, and insistent upon, receiving every bit of his right and be willing to grant others exactly what is their due but absolutely no more. Perhaps such a cold-hearted and stark society might be able to avoid internal conflicts, thanks to the application of justice as


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind elaborated above. However, such a society will be utterly devoid of such life-giving and life-sustaining values as love and compassion, gratitude, magnanimity, sacrifice, and goodwill for others. (3)   The third principle enunciated in this verse is “liberality to kith and kin.” This is a corollary of the former principle, “benevolence,” when it is applied to one’s relatives. This consists not only of sharing one’s joys and sorrows with one’s kin and in helping and supporting the fulfillment of their legitimate desires within permissible limits, but also that one should recognize that one’s wealth ought not to be spent exclusively on oneself and one’s immediate family. Other members of the family also have a share in it. God’s law requires rich persons to take care of the needs of their relatives and not to leave them without proper food and clothing. According to the Qur’anic standard of judgment, a society in which some people are immersed in luxury while other members of their family remain without even the basic necessities of life is an unhealthy society. The needy members of a family have a prior claim to receive assistance from their relatives, and it is only after this that they have a claim of assistance from others. To put it conversely, the prosperous members of a family are required to assist their own relatives in need first before assisting any other person. Comments on Verse 4: 58 (1) Entrust positions of responsibility only to those who are honest, trustworthy, qualified, deserving and are capable of carrying out the burden of such positions or public offices and not on the basis of friendship, relationships, connections, false recommendations, color, race, clan, bribery, etc. (2) Judge, without any considerations for personal, community, or national interests. (3) In the last sentence of this verse, i.e., “Indeed God is All-Hearing and All-Seeing”, there is a warning that if you do not follow His guidance then surely, God Who is watching and hearing you at all times, and at all places, will punish you in the Hereafter.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 7 Islam & War (A)  ISLAM IS A RELIGION OF PEACE The very word “Islam” means peace. Peace is the goal and objective of Islam. Islam is a religion of peace, justice, brotherhood, and tolerance, and envisions a peaceful world wherein each person’s dignity and freedom is protected equally. Towards that end, Islam stresses the importance of mutual help and respect, and directs Muslims to extend friendship and goodwill to all, regardless of religious, ethnic, or racial background. Respect for human life and dignity is one of the fundamentals of Islam. Islam does not like war, but loves peace. However, peace in Islam does not mean the absence of war, rather, the absence of oppression, injustice, and tyranny. Islam preaches peace and has had to fight for it. Since Islam is a religion of nature and is a practical religion, under certain circumstances, it permits war and, in some cases, it makes war obligatory. It is just like the need for a surgeon to amputate a gangrenous limb of an otherwise healthy person. Islam preaches and practices a rational and humane doctrine of war. But some of the wars waged by Muslim rulers during the course of history have not been Islamic wars. Only those wars in which Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his immediate followers engaged for the sake of making Islam secure and rooting out religious persecution were Islamic. It may be mentioned that the total number of casualties on both sides in the battles fought by the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) were about 1,600.

(B)  OBJECTIVES OF WAR IN ISLAM War has no purpose acceptable to God other than fighting for peace that is based on justice, equity, and human brotherhood and the victory entitles the victor to one right only: prevention of aggression and injustice. Any agreement made at the end of a war would contradict the Islamic spirit if it were based on tyranny and oppression, or the usurpation and annihilation of what constitutes the rights of people as brethren in one human family. Islam’s view is that the purpose of peace agreements is not to perpetuate a state of conquest by keeping the defeated in constant deprivation and humiliation, but rather to establish the form of justice that God decrees equally for enemies and friends alike (see Chapter 6). Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) has said: “The entire creation is like the family of God, the most beloved person with God is the one who gives good treatment to his family or creation.”(Hadith reported by Ibn Masood in “Mishkat”.) Fighting should be undertaken for the sake of God and never for a purpose that may be defined by human desires or motivations. War should not be pursued for glory, dominance, material aggrandizement, to gain new markets, or to control raw materials. It should not be pursued to give one class, race, or nation of people dominance over another. Fighting in Islam must be undertaken only under the following circumstances. (a) For the welfare of mankind as a whole, without any material consideration and solely to please God, which is considered in Islam as something in the way of God. To bring down a tyrannical social system and establish an order based on justice and fairness. (b) Wherever mankind is subjected to repression, discrimination, and exploitation, it is the duty of the righteous to go to their rescue. Striving for the liberation of the oppressed people from the hands of the oppressors is an important duty of Muslims. Depending upon resources and strength, it is the duty of believers to help restore justice for all. To not resist oppression is only assisting the oppressor to oppress more. Islamic Jihad is nothing but a perpetual struggle in the cause of justice, an unending endurance to dislodge tyrants and establish peace, equity, and justice in human society. (c) Whenever a tyrant or oppressive power emerges and prevents people from upholding Islam, or seeks to prevent them from knowing about Islam, the Muslim community should secure for all the freedom to know the truth, to listen to it, and to have the choice to accept it freely or reject it. (d) Islam wants Muslims to oppose those forces that either forcefully prevent them from living in obedience to God or force them to live in obedience to those other than God.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (e) Islam does not allow Muslims to interfere with the faith, ideology, rituals, and social customs of people of other faiths. It allows them perfect freedom of religious beliefs and permits them to live according to their faiths and creeds. It provides opportunities for the development of a free personality to the members of other communities in accordance with their own heritage and beliefs. But it does not recognize their right to administer state affairs in a manner detrimental to the ideology of Islam or to demand the continuation of such practices that are against the interest and welfare of the people at large. Islam gives full opportunity to the people of other faiths of peace and tranquility to make progress and prosper, and displays such magnanimity towards them as has no parallel in the history of the world.

(C)   MOHAMMED (pbuh) WAS COMPELLED TO FIGHT Before discussing the various commands in the Qur’an concerning war, we present a brief background on what led to the use of the sword by Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was socially, economically, and politically a man without any worldly might. His father died at the age of 25, a couple of months before his birth and left no property for him. He (pbuh) was six years old when his mother also passed away. At the age of 25, Mohammed (pbuh) married a woman who was 40 years old and had been widowed twice. His community had given him the titles of “The Most Truthful, the Most Honest,” and he (pbuh) was the most respected and most beloved person in the community because of his service and help to the poor and needy, to widows and orphans, and because of his excellent morals, dealings, behaviors, sufferings, and sacrifices for the people. He was living a very happy, married, family life when, at the age of 40, God Almighty appointed him as His Messenger, commanding him to invite mankind to worship, obey, and serve one True God. His people, who were pagans and idol worshipers, turned against him, and his life became a life of miseries and tortures. But with his sincerity, steadfastness, devotion, captivating manners, rational teachings, and moral strength, he started winning converts. One by one his persecutors succumbed to his spiritual and moral power, and Islam started spreading under the shadow of the sword of his enemies. He and a handful of his followers were very severely persecuted by all possible means, and every conceivable torture and cruelty was perpetrated on them. Some of his followers were tortured to death by the pagans to terrorize others into rejecting Mohammed (pbuh). They were deprived of all worldly goods and of the means of securing their daily bread. This continued, uninterrupted, for twelve long troublesome years in Makkah. This entire period of twelve years of prophet hood at Makkah was extremely nonviolent, as God commanded them to restrain and not to use force even to defend themselves (Qur’an, 4:77). He and his followers showed unparalleled patience and perseverance against heavy odds. No movement in history can show as much spirit of sacrifice and tolerance as Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his companions did. Then Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his companions were forced to flee from their homeland to another town, Madinah, which was about two hundred miles north of Makkah. However, the disbelieving people of Makkah were not prepared to leave the Muslims alone and let them live in peace even in Madinah. There the enemy, who was bent upon exterminating them completely, attacked the small Muslim settlement in Madinah. The only alternatives left for the Muslims were either to give up their faith or stand up and wage a war at the cost of their lives for their religious liberty, and to settle finally and forever whether Islam or the un-Islamic creed of the pagans would remain in Arabia. At this time, God first permitted the Muslims to fight (Qur’an, 22:39). Then later, God enjoined fighting (Qur’an, 2:190193), although at that time the Muslims were heavily outnumbered by the pagan forces of all Arabia, against whom they were urged to take up the sword. In addition, this new community, in which hundreds of emigrants were still homeless and unsettled, could hardly afford the weapons needed to equip its soldiers for war. Qur’anic injunctions concerning war fall into two categories. The first category consists of those commands that are issued prior to the start of war. The second category consists of those commands that relate to situations occurring after the war has actually started. All the various statements and ordinances concerning war in both these categories are complementary and cannot, therefore, be correctly understood unless they are considered as parts of one integral whole. For example, Verse 191 of Chapter 2 of the Holy Qur’an is valid only within the context of the hostilities already in progress. The hostile critics of Islam have made a serious mistake in taking this verse out of context and propagating this verse to be a sanction for the indiscriminate killing of nonbelievers.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind When two groups or communities are engaged in hot or cold war, their attitudes, feelings, and behaviors toward each other are not the same as they would be if there were no hostilities between them. During these periods of high tension, even individuals of one group cease to have normal relations with the individuals of the other group. Hostility and suspicion are so pervasive that everyone has to be on their guard. When the antagonism is ideological, the dividing point ceases to be racial, familial, or national; brothers, fathers, and sons may find themselves in opposite camps, as actually happened in the Battle of Badr. When Jews and Christians read a verse in the Qur’an advising Muslims involved in group clashes not to develop intimacies with them, they take this verse out of its context and offer it as textual proof of Islamic intolerance or fanaticism. They can understand why the idolatrous Arabs are to be shunned, but they do not understand why the hand of friendship should not be extended to the People of the Book on the best of whom the Qur’an has showered so much praise for their honesty, humility, and godliness. They forget that this temporary injunction of avoidance refers to groups in war conditions. When normal, peaceful conditions that make friendly coexistence possible are established, people are enjoined to be good and kind to one another irrespective of differences in creeds or ways of life. Islam, in this respect, said or did nothing more than what Jesus, the Prince of Peace, is reported to have said in the Gospels: “Do not think that I have come to bring peace upon the earth, I have come not to bring peace but a sword’ (Matthew 10:34). “Then he [Jesus, pbuh) said to them [disciples), ‘But now let him who has a purse, take it and also bag, and let him who has no sword sell his mantle and buy a sword’.’’ (Luke, 22:26). Jesus’ ministry (prophethood) only lasted about three years, compared to Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) twenty-three years. If he had lived longer, it is quite possible he would have used the sword. The historical situation never developed during his life to put his conviction to the test or to unfold the actual implications of his doctrine. Later, when Christianity was able to wield worldly might, history shows how much sword it used, justified by the teachings of Christ and sanctified by the high pontiffs who considered themselves to be the inheritors of his love and truth, and who were supposed to be inspired by him or the Holy Ghost to wage righteous wars and Inquisitions. Perhaps more wars have been waged by Christian nations among themselves and against non-Christians than by any other group of humanity; and as to religious persecution and intolerance, no religion can ever beat the Christian record. So it is the height of prejudice and perversity that the Christian writers and fundamentalists project Islam as an intolerant religion. There are different verses of the Qur’an that deal with different situations. For example, in the absence of hot or cold war, Islam gives the following instructions in the Holy Qur’an: Chapter 60, Verse 8 (Al-Mumtahinah) “God does not forbid you to be kind and equitable towards those who have neither fought against you because of your religion nor driven you out of your homes. In fact God loves the just. He only forbids you to take for friends those who fought you on account of your faith and drove you out of your homes and backed up others in your expulsion. Those who take them for friends are indeed the wrongdoers.”

(D)  QUR’ANIC INJUNCTIONS CONCERNING WAR This section quotes the various verses of the Qur’an concerning war. Holy Qur’an, Chapter 22, Verse 39 (Surah Al-Hajj) “Permission to fight back is hereby granted to the believers against whom war is waged and because they are oppressed [before this revelation for 12 to 13 years Muslims were persecuted very severely and were not allowed to fight even for self defense]; certainly God has power to grant them victory, those who have been unjustly expelled from their homes only because they said, ‘Our Lord is God (Allah).’” In this verse it is only permission to fight in a just cause. It was truly later that Muslims were commanded to fight against oppression. The verses embodying this follow.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Holy Qur’an, Chapter 2, Verse 190-193 (Surah Al-Baqarah) “Fight in the cause of God [not for personal needs and desires but in the cause of ethical principles ordained by God] against those who wage war against you but do not commit transgression or exceed the limits for verily God does not love the transgressors and [such people who wage war against you] slay them wherever you confront them [in combat] and drive them out from wherever they drove you out; [though killing is bad] persecution is even worse than killing. And do not fight them near the sacred mosque unless they attack you there, but if they attack you, put them to death; such shall be the recompense of those who deny the truth. But if they desist or stop hostility—behold, God is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful [you should also be forgiving and merciful].” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 4, Verse 75 (Surah Nisa) ”Why should you not fight in the way of God for the sake of those helpless men, women, and children who, being weak, have been oppressed and are crying out, ‘Our Lord deliver us from this habitation whose people are oppressors; and raise for us out of your grace a protector, and raise for us, out of your grace, one who will help us’.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 8, Verse 39 (Surah Al-Anfal) ”And fight with them until there is no more persecution.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 8, Verses 61-62 (Surah Al-Anfal)     “And if they incline to peace, incline thou also to it, and trust in Allah. Lo! He is the Hearer, the Knower. And if they would deceive thee, then Allah is sufficient for thee. He it is Who supported thee with His help and with the believers.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 4, Verses 90-91 (Surah Al-Nisa) “If they leave you alone and do not fight against you and offer you peace, then Allah does not permit you to harm them. You will find that there are some others who wish to be safe from you, as well as from their own people; but who whenever they have any opportunity to cause mischief, plunge into it headlong. If such people neither leave you alone nor offer you peace nor cease their hostilities against you, then you may seize them and slay them wherever you find them. It is against these that we have granted you a clear sanction.” ` Holy Qur’an, Chapter 4, Verse 76 (Surah Al-Nisa) “Those who believe [Muslims] fight in the way of God and those who reject the faith fight in the cause of evil.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 28, Verse 83 (Surah Al-Qasas) “As for the abode of the Hereafter, We [God] have reserved it for those who seek neither glory nor corruption in the earth; the ultimate good is [only] for those who are God-fearing and righteous.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 8, Verse 60 (Surah Al-Anfal) “Make ready for an encounter against them all the forces and well-readied horses you can muster that you may overawe the enemies of Allah and your own enemies and others besides them of whom you are unaware but of whom Allah is aware.” Thus Muslims are ordered to be ready for war, not in order to start it, but to keep their enemies from disturbing the peace. This is deterrence for the enemy.

(E)  HOLY QUR’AN ON KILLING OF INNOCENT PEOPLE Holy Qur’an, Chapter 5, Verse 32 “Whosoever kills a human being unless it be [in punishment] for murder or for spreading mischief on earth, it shall be as if he had slain all mankind; and he who saves a life shall be as if he had given life to all mankind.” This means that when a person kills any human being, it means he has no respect for human life. If all people have this


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind attribute of hard-heartedness, then the whole human race will come to an end. However, if a person saves a single life, it shows that he has respect for human life and if all people have this attribute of love and respect, then all of humanity will be saved. Holy Qur’an, Chapter 6, Verse 151 “Do not kill a person, which Allah has made sacred, except through the due process of law.” Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) has said: “Among all the sins, the greatest sins are to associate someone or something with God and to kill human beings.” If a non-Muslim state oppresses its Muslim citizens, it is not permissible for any Islamic state anywhere in the world to retaliate against its own non-Muslim subjects. Even if all the Muslims living in a non-Muslim state are massacred, no Muslim state can unjustly shed the blood of a single non-Muslim citizen living within its boundaries in retaliation, because it is against Islamic law. Islam has always lived in peace with other faiths. Even when crusading Europe was hurling its mad might on the Muslim world, the Christian subjects of Muslim states who did not join or abet the fanatical invading hordes were living peacefully with their Muslim neighbors. Islam had set an example not only of tolerance, but also of active defense of the rights of other faiths. `Umar, the second Khalifah, built the political power of Islam by making it secure against Persian and Roman imperialism, but he did not spread Islam by the sword. He protected other faiths along with Islam so that all could enjoy complete religious liberty. There is not a single instance in the life of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), or in the campaigns that followed, in which a person was compelled to accept Islam at the point of the sword. A historical incident in the life of `Umar illustrates convincingly Islam’s attitude towards other faiths. While in Jerusalem, `Umar was invited by the Patriarch to pay a visit to the Church of Holy Sepulcher. When the time came for prayer, `Umar wished to go out. The Patriarch said that the church was also a house of prayer; he might pray there. `Umar replied, “A Muslim could pray anywhere, all earth and every place is holy ground for that purpose, but it would be risky to pray inside this church for fear that Muslims, forgetting the injunctions of Islam, may in the future make an attempt to convert this church into a mosque on the plea that their chief had offered prayers here. Let me go out to pray.” Islam did not teach its followers to be unjust to other faiths. Justice lies in conceding to others what you consider to be right and just for yourself. Islam firmly established inter-faith justice.

(F)   HOLY QUR’AN ON FULFILLMENT OF TREATIES Holy Qur’an, Chapter 9, Verse 4 (Surah Al-Tawbah) “Those pagans (or non-believers) with whom you have made treaties and who have not violated their treaties, nor have backed up any one against you, fulfill your treaties with them till the end of their term. Surely God loves the God-fearing and pious.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 8, Verse 72 (Al-Anfal) “And should they [who live in a non-Muslim land] seek help from you in the matter of religion, it is incumbent on you to provide help unless it be against a people with whom you have a pact. Beware! God is cognizant of all that you do.” The above verse makes it clear that Muslims living outside the Islamic state have no political bond with the Islamic state. This verse, however, does emphasize that those Muslims are not free of the bond of religious brotherhood. If Muslims living in a non-Islamic state are persecuted and seek help from the Islamic state or its citizens, it is incumbent upon the latter to help the persecuted Muslims. While helping one’s brethren-in-faith, the Muslims are expected to act scrupulously. This help should be rendered without violating international obligations and with due regard for the requirements of moral propriety. If the Islamic state happens to be bound in a treaty relationship with a nation that inflicts wrong on Muslims, the oppressed Muslims will not be helped in a manner which is inconsistent with the moral obligations incumbent on the Islamic state as a result of that treaty.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(G)   LAW OF WAR AND PEACE IN ISLAM The rules that Islam has ordained to make a war civilized and humane are in the nature of law and are to be followed by Muslims in all circumstances, irrespective of the behavior of the enemy. (1) Islam has drawn a clear distinction between combatants and noncombatants and strictly prohibits the killing or harming of noncombatants, such as children, women, old people, people in places of worship, and wounded soldiers who are not fit to fight or are not actively fighting. (2) Prisoners of war should not be killed and should be treated kindly. (3) Islam commands Muslims not to pillage, plunder, or destroy residential areas; harm the property of anyone not fighting; spoil cultivated fields, crops, or gardens; or slaughter cattle. (4) Muslims have been prohibited from taking anything from the general public or from a conquered country without paying for it. If it were a question of the pot calling the kettle black, nobody could object: a black kettle could not be any blacker if the pot did not call it so. But here seems to be a case of the black kettle calling the white china-pot black, because it is white. It seems appropriate to quote from the Bible the relevant rules of war. It may, however, be mentioned that while we strongly believe that God revealed His guidance to Abraham, Moses, David, and many other Israelite prophets, that guidance has been corrupted and the existing versions of the Bible do not represent true revealed guidance. However, as most Jews and Christians believe that the Bible is one hundred percent the word of God, and therefore inerrant, we quote from the Bible. According to our belief, God is not cruel, unforgiving, and unjust, as presented in the following references of the Bible.

(H)   REFERENCES FROM THE BIBLE CONCERNING WAR Deuteronomy, 20:11-17 shows indiscriminate killing of everything that breathes—human beings young and old, and even the animals. In Joshua, 6:17-21, the Israelites utterly destroyed, under the command of God, all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old; ox, sheep, and donkey. Joshua, 10:28-41 tells us that, under the command of God, Joshua killed many kings and completely destroyed the populations of many countries covering large areas. I Samuel, 15:3 states: “Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all they have; do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.” We can quote many more references concerning unimaginable cruelties committed under the command of God in the Old Testament on people and animals, even without war. But now we move on to the New Testament. In Matthew, 10:34, Jesus says: “Do not think that I [Jesus] have come to bring peace upon the earth; I have not come to bring peace but a sword.” Luke, 22:36 states: “Then He [Jesus] said to them, ‘But now let him who has a purse take it, and also (his provision) bag; and let him who has no sword sell his mantle and buy a sword’.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 8 Islam Offers Friendship, Cooperation and Peaceful Coexistence Holy Qur’an on Cooperation “Cooperate with one another for virtue and piety and do not cooperate with one another for the purpose of evil and aggression” (Qur’an, 5:2). In other words, we should not cooperate with someone because he or she is our friend; our blood relative; of our religion; from our tribe, race, or country; or because it is in our personal or national interest. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) has said that even if your brother (or father) is committing an aggression or evil, not only should you not cooperate with him, but you should stop him from doing it. Thus, the Muslims should cooperate with everyone, regardless of his or her religion or creed, in all such deeds that are virtuous and beneficial to humanity and other creatures of God. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his companions always forged such relations with non-Muslims. Irrespective of the country in which Muslims live, it is our duty, not only as citizens of that country, but also as Muslims, to join and actively participate in all social projects or other welfare works, such as the eradication of poverty and homelessness; projects intended to restore justice and peace; making streets free of drugs, alcoholism, prostitution, and homosexuality; saving children from violence; environmental protection; etc. Holy Qur’an, Chapter 109 (Surah Al-Kafirun) “Say: ‘0 you who deny the truth I do not worship what you worship, nor are you worshippers of Him whom I worship. I shall never worship what you worship, neither will you worship what I worship. You are welcome to your religion and I am welcome to mine’.” Holy Qur’an, Chapter 2, Verse 136 “Say: ‘We believe in God and in what has been revealed to us and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and their descendents and in what was given to Moses and Jesus, and in what all prophets (raised anywhere in the world) have been given by their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them, and to God we have surrendered ourselves’.” (Also see: Holy Qur’an, 3:84; 4:136; 4:150-152; 42:13-15; 87:16-19) In all these verses, Muslims are called upon to acknowledge and declare an overall unity and universality of faith and the unity of all prophets and Messengers all through the ages. Muslims are instructed to believe not only in all the Jewish and Christian prophets, but also the prophets of all other nations and communities. This principle, the cornerstone of Islamic faith, makes the Muslim community unique, as no other religious community has such a cosmopolitan nature of belief. This principle makes the Muslim community most tolerant, open-minded, cooperative, and free from prejudice, bias, discrimination, and hostility. No person can be a true Muslim unless he loves, respects, and honors Jesus, and similarly loves, respects, and honors Moses, Jacob (Israel), Isaac, Abraham, and other prophets preceding Mohammed (peace be upon them all). This is an essential requirement of being a true Muslim. According to our belief, all these prophets of God were without fault or flaw, and were sinless, perfect guides and models of God’s guidance and of exalted behavior for their own people and in their own times. To make no distinction between the prophets means not to hold some of them to be right and the others to be wrong; not to recognize some to have been the recipients of divine revelation and the others not. All the prophets sent by God invited men to the same truth and to the same way. Hence, for anyone who is really a lover of truth, it is necessary that he should recognize all of them to be its bearers. Those who believe in one particular prophet and disbelieve in others do not, in fact, believe even in the prophet in whom they claim to believe, for they have not grasped the nature of that universal “Straight Way” (al-sirat-al-mustaqim), which was enunciated by Moses, Jesus, and the other prophets. When such people claim to follow a prophet, they really mean that they do so out of deference to their forefathers. Their religion, in fact, consists of


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind bigoted ancestor- worship and blind imitation of inherited customs, rather than sincere adherence to the directives of any prophet of God. Nothing brings out the contrast between Islam and Christianity so much as a comparison between the Islamic attitude towards Jesus and the Christians’ attitude towards Mohammed (pbuh). While Muslims believe in Jesus as “the Messiah” (Christ or Christos is only a Greek translation of the Aramaic and Hebrew word, Messiah) and as a great prophet of God, and love and revere him, the Christians not only reject the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), but are never tired of speaking ill of him in the most disparaging manner. The Qur’an also refers to Jesus as the “word of God,” born of the sinless Virgin Mary. Muslims also believe that instead of letting Jesus die in humiliation on the cross, God raised him up to Him, and that he will come again before the world ends. Muslims believe that God created Jesus without a father, just as God created Adam without a father and mother, and created Eve without a mother. Mary, the mother of Jesus, is highly praised in the Qur’an and, as a result, the Muslims hold her in such high esteem that many Muslim parents have named their daughters after her (one of my aunts and one of my granddaughters carry this name). The Holy Qur’an gives more space to Mary than the New Testament does. The Holy Qur’an mentions the various miracles of Jesus, some of which are not mentioned even in the Gospels. Due to its ignorance about Islam, the West has known Islam mostly as an enemy and a threat. Muslims believe not just in the Holy Qur’an, but they also believe in all divine books given to various prophets before Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), such as those given to Jesus, Moses, David, Abraham, and to other prophets. It may be mentioned that the Jews believe that the revelation of God does not or cannot come to anyone who is not from the children of Israel. (Deuteronomy 17:15, page 1085, “The Soncino Chumash—The Five Books of Moses,” by Rev. Dr. A Cohen, 1962, published by The Soncino Press, Ltd., London. Holy Qur’an, Chapter 3, Verse 64 (Al-Imran): “0, People of earlier revelation (People of the Book): Let us get together and come to an agreement on what is common between us and you; that we shall worship none but God; that we shall not associate any partners with Him; that we shall not take from among ourselves any lords besides God.”

Abraham (pbuh) Abraham (pbuh) is very important, strong, and a common link among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Let us go back to him. Abraham is the common ancestor, spiritual guide, religious leader, and most respected personality of the followers of these major religions. Jewish and Christian scriptures, as well as the Holy Qur’an, speak very highly of him. All the followers of these religions accept Abraham as their patriarch and feel very proud to be associated with him. The scriptures of Jews and Christians attest that Abraham was strongly monotheist and that his religion was the complete surrender or submission and obedience to God and God alone at all times, at all places, under all circumstances, and in all affairs and matters, and that it was his mission to have none associated with God in His attributes, rights, and authorities. This exactly is the religion preached by Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), called Islam. Islam is an Arabic word that means complete surrender, obedience, and service to God and God alone, as explained above. The Arabic word “Muslim” signifies he who bows in obedience to God, who acknowledges God alone as his Sovereign, Lord, and Master, and the only object of worship, devotion, and service, who unreservedly surrenders himself to God and undertakes to live his life in accordance with the guidance that has come down from Him. Islam is the appellation which characterizes the above-mentioned belief and outlook which constitutes the core and kernel of the religion of all the prophets who have appeared from time to time among different peoples and in different countries since the very beginning of human life. God commands Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in the Holy Qur’an again and again: “follow the religion of Abraham.” It was this religion, called Islam in the Arabic language, which was preached by all the prophets of God, including all the Israelite prophets: Isaac, Jacob (Israel), Joseph, Moses, David, Solomon, John the Baptist, and Jesus (May peace be upon all of them). Later, polytheistic elements made inroads into Judaism and Christianity, and therefore both strayed from the way of Abraham (pbuh).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

GOD COMMANDS Mohammed (pbuh) AND HIS FOLLOWERS AGAIN AND AGAIN TO FOLLOW THE WAY OF ABRAHAM (pbuh) “He [Abraham] rendered thanks to Allah for His bounties so that Allah chose him [for His favors] and directed him to the right way. We bestowed good upon him in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall certainly be among the righteous. Then We revealed to you: Follow the way of Abraham with exclusive devotion to Allah. He was not one of those who associated others with Allah in His Divinity.” (Qur’an, 16:122-123) “Say: Whatever Allah has said is true. Follow, then, the way of Abraham in total devotion to Allah. He was not one of those who associate others with Allah in His divinity.” (Qur’an, 3:95) “There is for you an excellent example [to follow] in Abraham and those with him.” (Qur’an, 60:4) “And who, unless he be weak of mind, would be averse to the way of Abraham? For it is We Who chose Abraham for Our mission in this world, and surely in the world to come shall be reckoned among the righteous.” (Qur’an, 2:130) “Say: As for me, my Lord has guided me on to a straight way, a right religion, the way of Abraham who adopted it in exclusive devotion to Allah, and was not of those who associated others with Allah in His divinity.” (Qur’an, 6:161; also see 6:84- 90; 42:13-14; 87:19; 3:68) Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian. Both Judaism and Christianity, as well as the characteristic features and elaborate body of laws and regulations associated with them, emerged during the third or fourth century, B.C. As for Christianity, in the sense of the body of dogmas and theological doctrines that characterized it, it came into existence long after Jesus (pbuh) lived. The question that naturally then arises is that, if man’s guidance depends on following Judaism or Christianity, then how can Abraham and other prophets and righteous people be accepted as having been rightly-guided even by the Jews and Christians when they were born several centuries before the birth of Judaism and Christianity? If they were rightly-guided, from whom did they receive their guidance? Obviously, their source of guidance and inspiration was neither Judaism nor Christianity, since, in their times, these did not exist. So man’s rectitude does not depend on those characteristics that led to the rise of Jewish and Christian particularisms; it rather depends on adopting the universal way to truth that has guided and inspired men throughout the ages. Islam has taught Muslims a supplication which is considered very important and rewarding. Therefore, the Muslims make this supplication many times daily. This is a prayer to God for Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and its translation is: “O’ our Lord, we beg You to exalt both in this world and in the Hereafter the status of Mohammed (pbuh), his companions, his helpers, and his followers, as You exalted the status of Abraham and his followers, indeed You are worthy of all-praise. O’ our Lord, we beg you to bestow Your blessings both in this world and in the Hereafter on Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), his companions, helpers, and followers as You bestowed blessings on Abraham and his followers. Indeed You are worthy of all praise and of highly respectable status.”

STATUS OF ABRAHAM (pbuh) IN ISLAM There is no other person in the entire history of mankind who is so much loved, admired, revered, and followed by so many people as is Abraham (pbuh). Since many non-Muslims are not aware of the real position of Abraham (pbuh) in Islam, we give below the Qur’anic perspective of Abraham (pbuh).

I.  God Made Him the Leader of Mankind Because of his Complete Surrender to Him Holy Qur’an, Chapter 2, Verse 124 “Recall when Abraham’s Lord tested him in certain matters and when he successfully stood the test, He said: ‘Indeed I am going to appoint you a leader of the people.’ When Abraham asked: ‘And is this covenant also for my descendants?’ The Lord responded: ‘My covenant does not embrace the wrongdoers.’’ At various places, the Holy Qur’an enumerates the severe tests through which Abraham (pbuh) passed. It was only after these had been completed successfully that he was able to establish his worthiness to serve as the religious guide and leader


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind of all mankind. From the moment when the truth was revealed to him to the moment he died, his life was a continuous tale of sacrifice and suffering for the cause of God. There is no conceivable object of man’s love and attachment in the world that Abraham (pbuh) did not sacrifice for the sake of truth. Likewise, there is no conceivable danger (which instinctively frightens man) that Abraham did not encounter for the sake of God. This verse also refutes the contention of the children of Israel that by virtue of their descent from Abraham (pbuh), God made them “leader of men” or that they are God’s “chosen people.” The Qur’an makes it clear that the exalted status of Abraham was not something that was to be given to anyone merely for physical or blood relations, and certainly not to evildoers or to those who are disobedient to God. The religious leadership of all mankind after Abraham (pbuh) will go only to those descendants of Abraham who follow the way of Abraham (pbuh). “Surely the people who have the best claim to a relationship with Abraham are those who followed him in the past, and presently this Prophet [Mohammed] and those who believe in him; Allah is the Guardian of the men of faith.” (Qur’an, 3:68) The true mission of Abraham (pbuh) was to invite people to obey God and to mold the entire system of individual and collective life according to Divine Guidance. He was himself obedient to God and he followed the teachings received from Him, and constantly strove to spread it and make all human beings live in obedience to it. It was because of this that he was appointed the religious leader and guide of the whole world.

II. Abraham was a Community by Himself God says: “Indeed Abraham was a whole community by himself, obedient to God, exclusively devoted to Him. And he was never one of those who associated others with God in His Divinity.” (Qur’an, 16:120) He single-handedly performed a task that was stupendous enough to have been performed by a whole community. For when there was not a single Muslim on earth, all being steeped in unbelief, Abraham (pbuh) stood out as the sole standardbearer of Islam.

III.  Abraham (pbuh) is God’s Intimate Friend “And whose way of life [religion] could be better than that of he who submits his whole self to God, does good, and follows exclusively the way of Abraham whom God took for an intimate friend.” (Qur’an, 4:125) Abraham (pbuh) is distinguished in Muslim theology with the title of “Close Friend of God.” However, this does not mean that he was immortal. But he submitted to God under all circumstances, and he professed such a pure, true, and strong faith in the oneness of God that he even staked his life on that. He was thrown into fire but he remained steadfast and firm, and did not waver for a second in his belief in the oneness of God. He was the fountainhead of the present monotheistic tradition.

IV.  Abraham (pbuh) is the Father of Prophets of God There are many references in the Holy Qur’an that tell us that a large number of prophets and Messengers of God were the descendants of Abraham. The following references in the Holy Qur’an confirm this: (i)   Chapter 4,Verse 54 (ii) Chapter 6, Verses 83-90 (iii) Chapter 21, Verses 72-73 (iv) Chapter 29, Verse 27 (v) Chapter 38,Verses 45-47 (vi) Chapter 57, Verses 26-27 At the very outset, he journeyed for many years from Iraq to Egypt, and from Syria and Palestine to various parts of Arabia, inviting people to serve and obey God. Later he appointed deputies in various regions to carry on his mission. He sent his nephew, Lot, to Transjordan, his son Isaac to Syria and Palestine, and his eldest son, Ishmael, to Arabia. Abraham’s (pbuh) progeny descended in two branches. One of these, the children of Ishmael, lived in Arabia. The


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Quraysh and other Arabian tribes belonged to this branch of Abraham’s line. Even those Arabian tribes that were not related to him by blood identified themselves with Abraham, since they had been influenced in varying degrees by his religious ideas. The other branch consisted of the children of Isaac. After the death of Abraham, God entrusted Abraham’s (pbuh) mission of guiding the world to this branch of Isaac. In this branch, there arose a great number of prophets; for example, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, David, Solomon, John, and Jesus. Since Jacob was called Israel, his offspring came to be known as the children of Israel. Other peoples, who accepted their faith as a result of preaching, either lost their formal identity and became assimilated with them or remained separate from them ethnically but identified with them religiously. In the time of Solomon, this branch took Jerusalem as the center of its mission. Jerusalem maintained its central position for all devotees of God and remained the, Qiblah (direction in which all worshippers of God were required to turn in their prayer). At the time when decadence flourished, the branch of Isaac from the Abraham (pbuh) family gave birth first to Judaism and subsequently to Christianity. The leadership of the world, which was given to the children of Israel, is indeed a position of great honor and respect, but it also carries with it a great responsibility and is not a bed of roses. Abraham had to pass through many tests and trials and he had to make many sacrifices to establish his worthiness for the leadership of the world. As said earlier, his descendents were appointed to this world leadership not because of blood relationship, but because they followed Abraham’s way. When the children of Israel abandoned Abraham’s (pbuh) way of life and became incapable of carrying out the mission of Abraham (pbuh), they were deposed from this position of leadership and God transferred this world leadership to the other branch of Abraham (pbuh), to Mohammed (pbuh), who was a descendant of Abraham (pbuh) through his eldest son Ishmael. This is the Messenger for whose advent Abraham and Ishmael had once prayed (Qur’an, 2:127-129). The way propounded by this Prophet (pbuh) is exactly the same as that by Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, and, in fact, all the Messengers. Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) followers also confirm the truth of all those designated in the past to serve as God’s Messengers, and they call mankind to the same message that all those Messengers preached earlier. Thus leadership now naturally devolves on those who follow Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). This proclamation of a transfer of leadership naturally called for the proclamation of a change in the direction of prayer. As long as the Israelites held the reins of the world’s religious leadership, Jerusalem remained the center of the mission of Islam and the, Qiblah of truth-loving people. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), as well as his followers, accepted Jerusalem as the, Qiblah until God duly proclaimed the removal of the Jews from their position of leadership. With this proclamation, Jerusalem ceased to enjoy its central position. So it was proclaimed that from then on the center of God’s true religion would be the place from which the message of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) had radiated, Makkah in Arabia. Actually, Muslims face towards Ka’aba when they pray. Ka’aba is a building in Mecca that was originally constructed by Adam for the worship of God. It is the first house of worship constructed on earth. It fell down due to Noah’s flood. Later, Prophet Abraham and his eldest son, Ishmael, reconstructed it from its original foundations (Qur’an, 2:125-127). Since in the past it had been the center of the mission of Abraham (pbuh), there was reasonable ground for the decision to change the, Qiblah. To enable the Muslims to acquit themselves creditably of the duties laid upon their shoulders as the bearers of this mission, they were given necessary directives in the Holy Qur’an. The same wisdom and guidance that was earlier sent down to the Israelites has now been made available to the Ishmaelites and they decided to greet it with faith and gratitude.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 9 Islam for Freedom and Against Forced Conversion of Religion


here are many verses in the Qur’an in which God enjoins Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and the Muslims again and again that their duty is only to convey the message of Islam to the people and not to forcibly convert anyone to Islam. While conveying the message of Islam, their duty is to give the good news of the benefits of the Hereafter to those who will accept the message and give warning of the dangers on the Day of Judgment to those who reject the message. Islam is so rational and appealing that anyone who listens to the message with an open mind cannot resist the temptation of conversion. That is the reason that the Qur’an does not give much importance to physical miracles, because miracles force a person to conversion without being intellectually or rationally satisfied. Quoted below are some verses from the Holy Qur’an that support this.

(1)   Chapter 2, Verse 256 (Surah al-Baqarah) “There should be no compulsion in religion. The right way is henceforth distinct from wrong. He who rejects false deities and believes in God has indeed taken hold of a most firm support that never breaks. God hears all and knows all.” Islam looks at religious faith as a matter of conviction, once the basic facts are provided and explained. Faith is never a matter of coercion or compulsion. To achieve this conviction, Islam addresses the human being in totality. It addresses the human mind, intellect, common sense, emotions, feelings, the innermost human nature, and the whole human conscious being. It resorts to no coercive means or physical miracles that confound the mind or that are beyond the human ability to rationalize and comprehend. By the same token, Islam never seeks converts through compulsion, threats, or pressure of any kind. It deploys facts, reasoning, explanation, and persuasion. In contrast, we find that Christianity, the last revealed religion before Islam, was imposed by force after the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great made Christianity the official religion throughout his empire. He adopted the same brutal means his predecessors had used against Christian minorities. These were not restricted to subjects who did not convert to Christianity, but were also used against Christians who would not accept the official doctrine sanctioned by the emperor. Islam came to declare and establish the great universal principle: “There shall be no compulsion in religion. The right way is henceforth distinct from error.” This reflects the honor God has reserved for man; the high regard in which man’s will, thought, and emotions are held; the freedom he is granted to choose his beliefs; and the responsible position he is afforded to be the judge of his own actions. Here lies the essence of human emancipation, which some authoritarian and oppressive ideologies and regimes, such as communism, have denied mankind. Modern man, under such regimes, has been deprived of the right to choose and live in ways other than according to what is dictated by the state, which uses the full force of its colossal machinery, laws, and powers. People in these countries are given the choice only to adhere to the secular state systems, which do not allow for a belief in God as the Creator, Sovereign, and Master of the world, or to face annihilation. Freedom of belief is the most basic right that identifies man as a human being. To deny anyone this right is to deny him or her their humanity. Freedom of belief also implies the freedom to express and propagate one’s belief without fear of threat or persecution; otherwise, that freedom is hollow and meaningless. Islam, undoubtedly the most enlightened view of life in the world, establishing a most sensible human and social system, takes the lead in declaring this most fundamental principle. It teaches its adherents, before anyone else, that they are forbidden to compel others to embrace Islam. This Islamic approach stands in total contrast to that of man-made systems and regimes, which, despite all their inherent shortcomings, impose their beliefs and policies by the force of the state and deny their opponents the right to dissent or even to live. Examples of this are manifest in many places in the world today.

(2)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 88, Verses 21-22 (Surah Al-Ghashiyah) “And so [O, Prophet] exhort or remind them [of punishment and reward for their actions on the Day of Judgment in the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Hereafter], your task is only to remind them, you are not there to coerce or force them to believe.” That is, if a person does not listen to reason, leave him alone.

(3)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 50, Verse 45 (Surah Qaf) “O Prophet, We know very well what they (the non-believers) say, and you are not there to compel them to believe. Therefore, admonish with this Qur’an every such person who fears My warning (that they will be punished in the Hereafter).”

(4)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 64, Verse 12 (At-Taghabun) “Obey God and obey the Messenger [Mohammed], but if you turn away from obedience you should know that the only responsibility of Our Messenger is to convey the truth clearly and plainly.”

(5)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 39, Verse 41 (Surah Az-Zumar) “We have revealed to you [Mohammed] the Book. It is for the guidance of mankind and comprises the truth. He who follows guidance will do it for his own good; and he that goes astray will himself suffer the loss. You [0 Mohammed] are not responsible for them and are not guardian over them.”

(6)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 42, Verse 48 (Surah Ash-Shura) “Now if they [the non-believers] turn away [in spite of your proper presentation of the Message], we have not sent you, 0 Prophet, to be a keeper over them: your only responsibility is to convey the Message.”

(7)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 72, Verse 22-23 (Surah Al- Jin) “Say [O Mohammed]: ‘If I were to disobey God, no one can protect me from Him, nor can I find any refuge besides Him. My mission is only to deliver what I receive from God and make His messages known. As for those who disobey God and His Messenger, they shall be put in the fire of Hell to live therein forever’.”’

(8)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 73, Verse 19 (Surah Al-Muzzammil) “This book [Qur’an] is an admonition (reminder) so whoever wills, let him take a path [of obedience] to his Lord.”

(9)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 74, Verses 54-55 (Surah Al-Muddathir) “Nay, this [Qur’an] surely is an admonition so let him who wills, take heed.”

(10)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 76, Verse 29 (Surah Al-Insan) “Surely, this Qur’an is an admonition. Let him who wills, take heed.”

(11)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 79, Verse 45 (An-Naziat) ”O, Prophet Mohammed, you are only a warner [about the consequences of disobedience of God] to those who get warned.”

(12)  Chapter 5, Verse 48 (Surah Al Maidah) “If God wanted, He could have made all of you a single nation (with one religion). But He willed otherwise.” He has given man freedom of choice.

(13)  Chapter 17, Verse 15 (Surah Al-Isra or Bani-Israel) ”He who follows the right way shall do so to his own advantage and he who goes astray does so to his own loss [He does no favor to God or to His Messenger].”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(14)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 80, Verses 11-12 (Surah Abasa) “Surely this [Qur’an] is but an admonition, let him who wants, accept it.”

(15)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 17, Verse 54 (Surah Bani-Israel) “We have not charged you [O Mohammed] to be an overseer over them.”

(16)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 10, Verse 99 (Surah Yunus) “If it had been the will of your God that all the people of the world should be believers, all the people of the world would have believed. [But He has given you freedom of choice so that you may accept it if you are intellectually satisfied and reject it if you are not satisfied.] So will you now [O’ believers] force the people to become Muslims?” The verses of the Holy Qur’an quoted above clearly show that the propaganda by the enemy of Islam of: “Islam was spread by the Sword,” is a big lie invented and promoted in Europe during the great wars against the Muslims. Starting from Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), onwards for over one thousand years, Muslim government was the most powerful in the entire world and ruled over a large part of Asia, Africa, and Europe. But this, the Muslim government did not force the inhabitants of any of these countries to become Muslims, and even gave high positions to non-Muslims in the government. There is no evidence whatsoever of any attempt by the Muslim government to impose Islam on the non-Muslims in any of these countries. In the Middle East, where Muslims have been ruling for almost fourteen centuries, there are large populations of non-Muslims in countries such as Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, Tunis, Algeria, Morocco, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Nigeria, etc. Similarly, the Muslims (Ottoman Turks) ruled European nations such as Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania, Hungary, Albania, and other European countries, but the Muslims did not make any attempt to convert the inhabitants, and all of them were completely free to practice their own religions. On the contrary, in some of these countries, the Ottoman administration gave very high positions to the Christians and Jews. When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 (and massacred its non-Christian inhabitants indiscriminately), Christians were in the majority in Palestine despite the fact that it had been under the occupation of Muslims for about four centuries. It is a well-known fact that under the Muslim occupation of Spain, followers of all non-Islamic religions enjoyed complete freedom to practice and follow their religions. In fact, the Jews of Spain enjoyed such peace, progress, and prosperity under the Muslim rule that they did not enjoy anywhere else until almost now—it was the golden period of their history. In Muslim Toledo in Spain, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim scholars worked together and translated ancient Greek philosophical and scientific knowledge into Arabic. Jews were ministers, poets (in Arabic), and scientists. The best-known Jewish scholars in Muslim Spain included two poet philosophers, Salmon ibn-Gabriol and Juddah Halevi, and Moses Maimonides, a philosopher, rabbi, and physician. Maimonides wrote a great philosophic work called Mishneh Torah (Second Law). This type of environment was possible only because the Holy Prophet (pbuh) enjoined on Muslims: “There is no compulsion in religion.” On the other hand, when the Muslims lost Spain to the Christians, the Muslims and the Jews were given three options: (1) to become Christians, (2) to be massacred, or (3) to leave Spain. After the Spanish Inquisition was introduced (1478), the Jews were expelled (1492) and the Muslims were forcibly converted to Christianity (16th century) or expelled (1609). Hundreds of thousands of Jews refused to abandon their faith and, instead, went to Muslim countries where all of them were received with open arms. These Spanish Jews settled all over the Muslim world, from Morocco in the West to Iraq in the East, from Bulgaria of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey in the North to Sudan in the South. Nowhere were the Jews persecuted in the Muslim lands. Every honest Jew who knows the history of his people cannot but feel a deep sense of gratitude to Islam, which has protected the Jews for fifty generations, while the Christian world persecuted the Jews and tried many times, “by the sword,” to get them to abandon their faith (See the article by Uri Avnery in Media Monitors Network, October 5, 2006. Uri Avnery is an atheist Jew, a journalist, a former member of Knesset, and a leader of Gush Shalom). It may also be mentioned that in almost all Muslim countries, church bells ring freely anytime in the day or night, but in most of the Christian and Western countries, Muslims cannot say Azan (call for prayers) on a loudspeaker.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 10 Importance of Belief in Life After Death INTRODUCTION


ife after death is both a possibility and a necessity. Whenever we do anything, there are two and only two conditions which have to be satisfied: It is necessary for us to do it and it is possible for us to do it. In this chapter, we discuss only the importance of belief in the Life Hereafter. In the next chapter we discuss the possibility of life after death, and then in the following chapter, the necessity of life after death. Belief in our accountability before God on the Day of Judgment after Resurrection is so important that it has been an integral part of the teachings of all the Messengers of God, who were raised in different parts of the world throughout the history of mankind. The root cause of all the evils in this world is that today most people either do not believe at all in life after death and their accountability before God, or their belief is so weak or so corrupted that it provides neither a deterrent against evil nor any motivation for virtuous living. It is said that a tree is known by the fruit it bears. Belief in the Life Hereafter builds a character that is radically different from the character of the deniers of the Hereafter. For those who strongly believe in life after death and the Day of Judgment, the promise of eternal bliss and happiness in Paradise is a great incentive for a virtuous life, and the fear of eternal punishment and torture in Hell is a great deterrent against evil. These people are like angels. On the other hand, those who do not believe in their accountability before God have no morals or character, and they often behave worse than wild beasts. These people hold one of the following views: (1) Life in this world is the only life, and there is no life of any kind after death. (2) There may or may not be life after death and Heaven and Hell, but even if there is, since they are the “chosen people,” they will not be punished for their actions no matter what they do. (3) There is life after death, but someone has atoned for their sins or they have accepted someone as their savior who has promised to save them. (4) There is life after death, but their saint or someone who is close to God will intervene on their behalf, or make a recommendation to God, and will save them from the punishment of God.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DENIERS OF HEREAFTER Since for deniers this world is the be-all and end-all, all their endeavors are geared towards their personal aggrandizement and material benefits, leading to the destruction of human morals. They will not be prepared to undertake any good act if they have no hope of thereby gaining some worldly benefits, nor will they be keen to avoid any wrong act if it is not harmful to their interests in this world. These people inevitably develop such a strong materialistic outlook of life that for them, truth and falsehood, good and evil, morality and immorality, are meaningless. Their real ambition is to gain more and more pleasures, enjoyments, material progress, prosperity, power, and authority. All these people, whether they are individuals, communities, or nations, are so blinded by greed and lust, and self-interest, community interest, or national interest, that whenever they have power, opportunity, and ability, they do not hesitate to usurp the rights of others, to commit injustice, aggression, oppression, and exploitation using all the possible fair and foul means and resources at their disposal. Since these people have no fear of God’s punishment for their evil deeds, they do not care even if they have to massacre innocent people, make children orphans, make women widows, make millions of people homeless and refugees, or destroy an innocent country or nation, so long as it is in their personal, family, community, or national interest. These deniers of the Hereafter are, in general, corrupt, dishonest, liars, and unreliable, and they commit


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind fraud, cheat people, and have many more similar traits, so long as they are sure that the police, the government, or other law enforcement agencies cannot catch them. Even the parliamentarians and legislators who are supposed to make laws to keep society free from dishonesty and corruption can be purchased like goods in the political market. In civilized countries, the civilized word for bribery is lobbying. Different lobbying groups purchase the different legislators and decision-making representatives or officials. This is the type of morals all over the world of those people who do not feel responsible before God for their actions. Even if such a person might practice honesty in some of his less important dealings in view of “honesty is the best policy,” he would never practice honesty on those occasions when dishonesty would seem to be “the best policy” for his interests. Man can develop true and enduring honesty only when he fears God and sincerely believes in the Hereafter, for then he would regard honesty not merely as “a policy,” but as a duty and obligation, and be constant in it, so then he would not be dependent on its being useful or useless in this world. To believe that stiffer laws can change the mindset of criminals is a myth and a futile idea, because these people will not hesitate to commit crimes so long as they are certain to escape being caught. It is only the fear of God (who is watching all the time, at all places) and of His punishment that can stop a person from committing crimes. It is well known that some powerful governments assassinate democratically elected INNOCENT heads of some poor or weak nations using covert means when they think it is in the interest of their government to eliminate that INNOCENT head of state. Had these people believed that because of their killing of an innocent person they would stand as criminals before God on the Day of Judgment and would be condemned to the most severe eternal punishment, they would not have done it. These selfish and power-intoxicated nations have demonstrated, time and again, that the blood of their race or their citizens or their allies is very sacred and valuable, and that of other races or countries has no value whatsoever, and that other people are not even human beings. They have two different standards of justice, human rights, liberty, freedom, democracy, terrorism, and morality—one for their own people, relatives, friends, and allies, and another for others. As a nation, their concept of justice and righteousness is that whatever is in the interest or welfare of their own nation is most just and right even though it may be morally wrong, inhumane, and unjust, according to impartial laws of justice anywhere in the world or as ordained by God. No word of advice moves them, and no argument that could stop a man from evil appeals to them. They are so obsessed with self-interest that they cannot think of pursuing any higher or nobler end in life or striving for lofty aspirations, or even appreciating genuine human feelings. They fabricate more and more lies and cook more and more arguments to justify their unbridled exploitation and the injustices they commit. Their minds remain, day and night, engaged only in devising more immoral and unjust ways and means for grabbing the property of the weak. Blind appetites gain control over them, they become slaves to these appetites, and they adopt an attitude and behavior worse than animals. This breeds discontent, hatred, and enmity among individuals, communities, and nations, leading to armed conflicts and devastating wars, which spoil all harmony in life. Without a strong conviction in the Life Hereafter and accountability before God, there will never be peace and security or freedom from tension, injustice, oppression, evil, and threats to human freedom and dignity in the world. Without belief in accountability and responsibility before God for his actions and without fear of God’s severe punishment for evil committed by him, this superior and most honored creature of God reduces himself to the lowest of the low and behaves not only like an animal, but worse than even a beast. For example, nations or governments that are led by people who do not have fear of God and who do not believe that they have to appear before God one day to pay the price of their injustices are so overpowered and blinded by their national interest or by their hostility against some other nation or country that they surpass all savage beasts in barbarity and cruelty. A wild beast preys upon its victim only for the sake of food. It does not resort to general massacre, but man resorts to the massacre of his own kind. The beast only uses its claws and teeth, but man uses his God-given intellect, brains, and capabilities to invent guns, tanks, bomber airplanes, helicopters, missile bombs, carpet bombs, atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, and countless other destructive weapons to commit genocide and the ethnic cleansing of villages, towns, and entire countries that


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind are populated by people of God, who are human beings like himself. The beast only kills or inflicts a wound, but man invents such painful methods of torturing men like himself as cannot even be imagined by a beast. Then, in order to quench the fire of his revenge, fury, and hatred, man sometimes degrades himself so low as to force the women of his perceived enemy to march out in naked processions, each woman subjected to rape by tens of men in front of her parents, brothers, and husband. He kills children in front of their parents. Mothers are forced to drink their children’s blood. Human beings are buried alive. Homes are destroyed by tanks, bombs, missiles, or fire with residents still in them. There is not a single cruelest-of-the-cruel wild species in the world that may equal this human barbarity. The same is also the case with other evil traits. This happened in Bosnia with the tacit approval of major world powers. All those countries or nations that were involved directly and indirectly in such barbarous acts claim that they themselves are the most civilized people. This type of behavior is not surprising from people or nations that do not believe in accountability before God in the Hereafter or in severe punishment for these types of actions. There are many more examples of injustice, aggression, oppression, cruelty, barbarianism, deception, and double standards. All people in the world, being children of one and the same common great grandparents (Adam and Eve), are members of one household, are flesh and blood of each other, and are like brothers and sisters. Therefore, out of love, sympathy, mercy, compassion, and concern for the welfare of all the people of these countries, in general, and their policy-makers, in particular, we feel morally obliged to earnestly try our best to save them from the punishment of God in the Hereafter, which is going to be very severe. All that we can do is inform all these, who are our brothers and sisters in humanity, that God alone is the Superpower, none else, and He also is the Most Forgiving. His door for forgiveness is open for those who repent and reform. Those who die without repentance and reformation will surely face severe eternal punishment. Jesus says in the Gospel of Matthew (18:8-9) that if any part of our body makes us commit a sin, such as an eye or a hand or a foot, we should pluck out that eye or cut that hand or foot off and throw it away, because it is better to enter Paradise without that part of the body than for the whole body to burn in the everlasting fire of Hell (also see Mark, 9:43, 9:45, 9:47). Looking with lust at the opposite sex, for which punishment is Hell according to Jesus, is not such a serious sin as compared to the sins of injustice, grabbing the property of innocents by force, oppression, aggression, killing innocent people, making people homeless, making children orphans, and making women widows. In the interest of his country, nobody should take any step that will result in an eternal life of miseries and tortures in Hell. Another example is that of Gujarat in India. The Indian government brags of being the greatest democracy in the world. However, its police force, whose responsibility is to protect the citizens, participated in the genocide and ethnic cleansing of its own citizens. The cruelty committed by the majority community in India on the minority community surpasses the barbarity of the wildest beasts. Another example of deception, lies, and double standards occurred in Algeria. When the majority of Algerian people democratically elected a government, all the self-appointed champions of democracy went into full gear to crush this democratically elected government. For those who do not believe in accountability before God, even the belief in God and in His Messengers is meaningless. They think that neither obedience to God is of any advantage nor disobedience of God is of any harm. It is well known that the early settlers who came to the United States were not atheists, but were believers in God and in biblical prophets, but, despite that, they hunted down the Native Americans like animals and systematically destroyed them. Those Native Americans who somehow survived this genocide were confined to reservations. This type of atrocity cannot be expected from those who have fear of God’s punishment on the Day of Judgment. Again, it may be mentioned that all those European countries were also God-believing and Bible-believing who raided Africa on a large scale, captured free men, put them in bondage, and transported them to their new colonies. The treatment they meted out to these unfortunate people was worse than that given to animals. After the occupation of America and the West Indies, traffic in the slave trade continued for a long time. The African ports where the Africans were brought from the interior and put onto ships came to be known as the Slave Coast. In the course of only one century (from 1680 to 1786), the total number of free people who were captured and enslaved for the British colonies amounts, according to the estimate of the British authors, to 20 million.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind In the year 1790, 75,000 human beings were captured and sent for slave labor in the colonies. The ships that were used for transporting the slaves were small and filthy. These unfortunate Africans were thrust into the holds like cattle and many of them were chained, one on top of the other, to wooden shelves where they could hardly move because they were only eighteen inches apart. They were not given proper food, and if they fell ill or were injured, no attempt was made to provide them medical treatment. The Western writers themselves state that at least 20 percent of the total number of people who were captured for slavery perished while being transported from Africa to America. It has also been estimated that the total number of people who were captured for slavery by the various European nations during the heyday of the slave trade was at least one hundred million. All this makes the truth explicit that nothing in this world other than belief in the Hereafter can ensure man’s adherence to the right way. If a man disbelieves that he is to be raised back to life after death and has to render an account of his deeds before God, he will certainly be misled and go astray, for he will never be able to develop in himself the sense of responsibility that alone can make him adhere to the right way. That is why the artifice of Satan that ensnares man is that he makes him heedless of the Hereafter. The one who escapes this satanic enticement can never agree that he should sacrifice the interests of his real everlasting life to the interests of the transient life of the world. On the contrary, the one who disbelieves in the Hereafter under the evil influence of Satan, or at least entertains doubts about it, can never be induced to withdraw from the cash bargain being made in this world only due to the apprehension that it might cause loss in some later life. Whoever has gone astray in the world has gone astray only due to the denial of the Hereafter, or some suspicion about it, and whoever has adopted righteousness has done so because his righteous deeds have issued from his belief in the Hereafter.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN LIFE HEREAFTER Those who believe in the Hereafter are peacemakers. They are the embodiment of love, mercy, compassion, honesty, truthfulness, generosity, forgiveness, justice, self-sacrifice, selflessness, righteousness, virtue, and of other such traits as preached by Jesus (in the Sermon on the Mount) in the Gospels according to Matthew and Luke. They restrain their passions and desires and are lured neither by the prospect of material benefits nor by the pleasures attendant upon disobedience of God. They adhere to justice, truth, honesty, and fair play in utter disregard for all temptations, desires, and lusts. They endure all losses and hardships that accrue to them as a result of strictly confining themselves to fair and honest means, spurning all advantages that ensue from adopting unfair methods. They stick to justice even if it hurts them, their relatives, friends, or people from their own tribe, race, country, or religion. They strive for the establishment of justice and the eradication of oppression, aggression, and exploitation, enduring all hardships in their way, remaining steadfast against all fears, refusing to succumb to enticements, and shunning the unlawful. They can be neither cowed nor purchased by any inducement. No power can turn them away from their righteous objective, even at the cost of their lives. They are truthful in their speech and honest in their dealings. They do not indulge in lies, deceptions, fraud, or forgeries. With their eyes always focused on God’s good pleasure and the abiding reward of the Hereafter, they are prepared to wait to the very end of their worldly life to enjoy the reward of their sacrifices. They are not heedless and they do not lead a carefree life, but are always on their guard lest they may commit an evil for which they may be held responsible or accountable before God. They are never hypocrites. There is no contradiction between their actions and sayings. They are not materialistic. The goal of their life is not to have a lot of wealth, property, and other material things; these things can only become a means for achieving the goal and not the goal itself. Their objective in life is to work for the pleasure of God and thereby get eternal bliss and happiness in the Hereafter, whether with the help of material progress and prosperity in this world or without it. It may be mentioned that this leads to man’s happiness in this world also. They keep, all the time, their attention focused on their goal, and they do not waste their time, money, faculties, energies, resources, and potential on useless or unproductive activities that may not help them directly or indirectly to achieve that goal. They keep their own lives pure and clean, free from all moral corruptions, help others to do the same, and keep their society as pure and clean as possible.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind They try to excel in piety, righteousness, and good works. They do not shed the blood of innocent people. They do not wage war for self-interest, family interest, community interest, or national interest, or to accumulate worldly benefits. They resort to war only for the moral and social reform of the world—to restore freedom and human dignity, and to remove injustice, oppression, and exploitation. And they only do so when the opposing forces make it impossible to bring about reforms by means of persuasion, preaching, or other peaceful means. Being reformers, these people focus their attention on their goal—the reform of the world—and not on material benefits. They always respond to the commands of God positively even if these commands go against their personal opinions and conceptions, are contrary to their interests, convenience, and habits, or are not in consonance with their loyalties and friendships. They obey the commands of God even at the cost of their lives, property, and blood ties. They allow no consideration to prevent them from carrying out the directives of God. The dominant characteristic of their lives is obedience to God. Remembrance of God is the very breath of life for them. They are instinctively disposed to righteousness. They abhor evil and they spend freely to help the poor and needy in the way of God. Instead of engaging in evil, they ward off evil with good. If they are wronged by others, they do not subject them to wrong in return. Even when others tell lies against them, they still speak the truth about them. No matter how dishonest others might be in their dealings with them, they remain honest. They do not follow the ways of others, saying: “If others do well, we will also do well to them; but if others wrong us, we will also wrong them.” Rather, their principle is that if people do well to them, they do well to others, and if people mistreat them, they still refrain from being unjust. They speak with justice in anger and happiness, they fulfill the rights of those who deprive them, they give to those who deny them, and they forgive those who wrong them. These people never feel proud, arrogant, or conceited. They are gentle and clement by nature. They keep their trust and honor their promises. “Trust” implies those trusts which God has entrusted to people, as well as those which one man entrusts to another because of faith and confidence. Likewise, “promises” implies those promises which man makes to God as well as those that one man makes to another. Keeping and fulfilling both these kinds of trust and promises is a necessary characteristic of a believer in the Hereafter.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 11 Possibility of Life After Death (A)  GOD IS ALL-POWERFUL AND CAN DO EVERYTHING God has power and control over everything. He can do anything and everything. There is nothing difficult or impossible for Him. His power is unlimited and infinite. He created everything with a single word and with His will alone. If He so wills, He can do it again and again and more and more without losing any of His strength. There is no difference for Him between the creation of an atom and the creation of the seemingly infinite universe. All power and authority rests with Him. He does whatever He wants. Nothing happens without His command; none can stand in His way. He creates whatever He wants and destroys whatever He pleases. Decisions of all matters rest with Him alone.

(B)  RESURRECTION OF MAN IS EASIER THAN CREATION OF HEAVENS God says in the Noble Qur’an (79:27-33) that the creation of man and his resurrection after death is much easier and simpler than the creation of the heavens, the earth, and the various things created for, and in connection with, the sustenance of animal and plant life on earth. When we look above in the sky, we are struck with wonder and amazement at its expanse and beauty. Scientists say that there are more than two hundred billion stars. The sun is only a medium-sized star; its diameter is 865,000 miles (1,393,000 ki1ometers) —109 times the diameter of the earth. Its temperature is 14,000,000 degrees centigrade. In spite of shining 93,006,000 miles away from earth, its light and brightness is dazzling, and man can look at it with the naked eye only at the risk of losing his eyesight. As for its heat, the temperature on some parts of the earth hits 140 degrees Fahrenheit because of the sun’s radiation. The largest stars have diameters that are about 1,000 times as large as the sun’s. Planets that are millions of times larger than our earth are moving in space like tiny balls; stars thousands of times brighter than our sun are shining in space; our entire solar system is located in a corner of only one galaxy. Astronomers have photographed millions of galaxies through telescopes, and they believe that the number of galaxies is in the billions. A galaxy is a system of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity. Large galaxies have more than a trillion stars and small galaxies have fewer than a billion. Galaxies range in diameter from a thousand to half a million light years. A light year is the distance that light travels in a year, which is about 5.88 trillion miles (9.46 trillion kilometers). The speed of light is 186,282 miles per second. The sun is about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from the earth. The volume of the sun is about 1,300,000 times that of the earth, and its mass is about 333,000 times that of earth. This shows the vastness of the part of the universe that has so far been observed and explored by man. As to how vast is the entire universe of God, we have no means to estimate and judge. To sum up, it may be said that the universe seems to be starting from nowhere and ending nowhere. All these huge bodies are floating or swimming in space in their own orbits with their own assigned speed, under an allpowerful law ordained by an All-Powerful Planner and Designer. None of these stars and planets deviates from its course; they do not strike or fall on each other and have no perceptible support.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(C)  ONE WHO CREATED MAN, HE CAN CREATE AGAIN Holy Qur’an, Chapter 75, Verse 3 “Does man think that We cannot resurrect him after death and assemble his bones again? Indeed we can. We surely have the power to shape and restore in perfect order even the very tips of his fingers.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 75, Verses 36-40 “Does man, then, think that he is to be left to himself to go about at will? Was he not once a [mere] sperm drop which is emitted [in the mother’s womb]? And thereafter became a germ-cell. Then God formed [created] him and fashioned his limbs in proportion; and of him He made two sexes, male and female. Does He not then have power to bring the dead back to life?”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 22, Verse 5 “O people, if you have any doubt about Life After Death, you should know that we first created you of earth, then of a sperm drop, then of a clot of blood, then of a lump of flesh, shaped or shapeless [we are telling you this] so that we may make the reality plain to you.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 23, Verse 12 “We created man from an extract or essence of wet earth then turned him into a sperm drop in a safe place; then changed the sperm drop into a clot of blood and the clot into a piece of flesh then turned the piece of flesh into bones; then clothed the bones with flesh; and then brought him forth as quite a different creation [from the embryo].”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 86, Verses 4-7 “For every soul there is a guardian who watches over it. Let man then reflect from what he is created. He is created of gushing fluid which issues forth from between the loins [or backbone] and the chest [breast] bones. Surely He [the Creator] has the power to bring him back to life. On that Day the hidden secrets are held to scrutiny, then man will neither have any power of his own nor any helper.” If one reflects with a perceptive mind and sees with open eyes how existing things came into being, he will discover how the willful decision of an All-Powerful God is connected to the manner in which every single human being comes into existence, as well as the manner in which he passes through the stages of his growth and development. Let man reflect on his origin, then reflect on the end product—what he becomes—and then ponder on the wide gulf between his origin and the end product. God Almighty who brought into existence such a wonderful person from nothing, can he not resurrect the dead? Man starts his journey from the earth, when a farmer puts seeds into the ground. These seeds extract their necessary food from the soil to grow into different types of plants. (Qur’an 23:12, quoted above). These plants provide food to man either directly or through animals (their meat and milk) and birds. A part of this food that man eats is converted to waste, a part becomes bones, hair, and flesh, and a part becomes the “gushing fluid” that the Qur’an references. God Almighty moves that shapeless and powerless fluid along its remarkable and impressive journey until it is shaped into its magnificent ultimate form. This implies that there is a guardian appointed by God to look after that moist germ and to guide it through its remarkable journey, which is full of wonders much greater than those met by man throughout his life. The one fertilizing cell, of which there are millions in every gush, is hardly visible under the microscope. It is a creature without support, reason, or will. But as soon as it settles in the womb, it proceeds to search for its food. The guarding hand of God provides it with the necessary ability to convert the lining of the womb around it into a pool of blood to supply it with fresh nourishment. Once it is sure of the availability of food, it starts a process of continuous production of new cells. This shapeless and powerless creature, which has no will or intellect, knows exactly what it needs and what it is doing. The guarding hand watching over it (Qur’an 86:4, quoted above) provides it with guidance, knowledge, power, and will to enable it to know its way. It is charged with the task of making every group of the newly produced cells specialize in


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind building a part of the magnificent structure of the human body. One group starts to produce the skeleton, a second group gets busy in producing the muscles, a third group starts making the nervous system, and a fourth group the lymphatic system. The same applies to every major part of the human structure. But this matter is not simple: it involves a high degree of specialization. For every bone, every muscle, and every nerve is unique and dissimilar to every other. The structure is accurately planned and has a wide range of functions. Hence, as every group of cells proceeds to fulfill its appointed task in building this structure, it learns to break into specialized subdivisions, each having its particular function in the general set up. Every little cell proceeds, knowing its way, destination, and function. Those cells entrusted with the task of forming the eye know that the eye must be in the face, and that it cannot be located in the abdomen, on the foot, or on the arm, despite the fact that any of these localities is a suitable place for forming an eye. If the first cell charged with making the eye was taken off course and planted in any of these localities, it would have fulfilled its mission and made an eye there. But when it sets out on its mission, it simply goes to the exact spot specified for the eye. Who has then told this cell that this structure needs its eye to be in that particular spot? It is God, the watching guardian, who guides it, looks after it, and shows its way. All the cells work individually and collectively within a framework set for them by certain elements functioning inside the cell. These elements are known as the genes, which preserve the general characteristics of the species and the distinctive traits of the parents and forefathers. When the eye cell divides and proliferates in order to form the eye, it endeavors at the same time to preserve its shape and particular features so that it turns be a human eye and not the eye of any animal. Furthermore, it endeavors to make it an eye of a human being whose forefathers had certain features and characteristics that distinguished their eyes (e.g., blue, brown, or black eyes). The slightest error in designing that eye, whether in shape or qualities, forces the forming cell out of its set course. So who has endowed this power, ability, and knowledge to this insignificant cell, which has no reason, will, or power of its own? It is God who taught it to design and produce what all mankind can never design or produce. For mankind cannot design an eye or a part of it if they are charged with this task, while an insignificant group of cells in the human body can accomplish this great mission. This is merely a quick glance at a few parts of the remarkable journey that transform the gushing liquid into the communicative human being. But there is indeed a great multitude of wonders in the physiological functions of the various organs and systems. It is beyond the scope of this work to trace these wonders, but they all constitute evidence of elaborate planning and organization and bear the stamp of All-Powerful God’s guarding, helping, and guiding hand. The food that we eat is made from lifeless ingredients (sodium, calcium, potassium, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.) and does not contain anything that has the power to generate the properties that characterize man. This living person created from lifeless or dead ingredients is blessed with a body of unique structure and endowed with wonderful powers and abilities. Again, it is God Almighty who decides whether it should be a male or female, seeing or blind, normal or handicapped, healthy or sick, or whether it will come out alive or dead. He decides what type of features the child is to get, who is to be made beautiful and who is to be made ugly, what type of faculties he or she is to have, and whether that child is going to be very intelligent. It is His power alone to give some couples boys only, to other couples girls only, still to others, both boys and girls, and there are some couples who get no children at all. There is a great variety in the creation of the human race—every child is different from another. Even children of the same parents have differences in features, looks, fingerprints, blood types, voice, style of speech, tastes, temperaments, emotions, feelings, etc. No power in the world can have any influence on the matters mentioned above except All-Powerful True God. Is this miracle in any way less wonderful than raising the dead back to life? In addition to human beings, God is bringing into existence countless animals by bringing life from dead matter, as the substances themselves which make up the bodies of living beings are absolutely without life. Or consider an egg, which most of us eat every day. It is like a small white castle, which is airtight and watertight. When we keep it at a certain temperature for a certain period of time, the egg cracks and becomes a live, breathing chicken. For a more comprehensive discussion of the powers of God, see “Qur’anic Arguments about Tawheed,” Chapter 16. As we witness that God is performing all these miracles perpetually in front of our eyes, and we ourselves are living


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind evidence of it in the world, why do we not then learn the lesson that the same God who by His power is causing these miracles to take place day and night can also cause the miracle of life after death, Resurrection, Hell, and Heaven by the same power, as foretold by the Noble Qur’an? The deniers of the Hereafter say that all human beings will become dust after death and scatter away in particles, and they even become part of some other animals and birds. How then, they ask, would it be possible to bring all the countless particles together and combine them to be recreated as the same human bodies once again? Their doubt is dispelled by God, saying: “Every particle wherever it is, is recorded in God’s register, and God knows where a particle is” (Qur’an, 50:4). How did God, in the first instance, make the body in which we at present exist, by gathering its countless particles together from the air, water, earth, and many other places we know not where? And how can we say that the same God cannot gather its constituent parts together once again? In this world, God has devised one method of our creation, which is through conception of woman from the union of man and woman. He can also use any method not known to us. We already know that He created Adam without father and mother. He created Eve without mother and He created Jesus without father. Again, we find the following statement of Prophet Abraham (pbuh) in Chapter 5 of the Holy Qur’an: “I am very thankful to my God who granted me in my old age first Ismail, then Ishaq (Isaac), indeed my Lord listens to supplications.” The Qur’an does not mention his age, but according to the Old Testament of the Bible, Prophet Abraham (may peace and blessings of God be upon him) was in his nineties and his wife Sara was practically of the same age, when their son Ishaq [Isaac) was born, despite the fact that Sara was barren, because she did not give birth to any child in her youth and this was the first baby born to her. Similar is the case of Yahya (John, the Baptist) who was born when both his parents were very old. All these things show that His power is unlimited. Again, today He has set one particular measure for our sight, hearing, and other faculties. But this is not the only measure that He has for us, and He has the power and ability to change them. On the Day of Resurrection, He shall change it absolutely. So much so that we will be able to hear and see things that we cannot hear and see here. Today, our skin, hands, feet, eyes, and limbs do not possess the power of speech. God who has given the power of speech to our tongue today is not powerless to cause our every limb and every part of skin on our body to speak by His command on the Day of Resurrection.

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 24, Verse 24 “[People should not forget that] on the Day of Judgment their own tongues, their own hands and their own feet will testify against their own misdeeds.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 36, Verse 5 “On that Day [of Judgment] We shall seal their mouth while their hands will Speak to Us and their feet will [also speak and] bear witness to all their misdeeds.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 41, Verses 20-22 “Finally when they reach there [for accountability on the Day of Judgment], their ears, their eyes, and their skin will [speak and] testify to their misdeeds. And they will ask their skins: why did you testify against us? Their skins will reply, ‘Allah who gives the faculty of speech to everything has made us speak: He it is Who has created you in the first instance and unto Him you are [now] brought back’.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 17, Verse 36 “You shall not follow [anyone blindly in those matters] of which you have no knowledge, surely the use of your ears, the eyes, and the heart all these shall be questioned on the Day of Judgment.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 99, Verse 4 “On that day [of Judgment] the earth shall report whatever she had witnessed on her surface.” (In other words, the earth is videotaping all that we do and say.)


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Today we all live to a certain age and then die. A certain law ordained by God also controls this living and dying. Tomorrow, He can make another law to control our life, under which we may never die. Today we can endure punishment only to a certain extent; we cannot survive if the punishment is increased beyond it. God has also made this rule. Tomorrow, He can make another rule for us, under which we will be able to suffer much more severe punishment endlessly and death would not come to us, even if we were given the severest punishment. Today, we cannot imagine that an old man could return to youth, that he could never become sick; that a young man could never be old and he could stay young forever and ever. Today, youth are changed into old age according to the biological laws made by God. Tomorrow, the same All-Powerful God can make other laws for our life, under which every old man may become young as soon as he enters Paradise and may stay young and healthy eternally.

(D) GOD WHO REVIVES THE DEAD EARTH WITH WATER HAS THE POWER TO RESURRECT THE DEAD Holy Qur’an, Chapter 2, Verse 164 “Verily, in the creation of the heavens and of the earth, and the succession of night and day, and in the ships that speed through the sea with what is useful for mankind and in the waters which God sends down from the sky, giving life thereby to the earth after it had been lifeless, and causing all kind of living creatures to multiply thereon . . . there are messages indeed for people who use their reason.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 22, Verses 5 “O, people, if you have any doubt about the resurrection [life after death] you should know ... that you see the land lying dry and barren but as soon as We send down rain water upon it, it stirs to life and swells and brings forth every kind of life, luxuriant vegetations [the same way you will be brought to life].

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 16, Verse 65 “And God sends down water from above and thereby He revives the earth after it lay dead: In this behold there is a message indeed for those who [are willing to] listen.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 30, Verses 24 “And of His Signs is that He shows you lightning, arousing both fear and hope, and sends down water from the sky and revives the earth after it is dead. Indeed there are Signs in this for those who use their reason.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 30, Verse 50 “See, then the tokens of Allah’s Mercy: how He revives the earth after it is dead. Verily He is the One Who will revive the dead. He has power over everything.”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 36, Verse 33 “... and [yet] they have a sign [of our power to create and to resurrect] in the lifeless earth which we make alive and out of which We bring forth grain whereof they may eat ....”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 35, Verse 9 “... And [remember] it is God who sends forth the winds so that they raise a cloud where upon we drive it towards dead land and thereby give life to the earth after it had been lifeless even thus shall resurrection be!” The argument in these verses is that God, who produces fine vegetable life by combining lifeless soil of earth with lifeless water from the sky, has the power to resurrect you after death. In arid regions with high temperatures, we witness an instructive spectacle every year when the earth turns altogether barren and lifeless, with no trace of plant or even insect life. We do not see even a blade of grass. The barren tracts of land


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind seem altogether dead, as if they were a large graveyard. However, with the very first shower of rain, verdant life begins to pulsate all over. Every dead root is resurrected, all lifeless seeds that were lying scattered by the wind and birds become living plants, and the land previously lying barren starts blooming and blossoming. Likewise, innumerable insects, every trace of which had been destroyed by the heat, make their appearance again from the earth. In this connection it may be said that in many parts of Arabia sometimes it does not rain at all for many years, even for four years or more. In the burning deserts of Arabia it is not conceivable that the roots of grass and the insects of earth would survive such long periods of drought. In spite of this, when a little rain falls, grass sprouts up and the insects of the earth return to life. Often we see with rain in summer that mosquitoes come into existence from nowhere. Similarly we see flying bugs that lose their wings after a while and start crawling. This process of the resurrection of the dead, which takes place every year right before our eyes, is manifest proof of the possibility of life after death. When we cannot deny such express observation, how can we deny that when God wills, we too will sprout up from the earth just as the vegetation and insects sprout up?


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 12 Life After Death is Necessary Life Hereafter is not only possible, but also necessary, because it is a demand of reason, justice, and morality.    (I)  God is Wise One of the many attributes of God is that He is Wise (Al-Hakeem) and whatever He does, there is always wisdom in it and a purpose behind it. The unique order and regularity with which the wonderful systems of this world are functioning before our eyes (such as the movements of the sun and the earth, the alternations of night and day, different seasons, the evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, ponds, that changes into vapors, clouds, and rain in the atmosphere and then comes back to earth, etc.) and the wisdom and good reasons which clearly underline them, testify to the reality that this world is not a meaningless and useless toy house where the great drama of life is being presented at random for millions and millions of years. It is, in fact, a serious and wise system of the highest order whose every particle testifies that it has been created with great wisdom, its each component has a law underlying it, everything in it has a purpose behind it, everything that happens has a purpose, a reason, and wisdom behind it, and everything created has a rational objective and purpose.

(II)  Our Life Has A Purpose In this wonderful system of the universe, how can only the creation of a unique being like man be purposeless, useless, futile, and without wisdom? God brings us here into this world at a certain time, at a certain place, for a certain period of time, and for a certain purpose. Both our life (birth) and our death have a purpose. Neither is our life without a purpose nor is our death without a purpose. We do not come into this world in vain. As God says in the Noble Qur’an: “Do you think that you were created without any purpose? [You have been created for a specific purpose.] Do you think that you will not come back to Us [for accountability in connection with the purpose for which you were created]? God Almighty is far too exalted [to do anything that is purposeless]. He is the true King! There is no god but He, the Lord of the Noble Throne” (23:115116). Thus we do not come into this world just to eat, drink, marry, enjoy, kill our time in mere sports and entertainments, or consume ourselves in pastimes leading to no worthwhile results, and then just be dead and forgotten. Since God is the sole Creator and Sustainer, Lord and Master, Sovereign and Ruler of the entire universe and everything in it, He and only He has the right and authority to assign any purpose of life for man and to make rules, regulations, and codes of life for the life of man on this earth. God has sent man as His Khalifa on earth (Qur’an, 2:30). The word “khalifa” means vicegerent, agent, trustee, representative, or steward. This term amply highlights the purpose, the role, and the status of man. What it means is that God, in His exalted wisdom, has handed over the earth’s affairs and destiny to man as His agent or trustee, and has given him a free hand to use, develop, and transform all its energies and resources for the fulfillment of God’s will and pleasure. Therefore, we have to be actively involved in the affairs of this world instead of renouncing this world and living as monks and nuns. We are not the condemned creatures of God, as some misguided people believe and preach. Rather, we are the most honored and superior creature of God on earth. As a vicegerent of God, we have to work for His pleasure, carry out His commands, obey, worship, and serve Him and Him alone, and establish the kingdom of God on earth, in which the law of God and not man-made law is supreme. A kingdom where there is no subjugation of man by man, no oppression, aggression, or exploitation of anyone by anyone, no prejudice or discrimination on the basis of race, color, creed, nationality, language, or financial status, and where there is justice, equity, human dignity, freedom, equal opportunities for all, and peace on earth. To fulfill these terms of Divine vicegerency, God created man in the best shape, form, and structure, and made him the most intelligent creature on earth. He gave man an erect stature, the most appropriate feet to walk on, the most suitable hands to work with, a talking tongue with the ability to speak and express his ideas, thoughts, and intentions, and a wonderful brain, which is a treasure-house of great capabilities. God gave man the ability to understand, think, and plan, gave him the ability to read, write, acquire knowledge and every kind of information, gave him the ability to deduce results from the body of acquired information and the ability to research, discover, develop, and invent. Moreover, He gave man a moral sense and the power of discrimination by which he distinguishes between good and evil, right and wrong, truth and falsehood, and myth and reality. To rekindle or rejuvenate and strengthen this inborn God-


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind given morality, God sent Messengers or prophets to all parts of the world at different times in the history of mankind. He also gave man freedom of action and choice and the ability to make decisions and form opinions by which he selects his own course of action, decides how he should employ his faculties, efforts, and time, what he should reject and what he should accept, and what should be his objective in life. He has even been given the freedom that he may acknowledge his Creator and serve Him if he so likes, and reject Him, if he pleases, and he may make whomever he likes his gods or rebel against Him. Along with all these capabilities and powers, God has granted man the authority to appropriate everything created by Him, and he is practically using this authority in the world. God even subjected the heavenly bodies, such as the sun and the moon, to laws to benefit man.

(III)  Necessity of the Hereafter Since man has been created for a purpose without which his entire life is a failure, he must be responsible to fulfill this purpose. If he is responsible, he must at some stage give an account of his life to God. The most suitable time for rendering this account is when all the activities of man come to an end, which means after death. This calls for resurrection after death and the Life Hereafter. Since man has been appointed as the agent of God, he must be accountable for this assignment. There is a logical nexus between the bestowals of trust and calling the trustee to account, a nexus that even a man, despite the limited nature of his wisdom, can never ignore. When a man entrusts his wealth, property, or business to anyone, sooner or later he calls him to account for it. Can one believe that God, Who created wisdom and He bestowed it on man, will Himself be devoid of it? Can one seriously entertain the proposition that God, Who created man, charged him with this huge world with its immense resources, and endowed him with enormous powers, would forget about man after all this and never call him to account? Furthermore, it is a demand both of reason and of justice that those who earnestly try to perform this duty to the best of their ability should be rewarded and those who do not should be punished. Obviously, the time for reward and punishment should come at the expiration of this period of assignment, i.e., after death. Furthermore, to enjoy the fruit of this successful performance of this office of vicegerency or suffer punishment for its failure, another life after death is needed. Indeed, it is not life after death that should be a surprise; it would be surprising if there were no life after death. The purpose of the creation of those things that do not possess conscious and intellect is fulfilled in this very physical life. Therefore, it would be right and reasonable if they were destroyed after they had reached the end of their life term, for they have not been granted any powers or authority for which they might have to be called to account. But man is more than a mere animal. There is a manifest difference between man and animal. The animal has been created without the power of choice and authority, but man has been blessed with the power of choice and authority. There is no question of morality about what the animal does, but the acts of man are necessarily characterized by good and evil. Thus, man has not been created to be irresponsible and unanswerable as has been the animal. Why the animal will not be resurrected is quite understandable. The animal only fulfills the fixed demands of its instinct, it does not use its intellect to propound a philosophy, it does not invent a religion, it does not make anyone its god, it does not become a god for others, it does nothing that could be called good or bad, it does not enforce good or bad ways of life that would influence others, generation after generation, so that it should deserve a reward or punishment. Hence, if it perished to annihilation, it would be understandable, for it could not be held responsible for any of its acts, and therefore does not need to be resurrected to account for its life. But a creature who possesses intellect, consciousness, and authority, whose activities are not confined only to the physical world, but are also moral in nature, and whose actions entail moral consequences that do not exist only until the end of life but continue to register their moral effects even after death, cannot be destroyed like plants and animals after it has fulfilled the function of its physical existence. Whatever good or evil he has committed by his own free will and choice, he must reap the reward or suffer the punishment justly and equitably, for this is the basic requirement of the factor under which, contrary to other creatures, he has been endowed with special faculties and with the freedom of choice and will. Should a man who killed an innocent person or persons and then immediately fell victim to a sudden accident never be punished for the crime of the murder he committed? Do you really feel satisfied that a man who sowed corruption in the world with consequences for mankind for centuries after him should himself perish like an insect or a grasshopper, and should never be resurrected to account for his misdeeds that affected the lives of hundreds of thousands of human beings


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind after him? Do you think that the man who struggled throughout his life for the cause of truth and justice, goodness and peace, and suffered hardships for their sake, is a creation like an insect and has no right to be rewarded for his good acts? It is against wisdom and common sense to think that a creature like man should have been given intellect, sense, and the powers to exploit things to his advantage, and has been granted moral sense to distinguish good from evil, right from wrong, and has the freedom of choice, be then left free in the world to behave as he pleases, and that he should never be questioned as to how he has used the powers of his heart, mind, and body, or how he has used the vast means placed at his disposal to work in the world or the power and authority granted to him to employ the countless creatures of God to his advantage. The only rational, logical, and moral demand of giving authority, power, and responsibilities to man in this purposeful system of the universe is that he should be called to account by the One who granted him this position and rank and blessed him with those powers, and then reward or punish him on the grounds of whether he used the powers and authorities given to him in the right way or the wrong way. If he is not held accountable, if he is not rewarded or punished according to his moral acts, and if he also is destroyed at the conclusion of his physical life like the creatures which have been given no freedom of will and choice, then his creation would inevitably be altogether futile and a Wise Being cannot be expected to indulge in a futile exercise. Those who accept God as their one and only Lord and truly live in service, obedience, and devotion to Him deserve to be fully rewarded for their righteous conduct. Likewise, those who reject the truth and act according to their own whim deserve to be duly punished for their unrighteous conduct. God says: (What do the disbelievers think?) “Shall We treat those who submit or surrender to Us the same way as We treat those who are guilty [who disobey and rebel]? What is the matter with you? What kind of judgment do you make?” (Qur’an, 68:35-36).

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 45, Verse 21 “Do the evil-doers think that We shall treat them like those who believe and do good deeds and make their life and their death alike?”

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 68, Verses 35-36 “Are we to treat those who are obedient as we treat the guilty? What is wrong with you? How ill you judge?” Is it reasonable and fair that both the pious and the wicked should be treated alike in the end? Is this concept satisfying, that the pious person should not get any reward for his piety and the wrongdoer should not receive any punishment for his evil? Obviously, the idea of no Hereafter, no accountability, no rewards, and no punishments for human acts negates both God’s wisdom and His justice, and the entire order of the universe becomes a blind order. God forbid, if the Godhead should be such a lawless kingdom, the one who leads a pious life in the face of all kinds of hardships in the world and endeavors to reform people would be a foolish person. The one who gains benefits by committing all kinds of excesses and enjoys sinful pleasures in life would be a wise man. (1)  It is a demand of both justice and reason that those who commit evil, aggression, and injustice should be punished, and those who work for good, establish justice, and remove aggression should be rewarded. Those who use their wealth, position, and power to further their personal, family, tribal, or national interests by exploiting the weakness and poverty of other individuals, communities, or nations should be punished. Man’s intellect and his nature assert positively that evil ought to be punished and good rewarded. On this very basis in every society of the world a system of the courts is established in one form or another and the services and works that are considered as commendable are also rewarded in one way or another. There is no government in the world that treats criminals and law breakers or rebels in the same way as peace-loving, law- abiding, and patriotic citizens. This is clear proof of the fact that there is a necessary relationship between morality and the law of retribution, which man cannot possibly deny. Everyone knows that in this world most crimes remain hidden, or the culprit escapes punishment because of insufficient evidence, or even if the crime is revealed, the culprit is so influential and powerful that he cannot be punished. Further, sometimes people are punished, jailed, and even executed based on the testimony of false witnesses. There is no law or government in the world that can punish every crime and reward every good act.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Now, if it is admitted that in this world there are countless such crimes that remain completely unpunished (to say nothing of punishing them fully and adequately), and there are also countless such virtues that are not rewarded at all (to say nothing of rewarding them fully and adequately), there is no alternative but to acknowledge the Hereafter, because that is the only right time for accountability. (2) Judgment will be passed not only on the apparent and superficial act of what a man did, but the secrets hidden in his heart also will be brought out to show the intentions and motives under which a man did what he did. Therefore, real and complete justice cannot be rendered anywhere except in the court of God. Secular laws of this world also admit, in principle, that a person should not be punished merely on the basis of his apparent act, but his motive also should be seen and examined. But no court of the world has the means to accurately ascertain motives and intentions. This can be done only by God. He alone can examine the underlying motives behind every physical act of man, as well as make the decision as to what reward or punishment he deserves. Again, judgment will not be passed merely on the basis of the knowledge that God already has about intentions and motives, but on Resurrection Day these secrets will be exposed and brought out openly before the people, and after a thorough scrutiny it will be shown what was the good in it and what was the evil. (3) A question may be asked why this accountability cannot be held in the present life of the world. And why is its right time only the second life after death? And why is it necessary that this accountability be held only when all mankind has passed away from this world and when all the previous and succeeding generations have been resurrected and gathered together? The first reason is that man is accountable for his whole life’s work. Therefore, the right time of his accountability should necessarily be when his life’s work has come to an end. The second reason is that man is responsible for all those effects and influences that his acts produce on the lives of others, and those influences and effects do not come to an end with his death, but continue to influence others for ages after him. Even the doer of the act does not himself know what effects and influences his act has on the world, to what extent they spread, and for how long these effects and influences lasted. This secret, too, will be revealed on Resurrection Day and will be fully examined as to the consequences of the seed that a person sowed in the world, what fruit it bore, and for how long it affected the later generations, for better or for worse. Each individual, group of people, or community will be held responsible for leaving behind an evil legacy for future generations. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) has said: “He who introduces a misleading innovation which does not please God and His Messenger shall be held guilty for the sins of all those who follow that innovation without lessening in the least the burden (of sins) of those who followed the innovation. As long as the evil effects of that sin continue, their sins will be continually added to his account.” (“Explanation of the Holy Qur’an,” by S.A. Maududi, 29: 12-13; and Hadith Book by Imam Bukhari). The same principle applies to good deeds that an individual or a group commits. The reward for the heritage of goodness left behind by our predecessors from the earliest times inevitably goes to the credit of those individuals or groups of the past who have continually transmitted that heritage to posterity down to our times. If our own generation takes good care of that heritage, enriches it, and passes it on to the coming generations, it also deserves due reward for that. As long as our good acts leave a trace of good influence on history and continue to cast a good influence on people, we will reap the benefits of those acts. Take another case: Suppose a person writes a book for the guidance of mankind. As long as people continue to get a benefit from this book and are motivated by this book to do good deeds, the writer will continue to get rewards after his death, maybe for hundreds of years. Or an individual or a group who constructed, say, a school or any other building for the general benefit of the public, those people who contributed money and/or time towards the construction will continue to be rewarded after their death, maybe for many years, as long as that building continues to serve its purpose and benefit people. Appreciation of this concept should dispel the ideas of those who believe that people can be fully rewarded or punished for their deeds within the confines of this worldly life. Likewise, such an appreciation should also dispel the views of those who believe that the transmigration of souls alone can ensure full justice to all people. Such people have blundered because they have neither grasped fully the nature and consequences of human acts, nor the nature and requirements of perfect justice. It is obvious that the consequences of an individual’s acts are not visible during his lifespan. Instead, human activities, both good and evil, influence the lives of countless people belonging to countless generations. One cannot, therefore, be brought to justice during one’s own lifetime, since only a small part of the consequences of those acts have yet come to the surface. Moreover, the limited possibilities available in the present world are quite inadequate for bringing people to justice. Just consider the hideous crime of someone who pushes us to world war or to explode an atom bomb. The catastrophic consequences of such a crime would affect the lives of billions of people through the ages. Is there any punishment—physical, spiritual, or material—that can be deemed even remotely proportionate to that crime? Likewise, no worldly rewards, however valuable, can adequately recompense for the noble services rendered by a philanthropist that will benefit numerous people for thousands of years.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Having viewed the question from this angle, one readily concludes there must necessarily be life in the Hereafter, such that full justice can be meted out to everyone. Here all human beings are brought together, their full records are made available, and the reckoning is made by God Himself whose knowledge embraces literally everything. Additionally, people should be granted an unlimited span of life and infinite possibilities should be made available for receiving compensation. Those who subscribe to the doctrine of the transmigration of souls fail to realize that eternal life is needed to mete out recompense to people for the deeds they commit during their relatively brief spans of life. If one were to believe in the unending cycle of life and death, it would become impossible to reward or punish anyone for his actions, for each span of life would go on accumulating endlessly. The arrears would never be cleared. (4)   From the outset of man’s existence, there have been countless differences among human beings about what constitutes the truth. These differences have led to divisions within races, nations, and families. They have also given rise to different creeds, cultures, and societies based on a diversity of views. Millions of people have had such strong feelings about their religious doctrines that they have staked their lives, wealth, honor, and everything that they value so as to defend and promote them. On numerous occasions in history, fierce conflicts have broken out between the adherents of different religious views, each religious group doing its best to destroy the other completely. Yet those who were vanquished or obliterated refused to give up their religious positions. Reason demands that, at least at some point, man should be in a position to know for sure the extent to which each of the doctrines was true or false, and to know who are the people who followed the right way and who deviated from it. It seems impossible that the truth will even become indisputably clear to all in the present world. Hence, there has to be another life to fulfill this human requirement. Life after death is not only a requirement of reason, but is also a moral requirement. A great many people have been party to the differences mentioned earlier. Some of them were suppressors and wrong-doers. Some people made sacrifices, while others subjected them to these sacrifices. In addition, everyone adopted, according to his lights, a moral philosophy and attitude that affects—for good or bad—the lives of billions, even trillions, of other people. Now, a time must come when the moral consequences of these attitudes should be visible in the form of reward or punishment. If the present world is not constituted so that the true and full moral consequences of man’s actions can become known, then there must be another world to ensure that this is so. (5)  What is most conspicuous in the long record of the history of mankind is the constantly recurring phenomenon of the rise and fall of nations. This rise and fall seems to be tied up with certain moral factors. The way certain nations have encountered significant falls and have suffered destruction clearly indicates that man in this universe is under a dispensation in which blind physical laws do not predominate. Instead, a moral law is also in operation. The result is that the nations that maintain a given minimum level of adherence to moral principles are granted a temporary respite. However, once a nation falls perceptibly below that minimum level, it meets its tragic end and is made a lesson for future generations. Every nation that denied the Hereafter in the past necessarily (inherently) became criminal, immoral, unjust, oppressive, and corrupt, which in turn brought about its complete destruction. This is a consistent pattern of human history, and the ruins of past civilizations testify to the vital relationship between belief in the Hereafter and good conduct. Belief in the Hereafter provides the right direction to human uplift and its denial, being contrary to reality, leads to its derailment. Historical records show that nations that engage in criminal behavior, and which became enmeshed in injustice, oppression, and corruption, are always destroyed. The occurrence and repetition of these events at regular intervals leaves no doubt whatsoever that retribution is permanent, a full- fledged law that operates in human history. This universe is not governed by forces that are blind and impervious to facts; it rather functions in accordance with a wise and immutable law of just reward and punishment, which deals with nations purely on the moral plane. This universal law has no room for a state of affairs in which immoral and corrupt nations are given free rein. This law does not allow those nations that exceed a certain limit of iniquity and high handedness to survive. For when that happens, some invisible but powerful hand appears and removes them from the pinnacle of their glory and casts them into the abyss of disgrace and degradation. There is a lesson from the past for all the current big powers, that there is a limit to the oppression, aggression, injustice, cruelty, and arrogance that God tolerates. If they exceed that limit, then they will meet the same end as did the Pharaohs of the past. Moreover, were one to carefully reflect upon the different forms of punishment that visited these different nations of the world, one would also realize that those punishments only partially accord with the requirements of justice and retribution.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Certain generations committed aggression and oppression, and reaped a full crop of worldly advantages and disappeared without punishment in this world. Were total justice to be meted out, it would be necessary to do a great deal more. For the punishment that struck the nations of the world in the past struck only those generations that lived at the time the punishment visited them. But there are generations of men who sowed the wind of wickedness but disappeared when that wind developed into a whirlwind. The consequences of their evil deeds were faced by the generations that followed after them. It is obvious, in this case, that the real culprit escaped retribution. Also, this punishment fails to provide any relief to those upon whose dead bodies the tyrants had risen to the heights of their worldly glory. This demands belief in the next life wherein full justice is done to all. Now, if we are able to grasp the inner workings of this universe by our study of history, this should lead us to the conclusion that the unfulfilled requirements of justice call for a new order of existence to be brought into being. It is only then that those transgressors and wrong-doers who escaped divine punishment in the worldly life can be duly punished, and their punishment will be much more severe than that suffered by the evil-doers punished in this world.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 13 Essential Ingredients of Belief in Life After Death (1) This world is not everlasting, but will come to an end at an appointed time known only to God. (2) Death is not the end of our life, but, in fact, is a gateway to another life, which is eternal and everlasting. (3) God is watching all people at all times and places. We can deceive parents, children, friends, police, and government, but not God. God is keeping a complete record of all the actions and behavior of all people, along with the intentions and motives behind all that they do and say, including their impact on others and the legacy they leave behind for future generations. Not an atom’s weight of good or evil done by a person is left unrecorded in his conduct book, which he will see on the Day of Judgment. (4) Man is not a born sinner. He comes into this world as an innocent person endowed with freedom and potential to do good and evil, and with the ability to become either an obedient servant of God or His rebel. A person becomes a sinner only when he himself breaks the law of God after he is mature enough (when he is twelve or fourteen years old) to discern right from wrong. (5) Our God is loving and forgiving, and He forgives a sinner whenever the sinner sincerely repents. (6) After the end of this world, God will create another world in which He will resurrect, at one and the same time, all the human beings ever born on earth. God alone knows the time for that resurrection. (7) Everyone is personally responsible for all his actions and is accountable before God on the Day of Judgment in the next world. No one can expiate the sins of anyone else. Those who lived a life of obedience to God and worked for His pleasure will be rewarded by Him by sending them to heaven or Paradise. Those who spent their earthly life in disobedience of God and incurred His displeasure by committing sins and evils will be punished by Him by sending them to hell. (8) The disbelievers, idolaters, and hypocrites will not get any reward for their virtuous deeds in the Hereafter; any reward they deserve from virtuous deeds they will receive here in this world only, with no reward in the next world. (9) Again, an evil will be punished to the extent that the evil has been committed. But the good deeds of believers will be rewarded much more generously than they actually deserve. In some places in the Qur’an, it is stated that a good act will have a ten-fold reward for it, and in others that God will increase the reward of the good act as much as He pleases. (10)  The Qur’an also says that if believers abstain from major sins, their ordinary sins may be forgiven. Righteous believers shall have an easy reckoning, their evils will be overlooked, and they will be rewarded according to their best deeds. The good and bad deeds of believers will be weighed. All those believers whose good deeds outweigh their bad deeds will enter Paradise. God will pardon whatever they might have committed because of human weaknesses, and remove every trace and mark of the errors from them before admitting them into Paradise, absolutely free from any evil that may cause them embarrassment. (11)  Those who enter Paradise will be with the righteous from among their forefathers, spouses, and descendants. If the children have been following in the footsteps of their forefathers in faith, they will be joined with them in Paradise, even though they might not deserve, on the basis of their deeds, the same high rank which the elders have attained on the basis of their superior faith and deeds. This joining will not be of the nature of occasional visits and meetings; they will be lodged permanently with their loved ones in Paradise. In order to be joined with their offspring, the parents will not be lowered and reduced in rank, but rather the rank of the children will be enhanced and exalted. This is in respect to those children who, on reaching maturity, voluntarily decided to affirm their faith of their own free will and followed in the footsteps of their righteous forefathers. As for those children of believers who might have died even before reaching maturity, they will be admitted to Paradise automatically (because they are innocent) and will be lodged along with their parents to be a comfort to their parents’ eyes.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (12)  Life in heaven is so good and beautiful that nobody has ever seen anything like it or heard of anything so good, nor can anyone even imagine how good it is. There will be no worry, no sickness; people will always remain young and will never die. They will get anything and everything that they desire and even more. (13)  In Paradise, human ears will remain secure against idle and frivolous talk, lying, backbiting, slander, invective boasting and bragging, taunts and mockery, and satire and sarcasm. It will not be a society of foul¬mouthed indecent people who will throw mud at each other, but a society of noble and civilized people free of such frivolities. (14)  Life in hell will be too miserable to describe. People therein will dwell in fire and boiling water and will be in terrible shape. The fire of hell is of a much higher temperature and of a stronger intensity than fire in this world. Their food will be extremely bitter, choking, and with obnoxious odor, and for drinking they will get only boiling and very dirty liquid. These people will wish they could die to relieve themselves of the pain and sufferings, but neither will they be able to die nor will the sufferings be lightened for them. In that agony they will cry at the top of their voice: “Oh our Lord, this pain in hell is unbearable, please take us out from here so that we may do good works other than those which we had been doing.” To this cry, God’s response will be: “Did I not grant you on earth life long enough so that he who would could take a warning? Besides, I sent messengers to warn you about the outcome of your disobedience. Now taste the fruit of your deeds, here there is no helper for the wrong doers” (Qur’an, 31:33). Their sufferings will continue unabated. Whenever the Prophet (pbuh) talked to his companions about the punishment of hell, his companions would bitterly cry. I pray myself and enjoin the reader to pray to Merciful and Compassionate God: “Oh our God! We implore You to give us insight and vision leading to strong belief in Your guidance, and enable us to do works which may please You and thus protect us from hellfire on the Day of Judgment, and cover us with Your mercy.” (15)  God’s judgment for sending people to heaven or hell will be very fair, just, impartial, and thorough: (a) Everyone will be responsible for his own actions and none will carry the burden of another person. There will be no atonement by anyone for anyone. Moral guilt is non-transferable. On the Day of Judgment, justice shall be meted out to each according to his due. (b)  Parents, children, spouses, brothers, sisters, and other relatives and friends will not be of any help. There will be neither attorney nor adviser. No intercession, recommendation, nor any ransom shall be accepted, and there will be no bargaining. (c) We all are answerable to God for every moment of our life as to how we used it. Did we spend our time in acts of obedience to God or disobedience? In doing good for people or in harming them? In promoting good or evil? In doing something productive, useful, and beneficial to ourselves or humanity, or in doing something harmful and destructive? Or did we just waste away the time in idle talk and useless and unproductive activity? How much time did we spend in various activities, good or bad, permissible or prohibited? (d) We are going to be asked about every penny that we earned, whether it was earned by legal means, as allowed by God, or by prohibited means. We can earn as much money as we want, so long as we do not hurt others financially, physically, morally, mentally, psychologically, etc. For example, we cannot earn by stealing, robbing, cheating, committing fraud, lying, exploitation, or usurping the rights of other people. As Muslims, we cannot open or run a liquor store, nor can we help anyone in any way directly or indirectly in the production, transportation, sale, or promoting of liquor, because it affects the health and morals of other people. The same applies to drugs, intoxicants, and other harmful products that affect the health and morals of other people. Similarly, one cannot run any business or show that may create violence or immorality, or harm others in any way. (e) Again, we are answerable to God for every penny as to where did we spend it. A person cannot say that since he worked hard to earn it, it is his money and he can use it wherever he wants. The Islamic concept of property is that God is the real master of everything, and we only become custodians of the money that we earn. A custodian can use things in his custody only according to the permission of the owner. It is God who gives us the faculties to earn and provides opportunities for work. There are some who are born blind (or become blind) and there are others who are born with a defective brain, become insane, or become incapacitated or handicapped. Again, there are many people in the world who do not have the opportunity to earn enough money to survive or to support their families. We can spend a reasonable amount of our income on ourselves and to support our families, but we cannot be spendthrift, luxuriant, or wasteful. Nor can we spend on prohibited things such as


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind liquor, drugs, or intoxicants, or on promoting evil, injustice, cruelty, etc. Those who are above the poverty line are expected to spend a part of their wealth on those who are below the poverty line, and also on projects of public benefit and social welfare, as enjoined by God. (f) We are answerable to God on the Day of Judgment as to how we used the various faculties or parts of our body—our brain, heart, eyes, ears, tongue, hands, feet, private parts, etc. For example, we cannot take a lustful look at the opposite sex and cannot have evil thinking, evil hearing, evil seeing, evil talking, or hurt others with our hands or other parts of our body. (g) Judgment will not be passed only on the apparent and superficial as to what a man practically did, but also the secrets hidden in their hearts will be brought out to see what were the intentions and motives behind what a man did. (h) As said earlier, the judgment is going to be thorough, fair, and impartial. Since there are too many attractions in the world, we are likely to forget our accountability before God on the Day of Judgment. In order to remind us of our accountability in the Hereafter and train us for our assigned mission in this world, Islam has prescribed certain spiritual courses or exercises called the Pillars of Islam. These Pillars remind us of the basic creed of Islam (there is only one God Who alone is worthy of worship, obedience, and service, and Mohammed (pbuh) is His Servant and Messenger), praying five times daily, charity by the rich to help the poor and the needy, fasting for one month to develop discipline and self-control, and going on a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime, which rejuvenates faith and has many other benefits. These Pillars are very important, meritorious, and rewarding. But pillars of a building, though very important, are not enough by themselves. The real thing is the building which they support. Suppose, for example, there is a man who in his life on this earth prayed five times a day, gave charity every year, fasted for one month every year, and went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. But when he stands before God on the Day of Judgment, there are many claimants or plaintiffs demanding compensation for the various harms done to them by this person. God will justly compensate the various plaintiffs by transferring due amounts of the good deeds of this person (which he had earned through five daily prayers, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.) from his record book of deeds to the various claimants. In case all the good deeds of this person are finished before all the claimants are compensated, then God will compensate the outstanding claimants by relieving them of their sins in proportion to the harm done to them by that person and by transferring these sins to the account of that person. In other words, this person will now bear the burden of the sins of all those plaintiffs whom he harmed in this world, and who were not compensated by him by giving them his good deeds. An example from the life of Imam Abu Hanifa beautifully and vividly illustrates how the morals and behavior of a person are molded by the belief in such a thorough accountability in the Life Hereafter before a Just and Impartial God. It is reported that Imam Abu Hanifa—a great scholar—was once in a market when a man who probably knew him started cursing him, using bad, abusive, and annoying language. Abu Hanifa listened to him quietly without saying a word in response. Finally, the man cooled down, finished cursing, and went home. In those days, there was no paper currency. Imam Abu Hanifa later took a handkerchief, put some coins in it, and went to that man’s home. The man opened the door, and he asked Abu Hanifa: “What can I do for you?” Imam Abu Hanifa replied: “By cursing me the other day and using abusive language, you transferred some of your good deeds into my account, for which I am very thankful to you, and as a way to thank you, I’ve brought this small gift for you. Please accept it.” The man became very ashamed and later became Imam Abu Hanifa’s follower. This is the type of character built by belief in our accountability.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 14 The Purpose of Man’s Life


veryone who is serious about life must ask the following most important questions, and must know the correct answers to these questions:

(1) What is this whole universe wherein I live? How did this world come into existence? Did it come into being by itself, as a matter of chance, or did someone create it? If it was created by someone, then how many are these creators, maintainers, and sustainers, or is there only one? Who is He? What is He like and why did He create it? (2) Who am I? Where do I come from? Who brought me here in this world and for what purpose? What is the true purpose and meaning of my life or the mission of man on earth? Can I do what I want to do, when I want to do it, the way I want to do it? Can I live in any way I want to? Am I responsible and answerable to anyone for my conduct and behavior? (3) What is the status of man in this universe? What is his relationship to his Creator? (4) Where do we all go from here? Is death the end of my life or is there another life after death? If there is, what type of life is it and what will happen to me after death? Knowledge of the correct answers to these questions is very important. If we do not know the purpose of our life and why we came in this world, or assume a wrong purpose of our life, then our whole life becomes a waste and a disaster. Furthermore, even if we know the purpose of our life and know it correctly, our life is still a waste if we do not try to fulfill this purpose. This conclusion is very simple and obvious. Supposing for example, your employer sends you out of town for an assignment for a period of, say, one year. You go there, but you do not know what your assignment is, or you forget it, or instead of doing the assignment, you fool around or spend your time in other activities. At the end of your one year, your employer asks you about your progress. What progress can you report when you did not even know your assignment or you failed to do it? Similarly, a person who believes that this life is the only life we have, that there is no life after death, and that we are not answerable to anyone for our activities, will have in this life an attitude, conduct, behavior, lifestyle, and value system that is entirely different from that of a man who believes in life after death and who feels answerable for all his words, actions, thoughts, and behavior. The correct and reliable answers to these questions cannot be given by man himself, neither by philosophers nor by scientists, no matter how learned, wise, and capable these people may be. The Creator of the universe and man has Himself furnished answers to these questions out of His Mercy. This has occurred through selected human beings we call prophets or Messengers. These answers are discussed below. This universe has not come into existence by itself, but it has a Creator called Allah, or Almighty God. Once there was a debate between a Muslim and an atheist. The Muslim was to provide proof of the existence of the Creator, and the atheist was to give his argument for the non-existence of Almighty God. They fixed a place, date, and time for the debate. The Muslim lived on the other side of a river and had to cross this river to reach the place of debate. He arrived late for the debate, and the atheist was very upset because of the delay. The Muslim said that there was no boat available to cross the river. While he was waiting for the boat, a strange thing happened. There was a tree, he said, on the bank of the river. This tree cut itself, then it made itself into planks, then these planks automatically joined themselves in the form of a boat, and then he got into that boat and crossed the river. The atheist said: “In the first place, you are late, and then to crown that you are telling a big lie. How could a tree cut itself without a person to cut it, and how could that cut tree make itself into planks and then a boat without the presence of a person to do that? This is a big lie.” The Muslim said: “If this little thing could not happen without the presence of a person or a maker, then how could this big universe come into existence without a maker?” The atheist had no answer. This Creator or Maker, to whom the universe and all that is in


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind it owe their existence, must be of a different nature from all that has been created and must be outside of it. This is because if He is of the same nature as the created things are, then He, too, will have a beginning and an end and will need a maker. The maker of the universe has to be Eternal, having no beginning and no end, having no Creator for Him; nothing outside of Him causes Him to continue to exist. He must be Self-sufficient, depending on nothing. If He does not depend on anything to exist, then His existence will have no end and He will be Eternal and Everlasting. If the Creator is Eternal and Everlasting, then all His attributes and qualities must also be eternal and everlasting. For example, if He is Powerful, He must always be Powerful and will never lose His power. If He is All-knowing, He must always remain All-knowing. If He is Wise, He must always remain Wise, etc. He neither loses nor acquires new qualities. His qualities do not change and they last forever, i.e., His qualities are absolute. The Noble Qur’an gives many arguments for the existence of God Almighty. In a nutshell, it asks you to look above, below, and into yourself and reflect. Qur’anic reasoning for the existence of Almighty One True God or Creator is discussed in Chapter 16, “Qur’anic Argument About the Existence of One True God.” Similarly, the Islamic concept of Almighty God —His essence, His attributes, His rights, and His powers and authorities—is discussed in Chapter 15, “Islamic Concept of God.” Here we discuss only the relationships of man with Allah (swt). These relationships are given below. (1) Allah (swt) is the Creator and man is His creature, though man is the most superior creature of Allah on earth. (2) Allah (swt) is the Master, and man is His servant. (3) Allah (swt) created all things on earth for the use and benefit of man, but Allah (swt) is the real owner of everything and man does not really own anything. Even man’s own body and the faculties with which he is endowed are not, in fact, his own, but are a trust from the Lord. Man is only a trustee, a caretaker, or a steward created to serve God. (4) Allah (swt) is the Absolute Ruler and man is His subject in His kingdom. Allah (swt) has the absolute right, power, and authority to command man to do anything, give any law, or make any rules and regulations for him, and man has no right to disobey or object. (5) Allah (swt) has appointed man as His Khalifa (deputy or vicegerent) on earth, has given him the necessary potential, talent, and capabilities to discharge this duty, and has put all things on earth at his disposal, giving him the power and authority to use them for his benefit, to manage the affairs of and to rule on earth on His behalf, according to His will. Man’s appointment to this position is a great favor from Allah and amounts to the declaration of man’s greatness, respect, honor, and high status. This high position, however, also brings with it an important responsibility and contradicts those who say that man is a condemned creature of God. A Khalifa is one who exercises delegated powers on behalf of his supreme authority. Man is thus not the master, but only God’s deputy, and does not possess powers or authorities of his own, except only those which are delegated to him by the real master. Thus Allah has bestowed upon man a kind of autonomy with the capacity for cognition, reflection, and understanding, the ability to distinguish between good and evil, freedom of choice and volition, and the power to exercise his latent potentialities. The purpose of Allah (swt) in appointing man as His Khalifa is to test man as to whether after getting God-given power, authority, potential, and freedom of choice on earth, man uses them according to the will and pleasure of Allah; or after getting this position, he behaves independently or rebels against Allah (swt), using it according to his own personal will and desires or according to the will and pleasure of someone other than Allah (swt). (6) The only purpose for the creation of man and sending him to earth is to work for and act on the assignment given to him as the Khalifa or vicegerent of Allah (swt). This assignment, in a nutshell, is to worship, obey, and serve Allah (swt). When we explain this purpose of man’s life in the light of the Holy Qur’an, we come to the conclusion that it consists of the following: (a) To believe that Allah (swt) is man’s Lord and Sovereign, and is the only Lord and Sovereign, and there is none other. (b) Man is not entitled to consider himself independent in this world and must live in this world with the realization that he is not totally free to determine his own behavior; rather, standards of right and wrong must be taken from the Sovereign. Man has no absolute rights to determine the course of his own conduct—the course of conduct has been laid down by the Lord.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (c) Only Allah (swt) is entitled to claim absolute obedience, service, and worship, and man’s obligation in this world is to worship Him, to obey Him, and to serve Him of his free will. To that end, man is given the right and authority to use all the resources and treasures of the earth, and the power and capabilities to explore new things and make new inventions and discoveries, make constructive and beneficial changes on earth, bring progress and prosperity, and make earth a better place to live, and thus serve the Creator in the best possible way and thank Him most profusely. (d) Life in this world, for which man has been placed and invested with this honor and authority, is, in fact, a temporary term and is meant to test man. (e) After the end of this earthly life, man must return to Allah (swt), Who will judge him on the basis of his performance, declaring who has succeeded and who has failed. Life after death is eternal and never ending. Thus, the life of man in this world, even if it is a hundred years long, is not more than the twinkling of an eye compared to eternal life in the Hereafter. (f) The right way for man is to follow the guidance revealed by Allah (swt) through His Prophets and His divine books, to act in this world in the consciousness that earthly life is merely a period of trial, and to keep his eyes focused on the ultimate objective—success in Allah’s final judgment. Every other way is wrong. (g) If man chooses to adopt the right way of life—and in this choice he is free—he will enjoy peace and contentment in this world and will be assigned, on his return to Allah, the abode of eternal bliss and happiness known as Paradise. (h) Should man follow any other way—although he is free to do so—he would experience the evil effects of corruption and disorder in this life and would be consigned to eternal grief and torment when he crosses the borders of the present world and arrives in the Hereafter. (i) Thus to emerge successfully from the test prescribed by Allah (swt) and to achieve His pleasure constitutes the real success, supreme good, and the ultimate objective of human life. A person may be a millionaire in this world; but if he fails in that test, his life is a failure. On the other hand, irrespective of whether a man is rich or poor in this world, if he passes the test in the Hereafter, he is a successful person. (j) The real source of guidance and knowledge for the success of this mission is found in the guidance furnished by Allah (swt) through His prophets or Messengers. Other sources of knowledge can be employed only as auxiliaries and aids to it, but none of them deserves to be treated as its substitute. (k) The only reliable, complete, perfect, latest, and most comprehensive source of knowledge for this purpose present today is in the form of the Holy Qur’an and the life history and Sunnah (traditions, actions, sayings) of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). The Qur’an is the Final Message from God Almighty to mankind. Some teachings of earlier Messengers have been incorporated without any modification, while other teachings of earlier Messengers have been modified to make them universal or practical for all nations and for all times. The Holy Qur’an also contains additional guidance which was not provided by earlier Messengers. With the coming of the Holy Qur’an, all previous divine books stand superseded. It is just like, as we are living in the 21st Century today, we have to follow the current constitution and not the constitution which was written 200 or 300 years ago. (l) Since Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the last prophet or Messenger, and through him guidance for mankind has been completed, perfected, and preserved, and no other Prophet is to come after him, it is a special assignment of the followers (Ummah) of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) to carry the Message of God to the rest of mankind by words, actions, and deeds. Also, Muslims should set a practical example or model and establish the Kingdom of God on earth by establishing a human society in which the Law of God is Supreme, and there is equality and justice for all and peace on earth.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 15 Islamic Concept of God (1)    Muslims believe in God (swt) (2)   God is only One, not two, not three, not more. He is One in essence, not composed of many parts or components. The belief in the unity of God requires shunning polytheism. To surrender wholly in obedience to God is a prerequisite of the belief in the unity of God. (3)   God does not have any shareholders or partners. (4)   He begets not, nor was He begotten. He has no parents, no children, and no relatives (also see Chapter 16 on Tawheed). (5)   There is nothing like God, neither anything, nor anybody resembles Him, nor is anyone His match. In the entire universe, there is none, never was, and never will be, like Him, of His status, or who resembles Him in His attributes, His powers and authorities, His rights, and His actions. All His attributes are eternal and personal. He does not acquire His attributes, authorities, and powers from any source, nor does He ever lose them. (6)   In Arabic we call Him Allah. The English word, “God,” is a poor or imperfect translation of the Arabic word, “Allah.” The word “god” has singular and plural, and masculine and feminine, but the word “Allah” has no plural or gender. This is the personal name of the Creator of the universe and was used by the Arabs long before the time of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). (7)   Allah has no beginning and no end. He always was and always will be. He was not born and will never die. He is ever existing. He is the first and the last. When there was nothing, He was there. When everybody dies, He will still be there. He is not bound by time and place. He does not change. He does not grow, deteriorate, or age. (8)   Allah does not need anything, but everybody else needs Him. Allah is self-sufficient. He is the sole recourse, the only place of support where one need go to rid oneself of all troubles and pain, and to receive all that one would need. (9)   Allah does not eat, drink, or make any waste. (10)   Allah needs neither sleep nor slumber. (11)   Allah does not get tired or need rest. We reject those who believe that God, after creating heaven and earth in six days, rested on the seventh day. He created everything with a single word and with His will. If He so wills, He can do it again and again and more and more without losing any of His strength. There is no difference for Him between the creation of an atom and the seemingly infinite universe. (12)  Allah is Holy and Perfect (Subhan’ Allah). This means that His personality (essence), His attributes, His commands, and His actions are all free from partnership (shirk), weaknesses, shortcomings, deficiencies, mistakes, and evils. He is so perfect that nothing can be added to His perfection. He alone is perfect and infallible, and everyone else is imperfect and fallible. Some people (who follow a perverted religion) believe that Allah regretted the creation of man when man committed sin. This is not correct. Allah does not do anything that He may have to regret, since He is Perfect. There is no perfection that does not belong to Him, nor any blessing or honor that comes from any other than Him. He is the Creator of all majestic beauty. (13)  Allah is All-Wise (Al-Hakeem), and all His acts are full of wisdom and are best planned. Nothing on earth can fully comprehend the wisdom of His acts. (14)  Allah is with us at all times and in all places. He knows everything about us. (15)  Allah is nearer to us than anything else. He is nearer to us than our jugular vein.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (16)  We cannot feel Allah, nor do we have the ability to measure Him. (17)  Allah is All-Hearing. He listens to (hears) everybody in every place and at all times. Thus, He is listening to us while we are talking here, and at the same time He listens to all the other children, men, women, boys, and girls, animals, birds, insects, and all other creatures wherever they may be in the world. He listens to all that we say, whether we say it aloud or we say it in our hearts. There is no sound whatsoever that can escape His hearing and attention. He does not listen through ears like we do, but all is heard by the All-Hearing One at one and the same time, one as clear as the other. This hearing is not in vain, for all is registered, the meaning understood, and appropriate action taken. (18)  Although we cannot see Allah with our eyes, we cannot listen to Him with our ears, we cannot touch or feel Him with our hands, we strongly and firmly believe in His existence because of His innumerable creations, and the signs around us and in us. Everything that exists has its Creator, the very existence of the universe and the things in it point to the existence of their Creator. In addition, the law and order present in nature and in things around us, such as in the movement of the sun, the moon, and the earth, the changing of days and nights, the creation of life from lifeless things, and death and decay, etc., all point to the existence of a being Who controls all this. (19)  We cannot see Allah, but He is watching us all, in all places and at all times. He watches us even when we are in a dark and lonely place and nobody else can see us. Everything is within His sight. He sees all that was in the past, all there is now, and all there will be until the end of time. He is seeing not only what is on the outside of us, but also what is in our minds and what is in our hearts. His eyes are different from ours. (20)  Allah is All-Knowing. He knows with infinite detail whatever has happened in the past, what is happening now, and what will happen tomorrow and in the future. His knowledge is eternal. His knowledge is personal. He does not receive it from any other source. Allah is the only One who knows all. Others know only as much as He permits or reveals to them. (21)  Allah knows all the secrets of heaven and earth. He is aware of the hidden inner occurrences in everything, which may be in the deepest, darkest, hidden corners of the universe. He knows our intentions and whatever is deep in our hearts. Nothing big or small anywhere in the heavens or earth is hidden from Him. Even a thing as small as an atom’s particle cannot escape His knowledge. No leaf grows on a tree or falls from a tree without His knowledge. Nobody can conceal anything from Him, nor can anybody deceive Him by telling lies. He knows everything we do, whether we do it in the open or in private. He knows when, where, and how we are going to die; what, where, and when we are going to eat tomorrow; and who is going to be born, where, and when. (22)  Allah does not forget anything. He is the only One who remembers all that was and all that is, keeping in His Divine protection all that there will be. He remembers and keeps in His memory all that we do, say, and think at all times. His remembrance includes the preservation and protection of His creation from all harm and disharmony. (23)  Allah is the Most High, the Most Exalted, the Most Majestic, and the Greatest of all. His greatness stretches from the beginning until the end. We often say: “Allahu Akbar,” which means Allah is greater than we can imagine. He is beyond our comprehension and imagination. Greatness is His exclusive right. He is the One who raises His creations to honor and fame, and Who can degrade them to the lowest of the low. (24)  Allah is the most powerful of all. His power is unlimited. He has power and control over everything. He can do anything that He may want to do. There is nothing difficult or impossible for Him. He is the Ever- Dominating One Who has surrounded all His creation from without and within with His irresistible power. Nothing can escape Him. He gives riches to some and poverty to others, gives power to some and weakness to others, and valor to some and fear to others, and we may not understand why. We do not know what He knows, for we can see only what is in front of us, while He sees and knows the whole. (25)  Nobody can do any harm to Him or plan a scheme against Him. No power can prevent Him from enforcing His will. (26)  It is Allah who created us, our parents, and all other people. Allah created us in the best form and made us the most superior creatures on earth, His vicegerent, agent, or representative (Khalifa), and not condemned creatures as some perverted religions preach.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (27)  It is Allah who made the earth and everything on and in it. He made the sun, the moon, the stars, and many other things that are unknown to us. (28)  He is not only the Maker (Creator), Originator, and Designer of the whole world and of everything in it, but is also the Nourisher, Provider, Perfecter, Maintainer, Guardian, and Protector. He is the One and only One Who provides peace, security, joy, and blessings. Allah’s sustenance is both physical as well as spiritual. Physical sustenance is not only food, drink, air, heat, light, and clothing, but also one’s mother and father, husband or wife, and children as well. Even one’s possessions and knowledge are part of one’s sustenance. All that we call natural laws is also included in material sustenance. Allah creates the sustenance of each of His creatures before He creates them. No one can take away the sustenance destined for each element of His creation, but we have to work to achieve and contain our sustenance. However, He provides nourishment, without being asked, to the ones who cannot ask and work for their own sustenance. He provides spiritual sustenance in the form of divine guidance through his Messengers or prophets. But the only pure, unpolluted, and most comprehensive spiritual sustenance present today is the Holy Qur’an and the life of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). (29)  All the good praise, admiration, thanks, and gratitude belong to Allah and Allah only. For whatever is good, beautiful, and beneficial was created by Allah. None inherently possesses any good quality. If one has any, it is given by Allah (swt). He is the Most Praiseworthy. He is the One and only One Who is praised by all existence. (30)  Allah is the Master and Owner of everything and everybody. Anything and everything that we claim or say is ours is actually not ours, but belongs to Allah. He has given us many things to use, but they all are His property. Thus, even our tongues, ears, eyes, hands, legs, feet, and all other parts of our bodies are also the property of Allah. In fact, everything that we use, possess, see around us, or can possibly think of belongs to Allah. He wants us to use all these things only according to His will and not as we wish. This is because Allah is the real Owner or Master, and we are only the custodians of these things. (31)  Allah is the Sovereign Lord and the sole Ruler of the whole universe. He is King of kings and Ruler of rulers. His kingdom extends over the heavens and earth and everything in between and anywhere else. There is nothing outside of His kingdom and jurisdiction. Everything is in His grip. No person can escape His grip. All power and authority rests in Him. He does whatever He wants. Only Allah has the right and authority to make rules and regulations for our lives and to make all the laws for us on this earth. In Allah alone is vested all authority to declare things lawful and unlawful. Any individual, family, group, community, or nation that makes laws repugnant to the laws of Allah is a rebel and a usurper, no matter how prosperous or beneficial these laws may appear. (32)  Nothing happens without His command. Success and failure, victory and defeat, riches and poverty, health and sickness, honor (respect) and disgrace, happiness and sorrow, luck and misfortune, abundance and scarcity, sustenance and other resources, and life and death, are all in His hand. He changes night into day and day into night. He brings rain and sunshine. He brings life from the dead (lifeless) and the dead from the living. (33)  None can escape His punishment. Nobody can do any harm to a person whom He may want to protect or help. (34)  He gives anything to anybody He wants and takes away anything from any person He wants; none can stand in His way. He is the donor of all without conditions, without limits, without asking any benefit or return, giving everything to everyone, everywhere, and always. He gives money or sustenance to the poor, health to the sick, children to those who are barren, freedom to the trapped, and knowledge to the ignorant, from the smallest necessity to the greatest fortune. He is the bestower of everything to the one who is in need. He can change the rich to poor, the healthy to sick, the happy to sad and depressed. We should therefore seek only His help when we are in trouble and approach nobody else. (35)  He creates whatever He wants and destroys whatever He pleases. But He creates everything with a rightful purpose. He created us for a rightful purpose. He created the universe for a rightful purpose. He created everything in it for a rightful purpose. He designed everything in a precise way. (36)  Allah is the best Ruler and the underlying rule in His governance is mercy, not wrath. (37)  Allah helps only those who help themselves. This means we must work hard to the best of our ability and capacity and at the same time pray to Allah for His help and guidance. (38)  Allah is clean, and loves cleanliness and clean people. He wants us to remain clean, physically and spiritually.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (39)  Allah is the most Merciful, the most Compassionate, the most Tender, and the most Kind. His mercy and compassion are unlimited and cover everything and everybody—all mankind, the wicked and the good, believers and non-believers. His mercy goes even before the need arises for His creatures, protecting them, preserving them, guiding them, and leading them to clear light and a higher life. Our inborn qualities are the signs and examples of His grace and majesty. His mercy is universal and all-pervasive, while His justice and punishment are reserved for those who swerve from His plan and go out of His scheme. There is none whose mercy is so unlimited, all-embracing, and universal. There are one hundred parts of the mercy of Allah. One part of these hundred parts of mercy He has put in this world, which His creatures in this world show towards each other. The remaining ninety-nine parts of His mercy will be displayed by Him on the Day of Judgment. Whatever mercy we see in another being, that mercy is only limited, and it is not his personally, but is bestowed upon him by Allah (swt), so that he may become a source or means of nourishment and happiness for another creature. The presence of this mercy in that being is, in itself, a proof of the unlimited mercy of Allah. Allah’s mercy in this world has many forms and shapes, such as love in the hearts of parents for their children so they take care of them. He gives rewards for our good actions. He does not punish immediately His rebellious and disobedient people, but gives them opportunity after opportunity to change. He has revealed divine books for the guidance of humankind, telling us the purpose of our creation. He forgives our mistakes and sins without punishment or revenge whenever we repent and ask for forgiveness. He restores our strength and energy after we are tired, through rest, sleep, food, etc. We should always be hopeful of His mercy and never be disappointed. Allah’s mercy is close to those who do good deeds. Allah has made obligatory upon Himself to shower His mercy on His creatures. Allah’s mercy prevails over His anger. (40)  Allah is most loving and compassionate, and loves those people who are loving and compassionate. His love for us is more than the love of parents for their children. He arranges (provides) for our food, drink, comfort, and other things even before our need arises. He provides milk for us in the breast of our mother before our birth. When we are babies and have no teeth, He arranges milk for us. When we are too small to take care of ourselves, He puts love in the hearts of our parents so they take care of us. When we are growing, He gives us teeth and different kinds of food that are suitable for our growth and health. He provides for the needs and requirements of all people, whether they are good or bad, and whether they obey Him or not. He provides sustenance even for animals, birds, and all other creatures. (41)  All things created in the world by Allah are designed to serve humankind. Even the sun and the moon, which are part of the universe, are subjected to laws by Allah to serve us. (42)  Allah created human beings to worship Him, serve Him, and obey Him, Him alone, and no one else. This is the purpose of our creation. All that we do, say, think, and plan is considered acts of worship, so long as our intention is to please Allah and we do not break His law. Thus, even the entire time spent in earning our livelihood is time spent in worship of or in service to Allah, if we do it considering that Allah has made obligatory upon us to provide proper care and nourishment to our body, and has made us responsible to feed, protect, and provide all kinds of attention to our families. While earning our livelihood, we must not break His law, or resort to stealing or deceiving, nor do we harm others financially, physically, morally, emotionally, or psychologically. Similarly, going to school is an act of worship if we feel that a learned and educated person can serve Allah better than an illiterate person. Similarly, if we feel that by having certain worldly or material things (a good job, a decent house, a car, etc.), acquiring modern scientific knowledge and technology, or making new inventions, we can serve Allah better, then the entire time spent in the pursuit of these activities is time spent in worship of Allah. Allah wants us to remember Him not only in mosques (i.e., not just at the places of worship), but at all times and in all places, and we should never forget Him. Remembering Allah means that in our behavior and in our dealings with other people, and in the use of all our faculties and possessions (body, money, time, etc.), we should not break His law and make sure that we make the best use of them to serve Allah and to achieve His pleasure. In short, there is nothing secular or un-Islamic for us, so long as we do not break the law of Allah. Allah expects us to build a righteous conduct. (43)  If we fail to obey Him or follow His command, or make someone else the object of our worship, or associate someone else with Allah in His obedience, service, and worship, or in any of His sublime qualities, then we shall be ungrateful. We shall not fulfill the very purpose for which we have been created, and our whole life will become meaningless. (44)  Allah, being Loving, Merciful, Kind, and All-Knowing, does not expect us to do anything that we cannot do. All that He orders us to do is for our welfare and good. Similarly, He does not forbid us from anything that is good for us. He forbids us only from those things that are harmful or not good for us. He never commands any indecency. (45)  Out of His mercy and kindness, He sends guidance for us so that we may fulfill the purpose of our life and we may lead a happy, prosperous, and peaceful life, both in this world and in the Hereafter.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (46)  He sends this guidance through selected human beings called Messengers or prophets. He does not come by Himself in the form of a human body to live on earth and guide us. It is below His dignity and status to come in a human body and live on earth. It is a great sin to believe that God comes (or came) to earth as a human being to live among us as a human being. (47)  These prophets and Messengers guide us by their teachings, present practical examples, and show us how we should worship, obey, and serve Allah. If God had come by Himself in the form of a human being or had sent some angel or any other superhuman, people would have said: “Our Prophet or Messenger, being a superhuman, cannot be a model for us. He can do anything we cannot do because we are only human beings, and he is a superhuman.” (48)  Allah is most forgiving. He is not only the Forgiver of mistakes and Acceptor of repentance, but also overlooks our sins. He often forgives many sins of believers even without repentance or without their asking for forgiveness. For example, if a believer happens to commit a sin out of human weakness and he is also doing righteous deeds, then his righteous deeds automatically become the means of washing away his sin or sins. Similarly, the problems that a believer faces in his life, for example, sickness, hard times, and worries, all become atonement for his sins and mistakes. There is not a thorn that pricks a believer that does not become atonement for his sins. However, if a believer commits sins deliberately, he needs repentance to be forgiven. All non¬believers need repentance for the forgiveness of all their sins. There is nothing that He does not forgive, provided we repent. Repentance means that we feel sorry and ashamed before Allah over the wrong we have done, we ask Him to forgive us the sin we committed, and we do not commit that sin again. (49)  Allah forgives again and again and He loves to forgive. This means that if we happen to commit the same sin again, or any other sin, we should not hesitate to repent again, because He forgives again and again. But we should not unnecessarily delay our repentance. Once we realize our mistake, we should repent immediately. If a person repents after seeing the symptoms of his death, Allah does not accept his repentance. If we have done wrong to someone, we should ask forgiveness from him first before we ask forgiveness from Allah. This is because Allah does not forgive us unless the person harmed has first forgiven. We should never be disappointed in His mercy. Only unbelievers and misguided ones despair of His mercy. (50)  Since Allah (swt) is most forgiving, He loves those who forgive. If someone does wrong to us, He prefers that we should endure it with patience and should not only forgive, but repel evil with what is best. He, however, permits us to retaliate, but if we do retaliate, we can retaliate only to the extent that we were wronged. But He also wants us to nip the evil in the bud. He wants us to stop evil, use force for that, and punish the evil-doer if necessary, not out of personal revenge, but out of our desire to protect the individuals, society, community, or nation from that evil, so that it may not engulf the whole society, community, or nation. (51)  Sometimes Allah (swt) opens the doors of progress, prosperity, wealth, material things of this world, and comforts and pleasures of this life to those people who ignore and disregard His message and even rebel against Him. He rewards them in this world, despite their disobedience and rebellion against Allah. This does not mean that Allah likes them or they are the favorites of Allah. Allah (swt) does this to justify His severe punishment for them. Allah (swt) catches such people suddenly and often at a time when these people are at the peak of their happiness. Even if they continue enjoying this life until they die, they are for sure going to be punished in the life after death for their rebellion and acts of disobedience to Allah (swt). (52)  He listens to our prayers and requests directly, and does not need any intermediary. He should not be conceived in the image of worldly rulers who cannot be reached without intermediaries. No one can influence Him or get his recommendation accepted, except as a matter of absolute grace from Him, and that, too, if one comes to Him purely as a supplicant. So, if we have to ask Him for forgiveness of our sins or we want something else, we should approach (request) Him directly and not through any other media. (53)  Allah (swt) likes that people call upon Him for help. He listens to them, and He answers all our prayers at all times and in all places. When we raise our hands before Him for help, He feels ashamed to return them empty, and always accepts our prayers in one of the following forms, provided we do not rush and give up asking. (i)  Allah (swt) accepts prayer in this world, but sometimes this acceptance of our prayer is not immediate, but after a while. For example, Prophet Abraham and his son Ismail prayed to Allah to raise a prophet from among their children. Allah accepted their prayer after about 2,500 years, when He made Mohammed (pbuh), a descendent of Abraham (pbuh) and Ismail (pbuh), His Prophet. Again, sometimes Allah (swt) does not give us the same thing that we ask for, but gives something better than that.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (ii) Sometimes He reserves its reward in the next world. (iii) Sometimes He stops some forthcoming calamity or misfortune. Allah does not accept the prayer of a person whose body has been nourished from prohibited or forbidden illegal food and/or the clothes which he is wearing have been purchased with money earned by illegal or prohibited means. Prohibited food means one or both of the following: ƒƒ F ood purchased with money earned illegally, such as stealing, robbing, cheating, through interest or usury, exploiting, or by such other means prohibited by Allah. ƒƒ Foods prohibited by Allah are pork, alcohol, intoxicants, and harmful and habit-forming drugs. While people get annoyed when we ask them something again and again, Allah never gets fed up by our asking. In fact, He likes that we ask Him again and again. He does not like those who do not ask for help, and considers them arrogant people. The prayers of a person who is a victim of an aggression or injustice are accepted by Allah more promptly. There are also certain times in the day, month, or year when Allah accepts prayer more readily. Similarly, there are certain places where Allah may be more responsive to our prayers than in other places. (54)  Allah is generous and likes generosity. He loves those who are generous and spend on the poor and on other good causes. He does not like stingy, selfish, or narrow-minded people, or those who are spendthrifts. (55)  One of the signs of perfect faith in Allah is that people make friends for the sake of Allah, they make enemies for the sake of Allah, they spend for the sake of Allah, and they hold back for the sake of Allah. (56)  Allah likes moderation and does not like those who go to extremes. He says: “Eat and drink without going to excess.” (Holy Qur’an, 7:31). When in prayers and worship, fasting and charity, He likes moderation or the middle course. He does not want us to renounce this world. He does not like celibacy. He wants us to get married, have children, and play a very active role in the affairs of this world. All these acts are acts of worship, if we do them without breaking His law and stay within the limits set by Him. (57)  Anyone who remembers Allah will not be left helpless and unprotected. If a person tries to get close to Allah, Allah takes steps larger than the step of man to be closer to him. (58)  Allah is a friend to those believers who obey Him. (59)  All greatness is His exclusive right and therefore He does not like those who are arrogant and haughty. He likes humble and obedient people. All godly qualities and divine attributes belong to Him. He therefore does not like anyone behaving in a godly manner towards any other person or group. Any person who demands obedience to himself from others naturally puts himself in the wrong position, because Allah is the Lord of all. (60)  Allah will reward us for our good actions in the Hereafter according to our intentions. He will reward us only for those good actions that we do purely for the sake of Allah, or to please Allah. He will not reward any person for those actions which are performed for show, for fame, for pleasing people, or to earn the favor (to be in the good books) of anybody else, no matter how good these actions may appear. (61)  Some people believe we are all sinners by birth, which is wrong. Allah created all people innocent and sinless, with the potential to do both good and evil, and with a free will. He takes upon Himself the responsibility of telling us what we should and what we should not do, (i.e. what is sin and what is not). It is entirely up to us whether we should commit sin or not. People become sinners only when they themselves break His laws. Again, if someone happens to commit a sin, it does not mean he is condemned forever. If he repents his sin, he is forgiven by God and he becomes like a person who never committed that sin. (62)  Allah is impartial. There is no chosen race to Him. He does not have greater interest in any individual, family, tribe, race, or nation than others. All people are equal in His eyes, whether they are black or white, rich or poor. They may be from any race, country, or region. He does not favor people because of their skin color, race, or ancestry. He looks towards our hearts and our actions. If we are good and obedient to Him, He will like us more than those who are not obedient to Him. He has only one moral code for all.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (63)  Allah created all people equal, from one set of parents, Adam and Eve. We all are therefore like brothers and sisters to each other. He therefore wants us to live like members of one household, having sympathy, compassion, love, and cooperation with each other. (64)  We are answerable to Allah for all our actions and deeds, but He is not answerable to anybody for His actions. Thus, we are answerable to Him as to how and where we use our body (eyes, ears, tongue, hands, legs, feet, intellect, etc.), our various faculties, our time, and our life. Similarly, we are answerable to Allah (swt) as to how we earn every penny (by legal or illegal means) and where we spend it. Allah has put in our custody certain things, and everyone is accountable for the trust put under him. The head of state will be questioned about his subjects; every father will be questioned as to how he has fulfilled his obligation towards his children; every wife will be asked about her household and child-rearing responsibilities; every person who assumed or was appointed for a particular job will be accountable to Him. Allah has ordained for us certain obligations and rights towards each other. He will ask us on the Day of Judgment whether or not we have carried out those obligations towards others, but He will not ask us whether or not we have taken our rights from others (i.e., whether others have fulfilled their obligations to us). He will also ask us how much we have translated the knowledge of Din into our actions. (65)  One day after death, He will bring back to life all people and will reward those who obeyed Him by sending them to Paradise (heaven), where they will live forever. Paradise is a place where people will have all sorts of comforts and pleasures. He will punish the disbelievers and others who did not obey Him by sending them to hell. Hell is a place of burning fire, a place of miseries and torture. (66)  Judgment belongs to Allah (swt) alone, and nobody else will sit with Him to judge mankind. He is the best Judge. He will not merely be the judge, but will be the Master of the Day of Judgment. This means that if someone is found guilty on the basis of witness testimony against him, Allah is not bound to punish him. Since He is not merely a judge, but is Master of the Day of Judgment and is also merciful, He can forgive anyone He wants. His judgment in sending us to heaven or hell will be fair and impartial and will be based purely on merit or on His mercy. Only the actions of believers (or actions with faith) will help on that day. No one can intercede with Him or make any recommendation to Him, except with His permission. This permission, if at all given, will be tied to four conditions: (a) Only the person allowed will be able to speak or recommend and none else. (b) Such a person cannot recommend any person he wants. He can recommend only the one allowed by Allah. (c) The person allowed to intercede or recommend will say only right, just, and appropriate things. This means that the recommender has knowledge of the life, actions, and deeds of the recommended. The minimum qualification of the recommended person is that he is a believer. (d) Despite all this, it is not necessary or obligatory for Allah (swt) to accept the recommendation. (67)  Allah (swt) made this life of ours on earth temporary and short, but made life after death permanent and everlasting. The length of our life on this earth compared to the length of our life in the next world is like the twinkling of an eye or the amount of water that a finger dipped in an ocean will gather, compared to all the water of the ocean. We should therefore try to pay more attention to life after death, rather than to life in this world. We should be more concerned as to how we are going to live in the everlasting life after death, rather than the temporary life of this world, which is only a few seconds compared to life after death. The only way to lead a happy life here and a happy life after death is to follow the guidance of Allah, and lead a life of obedience to Him. (68)  We believe that Allah (swt) sent prophets or Messengers to every community of the world at different times in history, with Adam as the first prophet and Mohammed (pbuh) as the last prophet. Some of these prophets are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and some in the Bible, but there are many more not mentioned in these books. The prophets mentioned in the Bible are only those who were sent to a particular community. There are many more prophets who were sent to other communities in the world. The teachings of these prophets were evolutionary, with basic teachings the same and common to all prophets. Some prophets were not given any book; they came to revive the message of earlier prophets. The mission of all these prophets was to correct and explain the divine teachings received by them and demonstrate, by practical examples, for their followers. We believe in all these prophets (Moses, Jesus, Abraham, etc.) and in all the divine books given to them. We also believe that all the people who believed in their prophets were true believers, or Muslims, as we call them. Although Allah commands us to believe in all the earlier prophets, He wants us to follow and obey only Prophet Mohammed (pbuh),


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind get guidance for our life only from the Book given to him, and take him as the model for our entire life for the following reasons. (a) All the previous divine books (scriptures) have either been lost or corrupted by man. All the scriptures other than the Holy Qur’an that are present today are a mixture of the word of God and the word of man. (b) We do not know much about the life history of earlier prophets, and what we know about them is shrouded in mystery and is not authentic, therefore there is no model for us in their histories. (c) The teachings of all the earlier prophets were only for their own people and only for a certain time period. The teachings of none of the earlier prophets were of universal nature, nor were complete or comprehensive enough. With the coming of the Holy Qur’an, which is the latest and the last edition of the Divine Scriptures, guidance for mankind has been completed, perfected, and preserved. All previous divine books stand superseded and rendered null and void with the coming of the Qur’an. (69)  Although Allah sent innumerable prophets and Messengers, they vary in rank and status, with some higher than others. To Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), Allah gave the following four special qualities that were not given to any other prophet: (a) Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the last and the final prophet or Messenger, and there will be no more prophets or Messengers after him. None of the earlier Messengers claimed that he was the last Messenger. (b) He is the prophet for the entire human race. The most important prophet preceding Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was Jesus (pbuh), and Jesus says very clearly that he was sent only for the children of Israel. Furthermore, Jesus appointed twelve disciples and he instructed them to go only to the twelve tribes of the children of Israel, and not to go to others. (c) The guidance for mankind has been completed and perfected through Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). Jesus, who was the last Jewish prophet and who is the most prominent prophet immediately preceding Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), left the mission of Prophethood incomplete, to be completed and fulfilled by Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). He is reported to have said to his disciples in the Gospel of John: “I have still many things to say to you, but you are not able to bear them, nor to take them upon you, nor to grasp them now. But when He, the Spirit of Truth comes, He will guide you into all the Truth. For He will not speak His own message, but will tell whatever He hears (from God).” (John, 16:12-13) (d)   Allah himself has promised to protect the divine Book given to Mohammed (pbuh) from interpolation or corruption by human hand (Holy Qur’an, 15:9). Consequently, this Book is present today in its original form without any change. It is not only in written form, but also there are thousands of people who memorize it every year all over the world. (70)  We believe that anyone whom Allah (swt) leads astray cannot be guided by anyone. He leads astray only the ones who want to go astray. (71)  We believe that only Allah knows best what is good for us and what is not. We sometimes think that a certain thing is good for us, but it may actually be harmful for us. At the same time, sometimes we think that a certain thing is harmful to us, but actually it may be good for us. (72)  We believe that we cannot really please Allah and make Him happy with us unless we are prepared to sacrifice or spend for His cause what is most dear and beloved to us, or unless we love Him more than anything else, including our life. (73)  Allah (swt) loves those who fear Him, love Him, do righteous deeds, and follow His commandments and the law as described in the Qur’an and explained and exemplified by Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). This fear of Allah (swt) is not a paralyzing dread in the negative sense of the term, such as we have from a wild animal, from an evil person, or from a cruel dictator, that makes us run away from the object of fear or hide from it. On the contrary, it binds us with Allah. It is the fear of offending Him or doing anything that may displease Him. It is the state of mind with an intense desire to discriminate between good and evil, and then to practice virtue. This fear of Allah implies rejection of evil, running away from sin towards virtue, and embracing of righteousness, which leads to the pleasures of Allah (swt). This one fear drives away all


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind other fears and makes a person fearless. A person who is afraid of Allah (swt) does not have to fear anybody or anything, not even death. On the other hand, a person who is not afraid of Allah is afraid of everything and everybody all the time. (74)  Allah (swt) loves those who repent. (75)  Allah (swt) does not like those who disrupt peace, who are treacherous, or who create chaos and disorder on earth. He loves those who are pious, peace-loving, and peacemakers. (76)  Allah (swt) likes those who prefer to give rather than receive, who overlook the faults of others instead of criticizing and backbiting, have sweet tongues, build instead of destroy, are strong yet humble, and are respectful. Allah does not like those who are haughty, arrogant, boastful, and look down upon others. (77)  All people are like the family of Allah, and Allah (swt) likes those who are good to His family. (78)  Allah (swt) loves those who struggle hard with all their abilities and resources (physical, intellectual, and financial) to work for His pleasure and to carry out His commands. (79)  Allah (swt) makes the misdeeds of transgressors seem fair to them. (80)  Allah (swt) likes those who are truthful, are honest, are trustworthy, are helpful to others, treat their parents well, do not kill innocent people, do not steal, do unto others as they wish for themselves, forgive others, are patient, are steadfast, are persevering, bear true witness even if doing so hurts them, their relatives, or friends, are true to their word and fulfill their promises, whether they are made with Allah or with people, and give full measure when they weigh. To elaborate on the last point, if you are an employee, and according to the terms of your contract, the employer allows you a fifteen-minute coffee break, if you stretch your break beyond fifteen minutes, you are not giving full measure or you are breaking your promise or contract. Similarly, if you show more zeal in your job when the supervisor is watching you than when the employer or the supervisor is absent. (81)  Allah (swt) does not put upon us any burden of responsibility that is more than we can handle. Thus, on the Day of Judgment, everyone will be judged according to his deeds: the poor according to their deeds and the rich according to their deeds; the ruler according to his deeds and the ruled according to their deeds. (82)  Allah (swt) makes this life as a test for us. Our first test is whether or not we believe in Him without seeing Him. If we believe in Him, then the next test is whether or not we obey Him, whether or not we control our passions and desires, whether or not we are steadfast on the path of obedience to Him, and whether or not we are prepared to sacrifice each and every thing for His pleasure. Each of us comes here to show our true self. He tests our faith by putting us in both good and bad situations, by making us rich and poor, by giving us something and by taking it away, by putting us in hunger, thirst, fear, through the death of dear ones due to accidents, or the failure of our efforts, etc. The riches of this world tempt one to revolt and become arrogant. Poverty tempts one to doubt and to complain. Our test in riches and in plenty is whether or not we are grateful to Him, and our test in poverty, persecution, and hardships is to exercise patience and remain steadfast. In this way, Allah also separates the people of strong faith from those of weak faith, and true believers from hypocrites. Another purpose in testing people with prosperity and adversity is so that people might come back to the path of obedience to Allah. (83)  Allah (swt) will enable the various parts of our bodies to tell on Judgment Day and give witness about us as to what kind of acts they were asked to perform, how we spent every moment of our life, how we earned our livelihood, and how we spent that earned income. (84)  Allah (swt) is continuously videotaping our entire life, and this videotape will be played to us on the Day of Judgment. (85)  Allah (swt) has appointed two angels for every human being to record whatever he or she does or says. The angel on the right side records good deeds, and the one on the left side records bad deeds. (86)  Allah (swt) has manifested His attribute as Creator of the evil in the devil or Satan, whose mission is to mislead man and take him away from the path of obedience to the path of disobedience. The devil does not have the power to compel or force us. He cannot force us, but can only tempt us by deceiving us, giving false hopes and expectations. Although Allah has created evil as well as good, He has also taught us to opt for good and escape from evil. He has given us the power of discrimination, as well as the freedom to choose. Thus, if we commit any evil, it is our own fault. (87)  Allah (swt) punishes people only after His message has reached them and they have disregarded it. In this modern


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind age of technology, education, and scientific achievement, it is for Allah to decide whom the true message of Allah (Islam) has reached. (88)  Allah (swt) does not punish people so long as they continue to ask for forgiveness from Him for their sins. When a person continues to ask Allah forgiveness of his sins, Allah will open for him the way to get out of all problems, and will fulfill his needs in a way he least expects. A person who cries out of fear of punishment by Allah will not enter hell. (89)  All beautiful names belong to Allah (swt). He has ninety-nine beautiful names. (90)  Allah (swt) does not break His promise. (91)  Allah (swt) does not speak to any mortal man face-to-face. He speaks either through sudden inspiration (secret instruction), (by a voice, as it were) from behind a veil, or He sends a Messenger (an angel) who, by His command, reveals whatever He wills. (92)  Those who struggle in the path of Allah will be shown the ways leading to Him. (93)  Allah (swt) has promised the believers that they will be victorious and will have the upper hand. (94)  Allah (swt) commands the believers to have maximum respect for Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). They should prefer Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) over everything, including themselves, and should not raise their voice above the voice of the Prophet (pbuh). (95)  Allah (swt) is the perfect artist who gives everything the most unique and beautiful form and the most perfect shape. (96)  Things that Allah (swt) has for the believers in the next world are much better than what we have in this world. He has things that we have never seen, never heard of, and cannot imagine. We shall get whatever we desire. (97)  Allah (swt) has appointed the place and time for the death of everybody, which no one knows, and when the appointed time for death comes, He does not postpone it. (98)  Allah (swt) rotates or changes good and bad days, and controls the final destiny of individuals and nations. (99)  Allah (swt) created man from dust, and the jinn from fire. Both these creatures have freedom of choice and are responsible to Allah for their actions and conduct. Allah created angels from light, and they are innocent creatures incapable of disobeying Allah. (100)  Allah (swt) is with those who are steadfast. (101)  Allah (swt) may forgive any sin on the Day of Judgment (even if a person dies without repenting for that sin), but He will not forgive the sin of associating partners with Him. (102)  When people commit evil or go astray knowingly and persistently, then Allah seals their heart and they cannot gain any truth, guidance, or light from Him. (103)  If all the people on the surface of earth reject Allah (swt), it makes no difference to Him. He is self-sufficient and self-contained. (104)  Favors of Allah (swt) are so numerous that they cannot be computed. (105)  Allah’s mercy overpowers His anger. (106)  If all the trees on earth were pens and the sea were ink, with seven more seas yet added to it, Allah’s supreme qualities would not be exhausted. (107)  If all the human beings and the jinns from the beginning of this world gather together in a big open field and pray to Allah, Allah (swt) may give all of them whatever they requested; all that will make only as little a difference in the treasure of Allah (swt) as a pin or needle will make when it is dipped into the ocean and taken out. (108)  Allah (swt) will (or can) bring the end of this universe in the twinkling of an eye.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (109)  Everything in the heavens and the earth bows down before Allah (swt): the sun and the moon, the stars and the mountains, the trees, the beasts, and many human beings. (110)  If a person says things against Allah (swt) or commits evil under compulsion, Allah may not punish him for that. (111)  Only Allah (swt) knows when the last day is and He wants to keep it a secret. (112)  Those who work for the cause of Allah (swt) are helped by Him and their footsteps are made firm. (113)  Those who spend in the path of Allah (swt) to please Him will be rewarded many times more than what they spent. (114)  Guidance given by Allah (swt) is the only true guidance for man. (115)  Decisions on all matters rest in the hand of Allah (swt). (116)  Allah’s help comes to believers, but often only when He has thoroughly tested them. (117)  With Allah’s grace, a small army can win a battle against a larger army. (118)  Remembrance of Allah (swt) brings peace and contentment to believers. (119)  Allah (swt) will ask all the Messengers on the Day of Judgment whether they conveyed His message to the people and what was their response, and He will also ask the people to whom Messengers were sent. (120)  The concept of Tawheed, which is the most important attribute of Allah (swt), has four components. a) The first component of this concept is that God is One in essence. This means that mathematically or numerically, He is One and Only. He has no parents, no children, and no relatives. He begets not, and neither is He begotten. Nobody shares with Him in this essence of divinity. b) The second component of this concept is that there are certain attributes of Godhead that are present only in that One Being. c) The third component of the Tawheed concept is that by virtue of His Godhead, God possesses a certain authority that no one else has or shares with Him. For example, the power to benefit or harm people in a supernatural way, to fulfill needs of people and rescue them from distress, to protect them, to respond to their prayers, to make or mar them—all this power belongs to Allah only and none share with Him this authority. Similarly, only God has the rightful authority to determine what is lawful and what is unlawful, and to make laws for the regulation of human life. Such authority belongs to God alone, and recognizing anyone other than God as possessing it is tantamount to associating others with God in His authority. d)   The fourth component of the unity concept is that by virtue of His Godhead, He has certain rights over us that no other being has or can share with Him. For example, bowing and prostrating, standing in awe and reverence with folded hands, providing devotional greetings, slaughtering animals and making any other offerings in thanksgiving for His grace, benevolence, and in acknowledgment of His Over lordship, vowing offerings in His name, calling Him to rescue one from afflictions and misfortune, and all the other forms of worship, adoration, and reverence are exclusively the right of Allah. In the same way, no one except Allah deserves to be loved to the exclusion of all other attachments or to be held in such awe that one always fears His wrath and dreads the violation of His command, both openly and in private. (121)  Allah (swt) does not want us to have blind faith in anything, but gives us convincing arguments for all that He wants us to believe. He gave us intellect, not to make weapons for the destruction of humankind or for committing other evils, but to know Him, to recognize Him, to serve Him, and to distinguish truth from falsehood, right from wrong, and good from evil. Allah says that those human beings who do not use their God- given intelligence for these purposes and blindly follow the wrong path are worse than animals.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 16 Qur’anic Arguments about the Existence of One True God (Tawheed) INTRODUCTION


slam is very simple, easily understandable, free from myths, superstitions, and ambiguities, very rational, and convincing. Islam appeals to both common sense and reason. Man has been made an intelligent creature solely for the purpose of recognizing, knowing, and serving Almighty God. Allah (swt) has enabled man to differentiate between good and bad, between right and wrong, and between truth and falsehood. The Holy Qur’an says that those human beings who do not use their God-given intellect for this purpose, and follow others blindly, are worse than animals. The Qur’an gives us convincing arguments for everything it commands us to believe. The Holy Qur’an does not merely say that we should believe in God, but it also tells us why we should believe that God exists and why there is only one God. Similarly, it gives convincing arguments as to why we should believe that the Holy Qur’an is the Book from Allah (swt), Mohammed (pbuh) is the Messenger of Allah (swt), and that there is life after death. In this lesson, we shall (Insha-Allah) study the arguments given by the Qur’an about Tawheed, i.e., the One True Almighty God. The Holy Qur’an invites us again and again to look around, ponder, and reflect on everything in the world. This entire universe is like an open book, and everything in it is telling us, with a silent tongue, about its Creator. To understand this quiet language of the universe, one has to make a little effort to use his God-given intellect. There is no other religion in the world that lays so much emphasis on the use of our intellect and reason. It may, however, be said that the Holy Qur’an does not spoon-feed. It often makes brief but very meaningful statements, expecting the reader to probe and explore their comprehensive meanings, explanations, and implications. This lesson is divided into the following fifteen sections. The first section quotes verses from the Holy Qur’an, and the other sections give their implications, conclusions, deductions, and lessons. Section I: Some References in the Holy Qur’an Section II: Belief in the Existence of God Almighty Ingrained in the Nature of Man Section III:

Man’s Helplessness

Section IV:

Signs Above — in the Heavens

Section V: Signs in the Atmosphere Section VI: Signs in Rainfall Section VII:

Signs in the Relationship Between the Sun and the Earth

Section VIII: Signs in Day and Night Section IX:

Signs in Water Section

Section X:

Signs in the Earth Section

Section XI: Signs in Life Section XII:

Signs in Plant and Animal Life

Section XIII: Signs in Man Section XIV: Signs in Reproduction Section XV: Why Believe in God and Only One God Having No Partners


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Section I SOME REFERENCES IN THE HOLY QUR’AN (1)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 2, Verses 163-164 (Surah A1-Baqarah) “Your God is One God, there is no god but He; the Merciful, the Compassionate. (To guide) those who use their reason (to this truth) there are many signs in the creation of the heaven and the earth, in the constant alternation of night and day, in the vessels which speed across the sea carrying the things which are of profit to men, in the water which Allah sends down from the heaven thereby quickening the earth after its death, in the scattering of every kind of animal in the earth, and in the courses of the winds and the clouds pressed into service between heaven and earth.”

(2)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 6, Verse 40-41 (Surah A1-An’aam) “Ask them to consider deeply and answer, ‘when some great misfortune befalls you, or the last hour approaches you, do you invoke any other than Allah? Answer, if you speak the truth.’ At that time you invoke Allah alone. Then, if He pleases, He removes the distress for which you had cried to Him, from you and on such occasions, you forget those whom you had set up as His partners.”

(3)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 6, Verse 63-64) (Surah A1-An’aam) “O Mohammed ask them,’Who rescues you from perils in the darkness of the land and sea? Who is He Whom you implore humbly and invoke secretly [at the time of affliction]? [To Whom do you make this promise.] “We will be grateful if You rescue us from this affliction’.” Say, ‘Allah delivers you from that and every other affliction, yet you associate other partners with Him’.”

(4)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 6, Verse 65 (Surah A1-An’aam) “Say, ‘He has the power to bring a scourge on you from above you or from beneath your feet or to split you into discordant factions to make you taste the violence of one another.’ Behold! how We present Our signs over and over again in different ways before them so that they should understand reality.”

(5)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 6, Verse 95-99 (Surah A1-An’aam) “Allah is the splitter of the seed and the fruit-stone; it is He Who brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living. It is Allah Who does all these things: where, then are you being misled? He causes dawn to appear out of the curtain of the night; it is He Who has ordained the night for rest and determined the time of the rising and the setting of the moon and the sun; all these things have been determined by the same All-Powerful and the All-Wise One. And it is He Who has set up the stars for you so that you may find your way in the deep darkness of the land and the sea. Behold! We have made Our signs clear for those people who possess knowledge. And it is He Who created you from a single soul and provided for each of you a dwelling place and a repository. We have made these signs clear for those who are men of understanding. And He it is Who sent down rain water from the sky and thereby caused every kind of vegetation to grow, and then with it produced green fields and trees and from them brought forth close growing grain and from the blossoms of the palm trees brought forth laden sheaths of clustering dates and vineyards and olive groves and gardens of pomegranates; though their fruits resemble, yet each has its distinct quality. Behold! How they bring forth fruit and how the fruits ripen, there are indeed signs in these things for those who believe.”

(6)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 7, Verse 54 (Surah A1-A’raf ) “In fact, your Lord is Allah alone, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then sat upon the throne of His Kingdom, Who makes the night cover the day and then the day follows the night swiftly; Who created the sun, the moon and the stars, all of which are under His command. Note it well: His is the creation and His is the Sovereignty. Full of blessings is Allah, the Lord of the universe.”

(7)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 7, Verse 57-58 (Surah A1-A’raf) “And it is Allah Who sends winds as harbingers of the good tidings of His mercy; when they gather up heavy clouds, He drives them on to some dead land, and makes the rain fall upon it and brings forth many kinds of fruits [from the same


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind dead land]. Look! This is how We bring forth the dead from the state of death; it may be that you learn a lesson from this observation. The soil that is rich, yields rich produce by Allah’s permission and the soil that is poor yields nothing but poor produce. Thus do We present Our signs over and over again for those people who intend to be grateful.”

(8)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 610, Verse 67 (Surah Younus) “It is He Who ordained the night for you to repose in it, and gave to the day its light. Indeed there are signs in this for those who listen [to the message].”

(9)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 13, Verse 2-4 (Surah Ar-Ra’d) “It is Allah Who raised up the heavens without such pillars as you could see; then He sat Himself upon the Throne of His Kingdom: He subjected the sun and the moon to a law. Everything in this universe is running its course to a fixed term. And Allah alone is directing the whole affair. He makes His signs plain: may be you are convinced of meeting your Lord.” “And it is He Who has spread out the earth, and fixed immovable mountains in it, and made the rivers flow on it. He has created in pairs every kind of fruit, and He covers the day with the veil of night. Surely there are great signs in these for those who reflect upon them.” “And behold! There are different regions on the earth, close to one another: there are vineyards, corn fields and groves the date palm with single or double trunk. All are irrigated with the same water, yet We make some more tasteful than others. Most surely there are many Signs in all these things for those who use their common sense.”

(10)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 13, Verse 12-13 (Surah Ar-Ra’d) “It is He Who makes the lightening flash before you to fill you both with fear and with hope: it is He Who raises clouds laden with water. The thunder glorifies Him with His praise and the angels, too, glorify Him in awe of Him. He lets loose thunder bolts and [often] smites with them whomsoever He wills, while they are wrangling about Allah. The fact is that His plan is very effective.”

(11)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 15, Verse 19-21 (Surah Al-Hijr) “We stretched out the earth and set firm mountains upon it, and caused to grow therein every kind of vegetable in balanced measure. And provided therein means of sustenance for you and for many other creatures for whom you do not provide. There is not a thing whose treasures are not with Us, and We send down each thing in an appropriate measure.”

(12)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 16, Verse 10-17 (Surah An-Nahl) “He it is, Who sends down water for you from the sky, which provides drink for you and brings forth fodder for your cattle. And thereby He grows for you crops and olives and date palms and vines and different kinds of many other fruits. Surely there is a great sign in this for those who ponder.” “He has subjected to your service the day and the night and the sun and the moon: likewise are subjected all the stars by His command. In this there are many signs for those who make use of their common sense. And in the many things of different colors He has created for you in the earth, there is indeed a sign for those who learn lessons from them.” “It is He Who has subjected the sea to your service so that you may get fresh flesh from it to eat and bring out of it articles of ornament, which you wear, and you see that the ship plows her course through it. He has done all this so that you may seek of His bounty and show gratitude to Him.” “He has driven mountains firmly into the earth lest it should turn away from its usual course along with you. He has caused rivers to flow and made natural ways so that you may be directed aright. He has placed landmarks to direct people, and by stars too, they are directed aright.”

(13)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 16, Verse 53 (Surah An-Nahl) “Whatever blessing you enjoy it is from Allah alone; then, when you have a hard time, you, with your supplications, run to Him for help. But no sooner does He relieve you of your distress than some of you begin to associate others with Him [in gratitude for this favor], to show ingratitude for Allah’s favor.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(14)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 17, Verse 42 (Surah Bani-Israel) “O Mohammed, tell them that if there had been other deities [Allah] besides Allah, as they assert, they would surely have tried to find a way to (dethrone) the Master of the Throne.”

(15)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 20, Verse 50 (Surah Taha) “Moses replied, ‘Our Lord is He Who has given a distinctive form to everything and then guided it aright.’”

(16)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 21, Verse 22 (Surah Al-Anbiya) “Had there been other deities [Allah] than Allah in the heavens and the earth, both [the heavens and the earth] would have gone out of order.”

(17)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 22, Verse 5-6 (Surah Al-Hajj) “O people, if you have any doubt about life-after-death, you should know that We first created you of clay, then a spermdrop, then of a clot of blood, then of a lump of flesh, shaped or shapeless. [We are telling you this] so that We make the reality plain to you. And We make those [sperm-drops], which remain in the womb for a fixed period, then We bring you forth as a child; then [We nourish you] so that you may attain your full youth. And there may be among you one who is recalled earlier and one who is returned to the most abject age so that he should know nothing even after knowing all he could. And you see the land lying dry and barren, but as soon as We send down rain water upon it, it stirs [to life], and swells and brings forth every kind of luxuriant vegetation. This is so because Allah is the Truth.”

(18)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 22, Verse 18 (Surah Al-Hajj) “Do you not see that everything in the heavens and the earth bows down before Allah? And so do the sun and the moon and the stars and the mountains and the trees and the beasts and a large number of the people and even a large number of those who have deserved the torment. And the one whom Allah degrades and disgraces has none to make him worthy of honor; Allah does whatever He wills.”

(19)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 23, Verse 18 (Surah Al-Mu’minun) “And We sent down water from the sky in due measure and lodged it in the earth: and We are able to take it away as We will.”

(20)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 23, Verse 78-80 (Surah Al-Mu’minun) “It is Allah Who has endowed you with faculties of hearing and seeing and given you mind to think, but you do not show any gratitude. It is He Who has scattered you in the earth, and before Him you shall be gathered. It is He Who gives life and ordains death, and controls the alternation of the night and the day. Do you not understand this?”

(21)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 23, Verse 91 (Surah Al-Mu’minun) “Allah has taken none as offspring and no other deity is a partner with Him. Had it been so, every deity would have become an independent ruler over its creation; moreover, in that case, they would have tried to override one another.”

(22)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 25, Verse 1-2 (Surah Al-Furqan) “Highly blessed is He, Who has sent down Al-Furqan to His servant so that it may be a warning to all mankind, He to Whom belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, Who has taken no son, Who has no partner in His sovereignty, Who created each and everything and then ordained its destiny.”

(23)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 25, Verse 45-48 (Surah Al-Furqan) “Have you not seen how your Lord lengthens out the shadow? Had He willed, He would have made it constant, but We have made the sun its pilot; then [as the sun climbs up], We roll it up little by little towards ourselves.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “And it is Allah Who has ordained the night as a garment for you and the sleep as a repose of death, and the day as the time to return to life.” “And it is He, Who drives the winds to be the harbingers of His mercy; then He sends down pure water from the sky so that He may revive the dead land, and quench the thirst of many of His creatures from among beasts and human beings.”

(24)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 25, Verse 54 (Surah Al-Furqan) “And it is He, Who created human beings from water; then from him He caused two kinds of kindred, by blood and by marriage, your Lord is All-Powerful.”

(25)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 26, Verse 7-8 (Surah Ash-Shuaraa) “And have they never looked at the earth [and seen] how We have created in it a variety of fine vegetation in abundance? This surely has a sign, but most of them would not believe.”

(26)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 26, Verse 78-80 (Surah Ash-Shuaraa) “Abraham said, ‘My Allah is one Who created me, then He it is Who guides me. Who gives me food and drink, and Who gives me health when I am ill’.”

(27)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 27, Verse 61-64 (Surah An-Namal) “And Who is it Who made the earth as a place of rest and caused in it rivers to flow, and set in it firm mountains and placed barriers between the two bodies of water? Is there besides Allah any other god (who is His associate in these works)? Nay, but most of these people have no knowledge.” “Who is it Who listens to the oppressed one when he invokes Him, and Who relieves him of his affliction? And [Who is it Who] makes you vicegerents on the earth? Is there besides Allah any other god [to do this]? How little you reflect.” “And Who is it Who shows you the way in the darkness of the land and the sea, and Who sends the winds as harbingers of His mercy? Is there besides Allah any other god [who does this]? Far exalted is Allah above what they associate with Him.” “And Who is it Who originates the creation and then reproduces it? And Who provides you sustenance from the sky and the earth? Is there besides Allah any other god [who is partner in these works]? Say, Bring your proof if you are truthful.’”

(28)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 27, Verse 86 (Surah Al-Namal) “Do they not perceive that We have ordained the night for them to have rest in it, and made the day bright? Surely in this there are many signs for those who believe.”

(29)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 30, Verse 19-25 (Surah Al-Rum) “He brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living, and gives life to the earth after its death. Likewise, you too, shall be taken out [of the state of death].” “Of His signs is this that He has created you from dust; then behold, you are human beings who are multiplying (on the earth).” “And of His signs is this that He has created for you spouses from your own species that you may find peace with them, and created love and mercy between you. Surely in this there are many Signs for those who reflect.” “And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your tongues and colors. Surely in this there are many signs for the learned.” “And of His signs is your sleep by night and by day and your seeking of His bounty (during the day). Surely in this there are many signs for those who pay heed.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “And of His Signs is this that He shows you the lightning, for fear as well as for hope, and He sends down rainwater from the sky and thereby gives life to the earth after its death. Surely in this there are many Signs for those who use their common sense.” “And of His Signs is this that the Heaven and the Earth stand firm by His Command; then as soon as He summons you out of the earth, you shall come out at one call.”

(30)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 31, Verse 10 (Surah Luqman) “He created the Heavens without pillars that you could see; He set mountains in the earth lest it should tilt away along with you; He scattered all kinds of animals on the earth, and sent down rain water from the sky and caused a variety of bounteous vegetation to grow in it.”

(31)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 31, Verse 29 (Surah Luqman) “Do you not see that Allah causes the night to pass into the day and the day into the night? He has subjected the sun and the moon, each voyaging [in its course] until an appointed time. And [do you not know] that Allah is aware of whatever you do?”

(32)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 31, Verse 32 (Surah Luqman) “And when a wave [in the sea] covers them like the mountain, they invoke Allah making their faith pure for Him alone.”

(33)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 32, Verse 21-22 (Surah As-Sajdah) “Even in this world We shall make them taste [one or the other] lesser torment before that greater torment; may be they desist [from their rebellious attitude]. And who could be more wicked, than the one who is admonished by the Signs of his Lord and he spurns them? We shall certainly take vengeance on such criminals.”

(34)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 36, Verse 33-40 (Surah Yaseen) “The dead land is a sign for these people. We gave it life and produced grain from it, which they eat. We made gardens of date palms and grapes in it and caused springs to gush out of it so that they may eat fruits thereof. It is not their hands which have made all this. Do they not then give thanks? Glorified is He Who created in pairs all species, whether of vegetable kingdom or of their own [i.e., human] kind, or of those things of which they know nothing.” “Another sign for them is the night: We remove the day from above it, and they are covered in darkness. And the sun: runs its set course: that is laid down by the decree of the Almighty, All-Knowing God. And the moon: We have determined stages for it till it again becomes like an old dry palm branch. Neither is it possible for the sun to overlap the moon, nor for the night to outstrip the day. Each is gliding in its own orbit.”

(35)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 40, Verse 13 (Surah Al-Mu’min) “It is He Who shows you His Signs and sends down for you sustenance from heaven, but only such a one learns lessons [from the observations of these Signs] who turns to Allah again and again.”

(36)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 40, Verse 61-67 (Surah Al-Mu’min) “It is Allah Who made the night for you to rest in it, and made the day bright. The fact is that Allah is highly bounteous to the people, yet most people are not thankful. The same Allah [Who has done all this for you] is your Lord, the Creator of everything. There is no god but He. Whence then are you being deluded? Likewise were all those people deluded, who denied the Revelations of Allah.” “It is Allah Who made the earth a resting place for you and the sky a canopy over it. Who shaped you, and shaped you so well, and Who provided you with pure things. The same Allah [Who did all this] Is your Lord. Highly blessed is Allah, Lord of the Universe. He is the living one: there is no god but He. Call upon Him alone, making your Deen [code of life], sincerely His. All praise is only due to Allah, Lord of the Universe.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “0 Prophet tell the people, `I have been forbidden to worship those whom you invoke instead of Allah. [How can I do this] when clear signs have come to me from my Lord? I have been commanded to submit to the Lord of all creation.” “He it is Who created you from dust, then from a sperm, then from a clot of blood, then He delivers you as an infant, then He makes you to grow up to attain full strength, then makes you to grow further to reach old age, though some one of you is recalled earlier. This is done so that you may reach an appointed time and may understand the reality.”

(37)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 41, Verse 10 (Surah Ha-Mim As-Sajdah) “He set mountains over the earth [after its creation] and bestowed blessings on it, and provided in it means of sustenance adequately according to the needs and demands of all those who ask.”

(38)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 42, Verse 49-50 (Surah Ash-Shura) “To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth: He creates whatever He wills: He gives daughters to whom He wills, and sons to whom He wills; or, He gives both sons and daughters to whom He wills and makes barren whom He wills. Indeed He knows everything and has power over everything.”

(39)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 43, Verse 10-13 (Surah Az-Zukhruf) “He it is Who made this earth a cradle for you and made in it paths for you so that you may be guided to your destination; Who sent down water from heaven in due measure and revived thereby the dead earth—even so shall you be brought out from the earth; Who created all these pairs; And Who made ships and animals as conveyance for you to ride on their back, so that when you sit on them, you may remember your Lord’s favor, and say, `Glorified is He Who has subjected them to us, otherwise we could not have brought them under control’.”

(40)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 45, Verse 3-5 (Surah Al-Jathiyah) “The fact is that there are countless signs in the heavens and the earth for those who believe. And in your own creation and in the animals, whom Allah is scattering [all over the earth], there are signs for those who affirm faith. And in the difference of the night and day, and in the provisions that Allah sends down from heaven, whereby He revives the earth after its death, and in the circulation of the winds, there are many signs for those who use their common sense.”

(41)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 50, Verse 6--11 (Surah Qaf) “What! Have they never looked up to the sky above them, [and observed] how We made it and adorned it and how there is no flaw in it? And We spread out the earth and set mountains in it and caused to grow in it every kind of good-looking vegetable. All these things are eye openers and object-lessons for every servant who turns [to the truth]. And from the sky We sent down blessed water whereby We produced gardens and harvest grain and tall palm trees laden with clusters of fruit, piled one over another. This is the arrangement to provide food for the servants. With this water We revive a dead land; such also will be the resurrection [of the dead from the earth].”

(42)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 55, Verse 1–10 (Surah Rahman) “The Most Merciful [God] has taught this Qur’an. He it is Who created man and taught him speech. The sun and the moon adhere to a schedule, and the stars and the trees, all bow down in worship. He raised the heaven high and set the balance. Therefore, do not upset the balance: weigh with equity and do not give short weight.” “He has set the earth for all creatures, with all kinds of tasty fruits in abundance and palm trees with sheathed fruit, and variety of corn with husk as well as grain.”

(43)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 56, Verse 58–73 (Surah Al-Waqiah) “Have you ever considered the sperm drop that you emit? Is it you who create the child from it, or are We the Creators? We have decreed death to be your common lot and We are not helpless from this that We may change your forms and create you in another form that you do not know. You already know well your first creation. Why don’t you then take heed?” “Have you ever considered the seeds that you sow? Is it you who cause them to grow into crops, or do We? If We so


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind pleased, We could turn these crops into chaff, and you would then be left lamenting ‘We have incurred penalties! Ah, we are laden with debt’.” “Have you ever seen with open eyes the water that you drink? Is it you who causes it to rain from the clouds, or do We? If We so pleased, We could make it bitter. Then why don’t you become grateful?” “Have you ever considered the fire that you kindle? Is it you who have created its tree, or are We its Creator? We have made it a means of remembrance and a provision of life for the needy.”

(44)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 67, Verse 15-16 (Surah Al-Mulk) “He it is Who has subdued the earth to you. So walk about on its chest and eat of God’s provisions: to Him you shall return on Resurrection. Do you feel secure that He Who is in the heaven would not cause you to sink underground, and the earth may start rocking suddenly?”

(45)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 77, Verse 1-7 (Surah Al-Mursalat) “By the winds which are sent in succession, which then blow tempestuously, and lift up [the clouds] and scatter them, then split [them] asunder, then infuse [the hearts] with the remembrance [of God], as an excuse or as a warning: That which you are being promised must necessarily happen.” “Then, when the stars become dim, and the heaven is rent asunder, and the mountains are thrashed into dust, and the time of the Messenger’s appointment comes, [that Day it shall happen]. For what day has all this been deferred? For the Day of Decision. And what do you know what the Day of Decision is? Woe on that Day to the deniers [of the Truth]!” “Did We not destroy the former peoples? Then We shall follow them up with those of latter day. Thus do We deal with the culprits. Woe on that Day to the deniers [of the Truth]!” “Did We not create you out of a mean fluid, and kept it lodged in a secure place for an appointed term? Behold! We had power to do this, so We are excellent Possessors of power! Woe on that Day to the deniers [of the truth]!” “Have We not made the earth a receptacle both for the living and for the dead, and set in it high mountains, and given you sweet water to drink? Woe on that Day to the deniers [of the truth]!”

(46)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 78, Verse 6–16 (Surah Al-Naba) “About what are they inquiring? Is it about the great news concerning which they are at variance? By no means! They shall soon know! Yes, by no means! They shall soon know!” “Is it not a fact that We have made the earth a bed and set the mountains as pegs and created you as pairs [of men and women], and made your sleep for rest, and the night a covering and the day for seeking livelihood, and established above you seven strong heavens, and set a bright, blazing lamp, and rained water from the clouds in abundance that We may produce thereby corn and vegetables and thick gardens?”

(47)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 86, Verse 4-7 (Surah Al-Tariq) “There is no soul without a Guardian over it. Then let man at least consider from what he is created. He is created form a spurting fluid that issues forth from between the backbone and the breast bones.”

(48)  Holy Qur’an, Chapter 87, Verse 1-4 (Surah Al-Ala) “(O Prophet) glorify the name of your Lord, the Highest, Who created and proportioned. Who set a destiny and showed the way. Who caused vegetation to grow.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

SECTION II BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF GOD ALMIGHTY INGRAINED IN THE NATURE OF MAN Belief in the existence of One True God, or monotheism, is ingrained in the nature of man. The Holy Qur’an says in Surah Ar-Rum (30:30) that all human beings have been created so that it is in their nature to believe that none but one Allah is their Creator, Lord, and Deity, and that man should remain steadfast to this nature. Otherwise, he will start following a way that is opposed to his nature. This true and pure human nature gets rusted, or covered with a layer of ignorance, due to hostile environments and wrong upbringing. As a result of this, man either becomes so arrogant that he denies the very existence of God Almighty, or he becomes so low that he starts worshipping and serving many gods. This rust, or layer of ignorance, is removed, and the true nature of man is again exposed when man experiences intense fear. When man faces an extraordinary calamity, or is face-to-face with a frightening death and all human and material sources of help are cut off, then he abandons all false gods and turns to One Almighty God for help. Similarly, we are told that even the staunchest Russian atheists and communists started calling upon Allah for help when they were in the trenches in World War II and German bombs were falling all around them. It is reported that when Makkah was conquered by the Prophet (pbuh), then Ikrimah, son of Abu-Jahal, fled to Jeddah, and sailed from there towards Abyssinia. During the voyage, his boat ran into a severe storm, which threatened to capsize it. At first, people began calling on their gods and goddesses. Later, when the storm grew even worse and the passengers were sure that the boat would sink, they began to feel it was time to call upon God Almighty alone, for He alone could save them. This opened the eyes of Ikrimah, whose heart cried out to him that if there was no effective helper for them in that situation, how could there be one elsewhere? He also recalled that this was precisely what the Prophet (pbuh) had constantly told people, and that it was precisely because of this preaching that they (his people) had been engaged in unnecessary violent conflict with him. This was a turning point in Ikrimah’s life. He made up his mind then and there that if he survived the storm, he would go straight to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and place his hand in his, binding himself in allegiance. Thereafter, he not only remained true to his word by becoming Muslim, but spent the rest of his life struggling for the cause of Islam. Similar things happen with all atheists and pagans. This shows that deep down in the heart of man, their belief in Tawheed (One True God Almighty) exists. When reliance on all hopes and expectations is cut off, their inner nature starts declaring that the real power lies in the hands of One True God (Allah), and only His help can solve their problem. Even under normal situations, atheists and polytheists come across occasions in their lives when their heart from within says: “There is somewhere some weakness in the creed that I have adopted.” Even though the atheist may apparently be firm in the denial of God Almighty, his heart at one time or another hears the true testimony. This testimony states that this wonderful and wise system that extends from a particle of dust to the galaxies, and from a blade of grass to the creation of man, could not come into existence without an All-Wise Designer. Likewise, a polytheist, no matter how deeply he is submerged in his polytheism, feels his heart sometimes cry out: “Those whom you have adopted as deities cannot be God Almighty.” But since they are not serious about religion, and their goal in life is pursuit of material things and enjoyment in this life, they have no time for the serious study of this subject.

Section III MAN’S HELPLESSNESS `Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) once said: “I recognized the existence of Allah by the failure of my efforts.” Sometimes we work hard to achieve something, but still do not succeed. But sometimes we get something as a surprise, without any effort at all or without much effort. This shows that there is someone who is controlling our affairs. Probably you have heard the story of a man somewhere in the East. He was walking down a road to the annual cattle fair in the town where people buy and sell cattle. He stopped at the store of his friend near the entrance to the cattle fair. His friend asked him where he was going. The man replied that he was going to the cattle fair to buy a cow. The man in the store said: “You should say Insha-Allah (God Willing) I am going to buy a cow.” The man said: “What (or why) Insha-Allah? Money is in my pocket and the cattle market is just around the corner.” Anyhow, when this man was roaming in the cattle market looking for a suitable cow, a pick-pocket cut his pocket and stole his money. When he was on his way back, sad and disappointed, his friend asked him “Where is the cow?” The man said: “Insha-Allah, the money is stolen.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind A wind storm, a tornado, and a hurricane destroy people, homes, and properties in an instant, and there is nothing we can do to stop it. Quite often, earthquakes turn our dwellings, our places of comfort and rest, into our graveyards without notice, and there is nothing we can do to stop it. Similar is the case of tornadoes, heavy rains, floods, and volcanic eruptions. Once in a while there is a drought, which can lead to famine, and man cannot cause the desired amount of rainfall. Man is so helpless that he can neither cause a favorable wind to blow for himself, nor can he prevent a disastrous cyclone from blowing on himself. However shameless, obstinate, and stubborn he may be, the wind does, at one time or another (and other natural phenomena), remind him that a Mighty Sovereign is ruling over him. This Sovereign can turn this principal means of his life into ruin for him whenever He so likes, and man does not have the power to prevent or avert any of His decisions. We do not come into this world of our own choice, nor can we stay in this world as long as we want. There is someone else who brings us here when He wants, and takes us away when He wants, and no power can stop Him. Even if the whole world joins to kill a man, if his time of death appointed by God has not come yet, they cannot succeed. On the other hand, if his time has arrived, none can keep him alive, even if all the powers of the world join together to do so. Neither any physician, nor any other than He can delay our departure, even by a second beyond the time He decided. All those men or beings who are made deities and worshipped cannot ward off their own deaths. Despite the most modern technology and advancement in science, thousands of people die in automobile accidents, in plane crashes, in sinking boats and ships. Nobody knows when, where, or how he or she is going to die. This All-Powerful Being sends disasters and calamities to individuals, as well as to communities and nations, from time to time. Man gets the feeling that there is another power who is controlling his destiny and who is ruling this universe. These calamities remind man that everything is not in his hand, and the real power is in the hand of that Sovereign.

Section IV SIGNS ABOVE—IN THE HEAVENS When we look above in the sky, we are struck with wonder and amazement at its expanse and beauty. The things that we can see with the naked eye are: The sun, the moon, innumerable stars, sometimes shooting stars, called meteoroids or meteors, and the clouds. Scientists say that there are more than 200 billion billion (200,000,000,000,000,000,000) stars, and our sun is one of the stars. It is the only star close enough to the earth to look like a ball. The other billions of stars are so far away that they appear to be no more than pinpoints of light—even through powerful telescopes. The nearest star after the sun is more than 25 million million miles (40 million million kilometers) away. The fastest jet would take a million years to fly that far. But even this great distance is only one-billionth the distance to the farthest stars. The sun is only a medium-sized star; its diameter is 865,000 miles (1,393,000 ki1ometers)—109 times the diameter of the earth. Its temperature is 25,200,000 degrees Fahrenheit (14,000,000 degrees centigrade). In spite of shining 93 million miles away from earth, its light and brightness is dazzling, and man can look at it with the naked eye only at the risk of losing his eyesight. As for its heat, the temperature on some parts of the earth hits 140 degrees Fahrenheit because of the sun’s radiation. The largest stars have diameters that are about 1,000 times as large as the sun’s. Planets that are millions of times larger than our earth are moving in space like tiny balls; stars thousands of times brighter than our sun are shining in space; our entire solar system is located in a corner of only one galaxy. Astronomers have photographed millions of galaxies through telescopes, and they believe that the number of galaxies is in the billions. A galaxy is a system of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity. Large galaxies have more than a trillion stars and small galaxies have fewer than a billion. Galaxies range in diameter from a thousand to half a million light years. A light year is the distance that light travels in a year, which is about 5.88 trillion miles (9.46 trillion kilometers). The speed of light is 186,282 miles per second. The sun is about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from the earth. The volume of the sun is about 1,300,000 times that of the earth, and its mass is about 333,000 times that of earth. This shows the vastness of the part of the universe that has so far been observed and explored by man. As to how vast is the entire universe of God, we have no means to estimate and judge. To sum up, it may be said that the universe seems to be starting from nowhere and ending nowhere.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Another very visible thing for us in the sky is the moon. The moon is earth’s nearest neighbor in space, and is the brightest object in the sky at night. The moon has no light of its own. It only reflects light from the sun. The moon’s mean distance from the earth is 238,857 miles. Its diameter is about 2,160 miles, which is about one -quarter the diameter of the earth, and 400 times smaller than that of the sun. The moon travels with an average speed of 2,300 miles per hour around the earth in an elliptical path called an orbit, and completes one such trip around the earth in about 29 and one-half days. The moon also travels with the earth as the earth circles the sun every 365 and one-quarter days, which is an earth year. The gravitational pull of the earth keeps the moon in its orbit. If the earth or its gravitational pull were to disappear, the moon would no longer orbit the earth. But the moon would still move in orbit around the sun. The surface gravity of the moon is one-sixth of that of the earth, its mass one-eighty-first that of the earth, and its volume one-fiftieth that of the earth. The moon’s visibility goes on changing throughout the month. It begins as a crescent, and then goes on waxing everyday until it becomes the full moon on the fourteenth of the month. Then it starts waning every day until at last it returns to its original shape of the crescent. This has been happening for millions of years with great regularity, and no change has ever occurred in the phases of the moon. That is why we can always calculate exactly in what phase the moon is going to be on a particular day. If the movement of the moon were not bound in a system, the estimation of the phases would not be possible. All these huge bodies are floating or swimming in space, in their own orbits, with their own assigned speed, under an all-powerful law ordained by an All-Powerful Planner and Designer. None of these stars and planets deviates from its course. They do not strike or fall on each other, and they have no perceptible support. The Qur’an says, “The sun and the moon adhere to a schedule,”(Holy Qur’an, 55:5). That is, it is a powerful law and unalterable system that binds the great system together. We are able to calculate and measure time, days, dates, and seasons only because no change takes place in the rule that has been laid down for the rising and setting of the sun. Likewise, the movements of the moon around the earth and the sun have been subjected to an unalterable law that has made the moon a universal calendar, announcing the lunar date every night to the whole world with perfect regularity. Again, the Qur’an says: “Neither it is possible for the sun to overtake the moon, nor for the night to overstep the day. Each is gliding in its own orbit,” (Holy Qur’an, 36:40).This verse says the following: The sun does not have the power that it should draw the moon into itself or enter its orbit and collide with it. a. Neither can the day start before its appointed time nor the night come before its appointed time. b. Although the verse is referring only to the sun and the moon, because they are the most prominent heavenly bodies, actually it refers to all the stars and planets, implying that all stars and planets are moving. c. These planets and stars are moving in their own orbits. d. The movement of these heavenly bodies in their orbits is similar to the floating or swimming of something in a fluid. It seems pertinent to quote here a verse from the Holy Qur’an: “And if all the trees on earth were pens and the sea (were) ink, with seven more seas yet added to it, the words of Allah would not be exhausted, for, verily Allah is Almighty and All¬Wise,”(Holy Qur’an, 31:27). Here Allah’s “words” mean His creative works and the manifestations of His power and wisdom. All the pens that can be made from all the trees of the world and all the ink that can be provided by the oceans of the world, which are replenished by seven more oceans, cannot perhaps help prepare even a complete list of all the creations in the universe, not to speak of all the manifestations of Allah’s power, wisdom, and creative works. When it is impossible even to count all the things found on the earth only, how can one bring into writing all the creations found in this limitless universe? Can such a vast universe come into existence by itself?

Section V SIGNS IN THE ATMOSPHERE Our earth is enveloped by about a five hundred-mile thick layer of air called the atmosphere, which protects the earth against the continual daily bombardment of innumerable meteors darting towards the earth at a speed of 30 miles per second. Also, destructive cosmic rays from above cannot reach us. Without this arrangement, no animal or plant could survive on earth.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Without air, there could be no living plants or animals on the earth. We breathe air all the time, and are breathing air this very minute. We have to breathe air to live. People have stayed alive more than a month without food, and more than a week without water. But a person can live only at most about ten minutes without air. Usually, we cannot see air, because it is transparent. Because it is transparent, objects can be seen clearly through air. We feel air when wind blows and offers resistance. Air can move sailboats across oceans, can turn windmills, and can pump water. Most sounds come to us through the air. If there were no air, the world would be silent, because sound could not reach our ears. Air has density, and it is this density that keeps balloons that are lighter than air high above the earth. Air offers resistance to any motion. This air resistance keeps birds and airplanes up in the air, just as water resistance helps things float on its surface. Air resistance and air pressure decrease as we go higher and higher above the surface of the earth. Air is made up of a mixture of gases that we cannot see. The most important gases in the air are nitrogen and oxygen. The atmosphere also provides the required gases that sustain human, animal, and plant life. Water in the form of vapors or gas is also present in the air. Air weight, air resistance, air pressure, air movement or circulation, and air compression are important properties. The circulation of the winds implies the circulation of different kinds of winds at different times, on different parts of the earth, and at different heights, which causes the change of the weather. What deserves attention is not only that above the surface of the earth there is a thick atmosphere that contains all those elements needed by living beings for breathing, but also that this thick covering has kept the earth’s population safe from many of the heavenly calamities. It is also noteworthy that the air is not just inert in the atmosphere, but it blows occasionally in different ways. Sometimes a cool wind blows and sometimes a hot wind, sometimes it stops blowing and sometimes it starts blowing, sometimes it blows softly and sometimes strongly, sometimes it assumes the proportions of a storm, sometimes a dry wind blows and sometimes a moist wind, and sometimes it brings the rain and sometimes it drives away the clouds. These different kinds of winds do not blow without a purpose, but under a law and a system, which testifies that this arrangement is based on perfect wisdom and is serving great objectives. The wind is also deeply related to coolness and heat, which go on increasing and decreasing according to the changing conditions and relationships between the earth and the sun. Furthermore, the wind has a deep relation to seasonal changes and the distribution of rain. All these facts proclaim that these arrangements have not been made haphazardly by some blind nature, nor do the sun, earth, air, water, vegetation, and animals have separate controllers. Inevitably, One God alone is the Creator of them all, and it is His Wisdom that has established this system for a great objective, and it is His power that causes it to function regularly, according to a pre-ordained law. Can this all be just accidental, or behind this all is there the secret hand of an All-Powerful, All-Merciful, shrewd Planner, Designer, and Creator?

Section VI SIGNS IN RAINFALL Let us now consider the phenomenon of rainfall. Water is constantly evaporating from oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and other water surfaces, as well as from plants, etc. The rate of evaporation depends upon wind movement, temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The evaporated water, called water vapor, cannot be seen. It mixes with other gases in the air, and flows upward. As this mass of warm air carrying a large amount of vapor moves upward, it strikes a colder mass of air. These vapors condense back into very tiny droplets of liquid water, which we see as clouds or fog. These clouds are driven by wind from place to place and from one level to the other. Then the Controller of this phenomenon creates conditions in the atmosphere that enable these tiny droplets to join together to form raindrops, which fall back to different regions of the earth. Thus, all rainwater has at one time or another come primarily from the ocean, even though it may be a thousand miles away. The total amount of water on the earth never changes. It merely changes its form and moves from place to place— changing sometimes into solid states, such as snow and ice, sometimes into gas, such as steam and vapor, sometimes as part of animal and human bodies, and sometimes as part of plants. The great store of water, which the Creator set down at the time of creation of the earth to fill its various needs, has neither decreased by a drop nor increased by a drop. Today it is well known that each tiny molecule of water is made up of one atom of oxygen gas and two atoms of hydrogen gas. Both these gases are present in the atmosphere, but they do not combine to make more water. The question is, who caused them to combine in the proper ratio at the beginning to produce oceans of water, and who now stops them from coming together


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind to produce an extra drop? Then, when water evaporates, who causes oxygen and hydrogen to remain combined in the water vapor, even in gaseous state? Have the atheists and polytheists (who believe in independent deities for water, air, etc.) any answer to these questions? Moreover, different regions have different average rainfalls, which fall year after year for ages. It does not happen that an area may have two inches of rainfall one year, and two hundred inches of it in the next year. Who spreads or distributes the rainfall over different places in different times in such a way that it becomes beneficial on the whole for the products of the earth? Who deprives some parts of the earth of rainfall almost wholly, and turns them into dry, barren deserts, and in some other areas sometimes causes famines to occur and sometimes torrential rains? No one has the power to change the general average rainfall of a country, or effect a variation in its distribution over vast areas of the earth, or avert an impending storm, or create clouds, or attract clouds towards one’s own land and compel them to rain. Again, although there is a large volume of water in the atmosphere at all times, it does not fall on the earth all at one time, otherwise, it would cause destruction and ruin. It falls on the earth under a well-planned scheme in a measured quantity, with due regard for the needs and the benefits of all life on the earth. Thunderclouds each holds an average of 100,000 tons of water. Who prevents this huge volume of water in the thundercloud from falling at once on a localized area, and thus provides protection from water storms?

SECTION VII SIGNS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SUN AND THE EARTH In spite of its amazing vastness, the wonderful order of the universe is so coherent and firm, and its composition so perfect, that there is no crack or cleft in it, and its continuity breaks nowhere. This can be understood by an example. The astronomers of the present age have observed a galactic system that they have named Source 3G.295. They think that its rays that are now reaching us might have left it more than four thousand million years ago. The question is, How could it be possible for the rays to reach the earth from such a distant source, if the continuity and coherence of the universe between the earth and the galaxy had been broken somewhere, and its composition been split at some point? Allah, in fact, alludes to this reality and puts this question before man: “When you cannot point out even a small breach in this system of My Universe, how did the concept of any weakness in My power enter your mind, that after the respite of your test is over, if I like to bring you back to life to subject you to accountability before Me, I would not be able to do so!” (“Explanation of Qur’an,” 50:6, by Maududi). This is not only a proof of the possibility of the Hereafter, but also a proof of Tawheed. These rays reaching the earth from a distance of four thousand million light years and detected by man-made instruments, expressly points to the fact that from the galaxy to the earth, the entire world has been made up of one and the same substance continuously. One and the same kinds of forces are working in it, and they are functioning according to the same laws, without any difference or disparity. Were it not so, the rays could neither reach us here, nor be detected by the instruments that man had made after understanding the laws working on the earth and its surroundings. This proves that One God alone is the Creator of this whole universe and its Master, Ruler, and Controller. Let us now turn to the relationship of the sun with the earth. The existence of everything on the surface of the earth, whether it is mankind, animals, or plants, depends upon the sun—its heat, its light, its distance from the earth, and spinning of the earth around its own axis, and its movement around the Sun. The Creator of the universe made a very wise, wellplanned, and very sophisticated arrangement for the existence, sustenance, and survival of man before He even created man and put him on earth (as His representative or agent, Khalifa). This Creator put both the heavens and the earth in his service. Let us first consider the contribution of the heavens, and I will discuss the earth later. The Creator has put the sun at such a distance from the earth that it is ideally suited for the growth, development, and survival of animal and plant life on earth— neither so close that the sun may burn them, nor so far away that they may die from cold. The possibility of the development of life on earth is due to the steady flow of heat and light from the sun. If the sun’s heat and light were to vary significantly, life would be endangered. Sometimes the earth would be too hot for life to exist, and sometimes it would be too cold. The earth’s atmosphere traps the sun’s heat and lets its light through to the surface of the earth. Sunlight warms the earth, and the heat it creates cannot easily pass through the atmosphere into space. As a result, the earth is warmed by the sun. Too strong sunlight can burn the skin.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Life also depends on the sun for food. Energy from sunlight helps the formation of plant food by combining with carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil. In this process, plants release oxygen, which is used by human beings and animals for breathing. Some plants are eaten by animals, which in turn are eaten by larger animals. People use both animals and plants for food, clothing, and shelter. Sunlight evaporates water from rivers, lakes, and oceans, which results in the formation of clouds. These clouds are carried and dispersed by wind to different parts of the earth for rain, which is essential for human, animal, and plant life. Wind movement in itself is also the result of sunlight, which first causes the uneven heating of the earth’s atmosphere, and then differences in air pressure. Air moves from high pressure areas to low pressure areas, causing wind and changes in the weather. In addition, sunlight is used in power generation in various ways. Wind generated by sunlight is used to power windmills, and rainwater (created by winds) in rivers is used for generating hydroelectric power. Solar furnaces use mirrors to focus sunlight to heat water in boilers. Solar energy cells provide power for artificial satellites and spacecraft. While the earth travels through space around the sun, it also spins on its own axis and makes one complete round in 24 hours. We usually call the time when the sun is shining on our part of the earth day, and the time when our part of the earth is dark or turned away from the sun, night. The length of daylight and night changes during the year in all parts of the world. The changing position of the earth in relation to the sun, and the inclination or tilt of the earth’s axis, create four different climatic seasons on most parts of the earth—spring, summer, autumn, and winter—bringing changes in temperature, weather, and the duration of daylight. Astronomers can tell exactly, from the earth’s motion around the sun, when one season ends and the next one begins on any part of the earth. Similarly, not only does the spinning of the earth on its own axis follow a certain law, but also its movement around the sun, so much so, that despite varying lengths of the day and night throughout the year, at all places on earth, we can calculate very precisely, up to a fraction of a second, the exact times of sunrise and sunset at all places for all days in every year.

Section VIII SIGNS IN DAY AND NIGHT The spinning of earth around its own axis in front of the sun is neither in vain, nor is it haphazard and irregular. As said earlier, this movement of the earth brings sunlight (day) and darkness (night) to different parts of the earth in its own revolution, following such a well-defined pattern and law that we can compute very accurately and precisely the time of sunset and sunrise on any part of the earth at any time of the year. If there were no spinning of the earth around its own axis, the earth’s part facing the sun would have perpetual sunlight, or day, and the other side of the earth would have perpetual darkness, or night. As a result of this, no plant or animal life could survive on earth—one face of the earth being too cold and dark, and the other face too hot and bright. The alternation of night and day also is one of those realities that man does not regard as worthy of much attention, only because it is a phenomenon of daily occurrence and experience; whereas, if he considers how the day passes and how the night falls, and what is the wisdom in the passing of the day and in the falling of the night, he will himself realize that this is an obvious sign of the existence of an All-Powerful and All-Wise Allah and of His being One and Only One. The day cannot pass and the night cannot fall until the sun hides behind the earth. The great regularity that is found in the alternations of day and night is not possible unless the sun and the earth are bound in one and the same relentless system. Then the deep relationship that exists between the alternations of day and night, and the other creations on the earth, clearly point to the fact that this system has been established deliberately by an All-Powerful Being with perfect wisdom. The existence on the earth of men, animals, and vegetation, and even of water, air, and different minerals, is, in fact, the result of placing the earth at a particular distance from the sun, with the arrangement that the different parts of the earth should continue coming successively before the sun and hiding from it at definite intervals. If the distance of the earth from the sun were a little longer or a little shorter, or there were perpetual night on one side of it and perpetual day on the other, or if the alternations of day and night were much faster or much slower, or sometimes the day would appear suddenly and sometimes the night without any regularity, no life could be possible on this planet, and even the form and appearance of inorganic substances would be much different from what they are now.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Again, the night has been made dark so that, protected from light, man (even many animals and birds) may enjoy a peaceful sleep more easily, and made the day bright, so that we could work for our livelihood with greater ease and facility. The darkness that is needed for the peace and rest of our body, in view of its structure, has been provided in the night, and the light that is needed for earning a livelihood has been provided in the day. These two signs (i.e. night and day), are such that we observe them at all times and whose benefits we are enjoying every moment, and which are not hidden from anybody. While we benefit by rest at night and the opportunities afforded by day, do we not think that it is a system devised by an All-Wise Being, Who has established the relationship between the sun and the earth precisely to meet our requirements and needs? This cannot be a mere accident, for it clearly manifests purposefulness, wisdom, and planning, which cannot be a characteristic of the blind forces of nature, nor the work of many gods. It can only be a system established by One Creator, Master, and Disposer, Who is ruling over the earth, the moon, the sun, and all other planets.

Section IX SIGNS IN WATER Next to the air we breathe, water is probably the most important substance for human life. Without water, no animal or plant life can survive. The bodies of living animals and plants contain more water than any other substance. Over two-thirds of the human body is water. Blood is ninety percent water, and even muscles are eighty to ninety percent water. This water is so essential for life that a loss of less than twenty percent of it will result in a painful and horrible death. A normally healthy person can live only seven to ten days without water. From the time a plant starts to grow until it dies, it is sucking water out of the ground with its roots and allowing it to evaporate through its leaves. It takes 1,000 pounds of water, on average, to produce one pound of food. If we consider the amount of water used by the plants that cows eat, we are justified in saying that the production of one pound of beef takes fifteen or more tons of water. There is a powerful hand of a Shrewd Designer working behind this scheme of consumption of water for the sustenance and development of plant and animal life. Almost every modern factory—steel mills, paper mills, brass mills, textile mills, dye works, chemical plants, etc.— use a great deal of water for cooling, making steam, washing, cleaning, or chemical processing. A good water supply is one of the first items to be considered in the location of a factory. Every home uses a large amount of water daily, not only for drinking, but also for bathing, cooking, and washing dishes and clothes. Water in rivers, lakes, and oceans is used for the transportation of freight in boats and ships. This is possible because of the ability of water to float things and not allow them to sink. Many stores, hotels, and office buildings use water for air conditioning. A large amount of electricity or energy is generated from water through hydroelectric or water-powered plants with electric and steam generators. Throughout the course of history, civilizations have sprung up along, and followed, water courses. When the water supply failed, the civilizations failed, or even vanished. The valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers once supported a great civilization, which largely disappeared, apparently because the climate changed and much of the land turned to desert. The same happened in the southern part of Arabia, in the land of Saba. Water is one of our most valuable natural resources. About three-fourths of the surface of earth is covered with water. Can the existence of water, which is so important for life on this planet, be just accidental? Is it justified to say that the various qualities of water that permit its use for various useful purposes are the result of mere chance? Does it not prove, without any shadow of a doubt, the existence of an All-Knowing, All-Powerful, Wise, and Merciful Planner and Creator? Water has the quality of dissolving many substances, which makes it very beneficial for animal and plant life. Minerals necessary to plant growth can be taken from the soil only when dissolved in water. Water is the all- important solvent in construction work and in manufacturing processes. Science and medicine rely heavily on chemical processes that use water as a solvent. Every time water runs over a ground surface or seeps through the ground, it dissolves some of the earth’s substances. Eventually, the water carries these substances to the ocean or an inland lake. Salt is one of these substances. The salt in the ocean was carried there from the land in a water solution. There are many other materials besides common salt that are found in bodies of water, such as chemical bromine, metal magnesium, and potash. Among the wonderful properties that Allah has created in water is that no matter what different substances are dis-


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind solved in water, when it changes into vapor (under the effect of heat, wind movement, and humidity), it leaves behind all the dissolved materials. If it did not possess this property, the dissolved substances also would evaporate along with the water vapors. Then the vapors that arise from the oceans would contain the sea salt (or other dissolved materials), which would make the soil saline and uncultivable wherever it rained. Then, man could not survive by drinking that water, and the water could not help grow any vegetation. How can a man with common sense claim that this wise or useful property in water has come about by itself under some blind law of nature or as a matter of chance? This characteristic, by virtue of which sweet, pure water is distilled from salty seas and falls as rain, and then serves as a source of water supply and irrigation in the form of rivers, canals, springs, and wells, provides a clear proof of the fact that Providence has endowed water with this property thoughtfully and deliberately, so that it may become a means of sustenance for His creatures. The creatures that could be sustained by saltwater were created by Him in the sea, and there they flourish and multiply. But the creatures that He created on the land and in the air stand in need of sweet water for their sustenance, and before making the arrangement of rainfall for its supply, he created this property in water that at the time of vaporization it should leave behind all its dissolved materials.

Section X SIGNS IN THE EARTH Like the heavenly bodies — the sun, moon, and stars — our earth is also suspended in space without any support, spinning on its own axis at a speed of 1,000 miles an hour and revolving around the sun at a speed of 66,000 miles an hour. Its interior is so intensely hot that it can melt stones, and it manifests its power sometimes in the form of volcanic eruptions. But in spite of that, the Creator has made it so tranquil that we sleep on it in full peace, and there are no vibrations or jerks whatsoever. If there were vibrations in it, such as we experience during an earthquake, life could not exist here. We live on it and do not at all feel that this globe is suspended, and we are hanging from it with our head pointing downward. We move about on it with satisfaction, and never think that we are riding on a vehicle moving faster than a bullet. Let us reflect on earth more deeply. The surface of the earth is not completely level, smooth, uniform, and flat like the surface of an ocean or a big desert. Rather, there are natural landmarks in the form of mountains, rivers, valleys, plains, deserts, forests, lakes, oceans, etc. Of the numerous benefits of these landmarks, one is that they help man to identify his path and destination. Man recognizes the true importance of these landmarks, especially in desert regions, which are largely devoid of them. As a result, he is always in fear of losing his way. More importantly, man also realizes their significance on sea-bound voyages, for landmarks are not evident here, and man is always aware that he can stray. Nevertheless, God has arranged for man’s guidance, even in the desert and on the sea. Since time immemorial, man has found his way with the help of the stars. In addition, passes in the mountains and rivers in the hills and plain regions are natural paths that have been provided on the surface of the earth. Man has spread on the earth by means of these natural paths. If the mountain ranges had been created erect, without crevices, and there were no rivers and streams, man would have been confined to the same area where he was born. In addition, these natural landmarks, particularly the mountains, rivers, lakes, oceans, and forests, play a very important role in bringing rainwater, which is most important for animal and plant life on earth. Various regions of the world differ from one another despite their contiguity. These regions differ in many respects, not only in their configuration, but also in their color, component elements, characteristics, properties, potentialities, the produce which they yield, and the chemical and mineral deposits that are hidden under their surface. The variation and diversity thus found abounds in wisdom and leads to countless benefits. Let us disregard for a moment the benefits inherent in this diversity with respect to other species of creation, and simply consider the benefits that accrue to human beings. In this regard, it will be noted that there is a very close relationship between the diverse interests and purposes of man and the diversity that characterizes the different regions of the world. The result of all this is manifest in the growth and influence of human culture and civilization. Thus, this system of the earth is not functioning haphazardly, nor has it been devised by many gods jointly, but there is one All-Powerful and All-Wise Creator who has made all these things, with due regard for the needs and requirements of His creatures. There is a purpose, will, wisdom, and planning behind their creation. Their creation is not haphazard, casual, and accidental, but the careful and benevolent planning of the All-Wise Creator. Again, it is not accidental that the top layer of earth, called soil, is soft and suitable for the growth of plants, and has the potential to grow and support the plants year after year for millions of years. On the other hand, it is a very well planned system for the support of human and animal life that depends upon plants grown by the earth.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Just under the earth’s surface, all those minerals and chemicals which are essential to the growth, development, and survival of vegetable and animal life have been provided in abundance. Wherever these natural sources do not exist or the top soil is too hard, the land cannot sustain any kind of life. A great store of water has been arranged on the earth in the form of oceans, rivers, lakes, springs, underground water and channels, and snow on the mountains, which melts and flows down in the form of rivers. Necessary heat, suitable temperatures, light, aeration, and water are provided from above by the sun and atmosphere. Furthermore, the earth has been endowed with an appropriate gravitational pull, by which it keeps the water, air, and all other things found on it attracted to it. If this pull were not as strong, it could not stop the air and water from escaping. It would also so much increase the temperature that life here would become difficult. On the other hand, if the gravitational pull were a little stronger, the atmosphere would be denser, its pressure would increase, evaporation would become difficult and rain impossible, the cold would increase and less area on earth would be habitable, and men and animals would be shorter in size but heavier in weight, which would make movement difficult. Besides, our earth is located at a distance from the sun that is suitable for its population. If the earth was too far from the sun, it would be too cold to live. If the distance were shorter, the earth would be too hot to live on and survive.

SECTION XI SIGNS IN LIFE Let us consider the question of the creation of life itself. Man has not been able to discover the secret of life—what life is, how and from where it comes. So far, the admitted scientific fact is that the mere arrangement of inanimate matter by itself cannot bring about life. Atheists assume, unscientifically, that life comes into existence automatically, when all the elements essential for its creation combine together accidentally in the right proportion, yet if the mathematical law of chance is applied to it, the possibility of this occurring is zero. All attempts made so far to produce life out of inanimate matter experimentally in the laboratory have met with utter failure. At the most, what has been created is DNA, which is the basic constituent of the living cell. This is the essence of life, but not life itself. Life in itself, even now, is a miracle that cannot be explained scientifically, except by saying that it is the result of the Creator’s will, command, and design. Consider the egg of a hen. It is like a small, smooth fortress completely enclosed, having no door or window, and completely airtight. Keep it at a certain temperature for a certain period of time, and suddenly its walls begin to crack and crumble and something alive (a chicken), which can hear and see, comes out of it. Can we produce this egg artificially (without the hen), by combining those elements in a laboratory which constitute the egg? The answer is no. Furthermore, life does not exist just in one form, but in an innumerable variety of forms. Man has so far discovered more or less a million species of animals and two hundred thousand species of plants on the earth. These species of animals and plants are very clearly and absolutely different from one another in their constitution and special characteristics. All these species have been maintaining their distinctive features since the earliest known time, so consistently that no Darwin could ever give any rational explanation of this great variety of life, except the existence of the creative design of one All-Powerful and All-Knowing One True God. No links have so far been discovered between any two species, which might have broken up the form of characteristics and constitution of one species and might be struggling to attain the characteristics and constitution of another species. The whole record of fossils is without such a precedent, and among the existing animals also there is no such evidence. Any number of any species that exist is found with the distinctive features of its own species, and every story that is invented and announced from time to time about the discovery of some missing link is destroyed by the facts themselves. Therefore, the inevitable fact is that it is the All-Wise Designer, Planner of Creation, its Enforcer and its Fashioner, Who has endowed life in all its countless forms.

Section XII SIGNS IN PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE There are innumerable plants on the surface of the earth. All these plants have such a capacity for growth and multiplication that if one plant were to flourish unchecked, it would leave no room for any other plant to grow. However, since the universe represents a well-thought-out design of the All-Wise and All-Powerful Creator, we witness that the growth of each plant stops at a certain point. Another manifestation of the same phenomenon is that plants of every volume, diameter, height, and growth potential have a certain limit that they may not exceed. It is quite evident that someone has fixed the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind shape, size, foliage, and output of each and every tree, plant, and vine. It is also evident that all this was done with perfect precision. “And the earth—We have stretched it out and have cast on it firm mountains and have caused to grow in it everything well-measured” (Holy Qur’an, 15:19). That Allah creates everything with perfect precision and in a well-measured manner is not confined to plants. It applies to all creatures on the earth. A definite measure and limit has been determined for whatever exists, whether it is air, water, light, heat, or cold, and whether they are minerals, plants, or animals. In short, it has been determined from on high that every object, every species in existence, and every form of energy found in the universe should exist strictly according to the measure and within the limits determined by the planner. “There is nothing except that its treasures are with Us and We do not send it down except in a known measure” (Holy Qur’an, 15:21). Man eats the products of the earth, day and night, and regards this as very ordinary. But if he considers seriously, he will see that the growth of rich crops and lush green gardens from the dry earth and the flowing in it of the springs and rivers is not a simple thing that might be happening of itself, but there is a great wisdom, planning, power, and providence working behind it. Consider the reality of the earth. The substances of which it is composed do not possess any power of their own for growth. All these substances, individually as well as in every sort of combination, remain inorganic, and thus, do not possess any sign of life. The question is, How did it become possible for plant life to emerge from the lifeless earth? If one looks into it, one will see that there are some important factors without whose provision beforehand, life here could not have come into existence. The upper layer of the earth, called soil, has many such substances that can serve as food for vegetation. This layer was made soft so that the roots of the plants or vegetation could spread in it easily and suck food. Secondly, a system of irrigation was arranged on the earth in different ways, so that food elements could dissolve in water and be absorbed by the roots. Thirdly, the atmosphere was arranged around the earth, which protects it against calamities from the sky, becomes a means of rainfall, and possesses gases that are necessary for the life and growth of vegetation. Fourthly, a relationship was established between the sun and earth so as to provide the proper temperature and suitable seasons for the vegetation. With the provision of these main factors (which, in themselves, are combinations of countless other factors), the coming to life of vegetation becomes possible. After arranging the suitable conditions, the seed of each species of the vegetation was so constituted that as soon as it receives favorable soil, water, air, temperature, and season, plant life will begin stirring within it. Plant seeds, no matter how hard they may be (like date stones), when buried in the ground, split and germinate under a well-planned scheme and environment. These young plants, at the time of coming out of the ground, are so delicate, that with the mere touch of fingers they may break, but at the same time are strong enough to crack the soil crust to come out. Provision for the creation of countless species was made in the soil and it was so made that it should fulfill the requirements of food, medicine, clothing, shelter, and many other needs of the innumerable animals and men who were to be brought into being after vegetation on the earth. As soon as man was created, he found a vast table laid out with a large variety of pure food that is not poisonous, but health-giving, not bitter and tasteless, but tasty, not rotten, stale, and stinking, but good smelling, not full of lifeless drugs, but rich in vitamins that are essential for the proper development and nourishment of the human body. Who has provided in such abundance water, corn, vegetables, fruits, milk, honey, meat, and condiments (to mention a few), which not only add relish to food, but also provide vitality and pleasure to life? And who has made the arrangements that these measureless granaries should go on coming out from the earth endlessly, and their supply should never fail? There are countless species of living creatures in the air, on land, and in water; and every species demands a different kind of food, not only for the development and nourishment of his body, but also for the satisfaction of his taste. Who, except One True All-Knowing Creator, could know how many different kinds of creatures would be born on this globe, from the beginning of life until its end, and where they would be born, and how much and what kind of food would be required for their nourishment?


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Or just consider fire or heat, which we use every day. Without this, human life could not be much different from animal life. Only because of fire did man learn to cook food for eating, instead of eating it raw like the animals; and then this fire opened ever-new avenues to industry and invention for man. There is certainly a wise plan underlying it, according to which the right kind of coordination, harmonies, and relationships of the soil, water, air, and seasons with respect to vegetation, and harmonies and relationships of the vegetation with respect to the needs and requirements of animals and human beings, have been determined, keeping in view the finest details. No sensible person can imagine that these universal, all-embracing relationships could be a mere accident. This same wise and subtle arrangement points to the fact that this cannot be the work of many gods. This is, and can only be, the work of One God, Who is the Creator and Lord of the earth, water, air, sun, vegetation, animals, and mankind. If each of these had a separate god, it cannot be imagined that such a comprehensive and universal plan, with such a deep and wise system, coordination, and harmony, could be produced and should continue to work with such regularity for millions of years. Another noteworthy sign is that things exist in pairs. Pairs here does not imply only pairs of men and women among human beings and of males and females among animals, birds, and vegetation, but also countless other things that the Creator has made as matching partners of each other, and by whose coming together ever new things come into being in the world. For example, some elements can be combined with others and some cannot. The combination of these that can combine result in various compositions, e.g., the negative and positive charges in electricity are the matching partners of each other and their mutual attraction causes wonderful things to happen in the world. If man considers the structure and mutual relationships, the different forms of cooperation, and the result of the combination of this and other countless pairs that Allah has created among countless of His creations, then he cannot help testifying to the truth that this great workshop of the world is the creation of One and Only One Almighty, All-Wise Designer, and is functioning only under His care and control. Only a man of mean intelligence could suppose that all this happened, and is happening, without a Wise Being, or that there is the possibility and interference of more gods than one. From the balance, proportion, variety, and abundance of creation found on earth, the various elements and factors supporting it, the laws of nature causing it to grow and flourish, and the accord and harmony between its characteristics and the countless needs and demands of innumerable creatures, only a fool would conclude that all this happens automatically, without the wisdom, knowledge, power, and design of an Almighty, All-Powerful Creator. The One who has created everything also makes provision for the sustenance of His creation. This Creator says: “Just as in your own creation human effort has nothing more to do than that your father may cast the sperm in your mother, so in the supply of the provisions for you also human effort has nothing more to do than that the farmer should sow the seed in the soil. The land in which cultivation is done was not made by you. The power of growth of the soil was not granted by you. The substances in it that become the means of your food are not provided by you. The seed that you sow is not made capable for growth by you. The capability in every seed that from it should sprout up the tree of the same species of whose seed it is has not been created by you. The process for changing this cultivation into blooming crops that is working under the soil and of arranging the required kind of weather and air and water above it does not owe anything in any way to your planning skill. All this is the manifestation of Allah’s power and providence. Then, when you have come into being only by His act of creation and are being sustained by His provision, how can you then have the right to pose yourself as independent of Him, or serve another than Him as your deity?” There exist on this earth millions of animal and vegetable species, each comprising billions of members having different food requirements. The Creator has arranged the means of sustenance for each species, in such abundance and within such easy reach that the members of no species ever go without food. The agencies of the earth and sky that combine and work together in this system are varied and countless. Unless there is the right kind of coordination and harmony between the heat, light, air, water, and the diverse substances of the earth, not a single particle of food can be produced. Can anyone conceive that this wise system could come about just accidentally without the intelligent planning and design of an All-Wise Creator? And can anybody in his senses imagine that in this system there could be any hand of a jinn, an angel, or the spirit of a pious man? Let them take any species of animal or bird they like. They can reflect upon its superb organic structure. They will notice how its instinctive urges are in complete conformity with its natural requirements. They will also observe how wonderfully adequate are the arrangements for providing it with nourishment, how marvelously well-determined are the limits within which it lives, how tremendously efficient is the system under which each living creature is protected, provided for, looked after, and directed towards self-fulfillment, how strictly each one is fitted into the framework of the discipline devised for


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind it, and how very smooth is the operation of the whole system of birth, procreation, and death. Obviously many masters and gods could not have, by any device, arranged and produced the perfect harmony and accord between the soil, the sun, and the atmosphere, or between animal and plant life, produced with their help and satisfying the needs of the great variety of creatures living on the earth. Even if such a harmony and accord would have come to be at a given moment, it would not have lasted for long. He does not only bring about spring, but autumn as well. You witness both the manifestations of His power. On the one side, He causes lush green vegetation to grow, the freshness of which pleases the heart, and, on the other side, He renders the same vegetation pale, dry, and black, which is then blown about by winds and swept away by floods. Therefore, no one here should be involved in the misunderstanding that he will only experience spring and will never see autumn.

Section XIII SIGNS IN MAN If one were to observe carefully the creation of the human species, its division into male and female, the proliferation of the human race by procreation, and the passing of life through its several stages in the womb of the mother from conception to childbirth, one would perceive innumerable signs. But only those who make proper use of their intellect can be led by means of these signs to an understanding of reality. Those who live like animals, who are concerned merely with the satisfaction of their lusts and desires, can perceive nothing significant in these phenomena. When a farmer puts seeds in the ground, sometimes he, in a way, makes a first move for the creation of a human being —for the creation of you and me. After a certain predetermined period, when this seed becomes a plant (wheat, corn, rice, vegetable, fruit, or other plants) is the second step towards human life. In the third step,our parents eat these directly, as well as indirectly (through the meat of animals and birds raised on the produce of the earth). In this third step, the food that our parents eat turns into hair, flesh, bones, blood, human waste, etc., and part of it turns into such liquid that has the potential for producing human beings. The semen that comes out of the body of a man contains millions of human seeds (sperm). Out of these millions of human seeds only one seed is used to make a woman pregnant by combining this seed with an egg cell produced in her body. Thus, the fourth step in the creation of human life starts in the womb of a woman, when a seed from a man’s body joins with an egg cell from a woman’s body. At the start of conception or pregnancy, this thing is so small that it cannot be seen without a microscope. This insignificant thing turns into a living child in nine months in the womb of the mother. To put in plain words, as Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an: ‘We had provided for you such a safe and peaceful place of rest even before your creation (in the womb). Then We created you and gave you a fine body with most appropriate limbs created on a pattern best suited to make them properly serviceable, and with physical and mental powers of a high caliber. You did not create this erect stature, these hands and feet, these eyes and nose and ears, this talking tongue, this brain, which is a treasure-house of great capabilities, nor were these created by your mother and father, nor had a prophet or a saint or a god the power to create them. Their Maker and Creator, was the All-Wise, All- Merciful, Almighty Sovereign, Who created man with this wonderful body to function in the world, when He decided to bring him into being.” The creation of a wonderful thing like life from the lifeless substances of the earth, then the coming into being of a marvelous creation like man from the microscopic germ of the sperm, then its developing inside the mother’s womb from the time of conception until delivery, in such a manner that its sex, its form and appearance, its bodily structure, its mental qualities and characteristics, and its faculties and capabilities should be determined therein, uninfluenced by any external factor or agency, are signs for those who reflect. Then, the one who is to be eliminated by miscarriage does fall prey to miscarriage. The one who is to die in infancy does die in infancy, whether or not he is the child of a king. The one who is to reach maturity or old age does reach that age, even through highly dangerous conditions in which death should be certain. The one who is to die in a particular stage of life does die in that stage, even if he is given the best medical attention and treatment in the best hospitals by the best doctors. Are not all these things pointing to the truth that the ultimate control of our life and death is in the hand of an Almighty Sovereign? And when the reality is this, that an All-Powerful Being is controlling our life and death, then how did a prophet, a saint, an angel, a star, or a planet become worthy of our worship and service? When did a creature attain the rank that we should pray to it, and accept it as the maker and destroyer of our destiny? And how


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind did a human power have the status that we should obey its commands, prohibitions, and self-made laws without question? If we consider the different stages of a child’s birth, we come to the inevitable conclusion that all these have been designed by the True, Ever-Living Designer. For it is He Who decides whether it should be male or female, seeing or blind, normal or handicapped, healthy or sick, or alive or dead. He decides what type of features the child is to get, who is to be made beautiful and who is to be made ugly, what type of faculties he or she is going to get, and whether the child is going to be very intelligent or have below average intelligence. Again, though both man and woman belong to the same genus, they are same species having important common human characteristics but different physical structures and psychological traits. These two creatures are complements and not antagonists to each other. It is also the plan and design of the All-Powerful Creator that He create males and females (boys and girls) in the world in due proportion. It does not happen that He creates boys and no girls, or girls and no boys, or too many boys or too many girls, or vice versa. Again, it is only His decision to give some couples boys only, to other couples girls only, still to others both boys and girls, and to other couples no children at all. There is a great variety in the creation of the human race. It is not like a mold wherein you put the material and you may produce innumerable but identical products. Rather, every child is different from the other, even the children of the same parents have differences in features, looks, fingerprints, blood type, voice, pronunciation, style of speech, tastes, temperaments, emotions, feelings, etc. Even twins who develop in the same womb at the same time are not identical. Sometimes they are quite different from each other. Billions and billions of people come into this world, but every human being, both men and women, is a different model and the Creator gives personal attention to each individual He creates. In this process of creation, development, and shaping of the child in millions of factories (women’s wombs) every day, there is no power in the world that can have any influence on the matters mentioned above, except One All-Powerful True God. Another thing to be considered is that every human being is created from a sperm or cell. Then he gets life from “dead things,” like food, containing dead matter, such as carbon, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, gases, etc., which help make him a living being. All these elements neither have any life in them, nor have any of the characteristics that are present in human beings. No matter how much we try to mix these elements in a laboratory, we can neither create a sperm nor an egg, which are developed in human bodies and become hearing, seeing beings, with wisdom and intellect, sentiments and emotions, passion and desires, the ability to walk and talk, with eyes, ears, nose, hands, feet, and brains, which are treasurehouses of great capabilities, the ability to stand erect, a most appropriate, beautiful, and well-proportioned body to function in this world, and the ability to subjugate other large and powerful creatures. The Creator of man has not become unconcerned with him after creating him, and lets him alone to seek other supporters for help; rather, He has also taken the responsibility of making arrangements for his guidance, protection, and the fulfillment of his needs. The moment a human child is born, milk is produced for it in the breast of his mother, and some unseen power teaches it to suck it and swallow it. From the first day of his life until his death, the Creator has provided in the world around him all the necessary means required for every stage of his life, for his development, guidance, sustenance, and survival. He has also endowed him with all those powers and abilities that are needed to use these means for his development and survival and given him all necessary guidance for every sphere of life. Then, for the protection of human life against all sorts of diseases, germs, and poisons, He has created such effective antidotes that they have not yet been fully encompassed by human knowledge. If these natural arrangements had not been made, even a thorn-prick would prove fatal. When this all-pervading Mercy and Providence of the Creator supports and sustains man at all times and in every way, there could be no greater folly and ingratitude on the part of man than that he should bow down before others than Allah and seek their help in need and trouble.

Section XIV SIGNS IN REPRODUCTION This chapter has been about the beginning of creation. Now let us consider its reproduction. The Creator has placed in the constitution and makeup of every animal and plant species such a wonderful mechanism that they continue to produce through their countless members an endless race exactly, with its own distinctive form, nature, and characteristics, and it


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind never has happened, even by a mistake, that in these millions and millions of tiny seeds, one species may have turned out a specimen of a different species. The observations of modern genetics in this regard present wonderful facts. Every plant has been so endowed with the capability of procreating its species that the new generation possesses all the distinctive characteristics of its own species, and its every member is distinguished in its special features from the members of all other species. This element for the survival of the species and its procreation is contained in a part of a cell of every plant, which can be seen with effort only through a powerful microscope. This tiny engineer directs the whole development of the plant precisely and definitely on the way of its own distinctive species. That is why all the plants that have emerged from a grain of, say, wheat, anywhere in the world, have in turn produced only wheat. In no climate and in no region has it ever happened that from a whole production of wheat, even a single grain of barley might have emerged. The same is the case with animal and men. None has been created just for once, but on an inconceivably large scale, a huge factory of reproduction is functioning everywhere, which is constantly bringing into existence, from the members of every species, countless other members of the same species. If one considers the microscopic germ of procreation, which alone, with all the distinctive features and hereditary characteristics of its species, is found in a small portion of its tiny self, and then looks at the extremely delicate and complex physiological system and the subtle intricate process by which the procreative seed of every member of every species produces a member of the same species, one cannot conceive for a moment that such a fine and subtle system could come into being by itself, and then keep on functioning by itself in millions and millions of the members of different species. (Also see Chapter 11, “Possibility of Life After Death”). This thing stands in need of an All-Wise Designer, not only for its beginning, but also for its proper and perpetual functioning. It needs an administrator Who is at once Wise and Ever-Living and Self- Subsistent, Who is watching and guiding the work of these workshops. These facts destroy the very basis of an atheist’s denial of God, and of a polytheist’s creed of polytheism. Only a foolish person can think that a saint, a prophet, an angel, or a jinn has any hand in this work. Similarly, no unbiased person, having some common sense, can ever say that this huge workshop of production and reproduction, with all its underlying wisdom and order, started working just accidentally, and has since been working automatically.

SECTION XV WHY BELIEVE IN GOD AND IN ONLY ONE GOD HAVING NO PARTNERS In all the previous sections I gave arguments about Tawheed (Oneness of the Creator) in detail. I give below a brief summary as to why we believe in the existence of God Almighty Who has no partners or shareholders. Details of the attributes of God Almighty and the implications of Tawheed are discussed in Chapter 15. God’s unity is based on the premise that the universe constitutes one integrated system that is subject to a colossal body of laws. These laws clearly point to the existence of an All-Pervasive Power, a Wisdom immune from every error. It is obvious that such a system can operate only if it is subject to the will of no more than One Being Who effectively controls it. It is no less obvious that such a well-ordered system cannot operate if there is none to operate it. How can there be an order without there being someone who established it? How can there be a law without a sovereign to enforce it? How can there be wisdom without someone who embodies it? How can there be knowledge without a knower? Above all, how can one even conceive of creation without a Creator? To think, therefore, that this vast universe, which is so perfectly ordered, could have come into being on its own, or that such order could emerge without there being anyone’s will behind it, is either rank irrationality or incurable obduracy. Had there been any other who shared with God His Godhead, he would have certainly tried to place himself on God’s Throne. For if several deities existed, then only two alternatives would be possible. First, that each of them is God and that they are independent of the others. Second, one of the gods is the True God, and the rest are subordinate to Him, but have had some of His powers delegated to them. In the former situation, it is simply inconceivable that several deities who are independent and sovereign would always concur on all matters, and this concurrence, as we all know, is necessary for the perfect harmony, uniformity, coherence, and balance that characterize the workings of this vast universe. If there were a multiplicity of gods, it is likely that there would be clashes and discordance at every step. And when a god became aware that things were not going his way, he would struggle to become the sole master of the entire universe.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind However, if that were not the case, let us consider the alternative that there were gods other than the One True God to whom some of God’s powers had been delegated. Now, such is the mettle of creatures that, were any invested with some of God’s powers, even had the faintest suspicion of divinity, it would suffice to turn their heads, making it impossible for them to be satisfied with anything other than becoming lord of the universe. It is quite evident that in this universe in which we have been placed, there grows neither a blade of grass nor a grain of wheat, unless the immense forces of the heavens and the earth collaborate to bring this about. This being the case, only an ignoramus or an utter fool believes that such a universe is governed by a variety of independent or semi-independent gods. Anyone who has made any serious effort to reflect on the universe can never escape the conclusion that it is under the firm control of One God alone, and that it is simply out of the question that anyone could share any of His powers with Him. He created everything in the universe, from the earth to the heavens, and gave whatever He created the right proportion and balance, and gave every creature the best conceivable form and shape. Thus, the creation of everything in the world, giving it due order and proportion, is an express sign of the truth that some Wise Designer is its Creator. Had the creation of the countless things in the universe been the result of a chance accident, or the work of many Creators, there could be no order and balance, no beauty and inner coherence among the many things existing in the world. He determined beforehand what would be the function of a certain thing in the world, and for that purpose what would be its size, form, shape, qualities, potentialities, characteristics, term of existence, limitations, and the extent of all other things concerning it and what opportunities and means should be provided for its survival, existence, and functioning. Also He determined when it should come into being, and when and how it should cease to be after completing its part of the work or playing the role assigned to it in the overall scheme of things. Such a scheme for anything is its “destiny” (Taqdir). And this destiny Allah has set for everything in the universe, and for the entire universe as a whole. This means that creation has not come about without a pre¬conceived plan, haphazardly, but for it the Creator had a full plan before Him, and everything is happening according to that plan. That is, nothing was just created and left to itself; rather, whatever was created was created to perform a certain function, and taught the method of performing that function. In other words, He is not merely the Creator, but the Guide, too. He has taken the responsibility to give guidance to whatever He has created in a particular capacity to fit its nature and to guide it in the way suitable for it. It is God who taught the fish to swim and the birds to fly. One kind of guidance is for the earth, the moon, the sun, and the stars and planets, and this guidance they are following in performing their role. Another kind of guidance is for water, air, light, and the solid and mineral elements, and they are performing the services for which they have been created. Still another kind of guidance is for vegetables, according to which they take root and spread in the earth, sprout up from its layers, obtain food from wherever Allah has created it for them, produce stems, branches, leaves, blossoms, and fruit, and fulfill the function which has been appointed for each of them. Still another kind of guidance is for the countless species of animals of the land and water, and for each member of the species, the wonderful manifestations of which are clearly visible in the life of the animals and in their works. Even an atheist is compelled to concede that different kinds of animals possess some sort of inspirational knowledge that man cannot obtain even through his instruments, not to speak of his senses. Then there are two different kinds of guidance for man, which correspond to two different capacities. One kind of guidance is for his animal life, by which each child learns to suck milk spontaneously at birth, by which the eyes of man, his nose, ear, heart, brain, lungs, kidney, liver, stomach, intestines, nerves, veins, and arteries all are performing their respective functions, without man being conscious of it or his will having anything to do with the functions of these organs. This is the guidance under which all physical and mental changes pertaining to childhood, maturity, youth, and old age go on taking place in man, independent of his will, choices, and even his consciousness. The second kind of guidance is for his intellectual and conscious life, the nature of which is absolutely different from the guidance for unconscious life, for in this sphere of life, a kind of freedom has been transferred to man, for which the mode of guidance meant for voluntary life is not suitable. For turning away from this last kind of guidance, man may offer whatever arguments and excuses he may like. But it is not credible that the Creator Who has arranged guidance for everything in this universe, according to its capacity, might have set for man the destiny that he may appropriate numerous things in His world freely, but might not have made any arrangement to show what is the right way of using his choices and what is the wrong way. For more arguments about the existence of Creator please see Chapter 19—”Islam Strongly Rejects Theory of Evolution under Islamic Response,” Part I.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 17 Why Muslims Believe that Holy Qur’an is the Book from God INTRODUCTION


he Holy Qur’an is the Book not of human origin, but revealed by God to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). Explicit and implicit evidence in the Qur’an proves that God Himself is the author of this book. Both the Qur’an and the Hadith confirm that the Holy Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) by the following three methods.

Holy Qur’an, Chapter 42, Verse 51 (Holy Qur’an): “It is not fitting to grant any [mortal] human being the favor that Allah should speak to him [face to face] except by [1] inspiration, [2] or from behind a veil, [3] or by the sending of a Messenger [Angel Gabriel] to reveal, with Allah’s permission, what Allah wills, for He is Most High, Most Wise.” Method 1: A’ishah (ra., the wife of the Prophet Mohammed, pbuh) has stated that revelation in the beginning came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) in the form of true visions (The two books of Hadith by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim). This continued in Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) later life also. Traditions mention many visions in which he was given some teaching or informed of something, and in the Qur’an also a vision of his has been clearly mentioned (Holy Qur’an, 28: 27). Besides, several traditions also mention that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: “I have been inspired with such and such a thing, or I have been informed of this and this, or I have been enjoined this, or I have been forbidden this.” (“Commentary on Holy Qur’an,” 42:51-52, by Maududi). All such things relate to the first kind of revelation, or wahi, and the divinely inspired traditions (Ahadith Qudsi) mostly belong to this category of revelation. Method 2: On the occasion of the miraj (ascension), the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was honored with the second kind of wahi. In several authentic traditions, the way mention has been made of the commandment of the salat five times a day and the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) making those submissions again and again, clearly shows that at that time, a similar type of dialogue took place between Allah (swt) Almighty and His servant Mohammed (upon whom be His peace and blessings), as had taken place between Allah (swt) and the Prophet Moses at the foot of Mount Tur. Method 3: As for the third kind, the Qur’an itself testifies that it was conveyed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) through Angel Gabriel, the Trustworthy (Qur’an, 2:97; 26:192-195). Most of the revelation of the Qur’an was by the third method mentioned above. I give below the various types of evidence that the Holy Qur’an is the Book that originated with God and that it is not a book of human origin or of any other origin.

EVIDENCE 1 TESTIMONY OF MOHAMMED (pbuh) The Holy Qur’an was presented to the people as the Book from God by Mohammed (pbuh), who, in his entire life, before and after prophethood, was well known in his community as the most truthful, trustworthy, honest, righteous, pious, and virtuous man of their society (see Chapter 18). It could not be expected of such a man that he would forge a lie and attribute it to God, Lord of the Worlds. He himself says that he is not the author of this book. After this testimony by Mohammed (pbuh) himself, no further evidence is required. If he had claimed the authorship of Qur’an, it would have enhanced his position and status, and nobody would have raised any objection to his claim. No one in history has ever attributed to someone else his


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind own finest thoughts, ideas, and most superb writings. This is unheard of. On the other hand, we know that there are many writers who resort to claiming for themselves what other people have written. Someone may say that by attributing the Qur’an to divine origin, he (Mohammed, pbuh) would have found it easier to win people’s obedience for his commandments. But this is not true, because even with God as the author of this book, Mohammed (pbuh) claims that anyone who obeys him obeys God, and anyone who disobeys him, disobeys God.

EVIDENCE 2 ALTERATIONS IN MOHAMMED’S (pbuh) OUTWARD APPEARANCE, OTHER SYMPTOMS, AND PECULIAR PHENOMENA AT THE OCCASION OF RECEIVING REVELATION Zaid bin Thabit, a companion of the Prophet (pbuh), narrates: “Once Revelation upon the Prophet (pbuh) came down in a state when the Prophet (pbuh) was resting his knee upon my knee. I felt such a great pressure of the weight on my knee that I thought it would break.” (Hadith Book of Bukhari). A’ishah, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), says: “I have seen the state of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) receiving Revelation during intense cold, and drops of precipitation started falling from his forehead” (Hadith books by Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Tirmidhi, Nasai). In another tradition, A’ishah stated: “Whenever Revelation came down on the Holy Prophet (pbuh) while he was riding on his she-camel, the she-camel would be forced to rest her chest on the ground and could not move until the Revelation was over.” (For more reference about the above, see “Commentary on Qur’an,” 53:5, by Maududi). The Prophet’s (pbuh) contemporaries were objective witnesses of the visible, tangible, and audible signs of the mysterious accompanying phenomena that made evident the real source of the Qur’an and opened the eyes of truth-seekers. In the presence of the Revealer Spirit, the Prophet’s (pbuh) inspired face was illuminated, like a mirror. There was silence. Conversation stopped as if in moments of absence of mind. His body relaxed as if in sleep, and a mysterious buzz was heard around him—as in a telephone conversation where the one listening is the only one who can hear distinctly enough to understand. (Article, “The Origin of Islam,” by Md. Abd Allah Draz, Professor, Al-Azher University, Cairo, in the book “Islam the Straight Path,” page 23, published by The Ronald Press Co., New York, USA, 1958). There was nothing voluntary about these phenomena, for the Prophet (pbuh) could neither avoid them when they came, nor bring them into being when he earnestly desired to receive a message. On many occasions, the Prophet (pbuh) sought a revelation, but it was not given; then, sometimes after an interval, the mysterious phenomena would come, appearing suddenly and vanishing abruptly, after which the people with him would listen to the wonderful text from the Prophet (pbuh).

EVIDENCE 3 MOHAMMED (pbuh) COULD NOT PRODUCE ANY PART OF QUR’AN OUT OF HIS OWN WILL If Mohammed (pbuh) were the author of the Qur’an, he would have and could have produced any part of the Qur’an whenever he wanted or needed it. But he could not. There were occasions in his life when he went through very hard times that required an immediate answer or revelation, but there was no revelation, and he had to desperately wait for a long time. As an example, there is a case of a false accusation of adultery against his wife, A’ishah (rau), by hypocrites of Madinah. This scandal spread through the whole city of Madinah, and the rumors continued for about a month, which caused great distress and anguish to the Prophet (pbuh), to A’ishah (rau), to her parents, and to the believers. Despite the passage of time, the Prophet (pbuh) did not receive any revelation. The Prophet (pbuh) completed his own investigation and found A’ishah (rau) completely innocent. Finally, one day, the Prophet (pbuh) said to A’ishah (rau): “O A’ishah, I have received such and such report about you. If you are innocent, I hope God will proclaim your innocence. If you have committed a sin, you should turn to God and seek His pardon. When a servant of God confesses his sin and repents, God pardons him” (see S.A. Maududi’s Translation of the Holy Qur’an, 24:11). Soon after this statement of the Prophet (pbuh), Revelation started coming to the Prophet (pbuh), in which her complete innocence was declared, giving a clear verdict of her purity and faithfulness (Qur’an, 24:11-12).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Had the matter been up to him, what would have prevented him from producing such a verdict earlier to protect his own honor and the honor of his wife? He could have attributed that verdict to divine revelation in order to silence those who continued to spread such rumors. However, Mohammed (pbuh), a man who had never lied to other mortals, would not lie to God: “Had he dared to attribute (falsely) some sayings to Us, We would indeed have seized him by his right hand, and would indeed have cut his life-vein, and none of you could have saved him” (Qur’an, 69:44-47). To quote another example, in the early part of the prophet hood, revelation to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was suspended for a time, which caused the Prophet (pbuh) to be deeply distressed and grieved. This delay provided an opportunity for his opponents to taunt him. Some of them said that the fountainhead from where the revelation came had dried up. Other pagans started saying that Mohammed (pbuh) had been forsaken by his Lord. Umm Jamil, wife of Abu Lahab, said to Mohammed (pbuh): “It appears your Satan has forsaken you” (see S.A. Maududi’s Translation of the Holy Qur’an, 93:3). Some other pagans of Makkah said that his Lord had become angry with him, and hence deserted him. Despite these taunts and jeers of the enemy on the delay of revelation, the Prophet (pbuh) could not bring any revelation, which clearly shows that the bringing of revelation was not in his power. The Prophet (pbuh) thought that he probably committed some error, because of which his Lord had become angry with him and had forsaken him. Thereupon God revealed Chapter 93 of the Qur’an, consoling him that revelation had not been stopped because of some displeasure, but this was necessitated by the same expediency as underlies the peace and stillness of the night after bright day, as if to say: “If you had continuously been exposed to the intensely bright light of revelation, your nerves could not have endured it. Therefore, an interval was given in order to afford you peace and tranquility.”

EVIDENCE 4 THERE ARE VERSES IN THE QUR’AN THAT REPROACH, CENSOR, AND CRITICIZE MOHAMMED (pbuh) Quoted below are verses from the Holy Qur’an that run contrary to what Mohammed (pbuh) preferred or expected. From the perusal of these verses, it will transpire that these actions of the Prophet (pbuh) were criticized by these revelations of the Qur’an. (i)   “May God pardon you, [Prophet]! Why have you granted them permission [to stay at home] before you come to realize who was speaking the truth and before you come to know the liars.” (Qur’an, 9:43) Proffering excuses, the hypocrites asked the Prophet (pbuh) to exempt them from jihad. Even though the Prophet (pbuh) was aware of the falsity of their excuses, he granted them an exemption. This, however, did not meet with the approval of God, and the Prophet (pbuh) was told that his leniency towards the hypocrites was not well-placed, for the latter had used exemption to disguise their hypocrisy. Had they not been exempted, their deliberate abstention from jihad would have revealed the hypocrites’ true colors. (ii)  “It is not befitting for the Prophet and believers to pray for the forgiveness of those who associated partners with God, even though they happened to be their near of kin, after it has been made clear to them that they are destined for hell.” (Qur’an, 9:113) If a person prays to God for someone’s pardon, it implies, first of all, sympathy and concern for the offender, and a belief that the offense is pardonable. Such an attitude towards an offender who is otherwise faithful is one matter. But to sympathize with and love those who have indulged in open rebellion and to consider that rebellion pardonable, is quite a different matter. Such an attitude is not only wrong in principle, but leaves one’s loyalty open to doubt. It is inconsistent with the spirit of true faith, which requires sincere devotion, absolute love, and loyalty to God. True faith requires that we should consider God’s friends as our friends, and God’s enemies as our own enemies. It is significant that the verse in question does not say that Muslims should not seek pardon for those who ascribe divinity to any other than God. The verse, rather, characterizes it as something unbecoming of the Prophet (pbuh) and believers. (Qur’an, 9:113).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind What is thus suggested is that the believers themselves should have such loyalty to God and sincerity that it prevents them from entertaining any sympathy for those who have rebelled against Him. It is noteworthy that the words of the verse are: “It is not fitting for the Prophet (pbuh) and the believers to pray for forgiveness for those who associated partners with Allah (swt).” The expression seems to say to people: “Your religious commitment and your conscience should be so sensitive about such matters as to make you instinctively feel that it is not befitting for you at all to sympathize with the rebels of God, or to consider their crime pardonable.” It may, however, be clarified that the kind of sympathy that is forbidden those who have rebelled against God, is sympathy that interferes with and prevents one from fulfilling one’s religious obligations. So far as human sympathy is concerned —consideration, compassion, and affection—far from it being forbidden, it is praiseworthy for a believer to possess such attributes. The worldly obligations that one owes to one’s kinsmen—whether they are believers or unbelievers—must be fulfilled. Likewise, those in distress—the needy, the sick, the injured, and the orphans—must be helped, irrespective of their religious faith. In such matters, any discrimination between a believer and a non-believer is out of the question. (iii)  ‘‘You were hiding within yourself something [which God had commanded you] that God was sure to bring to light, fearing [what] people [may think], whereas it is God alone whom you should fear.” (Qur’an, 33: 37) (iv)  “O Prophet, why do you make for yourself unlawful that which Allah has permitted for you? [Is it because] you seek the goodwill of your wives? Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful.” (Qur’an, 66:1) This verse shows the following: First, that the powers to prescribe the bounds of the lawful and the unlawful, the permissible and the forbidden, are entirely and absolutely in the hand of Allah (swt), and nothing has been delegated even to the Prophet (pbuh) of Allah (swt) himself, not to speak of any other man. The Prophet (pbuh), as such, can declare something lawful or unlawful only if he receives an inspiration from Allah (swt) to do so, whether that inspiration is embodied in the Qur’an or imparted to him secretly. However, even the Prophet (pbuh) is not authorized to declare anything made permissible by Allah (swt) unlawful by himself, much less to say of another man. Second, that in any society, the position of a prophet is very delicate. A minor incident experienced by an ordinary man in his life may not be of any consequence, but it assumes the status of law when experienced by a prophet. That is why the lives of the prophets have been kept under close supervision by Allah (swt), so that none of their acts, not even a most trivial one, may deviate from divine will. Whenever any act that deviates from Divine will, has emanated from a Prophet, it has been rectified immediately, so that Islamic law and its principles should reach people in their absolute purity, not only through the Divine Book, but also through the excellent example of the Prophet (pbuh), and they should include nothing that may be in disagreement with divine will. Third, and this automatically follows from the above-mentioned point, that when the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) is checked on a minor thing, which was not only corrected but also recorded, it gives us complete satisfaction that whatever actions, commands, and instructions we now find in the pure life of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), concerning which there is nothing on record in the nature of criticism or correction from Allah (swt), they are wholly based on truth, are in complete conformity with divine will, and we can draw guidance from them with full confidence and peace of mind. The fourth thing that we learn from this discourse is about the Holy Messenger (pbuh) himself, whose reverence and respect Allah (swt) Himself has enjoined as a necessary part of the faith of His servants. It has been stated in this Surah that at one time during his sacred life, he made a thing declared lawful by Allah (swt) unlawful to himself only to please his wives, and then Allah (swt) severely reproved for their errors those very wives of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) whom He Himself has declared as mothers of the faithful and worthy of the highest esteem and honor (Qur’an, 66:3-5). Then, this criticism of the Prophet (pbuh), and the administration of the warning to the wives, also have not been made secretly, but included in the book that the entire Ummah has to read and recite forever. Obviously, neither the intention of making mention of it in the Book of Allah (swt) was, nor could be, that Allah (swt) wanted to degrade His Messenger (pbuh) and the mothers of the faithful in the eyes of the believers. It also is obvious that no Muslim has lost respect for them in his heart after reading this Surah of the Qur’an. There cannot be any other reason of mentioning this thing in the Qur’an, than that Allah, swt) wants to acquaint believers with the correct manner of reverence for the Prophet and for others. The Prophet (pbuh) is a prophet, not God, Who may commit no error. Respect of the Prophet (pbuh) has not been enjoined because he is infallible, but because he is a perfect representative of divine will, and Allah (swt) has not permitted


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind any of his errors to pass by unnoticed. This gives us the satisfaction that the noble pattern of life left by the Prophet (pbuh) wholly and fully represents the will of Allah (swt) Likewise, the companions or the holy wives of the Prophet (pbuh) were human, not angels or superhuman. They could make mistakes. Whatever ranks they achieved became possible only because of the guidance given by Allah (swt), and the training imparted by Allah’s (swt) Messenger (pbuh) that had molded them into the finest models. Whatever esteem and reverence they deserve is on this very basis, and not on the presumption that they were infallible. For this reason, whenever the companions or wives of the Prophet (pbuh) happened to commit an error during the life of the Prophet (pbuh), they were corrected by the Holy Prophet (pbuh). As has been mentioned at many places in the Hadith, some other errors were mentioned in the Qur’an, and Allah (swt) Himself corrected them, so that Muslims might not form an exaggerated notion of the respect and reverence of their elders and great men, which might raise them from humanity to the position of gods and goddesses. If one studies the Qur’an carefully, one will see many instances of this. (v)   “He frowned and turned away his face because there came up to him the blind man. And what would make you know that he might reform, or heed the admonition, and admonishing might profit him? As for him who is indifferent, to him you attend, though you would not be responsible if he did not reform. And the one who comes to you running, of his own will, and fears, from him you turn away. By no means, this is but admonition. Let him who wills accept it.” (Qur’an, 80:1-12) These verses were revealed in the early part of the mission of the Prophet (pbuh), when Islam was facing hard times in Makkah. The rich and influential people of Makkah were using their wealth, power, and influence to check the advancement and spread of Islam, and to stop people from accepting it. The Prophet (pbuh) thought that acceptance of Islam by these powerful and influential people would remove all the impediments from the path of Islam in Makkah, and would thus open the way for the rapid spread of Islam, not only in Makkah, but also in the rest of Arabia. Once these powerful and influential chiefs of Makkah were sitting in the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) assembly, and he was earnestly engaged in trying to persuade them to accept Islam, at that very point, a blind man named Ibn Umm Maktum approached him to seek an explanation of some point concerning Islam. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) disliked his interruption and ignored him. There upon these verses were revealed. The style of this first sentence is elegant and subtle. Although in the sentences that follow, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) is directly addressed, which by itself shows that the act of frowning and turning aside had issued forth from him, the discourse was opened in a manner as though it was not he, but someone else who had so acted. By this style, the Holy Prophet (pbuh), by a subtle method, has been made to realize that this was an act unseemly for him. Had somebody familiar with his high morals witnessed it, he would have thought that it was not he, but some other person who had behaved in that manner. The real point that the Prophet (pbuh) overlooked in the preaching of Islam on that occasion, as mentioned here, is: “As for him who is indifferent to him you attend .... And the one who comes to you running, of his own will and fears (Allah, swt), from him you turn away.” God first reproved Mohammed (pbuh) on his indifference to the earnest seeker of truth and guidance, and then Allah (swt) told him what should really be his focus in preaching Islam. One should not see whose becoming a Muslim would be of greater benefit for Islam and whose becoming a believer could not be of any use in its propagation, but one should see who is inclined to accept the guidance and reform himself, and who is least interested in this precious bargain. The first kind of man, whether he is blind, lame, crippled, or an indigent mendicant, who might apparently seem incapable of rendering any useful service in the propagation of Islam, is in any case a valuable man for the preacher of the truth. To him, therefore, he should attend, for the real object of this invitation is to reform people, and the apparent state of the person shows that if he were instructed, he would accept guidance. As for the other kind of man, the preacher has no need to pursue him, no matter how influential he is in society. For his attitude and conduct openly proclaim that he has no desire for reform, therefore, any effort made to reform him would be a mere waste of time. If he has no desire to reform himself, he may not. The loss would be his; the preacher would not at all be accountable for it. Such a great principle could never have been the product of any earthly factor or factors. It could only have had one source: God. (vi) “It behooves not a Prophet to take captives until he has sufficiently suppressed the enemies in the land. You merely seek the gains of the world, whereas Allah desires [for you good] of the Hereafter. Allah is Almighty, All-Wise. Had there not been a previous decree from Allah, a stern punishment would have afflicted you for what you have taken. So eat that which you have obtained—for it is lawful and clean—and fear Allah. Surely Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (Qur’an, 8:67-69).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind This revelation came after the battle of Badr, when the Muslims took some prisoners of the enemy combatants. Before this battle, God had revealed in 47:4 that after you have crushed the enemy in the battlefield and broken their back, then you can take prisoners of war, and after that you have the choice to either show them favor (i.e., set them free without any compensation) or accept ransom. This was the background under which the Prophet (pbuh) consulted his companions, and then took the action that is criticized in the above Verses 8:67- 69. Let us reflect on these various verses of the Holy Qur’an quoted in i through vi above, and the reproach they contain. (a)  The reproach and criticism of Mohammed (pbuh) in these verses is clear evidence that if the Qur’an had been made up by Mohammed (pbuh), he would not have included any such verses in it. After all, he was but a man, and men by nature resent being criticized, and are inclined to believe that they are immune from error. There is no human doctrine whose author is self-critical or does not try to convince us of its wholesomeness. Hence, the mere fact that these reproving verses were revealed and transmitted, intact, to Mohammed (pbuh), and to Mohammed’s (pbuh) followers, confirms the fact that the Qur’an is truly Allah’s (swt) original speech, and provides us also with evidence as to Mohammed’s (pbuh) integrity and honesty in delivering the message. Had they been the expressions of Mohammed’s (pbuh) remorse, feelings of guilt, and sorrow when he realized his mistakes, would he have spoken about himself in such a strongly reproachful manner? Would he not have preferred to keep quiet in order to maintain respect for his own views and orders? Indeed, had the Qur’an been the product of his own conscience, he would have excluded some parts of it. And, had he wished to exclude any part of it, then such verses would have been the first to be so excluded. But the Qur’an is God’s own revelation, and Mohammed (pbuh) could not suppress any part of it. No person other than the Messenger of God would announce in public this self-reproach, and include it in the Holy Qur’an to be recited by all future generations (Muslims and non-Muslims), until the end of this world, that he had been censured so strongly for his slips. (b) The mere fact that these and many other reproving verses are included in the Qur’an proves the originality of the Qur’an and confirms Allah’s (swt) promise to preserve it intact, and guard it from corruption, as is stated in the verse: “Lo! We, even We, reveal the Reminder, and lo! We verily are its Guardian.” (Al-Hijr, 15:9) (c) Mohammed (pbuh) is the most honest man. The existence of these reproaching verses in the Qur’an also proves that, had Mohammed (pbuh) been in any way dishonest or had any doubt about the divine message, he would have concealed these verses without anyone knowing about them or suspecting them. As an honest person, he received and did not conceal the verses.

EVIDENCE 5 MARKED DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DICTION AND STYLE USED IN QUR’AN AND DICTION AND STYLE USED BY MOHAMMED (pbuh) IN HIS OWN SPEECHES AN LECTURES Mohammed (pbuh) expressed himself on a great many subjects, as well as recited to people many times verses from the Qur’an. Thus, his discourse was divided into two categories: (1) The Qur’an (2) The Prophet’s (pbuh) own ordinary discourse The fact that the discourse which the Prophet (pbuh) referred to as God’s speech—the Qur’an—was so very different in language and style from his own discourse, even though both were verbalized by him, was evident even at the time when the Prophet (pbuh) lived in the midst of his compatriots, and is still evident today. Furthermore, given that a great many of the Prophet’s (pbuh) statements and addresses to his people are extant in the works of Hadith, one cannot fail to notice that the language and style of these utterances are very different from that of the Qur’an. The difference is so pronounced that anyone who has the least sense of language and literature cannot dare to say that both the Qur’an and the material preserved in the collections of Hadith are the work of the same author. The question is, has a man in the world ever had the power, or can he have the capability to converse in two absolutely different styles, consistently, for years at a stretch, without it ever becoming known that the two separate styles are, in fact, of one and the same person ? It is possible that one may succeed in such affectation temporarily, but it is not at all possible


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind that, for twenty-three years continuously, a person should have different diction and style when he recites the revelations from Allah (swt), and a wholly different diction and style when he speaks in his personal capacity.

EVIDENCE 6 NO WHERE IN QUR’AN PERSONAL FEELINGS OF MOHAMMED (pbuh) ARE REFLECTED Mohammed (pbuh), while leading and guiding the Islamic movement, met with different sorts of conditions. Sometimes he became the target of ridicule, humiliation, and severe persecution by his fellow countrymen and the people of his own tribe and clan. Regarding this persecution of Mohammed (pbuh), see Chapter 18. Quoted below are some of these events in the life of the Prophet (pbuh). (a) Mohammed (pbuh) and all his companions and supporters, including the entire clan of Bani Hashim, were totally boycotted by all the non-believers of Makkah. These boycotters decided not to have any business, social dealings, intermarriage, visits, or even verbal contact with any of these boycotted people until Mohammed (pbuh) was given to them to be killed. All these boycotted people remained in a narrow valley called Shib of Abu Talib, which was blocked by the Quraish from every side, so that no supplies or necessities of life could reach the besieged people. This boycott lasted for three years, and broke the back of the Muslims and their supporters, so much so, that at times they were forced even to eat grass and the leaves of trees, and to drink the juice of boiled skin. Their children cried with hunger. After three years, some Meccan leaders pitied the Muslims and lifted the siege. Soon after the siege was lifted, Abu Talib, the uncle of the Prophet (pbuh), who was his great supporter against the Quraish, died because of the impact of this boycott. Three months after the death of Abu Talib, Khadijah (raa), the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), who was his great moral supporter and adviser, also died. (b) Because of this new situation, the Prophet (pbuh) went to Taif with high hopes of establishing himself there, but he met with failure after failure, and he was pelted with stones and chased out of Taif. Physically he was bleeding, and mentally he was very much hurt. This was the worst day in his entire life. (c) When there is a case of false, vulgar, and obscene accusations by the hypocrites of Madinah about A’ishah (raa), the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), and the bitterness which this caused the Prophet (pbuh). (d) Sometimes, his companions were so harshly treated that they were compelled to emigrate from the country. Sometimes, enemies plotted against his life. Sometimes, he, himself, had to leave his home and city. Sometimes, he had to fight wars successively, in which he experienced defeats as well as victories. Sometimes he overcame his enemies, and the same enemies who had persecuted him came before him humbled. Sometimes, he achieved such power that few people in the world have been able to achieve. Under all such conditions, a person’s feelings obviously cannot remain the same. When, on these different occasions, the Prophet (pbuh) spoke in his personal capacity, his words and speeches carried the clear impression of his personal feelings, which naturally arise in the heart of a man on such occasions. But the discourses that were heard from him as Allah’s (swt) revelations on these different feelings (of personal grief and bitterness, one after the other, or of happiness, power, and victories), are wholly devoid of human feelings. At no place can even an acute observer and critic point out the play of human feelings in them. Had the Qur’an been the word of Mohammed (pbuh), it would have reflected in some degree the state of mind of the man who was the subject of these afflictions and grievances.

EVIDENCE 7 QUR’AN IS A MIRACLE AND IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANYONE OTHER THAN GOD TO PRODUCE SOMETHING OF ITS KIND There are many aspects of the inimitability and uniqueness of the Qur’an. It is a miracle in its language, literary style, eloquence, and excellence; in its teachings, knowledge and wisdom; in its method of expression, its impact on listeners, and the revolution that it brought and can bring in the world.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (A) QUR’AN’S CHALLENGE TO THE ARABS IN PARTICULAR, AND TO THE ENTIRE WORLD IN GENERAL, TO PRODUCE ANYTHING LIKE IT STANDS UNRESPONDED AND WILL REMAIN SO When Mohammed (pbuh) claimed his Messengership of Allah (swt), he presented the Holy Qur’an as the one and the only witness, or proof, of the truth of his claim, saying: “If you think that the Qur’an is not the Book of Allah (swt), and that I have invented it or it is a man-made book, then the Qur’an challenges you to make a book like it.” This challenge was repeatedly given in three stages. In the first stage, the challenge was to produce a book like the Holy Qur’an. When there was no response, the challenge was to produce only ten chapters like those of the Qur’an. Still there was no response. Then the challenge was to produce only one Surah, or chapter, like one Surah of the Qur’an. These challenges were made in the following verses of the Holy Qur’an. (i)   Challenge to produce a book like the Qur’an. Holy Qur’an, 17:88 “Say: Surely, if all mankind and the jinn [i.e. visible and invisible creatures] were to get together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they will never be able to produce the like of it, even though they helped one another as best as they could.”

Holy Qur’an, 52:33-34 “Do they say: ‘This man has forged this Qur’an.’ The fact is that they do not want to believe. Let them then produce a discourse like it if they are true in what they say.” (ii)  Challenge to produce ten Surahs only, instead of an entire Qur’an.

Holy Qur’an, 11:13 “Do they say: ‘He has invented this book himself?’ Say: If that is so, bring ten Surahs [chapters] the like of it of your composition, and call upon all you can other than Allah to your help. Do so if you are truthful.” (iii)   Challenge to produce only one Surah instead of 10. It may be mentioned that there are some Surahs of the Qur’an that have only three verses, some have only four verses, and some only five verses, and so forth.

Holy Qur’an, 2:23-24 “If you are in doubt as to what We have revealed to Our Servant, then produce one Surah comparable to it and call upon all your supporters, other than Allah, if what you say is true. But if you fail, as you will certainly, then guard yourselves against fire, the fuel of which is men and stones. It has been prepared for disbelievers.” In the two verses that precede the ones above, i.e., 2:21-22, God says that, “It is He alone Who has created the earth as a resting place for you, and the sky a canopy, and sent down water from above with which He brought forth fruits for your sustenance....” The point of argument here is that just as no one other than God can create the heavens and the earth, and can bring water from above and grow fruit, etc., because these are the works of God, similarly the Holy Qur’an is the work of God, and thus cannot be produced by anyone other than God.

Holy Qur’an, 10:37-39 “This Qur’an could not have been devised by anyone other than God. It is a confirmation of [revelations] that went before it, and a full explanation of God’s Book, about which there is no doubt. It certainly comes from the Lord of all the worlds. If they say: ‘He has invented it,’ say, ‘Produce, then, one Surah like it, and call for help on all you can other than God, if what you say is true.’ Indeed they disbelieve what they cannot grasp, particularly since its inner meaning has not become clear to them. Likewise did those who lived before them disbelieve. But see what happened in the end to those wrongdoers.” “This Qur’an could not have been devised by anyone other than God.” What is negated here is the very possibility that the Qur’an could ever have been fabricated or authored by anyone other than God. This is much more comprehensive and emphatic. Such unique characteristics of topic and expression, such perfection of order and harmony, such completeness of the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind faith it preaches and the code for human life it lays down, such a thorough concept of the nature of God head, as well as the nature of life, human beings, and the universe could never have been designed by anyone other than God. Only He is able to combine all this, because He is the One who knows the beginnings of all things and their ends, the apparent and the hidden. No one else can devise a system that is perfect, free of shortcomings, and based on perfect knowledge. “It is a confirmation of revelation that went before it.” It confirms all the revelations and scriptures given to earlier Messengers. It confirms the original faith outlined by those messages and the good things they advocated. It is also: “a full explanation of God’s Book.” It is the same book, outlining the same message preached by all earlier Messengers. There may be differences of detail in these messages, but the basic principles are the same. The Qur’an explains God’s Book fully, making clear all the methods and means of goodness, and how these are to be fulfilled and followed in human life. The faith is the same, and the basic substance is the same, but the methods of goodness and the legislation outlined are given each time in a degree of detail that suited human progress and development. When mankind came of age, people were addressed by the Qur’an as adults. They were no longer addressed by physical miracles that defy human intellect. Moreover, it is a book: “...about which there is no doubt. It certainly comes from the Lord of all the worlds.” This is an assertion that the Qur’an could never have been fabricated or attributed falsely to God. It is indeed a revelation by “the Lord of all the worlds.” Having stated the truth about the Qur’an, the Surah speaks of a certain possibility: “If they say: ‘He invented it’.” (Qur’an, 10:37). In other words, if Mohammed (pbuh) is alleged to have invented it, let them then mobilize their resources and invent a single Surah like it, if they can. “Say: ‘Produce, then, one Surah like it, and call for help on all you can besides God, if what you say is true’.’’ The challenge is permanent, as is their inability to meet it. It continues for the rest of time, and no one will ever be able to meet it. Anyone who appreciates the strength, beauty, and artistic expression of the Arabic language will recognize that the Qur’anic style is unique, and that no human being could produce anything similar to it. So will those who study human social systems and legal principles. If they study the system laid down in the Qur’an, they will realize that its approach to the organization of the human community is absolutely unique. It enacts appropriate regulations for all aspects of human life, while at the same time allowing a sufficient degree of practicality and flexibility to meet any type of development. That is a task too great to be undertaken by a single human mind or by the minds of any group of human beings in a single generation or throughout human history. The same applies to those who study human psychology and methods of influencing people, on the one hand, and the Qur’an and the way it addresses the human mind, on the other. It is not merely the incomparability of the Qur’anic style and mode of expression; instead, the absolutely miraculous nature of the Qur’an is easily recognized by experts in diverse disciplines, such as language, society, law, and psychology. Those who are adept at using artistic expression, and have insight into fine literary styles, are better able to appreciate the miracle of the Qur’an in this particular aspect, while experts in the different disciplines of sociology, law, and psychology are able to appreciate its superior treatment of their subject matters. Each will appreciate better than anyone else the miracle of the Qur’an in their respective disciplines. Although it is practically impossible to describe this miracle and its true dimensions, I shall continue this discussion about this inimitability of the Qur’an. The Prophet (pbuh) and the Holy Qur’an criticized and condemned the gods of the pagan Arabs, and insulted and humiliated their forefathers by saying that they were ignorant and misled, and even hurt their tribal sense of honor, dignity, and ego by predicting that they would never be able to take up this challenge. Despite all these insults, humiliations, incitements, and the enragements of the pagan Arabs, who fancied themselves for their eloquence, who considered themselves the masters of Arabic language, poetry, and prose, whose power and skill of oration enjoyed a great renown and fame throughout Arabia, who considered non-Arabs as “The Dumbs,” and among whom there were present such famous Arabic eloquent writers, poets, and litterateurs who would hang their poetry on the door of Ka’bah to challenge the entire Arabia to match their writing or poetry, not a single contender came forward to face the challenge of the Qur’an. All these famous orators, eloquent writers, and poets found themselves powerless, helpless, and incapable of facing the challenge of the Qur’an. This is a clear admission of their helplessness and an acknowledgement that the Holy Qur’an is the Word of Allah. This also establishes the fact that the Holy Qur’an is an evident miracle of the Prophet (pbuh). This challenge still stands. The miracle, too, lives on, and shall live to the end of the world. History tells us that the infidels of Makkah opposed Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his message (i.e., the Holy Qur’an)


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind tooth and nail. As discussed in Chapter 18, they severely persecuted Mohammed (pbuh) and his companions, including their own relatives and dear friends who had accepted Islam. In this process, they sent these Muslims into exile, first to Africa (Ethiopia), and then to Madinah. They attacked the Muslims and fought many battles, killed them and themselves were killed, and sacrificed their wealth and resources, their comforts and peace. They sacrificed their very lives for the purpose of obliterating Islam. The Holy Qur’an provided them an easy chance of accomplishing their objective or goal. Instead of suffering all these hardships, all these eloquent litterateurs, poets, and orators (who were in large number among these Arabs) had to do was just prove that Holy Qur’an is not the Book of God or Book revealed by God. This would have been the end of Islam and the mission of Mohammed (pbuh), and would have relieved them of all their worries, hardships, and problems without being killed and killing others. If, according to them, Mohammed (pbuh) is the author of this book, they are also human beings, so they should also be able to produce something like this. But they did not do it, because they could not. Had they the ability to do it, they would have definitely done it. Humans were helpless to produce the like of it at the time when it was sent down and are likewise helpless even today. Nothing of it could ever be proved wrong in any age, nor can anything of it be proved wrong in the present age. Falsehood can neither attack it from the front, nor from the rear, nor defeat it. It is generous and beneficent in the sense that the more a person goes on trying to gain guidance from it, the more guidance it goes on giving him, and the more he follows and obeys its commands and instructions, the more he continues to be blessed with good things of the world and the Hereafter. There is no limit to its benefits and advantages, no time when a man may become independent of it, and when it may cease to be beneficial and useful for him.

(B)   QUR’AN IS THE HIGHEST AND MOST PERFECT MODEL OF THE LITERATURE OF   THE LANGUAGE IN WHICH IT WAS REVEALED No word and no sentence in the entire book is substandard. Whatever theme has been presented in it has been presented in the most appropriate words and in the most suitable style. One and the same theme has been presented over and over again, but every time in a new style, avoiding the defect of repetition everywhere. The entire book, from the beginning to the end, is set in the choicest words, like chiseled and polished gems, that cannot be replaced. The discourses are so impressive that no one who knows the language, even if he is a disbeliever, can help being moved to ecstasies on hearing them. Even after 1,400 years, this book is still the model of Arabic literature, and no other Arabic book can approach it in literary excellence, not to speak of equaling it. Not only this, but also this book has so controlled the Arabic language, that even after the passage of fourteen centuries, the standard of this language’s beauty and eloquence is the same that had been set by it; whereas in such long periods, other languages change out of recognition. No other language of the world has remained in the same state in so far as its spelling and diction, idiom, rules of language, and usages are concerned. But it is only the power of the Qur’an that has held the Arabic language in place; each idiom of it is still in use in Arabic literature; its literature is still the standard literature of Arabic; and in writing and speech the same language is still regarded as good Arabic that had been used in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago. Is there any man-made book in any language of the world that bears the same characteristics? The literary form of the Qur’an is neither that of poetry, nor that of rhythmic or non-rhythmic prose, nor that of the Prophet (pbuh) himself, nor that of any common man. The ascendant power of the Qur’an penetrates the soul, as discussed later (see Chapter 18). The language of the Qur’an reflects neither the usual softness of the townsman, nor the roughness of nomadic Arab. It reflects the right measure of the sweetness of the former and the vigor of the latter.

(C)   ELOQUENCE AND UNIQUE STYLE OF QUR’AN The eloquence and flawless style in which the Qur’an was couched captivated the senses of the Arabs and resulted in the conversion of many of them. The most authentic and widely-circulated tradition about `Umar’s acceptance of Islam is as follows: When `Umar set out to kill the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), on the way he met someone who was aware of what `Umar intended. This person asked `Umar to first set his own house in order; the stranger was alluding to the fact that `Umar’s own sister and brother-inlaw had already embraced Islam. Upon hearing this, `Umar rushed to his sister’s house. His sister, Fatimah bint al-Khattab, and his brother-in-law, Sa’id ibn Zayd, were at that moment studying a scroll (sahifah) of the Holy Book under the direction


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind of Khattab ibn Aratt. Although Fatimah had hidden her copy of the scripture as soon as she saw `Umar approaching, `Umar had nonetheless overheard his sister and brother-in-law reciting something. He immediately began to interrogate them both, and even resorted to beating Sa’id ibn Zayd. When his sister tried to protect her husband, `Umar also ruthlessly attacked her, causing a skull injury to Fatimah’s head. Despite all this, both his sister and brother-in-law advised `Umar, in no uncertain terms, that they had embraced Islam and were determined to adhere to it, regardless of how he treated them. `Umar, however, was so moved by the sight of his sister’s profuse bleeding that he asked her and her husband to show him what they had been reciting. Before Fatimah agreed to show `Umar the scroll, she obtained a solemn promise from him that he would not tear it into shreds. She also subsequently told him that he could touch the scripture, but only after he had washed himself properly. Accordingly, `Umar took a bath and then began to read the scroll. Inscribed on it was Surah Ta Ha. As he read through this Surah, `Umar exclaimed: “What a remarkable discourse!” On hearing this, Khattab ibn Aratt, who had kept himself hidden throughout the various exchanges, came out and said: “By God, I believe God has chosen you to spread the message of His Prophet (pbuh), for I heard him (i.e., the Prophet) pray yesterday: ‘O God! Strengthen Islam through Abu Jahl or Umar ibn al-Khattab.’ So, turn to God, O `Umar!” `Umar needed nothing more to persuade him that he should embrace Islam. Immediately thereafter, and accompanied by Khattab ibn Aratt, `Umar sought out the Prophet (pbuh) and in this way accepted Islam. These events took place shortly after the migration of some of the Prophet’s companions to Abyssinia (5th year of prophethood/615 C.E.). (For the story of `Umar’s acceptance of Islam, see Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 1, pp. 342-6.) As a matter of fact, the most renowned among the contemporary Arabs did admit, though in private, that the Holy Qur’an was inimitable; some of them had the honesty to say so in public, and some accepted Islam, while others, in spite of this admission, could not give up the ways of their forefathers, or sufficiently overcome tribal rivalries, particularly their hostility to Banu `Abd Manaf, the tribe of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Jalal al-Din al-Suyati has reported, in his `Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra’, a number of incidents that illustrate the point. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and the Holy Qur’an began to attract the attention of people even outside Makkah, the enemies of Islam became worried about the huge crowds that would assemble there for the annual pilgrimage and would be likely to fall under his spell. Their tribal chiefs wanted to find an effective stratagem to prevent such a situation from arising, and they referred the problem to Walid ibn Mughirah, the eldest and the wisest among them. To begin with, they suggested that they could tell the pilgrims that the Holy Qur’an was (May Allah (swt) forgive us for reporting a blasphemy) only the ravings of a lunatic. But Walid could foresee that when the pilgrims heard the Holy Prophet (pbuh) speaking with such lucidity and eloquence, they would immediately know that the allegation was not true. Next they thought of dismissing him as a mere poet. Then, they considered the possibility of putting him down as one of the soothsayers. But Walid feared that they would again discover how false the imputation was, and would only turn against the accusers. In summing up his own impression of the Holy Qur’an, Walid said: “By God, there is not a single man among you who knows more about Arabic poetry than me. And, by God, I find in his speech a kind of sweetness and grace which I have never found in the speech of any poet or of any eloquent man.” After a good deal of thought, he finally advised them to accuse the Holy Prophet of being a sorcerer who employed his black arts in separating sons from fathers, and wives from husbands. Exactly the same was the impression made by the Holy Qur’an on many other people, who expressed similar views— for example, Nadr ibn Harith, a tribal chief; Unais, the brother of the blessed companion, Abu Dharr; As’ad ibn Zurarah, another tribal chief; and Qais ibn Nasibah of the Banu Sulaim tribe. Even the vilest enemies of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), like Akhnas ibn Shariq, Abu Sufyan, and, of all persons, Abu Jahl himself, are reported to have stealthily crept in the darkness of night to the house of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to hear him reciting the Holy Qur’an, and to have been so entranced by the Word of Allah (swt) that they could not tear themselves away from the place until dawn. Yet they continued to be stubborn in their denial, for, as Abu Jahl confessed in so many words, they had been successfully competing with the tribe of Banu `Abd Manaf in all possible virtues, but now that their rivals had produced a prophet, they could not come up with something to match it. ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, the father-in-law of Abu Sufyan and the father of Hind, approached the Quraish chiefs, saying: “Should you like, I will call on Mohammed (pbuh) and try to persuade him to desist preaching.” This happened after Hamzah embraced Islam. Because the number of the Prophet’s (pbuh) companions continued to grow, the Quraish chiefs were seriously perturbed. They, the Quraish chiefs, agreed that `Utbah should try to dissuade Mohammed (pbuh) from his course, for they had full confidence in him.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Accordingly, `Utbah visited the Prophet (pbuh) and said to him: “0 my nephew! You know well the position you enjoy among us. In terms of pedigree you come from a noble family. So why have you brought down such a calamity on your people? You have caused division in the whole community. You speak ill of their faith and their deities. You brand our deceased ancestors with unbelief and error.” Then `Utbah made many offers to the Prophet to dissuade him from preaching Islam. While `Utbah made these offers, the Prophet (pbuh) listened silently. When he had finished his long list of offers, the Prophet (pbuh) said: “Abu al-Walid! Have you finished, or do you have something else to say?” To this he replied in the affirmative, confirming that he had spoken his mind in full. Then the Prophet (pbuh) said: “Listen to me now.” He then recited some verses from Surah Ha Mim al-Sajdah and `Utbah listened to the Prophet (pbuh) in rapt attention. When the Prophet (pbuh) recited Verse 38 of this Surah, he prostrated himself before Allah (swt) and then said to `Utbah: “0 Abu al-Walid, you have listened to what I have to say. Now it is up to you to do what pleases you.” `Utbah took his leave of the Prophet (pbuh) and returned to the Quraish chiefs. As he approached them, they exclaimed: “By God! Abu al-Walid’s countenance is totally changed. This is not the one he went to meet Mohammed with.” When `Utbah joined them, they asked: “0 Abu al-Walid! What were you able to do?” To this he replied: “By God! Today I have listened to something I have never heard before. By God, it is neither poetry, nor magic, nor soothsaying. Leaders of the Quraish! Listen to me and let him alone. Whatever I have heard from him is bound to come about. If some other Arabs defeat him, you will not be held guilty of his murder, for others will be responsible for it. However, if he establishes his dominance over Arabia, his dominion will be your dominion, his prestige will mean your prestige.” They replied: “Abu al-Walid! You too have fallen prey to his spell!” (Urdu translation of Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 1, pp. 293-4, published by Islami Kutab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan). In the reports brought together by Bayhaqi regarding this event there is some additional information. When the Prophet (pbuh) was reciting Ha Mim al-Sajdah and reached the verse: “But if they turn away, say: ‘I have warned you of a thunder like the thunder that overtook ‘Ad and Thamud.” (Holy Qur’an, 41:13), ‘Utbah put his hand upon the Prophet’s mouth, pleading mercy for his people.’ There is another incident reported by Ibn Masud, in which he says that Chapter 53 is the first chapter of the Holy Qur’an in which the Holy Prophet (pbuh) publicly recited before an assembly of the Quraish (and according to Ibn Maduyah, in the Ka’bah) where both believers and disbelievers were present. At the end, when he recited the verse requiring the performance of a sajdah (prostration) and fell down in prostration, then even those chiefs of the polytheists who were in the forefront of the opposition to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) could not resist falling down in prostration. Another interesting story is of the impact of the Qur’an on a Muslim who had transgressed and gone astray, but after listening to the recitation of the Qur’an, he not only came back to Islam, but became a leading pious man. His name was Abu Ali Fudhail Bin Ayadh. In his early life, he resorted to dacoity and robbery of caravans between the towns of Marv and Moward in Khurasan (Central Asia). But even while committing these crimes, he had some fear of God, which he displayed in the form of mercy and compassion. If he found that someone he was planning to rob did not have much money, he would not rob him at all, and while robbing the rich ones, he would not rob them completely, but always left some money with them. Once, when a trader was leaving the city of Marv for Moward, some people advised him to take some police or guards with him for protection from robbery by Fudhail on the way. The tradesman, who knew that Fudhail was a god-fearing robber, instead of taking guards with him, took a ,Qari (reciter of the Holy Qur’an) with him, and assigned him to the lead camel of the caravan, telling him to start reciting the Holy Qur’an as soon as the caravan entered the jungle wherein Fudhail looted the caravans. Luckily, when the caravan reached the jungle where Fudhail was waiting in ambush, the Qari started reciting the Qur’an Chapter 57, Verses 16 and onwards: “Has not the time yet arrived for the believers that their hearts should melt with the remembrance of Allah and should submit to the truth sent down by Him, and they should not be like those who were given the Book before them, and long ages passed over them and their hearts became hardened and today most of them are sinners? Know it well that Allah gives life to the earth after its death. We have shown you the Signs clearly; may be that you use your common sense” (Qur’an, 57:16-17). When Fudhail heard these words, he was severely shaken up, like a person who is in a deep sleep and awakened by a loud explosion. Meanwhile, the Qari continued his recitation of the Qur’an. When Fudhail heard Verses 20-21 (below), he was completely changed.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “Know it well that the life of this world is nothing but a sport and pastime, and a show and boasting among yourselves and a rivalry in wealth and children. Its example is of vegetation after a shower of rain, which delighted the tillers, then the same ripens, and you see it turn yellow, then it becomes straw. Contrary to this, in the life to come there is severe torment and forgiveness from Allah and His good pleasure. The life of this world is nothing but illusion. Therefore, strive in rivalry with one another in hastening towards Paradise, the vastness of which is like the vastness of the heavens and earth, prepared for those who have believed in Allah and His Messengers. This is Allah’s bounty, which He bestows on whomever he wills, and Allah’s bounty is immense!” (Qur’an, 57:20-21). When Fudhail heard Verses 20-21, the hidden essence of god- fearing in him overpowered him. Consequently, he sincerely and extremely regretted his acts of robbing and looting, and not only renounced them, but also returned the looted money to all those whom he knew and could locate, and made them happy. Then he went to Makkah, remained there as a servant at Makkah, enjoyed the company of many great and pious Muslims, and became a great pious Muslim himself. The words of the Qur’an move even those people who may not know a word of Arabic. The famous Egyptian reciter, Qari Abdul Basit, reportedly once accompanied then-President Gamal Abdul Nasir to a meeting with the Soviet leaders. During a break in the meeting, Nasir asked him to recite the Qur’an before the top Soviet leaders. When he finished the recitation, Qari Abdul Basit saw four of them shedding tears. `We don’t know what it was,” they later explained, `but there was something touching in those words.” Quoted here is another similar example from commentary on the Holy Qur’an, In the Shade of the Qur’an, by Sayyid Qutab. Sayyid Qutab went on a scholarship to the United States in 1950 to undertake research to determine the best means of developing education in Egyptian universities. Here is his personal experience in his own words: “We were seven Muslim passengers traveling on board an Egyptian ship across the Atlantic to New York. There were also 120 foreign passengers, none of whom was a Muslim. It occurred to us to hold Friday prayers on board, in the middle of the ocean. God knows that we were not that keen on the prayer itself, but we were driven to show our religious feelings when we saw a missionary exercising his mission with the passengers. He even approached us. The captain, an Englishman, facilitated our task and allowed any of the crew and other workers, all of whom were Nubian Muslims, to join the prayer, provided that they were not on duty at the time. They were overjoyed by this, as it was, in their experience, the first time ever that Friday prayers had been held on board. I delivered the khutbah, or sermon, and led the prayers, while many of the foreign passengers were watching nearby. “When the prayer was over, many of the non-Muslims congratulated us on a `successful service.’ That was how they viewed our prayers. One particular lady, who we were later informed was a Christian from Yugoslavia fleeing from the oppression of Tito’s Communist regime, was particularly touched. In fact, she could not control her feelings, and her eyes were full of tears. She shook our hands warmly and said in broken English that she was profoundly touched by the discipline and spiritual calm of our prayers. She then asked which language the `priest’ was speaking. She simply could not imagine that prayers could be led by a layman, but we made sure to explain this point to her. She also said that although she could not understand a word of what was being said, the language had a remarkable musical rhythm. She then added something that was a great surprise to us all. She said that certain phrases or sentences which he used were different from the rest of his speech. They were more clearly musical with an even more profound rhythm. These phrases filled her with awe. It was as if the imam was deriving his speech from the Holy Spirit. We reflected on what she said and concluded that she meant the Qur’anic verses quoted in the khutbah and recited during the prayer. The whole thing was truly remarkable, as the lady did not understand a word of Arabic.”

(D) QUR’AN USES THE FEWEST POSSIBLE WORDS TO EXPRESS UTMOST RICHNESS AND COMPREHENSIVE MEANINGS Another essential element of the Qur’anic style is that it uses the fewest possible words to express ideas of utmost richness and comprehensive meaning. Nevertheless, it covers them in the fullest, finest, most vivid and accurate way, maintaining at the same time a perfect harmony between the words it uses, the style, rhythm, connotations, and the overall feeling it generates. It combines artistic beauty with precision in a way that makes it impossible to replace one word with another, and does not allow the needs of fine style to overshadow those of precise meaning, or vice versa. In this respect, it achieves a standard of excellence that surpasses anything that men of letters recognize as the zenith that can be attained by any human being. This is a common feature, which is clearly noticeable throughout the Qur’an. Below are only two examples.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (1)  The first example is Chapter 112 of the Holy Qur’an, which may be transliterated as: “Qul Ho Allaho Ahad; Allah us-Samad; lam Yalid, wa lam Yu lad; wa lam ya kullahu Kufowan Ahad.” This means: “Say: He is God the One God upon Whom depends all and Who depends upon none; He hath no father nor a son (Literally, He does not give birth nor is He born of anyone). And like unto Him there is none.” (Wollaston, Mohammed: His Life and Doctrines) The word samad in the original requires nine words in English, and even then it is not fully translated. From the most illiterate Bedouin of the desert to the highest philosopher, every man can understand this short chapter, and yet no one can exhaust its deep meaning. It is as if the whole literature of philosophy had been condensed into seventeen words of Arabic. Philosophers have been trying to explore the nature of reality, and here it is, in seventeen short, easily comprehensible words with no verbs, except the simplest ones, no nouns that are not known to the Arabs, and yet so deep in meaning that no man can ever condense the nature of reality in shorter compass. Add to all these beauties the fact that the diction of the original Arabic is so marvelously interwoven with its sound, that no matter what one does, one cannot make any other language to reach it. A commentary on these seventeen words would require thousands of words, and would still be incomplete. It is a declaration of the truth of Islam and a refutation of all rival creeds. The Christians say that Jesus (pbuh) is the son of God. This chapter refuses that as being inconsistent with the nature of reality. The Hindus believe that God comes incarnate in the bodies of men (a doctrine which the Christians also borrowed from the Grecian Aryans). The Qur’an says “No” to this fanciful theory. God is Samad or Unique, and there is none like unto Him nor is He born. In order that God may become incarnate, He has to be born in the body of man or some other being. The whole chapter is a commentary or explanation of the word Huwa or “He Is.” The word “He” is not a pronoun in this chapter. It is a substantive word, and one of the Names of God. In fact, it is one word which declares God to be above all attributes that we can imagine. “He is what He is,” so to say, above all our imaginings and above all the apprehensions of our senses. The whole universe is full of this He, and when one realizes the existence of this He or the truth that “He Is,” one becomes free from all vexatious troubles of the human soul. One becomes an electron moving around this universal nucleus of He, and the whole universe becomes a manifestation of He Is, He Is, He Is, ad infinitum. 2. Similarly, in Chapter 90 of the Holy Qur’an, a vast subject is compressed into a few brief sentences, and it is a miracle of the Qur’an that a complete ideology of life, which could hardly be explained in a thick volume, has been abridged most effectively in the brief sentences of this short chapter. The translation of this chapter is given below. “Nay! I swear by this city [of Makkah, wherein even animals are living in security and peace], while you [O’ Prophet], have been made lawful [for persecution and suppression] in this city. And I swear by the father [Adam, on whom be peace] and by the children he begot, that We have indeed created man in toil. Does he think that no one will have power over him? He says, ‘I have squandered heaps of wealth.’ Does he think that no one has seen him? Have We not given him two eyes, and a tongue and two lips, and shown him both the highways [of good and evil]? Yet he has not ventured to scale the steep pass. And what do you know what the steep pass is? It is the freeing of someone’s neck from slavery, or feeding on a day of hunger a closely related orphan or a poor one lying in the dust; and then besides he should be of those who have believed and enjoined upon one another steadfastness and enjoined upon one another compassion [for God’s creatures]. These are the people of the right hand. As for those who have refused to believe in Our Revelations, they are the people of the left hand. They shall have a fire covering them all around.” The theme of this chapter is to explain the true position of man in the world, and of the world in relation to man, and to tell that God Who has shown to man both the highways of good and evil, has also provided for him the means to judge, see, and follow them, and now it rests upon man’s own effort and judgment whether he chooses the path of virtue and reaches felicity, or adopts the path of vice and meets with doom. First, the city of Makkah and the hardships being faced therein by the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), and the state of the children of Adam, have been cited as witness to the truth that this world is not a place of rest and ease for man, where he might have been born to enjoy life, but here he has been created to pass through the rigors of toil, struggle, and hardship, something which no human being can escape. If this theme is read with Verse 39 of Surah An-Najm (Laisa lil-insan-Jilla ma sa’s: “There is nothing for man but what he has striven for”), it becomes plain that in this world, the future of man depends on his toil and struggle, effort and striving. This refutes man’s misunderstanding that he is all in all in this world, and that there is no superior power to watch what he does and to call him to account.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Then, taking one of the many moral concepts of ignorance held by man as an example, it is pointed out what wrong criteria of merit and greatness he has proposed for himself in the world. The person who, for ostentation and display, squanders heaps of wealth, not only himself prides upon his extravagances, but the people also admire him for it enthusiastically, whereas the Being Who is watching over his deeds sees by what methods he obtained the wealth and in what ways, and with what motives and intentions he spent it. Then Allah (swt) says: “We have given man the means of knowledge and the faculties of thinking and understanding, and opened up before him both the highways of virtue and vice: one way leads down to moral depravity, and it is an easy way pleasing for the self; the other way leads up to moral heights, which is steep like an uphill road; for scaling which man has to exercise self-restraint. It is man’s weakness that he prefers slipping down into the abyss to scaling the cliff.” (see S.A. Maududi’s Translation of the Holy Qur’an, Introduction to Chapter 90). Allah (swt) has explained what the steep road is, by following which man can ascend to the heights. It is that he should give up spending for ostentation, display, and pride, and should spend his wealth to help the orphans and the needy, he should believe in Allah (swt) and His religion, and, joining the company of believers, should participate in the construction of a society that fulfills the demands of virtue and righteousness patiently, and should be compassionate to the people. The end of those who follow this way is that they become worthy of Allah’s (swt) mercies. On the contrary, the end of those who follow the wrong way is the fire of hell from which there is no escape.

(E) SINGLE STATEMENT OF QUR’AN OFTEN PROVIDES MORE THAN ONE MEANING This main feature brings about another distinctive characteristic of the Qur’an, one which enables a single statement to provide different meanings that run side by side, with each given its fair share of clarity. There is no ambiguity or confusion among different meanings. Each aspect and each fact to which the text refers is given its full and appropriate space. Thus, the same statement is quoted in different contexts, but on each occasion it fits the context perfectly, as if it were only meant to express the particular issue in question. This feature is well- known, and only requires brief mention for people to appreciate it.

(F) QUR’AN HAS ABILITY OF EXPRESSION WHICH NO HUMAN EXPRESSION CAN APPROXIMATE The Qur’anic method of expression is also distinguished by its ability to paint pictures in a way no human expression can approximate. Anyone who tries to imitate it sounds confused and incoherent. How can people express the following ideas in the same way as the Qur’an? (i) “And We brought the Children of Israel across the sea; but Pharaoh and his legions pursued them with tyranny and aggression. But as he was about to drown, Pharaoh said: ‘I have come to believe that there is no deity other than Him in whom the Children of Israel believe, and to Him I surrender myself’” (Qur’an, 10:90). Up to this point, this is an account of certain events. But it is followed immediately with a direct remonstration brought up as though it were taking place right before us: “Only now? But before this you were rebelling [against Us], and you spread corruption in the land. But today We shall save only your body, so that you may become a sign to those who will come after you.” (Qur’an, 10:91-92) This is then followed with a concluding comment on the scene itself: “For a great many people do not heed Our Signs.” (Qur’an, 10:92) (ii)  ”Say: ‘What is weightiest in the testimony?’ Say: ‘God is witness between me and you. This Qur’an has been revealed to me that I may thereby warn you and all whom it may reach.’ (Qur’an, 6:19) So far, this is an instruction received by God’s Messenger. Then, immediately we see the Messenger questioning his people: `Will you in truth bear witness that there are other deities beside God?” (Qur’an, 6:19). The next moment, we see him again receiving instructions concerning their answer: “Say: ‘I bear no such witness.’ Say: ‘He is but One God. I disown all that you associate with Him.’’ (Qur’an, 6:19) (iii) Note also the frequent switch of tense or address often employed in the Qur’an, as in the following passage: “On the day when He shall gather them all together, [He will say]: ‘O you company of jinn! A great many human beings have you seduced.’ Those who were their close friends among human beings will say: ‘Our Lord, we have enjoyed each other’s fellowship, and we have now reached the end of our term which You have appointed for us.’ He will say: ‘The fire shall be your abode, where you shall remain, unless God wills it otherwise.’ Indeed, your Lord is Wise, All-Knowing. In this manner do We cause the wrongdoers to be close allies of one another, because of that which they do. ‘O you company of jinn and humans! Have there not come to you Messengers from among yourselves who related to you My revelations and warned you of the coming of this day?’ They will reply: ‘We bear witness against ourselves.’ The life of this world has beguiled them.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind So they will bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. And so it is that your Lord would never destroy a community for its wrongdoing, while they remain unaware.” (Qur’an, 6:128-131) There are numerous similar examples in the Qur’an. Its style is thus totally different from any human style. Anyone who wishes to argue about this can try as hard as he wishes to produce something like it, but he will certainly fail. He will be totally unable to come up with any meaningful piece of writing, let alone one that has any degree of artistic beauty, inspiring rhythm and perfect coherence. For more discussion and examples of the eloquence of the Qur’an, see The Miracles of the Qur’an by Shaykh Muhammed Mitwalli al-Sharawi, published by Dar-al-Taqwa, Ltd., London, U.K., Chapter 4, and The Qur’an An Eternal Challenge, by Muhammed Abdullah Draz, Chapter 9 named “Broadest Meaning, Minimum Words”, published in 2001 by The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, U.K. In fact, this entire latter book beautifully discusses the inimitability of the Qur’an, and the author uses the Qur’an itself throughout to testify to its Author, God Almighty. To this end, the book uses the information provided in the Qur’an, which could not have been available to anyone but God.

Evidence 8 PROPHESIES OF THE QUR’AN The prophesies of the Qur’an are so numerous that people have written voluminous books on this subject. Quoted below are only some prophesies of the Qur’an.

(A) PROPHESY ABOUT THE VICTORY OF EASTERN ROMAN (BYZANTINE) EMPIRE AGAINST THE IRANIAN EMPIRE The opening verses of Chapter 30 of the Holy Qur’an are: “Alif. Lam. Mim. The Romans have been overcome in the neighboring land, and within a few years after their defeat, they shall be victorious. Allah’s is the authority before, as well as afterwards. And it will be the day when the believers will rejoice in the victory granted by Allah. Allah helps whomsoever He wills: He is the Almighty, the All-Merciful. This is Allah’s promise: Allah never breaks His promise; but most people do not know.” The prediction made in these verses is one of the most outstanding evidences that the Qur’an is the Word of Allah (swt), and the Holy Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is a true Messenger of Allah. Within a year after this victory, the Iranian armies overran Jordan, Palestine, and the whole of the Sinai Peninsula, and reached the frontiers of Egypt. In those very days, another conflict of far greater historical consequences was going on in Makkah. The believers in One God, under the leadership of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), were striving to preserve their existence against the pagans under the command of the chiefs of the Quraish, and the conflict had reached such a stage that, in 615 A.D., a substantial number of Muslims had to leave their homes and take refuge within the Christian kingdom of Habash, which was an ally of the Byzantine Empire. In those days, the Sassanid victories against Byzantium were the talk of the town, and the pagans of Makkah were delighted, and taunted the Muslims to this effect: “Look! The fire- worshippers of Iran are winning victories, and the Christian believers in revelation and prophethood are being routed everywhere. Likewise, we, the idol-worshippers of Arabia, will exterminate you and your religion.” These were the conditions when this chapter of the Qur’an was sent down, and in it a prediction was made, saying: “The Romans have been vanquished in the neighboring land and within a few years after their defeat, they shall be victorious. And it will be the day when the believers will rejoice in the victory granted by Allah” (Qur’an, 30:2-4). It contained not one, but two predictions: first, the Romans shall be victorious, and second, the Muslims also shall win a victory at the same time. Apparently, there was not even a remote chance of the fulfillment of either prediction in the next few years. On the one hand, there were a handful of Muslims who were being beaten and tortured in Makkah, and even until eight years after this prediction there appeared no chance of their victory and domination. On the other hand, the Romans were losing more and more ground every day. By 619 A.D., the whole of Egypt had passed into Sassanid hands and the Magian armies had reached as far as Tripoli. In Asia Minor they beat and pushed back the Romans to the Bosphorus; and in 61’7 A.D., they captured Chalcedon (modern-day Kadikoy) just opposite Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). Emperor Heraclius sent an envoy to Khusrau , saying that he was ready to have peace on any terms, but Khosrau replied, “I shall not give protection to the Emperor until he is brought in chains before me, and gives up obedience to his crucified god and adopts submission to the fire- god.” At last, the Emperor became so depressed by defeat that he decided to leave Constantinople and shift to Carthage (modern-day Tunis). In short, as the British historian Gibbon says, even seven to eight years after this prediction


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind of the Qur’an, the conditions were such that no one could even imagine that the Byzantine Empire would ever gain an upper hand over Iran (Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. II, Modern Library: New York, p.’788). Not to speak of gaining domination, no one could hope that the empire, under the circumstances, would even survive. When these verses of the Qur’an were sent down, the disbelievers of Makkah made great fun of them, and Ubayy bin Khalaf bet Hazrat Abu Bakr ten camels that the Romans would not become victorious within three years. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) came to know of the bet, he said: “The Qur’an has used the words bid’i sinin, and the word bid’ in Arabic applies to a number up to ten. Therefore, make the bet for ten years and increase the number of camels to a hundred.” (see S.A. Maududi’s Translation of the Holy Qur’an, Introduction to Chapter 30). Hazrat Abu Bakr spoke to Ubayy again and bet a 100 camels that the Romans would become victorious within 10 years. In 622 A.D., as the Holy Prophet (pbuh) migrated to Medinah, Emperor Heraclius set off quietly for Trabzon from Constantinople, via the Black Sea, and started preparations to attack Iran from the rear. For this, he asked the church for money, and Pope Sergius lent him the church collections on interest, in a bid to save Christianity from Zoroastrianism. Heraclius started his counterattack in 623 A.D., from Armenia. The next year, in 624 A.D, he entered Azerbaijan and destroyed Clorumia, the birthplace of Zoroaster, and ravaged the principal fire-temple of Iran. Great are the powers of Allah (swt)! This was the year when the Muslims achieved a decisive victory at Badr for the first time against the pagans. Thus, both the predictions made in Surah Rum were fulfilled simultaneously within the stipulated period of ten years. The Byzantine forces continued to press the Iranians hard, and in the decisive battle at Nineveh (627 A.D.) they dealt them the hardest blow. They captured the royal residence of Dastagerd, and then, pressing forward, reached opposite to Ctesiphon, the capital of Iran in those days. In 628 A.D., in an internal revolt, Khosrau Parvez was imprisoned, and eighteen of his sons were executed in front of him. A few days later, he himself died in prison. This was the year the peace treaty of Hudaibiya was concluded, which the Qur’an has termed as “the supreme victory,” and in this very year Khosrau’s son, Qubad II, gave up all the occupied Roman territories, restored the True Cross, and made peace with Byzantium. In 629 A.D., the emperor himself went to Jerusalem to install the “Holy Cross” in its place, and in the same year the Holy Prophet (pbuh) entered Makkah for the first time after Hijrah, to perform the Umra-tul-Qada’. After this, no one could have any doubt about the truth of the prophecy of the Qur’an, with the result that most of the Arab polytheists accepted Islam. The heirs of Ubayy bin Khalaf lost their bet and had to give a hundred camels to Hazrat Aby Bakr Siddiq. He took the camels before the Holy Prophet (pbuh), who ordered that they be given away in charity, because the bet had been made at a time when gambling had not yet been forbidden by the Shari’ah, but by then it was forbidden. Therefore, the bet was allowed to be accepted from the belligerent disbelievers, but instruction given that the prize should be given away in charity and should not be kept for personal use.

(B) PROPHESY FOR MISERABLE END OF ABU LAHAB In Chapter 111 of the Qur’an, the prophecy of a miserable end of Abu-Lahab was made about seven or eight years before the fulfillment of this prophecy.

Holy Qur’an, 111:1-3 “Broken were the hands of Abu Lahab, and he was doomed to utter failure. His wealth and whatever he earned did not avail him of anything. Certainly he shall be cast into a blazing fire.” “Broken hands” does not imply breaking of the physical hands, but represents a person’s utter failure in his aim and object for which he has exerted his utmost effort. Abu-Lahab indeed had exerted his utmost effort to defeat and frustrate the message of Islam presented by the Holy Prophet (pbuh). But hardly seven or eight years after the revelation of this Surah, most of the big chiefs of Quraish, as hostile to Islam as was Abu-Lahab, were killed in the Battle of Badr. When the news of the defeat reached Makkah, Abu-Lahab was so shocked that he could not survive for more than seven days. His death occurred in a pitiable state. He became afflicted with malignant pustules, and the people of his house left him to himself, fearing contagion. No one came near his body for three days after his death, until the body decomposed and began to stink. At last, when people began to taunt his sons, according to one tradition, they hired some Negroes who lifted his body and buried it. According to another tradition, they had a pit dug and threw his body into it by pushing it with wood, and covered it up with earth and stones. His utter failure became manifest when the religion that he had tried his utmost to impede and thwart was accepted by his own children. First of all, his daughter, Darrah, migrated from Makkah to Madinah and embraced


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Islam, then, on the conquest of Makkah, both his sons ‘Utabah and Mu’attab came before the Holy Prophet (pbuh) through the mediation of Hazrat ‘Abbas, believed, and took an oath of allegiance to him.

(C) PROPHESY IN QUR’AN TO PRESERVE QUR’AN Holy Qur’an, 15:9 “It is We Ourselves who have bestowed this reminder from on high, and it is We who shall preserve it intact.” This is a prophecy by God that the Holy Qur’an will remain intact, suffering no loss or change. It will remain pure, unaffected by falsehood, and free of distortion. The diehard enemies of Islam tried to introduce some new sentences in the Qur’an and delete some existing sentences or words, but failed. When we look today, after the passage of many centuries, at the fulfillment of God’s promise to preserve the Qur’an, we see a great miracle testifying to the fact that it is God’s Book. We see that the circumstances and situations that it has endured over the centuries could not have left it intact, suffering no change of even a single sentence or a single word, without the intervention of a superior power. The Power, which is greater than all situations, factors, and circumstances, has preserved this book, keeping it pure from change or distortion. At the time of the Prophet (pbuh), this promise to preserve the Qur’an intact sounded like a mere promise. Today, however, after all these great events and long centuries, for the unbelievers of the present times, there is no reason to disbelieve it. It is, indeed, a great miracle confirming the indisputable fact that it is God’s revealed Book. In spite of all their attempts, the enemies of this religion have not been able to change the text of the Qur’an or distort it. This is not due to any lack of motive. They would, indeed, have loved dearly to alter its text if that were at all possible. But try as hard as they might, they have been unable to achieve their goal. It is only through God’s grace that the Qur’an has remained intact, despite all the determined efforts of its enemies to destroy it. Its text has remained exactly as it was revealed by God, providing a challenge to every would-be perpetrator of distortion. This is irrefutable testimony to the fact that this Qur’an is the word of God and He is the One who guaranties its preservation and that Mohammed is His Messenger. Below is an interesting episode about the preservation of the Holy Qur’an, as quoted by Maulana Mufti Muhammed Shafee in his commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Ma’ariful Qur’an’. Imam Al-Qurtubi authentically reported an event from the court of `Abbasi Khalifah, Al-Ma’mun. He was accustomed to patronizing occasional debates on intellectual issues at his court, where all scholars were welcome. It so happened that a Jew came to attend one of these debates. By his looks, dress, and manners, he seemed to be an elegant person. Then, his address during the debate was eloquent and intellectually bright. When the meeting was over, Ma’mun called for him and asked him if he was an Israelite, which he confirmed. To test him, Ma’mun asked him to become a Muslim, in which case he could hope to have the best possible treatment from him. He said that he was not willing to leave the religion of his forefathers, which was his religion too. The matter ended there, and he went away. Then after a year, the same person returned as a Muslim and made a very distinct contribution in the court meeting on the subject of Islamic jurisprudence. After the session was over, Ma’mun called for him and asked him if he was the same person who had come the year before. He said: “Yes, I am.” Ma’mun asked: “At that time you had refused to accept Islam. Tell me what makes you accept Islam now.” He said: “When I went back from here, I decided to do some research on contemporary religions. I am a scribe. I write books and sell them. They bring a good price. This time I wanted to make a test. First, I calligraphed three manuscripts of the Torah, in which I made some additions and deletions of my own. I took these manuscripts to the synagogue. The Jews found them interesting and bought them. Then, I did the same things with the Injil. I calligraphed three manuscripts, complete with my additions and deletions, and took them to the church, where the Christians were pleased with these manuscripts, and bought them from me. After that, I tried the same thing with the Qur’an. I calligraphed three good-looking manuscripts of the Qur’an, of course with the usual additions and deletions of my own. But when I went out to sell them, I faced a problem. Every buyer I went to would take the manuscript, look into it to determine if it was correct or not, and when he would notice the additions or deletions, he would quietly return the manuscript to me.” “From this episode, I learned my lesson that this book is protected, and protected by Allah (swt) Himself, therefore, I embraced Islam.” Qadi Yahya ibn Aktham, the narrator of this event, says that, by the Divine help he got the opportunity to perform his Hajj in the same year. There he met Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, to whom he related this event. He said: “Surely, this is how it should be, because this is confirmed by the Qur’an.” Yahya ibn Aktham asked about the ayah (verse) he had in mind.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind He said: “When the glorious Qur’an mentions the Torah and the Injil, there it says: ‘That is, the Jews and Christians have been entrusted with the responsibility of protecting the Torah and Injil, the Books of Allah’’ (Qur’an, 5:44). This is the reason why, when the Jews and Christians did not fulfill their duty of protecting them, these books were lost through distortions and alterations. This is contrary to the case of the Holy Qur’an, about which Allah (swt) has said: “And We are there to protect it” (Qur’an, 15:9). Thus, when Allah (swt) Himself arranged to have it remain protected, then, despite thousands of efforts made by enemies, not a single change in one tiny dot or case mark could be made. Today, over fourteen hundred years have passed since the blessed age of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and there has been neglect on the part of Muslims in all areas of religious matters, yet the continuous arrangement of memorizing the Holy Qur’an all over the world stands firmly established. In every period of time, there are millions of Muslims, old and young, male and female, always present on the scene, blessed people in whose hearts and minds the Holy Qur’an lives protected. Before them, not even the highest of religious scholars could dare recite a single letter of the Qur’an wrong, for there would be many people, seniors and children, who would promptly apprehend the error. The promise to protect the Qur’an includes the protection of hadith (sayings and actions of the Prophet, pbuh). As a matter of principle, all learned people agree that the Qur’an is neither the name of the words of the Qur’an alone, nor its meanings alone. Instead, a combination of both is called the Qur’an. The reason is that Qur’anic meanings and subjects appear in other books as well, and as for Islamic writings, their subjects are essentially Qur’anic, but they are not called the Qur’an, because they are not the words of the Qur’an. Similarly, if a person were to borrow different words and sentences from the Holy Qur’an and write an article or treatise, no one would call this by the name of the Qur’an, even if there is no word included that is from outside the Qur’an. This tells us that the Qur’an is the exclusive name of the particular divinely revealed Book, the words and meanings of which are simultaneously protected. This also leads us to the ruling that the practice of people who publish translations of the Qur’an only in a foreign language and give it the name, for example, English Qur’an or Urdu Qur’an, is not permissible at all, because that is not the Qur’an. And when we know that Qur’an is not the name of the words of the Qur’an alone, but that its meanings, too, are a part of it, then the responsibility of protecting the Qur’an taken upon Himself in this verse by Allah (swt) covers the total protection of the words of the Qur’an, as well as the meanings of the Qur’an in that they remain protected against alteration or distortion. And it is obvious that the meanings of the Qur’an are the same as the Holy Prophet (swt) was sent to teach—as pointed out in the Qur’an,16:44. It means: “You have been sent to explain the meaning of what has been revealed for them.” And this is what the verse: “Teaches them the Book and the wisdom” (3:164) also means. And that is why Mohammed (pbuh) said: “As for me, I have been sent as a teacher.” Now, when the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was sent to explain the meanings of the Qur’an and to impart education to people, he used a set of his sayings and doings as the medium of instruction for his community, and this very set of his words and deeds is known as the Hadith. One who says that the Hadith of the Rasul of Allah (swt) is not absolutely protected is really saying that the Qur’an is not protected. There are people around who would like to deceive the whole world by saying that the treasure of Hadith present in the authentic books is not trustworthy, because it was documented much later than the blessed age of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). First of all, even this assumption is not correct, because the process of protection and documentation of Hadith had already started within the age of prophethood itself, though it was completed later. In addition to that, the Hadith of the Rasul of Allah (swt) is really the explanation of the Qur’an and the meaning of the Qur’an. Their protection is something which Allah (swt) has taken upon Himself. Then how can it be possible that only the words of the Qur’an remain protected, while the meanings of the Qur’an (that is, the Hadith of the Rasul) go to waste?

(D)   PROPHESY ABOUT SAVING THE BODY OF PHARAOH Holy Qur’an, 10:90-92 “And We brought the Children of Israel across the sea; but Pharaoh and his legions pursued them with tyranny and aggression. But as he was about to drown, Pharaoh said: ‘I have come to believe that there is no deity other than Him in


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind whom the Children of Israel believe, and to Him I surrender myself.’ [But God said] ‘Only now? But before this you were rebelling [against Us], and you spread corruption in the land. But today We shall save only your body, so that you may become a sign to those who will come after you; for a great many people do not heed Our Signs’.” This is a great prophecy of the Qur’an, which presents clear and strong evidence of the truth that the Holy Qur’an is the Book of Allah (swt) and Mohammed (pbuh) is His Messenger. “But today, We shall save only your body” (Qur’an, 10:92). His body would remain intact, uneaten by sharks or other sea creatures. It would not be allowed to drift with the waves, but would be saved so that his end would be known to all and sundry: “So that you may become a sign to those who will come after you. It may be that when others see your body, they will take heed and realize that defying God and His warnings brings certain doom.” The fact is, “a great many people do not heed Our Signs” (Qur’an, 10:92). They do not turn to them with open hearts and minds, nor they consider their significance, be they evident in the great universe or within their own selves. Even to this day, the exact place where the Pharaoh’s dead body was found afloat on the surface of the sea is known. Lying on the western coast of the Sinaitic peninsula, it is presently known as the Mount of Pharaoh (Jabal Fir’awn). A warm spring, situated in its vicinity, is also still called the Bath of Pharaoh (Hammam Fir’awn). Located a few miles away, Abu Zanimah is identified as the precise spot at which the Pharaoh’s dead body was found. If the name of the Pharaoh who died by drowning was Minpetah, as has been established by current research, his embalmed body still lies in the museum of Cairo. In 1907, when Sir Grafton Elliot Smith removed the bandages from the mummified body of this Pharaoh, it was found to be coated with a layer of salt. This is clear proof of his death by drowning at sea.

(E)   PROPHESIES FOR BRIGHT FUTURE OF ISLAM AND ITS FOLLOWERS God’s prophecy is that not only will the Holy Qur’an stay forever and will never be wiped out, but also that Islam will stay forever, and the Muslims will become very powerful one day. These prophesies of the Qur’an, and firm promises for happy news in the future, were given at Makkah when Islam was in its early period and Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) had only a few followers who were being very severely persecuted. Furthermore, there were conspiracies to kill the Prophet (pbuh). Even the very survival of this small group of Muslims was at stake. I give below only five predictions under this topic, although there are many more.

Prediction No. 1 Holy Qur’an, 54:43-45 “Are you disbelievers [the Quraish of Makkah] better [than the previous communities of Noah, Lot, Saleh, etc.], or is there any exemption for you in the Divine Books? Or do they say, ‘We are a strong host; we shall defend ourselves?’ Soon shall this host be put to rout, and they will all show their backs.” The address here is directed to the Quraish, as if to say: “When the other nations have been punished for adopting disbelief, showing stubbornness, and denying the truth, why would you not be punished, if you adopted the same attitude and conduct? For you are not a special people in any way.” This is a specific prophecy that was made five years before the hijrah, saying that the hosts of the Quraish who waxed proud of their strength would soon be put to rout by the Muslims. At that time, no one could imagine how such a revolution would take place in the near future. Such was the helplessness of the Muslims, that a group of them had already left the country and taken refuge in Habash, and the rest of the believers lay besieged in Shi’b Abi Talib, and were being starved by the Quraish boycott and siege. Under such conditions, no one could imagine that within only the next seven years, the tables were going to be turned. A pupil of Hazrat, `Abdullah bin `Abbas, has related that Hazrat `Umar used to say: “When this verse of Surah Al-Qamar was sent down, I wondered what hosts it is that would be routed. But when in the Battle of Badr, the pagan Quraish were routed and they were fleeing from the battlefield, I saw the Messenger of Allah (swt) in his armor rushing forward and reciting this verse: `Sayuhram-al-jam ‘u yuwallun-ad-dubur.’ Only then did I realize that this was the defeat that had been foretold.” (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abu Hatim). (Refer to the Commentary of the Holy Qur’an by S.A. Maududi, 54: 43-45)


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Prediction No. 2 The pagan Quraish of Makkah said to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) that if they joined the Prophet (pbuh) and accepted the religion, they would meet a miserable end. In answer to this, God revealed in Verse 85 of Chapter 28: “(0 Prophet!) Surely He Who has ordained the Qur’an on you will bring you to the best end: Say to them: ‘My Lord knows best who has brought true guidance and who is in clear error’.” By way of an answer, God told His Prophet that the Almighty, Who had made him the standard-bearer of the Qur’an, would not allow him to be ruined. Rather, God would place him in a position of eminence far beyond the imagination of his compatriots. In fact, this is exactly what happened. Within a few years, God made the Prophet (pbuh) too powerful a ruler to be challenged by anyone in the whole of Arabia. Likewise, no religion could maintain its hold in the face of the Prophet’s (pbuh) religion. There was no precedent in the whole of Arabia’s history where any single person had acquired such a level of eminence and power that none in Arabia could rival him. The Arabs had never gathered around one single individual; they had never before accepted any single person as their sole political and religious authority.

PREDICTION NO. 3 Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) had two sons and three daughters. Both of his sons died in childhood. The pagans of Makkah rejoiced at the Prophet’s (pbuh) bereavement of his sons, congratulating each other, and saying: “His line has come to an end, now he is cut off from the root. When he dies, he has no son to succeed him, therefore his memory will perish and you will be rid of him.” (Refer to the commentary of Chapter 108 of the Holy Qur’an by S.A. Maududi.) His enemies thought that Mohammed (upon whom be Allah’s, swt, peace and blessings) had been completely ruined. They believed he was cut off from the community and had become utterly helpless and powerless, and his trade ruined, because his male children who could perpetuate his name were dead. They believed that the message that he presented was such that, except for a handful of people, no one in all of Arabia, not to speak of Makkah, was prepared to listen to it, therefore, failure and disappointment would be his lot as long as he lived, and there would be no one in posterity to remember him when he died. It was under these conditions when Allah (swt) said: “We have granted you Kauthar (abundance),” which means: “0! Mohammed, your foolish opponents think that you are ruined and deprived of the good things that you enjoyed before Prophethood, but the fact is that We have favored you with such blessings, which are plentiful, overflowing, and rich, unlimited, and unending.” .(Refer to the commentary of Chapter 108 of the Holy Qur’an by S.A. Maududi.) These blessings are in different forms and shapes, some of which are described below. (i) Matchless moral qualities, which the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was blessed with. (ii) The great blessings of prophethood and the Qur’an, which are the fountainhead of knowledge and wisdom that were granted to him; this included the blessing of Tauheed and of such a system of life whose simple, intelligible, rational, natural, and comprehensive principles had the potential to spread throughout the world and to continue to spread forever afterwards. (iii) The blessing of the exaltation of his renown, because of which the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) blessed name as been exalted throughout the world for the last 1400 years and will continue to be exalted until the resurrection. (iv) This blessing is also manifest in the Prophet’s (pbuh) Sunnah (way of life) throughout the centuries, in the far-flung corners of the earth, in the life of millions upon millions of people who follow in his footsteps, in the life of millions upon millions of people who pronounce his name with respectful affection, and the millions upon millions of hearts that will cherish his example and memory until the day of resurrection. (v) The blessing that, by his preaching and Sunnah, eventually such a world-wide community would come into being, which became the standard-bearer of truth in the world forever, and can claim to have produced the greatest number of pious, virtuous, and noble-charactered people in any one nation, and which, even when corrupted and deprived, has the highest good in it as against every other nation of the world.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (vi) This blessing is also manifest in the goodness and prosperity which have accrued to the human race as a result of his message, and which reaches those who know and believe in him and those who do not. The blessing is also manifest in various and manifold phenomena, although attempting to enumerate these would, at best, give only the passing feeling of a great reality. (vii) The blessing that the Holy Prophet (pbuh), during his very lifetime, witnessed his invitation and message attain the highest success and prepare a community that would have the power to dominate the world. (viii) The blessing that, although on his being deprived of his male offspring his enemies thought he would be lost to posterity, Allah (swt) not only blessed him with spiritual offspring in the form of Muslims who will continue to exalt his name in the world until resurrection, but also granted him from his one daughter, Hazrat Fatimah, natural progeny who have spread throughout the world, and whose only mark of distinction and pride is that they trace their descent from him. These are the blessings that the people have seen and witnessed as to how abundantly Allah (swt) has blessed His Holy Prophet (pbuh) within the world. In addition, Kauthar also implies two other great blessings that Allah (swt) will bestow on Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in the Hereafter. We had no means of knowing these, therefore the Holy Prophet (pbuh) himself gave us news of them, and told us that Kauthar also implied them. First is the Fountain of Kauthar, which he will be granted on Resurrection Day in the Plain of Assembly. What the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said about the Fountain of Kauthar follows. The Fountain will be granted to him on Resurrection Day, when there will be the cry of al-Jatash, al-Jatash (thirst, thirst!) on every side. The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) community will gather together before him at the Fountain and it will quench their thirst. Mohammed (pbuh) himself will be the first to arrive, and will occupy the central position. He said: “This is a Fountain at which my ummah will assemble on Resurrection Day.” And: “I shall be there before you and shall bear witness on you, and by God, I am seeing my Fountain even at this time.” (Refer to the commentary of Chapter 108 of the Holy Qur’an by S.A. Maududi.) He also said that the water of this Fountain is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey; the one who drinks from it will never thirst; and the one who is deprived of it will never have his thirst quenched. He has also warned those of his followers who deviated from his way, effected certain changes, or introduced new things, that they will be deprived of drinking the water of this Fountain. There are over fifty companions of the Prophet (pbuh) who have reported many more details from the Prophet (pbuh) about the Fountain.(Refer to the commentary of Chapter 108 of the Holy Qur’an by S.A. Maududi.) Second is the River Kauthar, which he will be granted in Paradise. A large number of the Hadith have been reported about this river from him, through such a large number of reporters that there remains no doubt about their authenticity. The blessings of these in the Hereafter are described in various books of Hadith.

Prediction No. 4 Holy Qur’an, 93:4-5     “And surely the later period [of your prophethood] is better for you than the earlier part, and soon your Lord shall give you so much that you shall be pleased.” This good news was given by Allah (swt) to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) at a time when he had only a handful of Muslims with him, the entire nation was hostile, and there was not even a remote chance of success. The candle of Islam was flickering only in Makkah, and storms were brewing all around to blow it out. At that juncture, Allah (swt) said to His Prophet: “Do not at all grieve at the hardships of the initial stage; every later period of life will be better for you than the former period. Your power and glory, your honor and prestige, will continue to grow, and your influence will continue to spread. This promise is not just confined to this world, but it also includes the promise that the rank and position you will be granted in the Hereafter will be far higher and nobler than the rank and position you attain in this world.” Tabarani in Awsat and Baihaqi in Addala‘il have related, on the authority of Ibn ’Abbas, that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: “All the victories which would be attained by my Ummah after me were presented before me. This pleased me much. Then Allah (swt) sent down this word,


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind saying: ‘The Hereafter is far better for you than the world.” (See Explanation of the Holy Qur’an, 93:45, S.A. Maududi). This prophecy was fulfilled during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and all Arabia, from the southern coasts, to the Syrian frontiers of the Byzantine Empire and the Iraqi frontiers of the Persian Empire in the north, and from the Persian Gulf in the east, to the Red Sea in the west, came under his control. For the first time in the history of Arabia, this land became subject to one law and rule. Whichever power clashed with it was doomed to destruction. The slogan, La ilaha illAllah-u, Mohammed-ur-Rasul-Allah (swt) (i.e., there is only one God Who is worthy of worship, obedience and service and Mohammed (pbuh) is the Messenger) reverberated throughout the land, where polytheists and followers of earlier scriptures had tried their utmost to keep their false creeds and slogans aloft until the last. People not only bowed their heads in obedience, their hearts also were conquered, and their beliefs, morals, and acts were revolutionized. There is no precedent in human history for a nation sunk in paganism to completely change in only 23 years. Then the movement started by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) gathered such power that it spread over a large part of Asia, Africa, and Europe, and its influence reached every corner of the world. Allah (swt) gave His Messenger so much in the world, the glory and extent of what He will give him in the Hereafter cannot be imagined.

Prediction No. 5 Holy Qur’an, 17:79 “And rise from sleep during the night as well, an additional prayer for you; possibly your Lord will raise you to an honored position.” Here it is proclaimed that God will bestow upon the Prophet (pbuh) an exalted position in both the present world and the next. It will be a position of eminence, and one that will evoke universal appreciation and praise. It will be in sharp contrast to the situation at that time when the Prophet’s (pbuh) opponents heaped every kind of derogation, abuse, and slander upon him. For the time was not far off when the whole world would reverberate with tributes paid to the Prophet (pbuh), and these by all and sundry. This will be the exalted position of the Prophet (pbuh) in the present world. As for the next world, there, too, the Prophet (pbuh) will be the object of everyone’s praise. There he will enjoy a position of unique privilege, in that God will accept his intercession. This forms an integral part of the “exalted station” mentioned in this verse. For additional prophesies of the Qur’an about the bright future of Islam, and the honor and fame of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), also see “Commentaries” in the section of this book, “Commendation of Mohammed (pbuh) by God in the Holy Qur’an” in Chapter 18).

(F)   PROPHESY ABOUT SPREAD OF ISLAM Holy Qur’an, 41:53 “Soon shall We show them Our Signs in the World around them, as well as in themselves, until it becomes clear to them that this Qur’an is indeed the truth.” In this prophecy, the Qur’an tells the nonbelievers that, first, they will soon see with their own eyes that the message of the Qur’an has spread in all the adjoining lands, and they themselves will yield to it. Then the nonbelievers will realize that what they are being told today, which they deny, is absolutely true. The message of the Qur’an was so dominant and overwhelming that it spread into vast areas, and its followers subdued one country after the other. This conquest brought with it a great religious, moral, intellectual, cultural, political, economic, and social revolution whose influence, wherever it reached, elicited what was best in man and suppressed what was worst in him. This revolution developed and nurtured the moral excellences that previously the world could hope to see only in hermits and meditating recluses, and could never imagine that they could also be found among the people responsible for running worldly affairs —in the politics of rulers, in the chambers of justice, in the wars and conquests of the commanders of forces, in the work of the tax collectors, and in the commerce of big businessmen. This revolution so raised the common people in the society created by it in respect to morality, character, cleanliness, and purity, that even the select people of other societies seemed to be much inferior to them. It took man out of the labyrinths of superstition and whim, and put him on the broad highway of scientific research and rational thought and action. It treated and cured the diseases of collective life, which other systems had no idea of how to treat, or if they did try to treat them, they did not succeed. These diseases are, for example, separation between men on the basis of color, race, country, and language; classification of men within a society and discrimination among them; lack of legal rights and equality


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind in practical life; the degeneration of women and the deprivation of their basic rights; prevalence of crime; use of liquor and all other intoxicants and injurious and habit-forming drugs; government unresponsive to criticism and unaccountable to its people; deprivation of fundamental human rights; disrespect of agreements in international relations; barbarism in wars; and other such diseases. In Arabia itself this revolution brought about order in place of chaos, peace in place of bloodshed and anarchy, piety in place of wickedness, justice in place of tyranny and injustice, purity and culture in place of filth and indecency, knowledge in place of ignorance, and brotherhood and love in place of long-standing feuds. It made a nation from people who could not dream of anything beyond chiefship of their tribe, and made them leaders of the world. These were the signs that the very generation before, to whom the Holy Prophet (pbuh) had recited this verse for the first time, saw with their own eyes, and after that until today, Allah (swt) has been constantly showing those Signs. The Muslims, even during their downfall, displayed such high morals as could never be attained by those people who represent themselves as leaders of civilization and culture. No precedent can be found from any period of the history of the Muslims of the tyrannical treatment that has been meted out by the European nations to the subdued nations of Africa, America, Asia, and Europe. For some details of these cruelties, turn to Chapter 10, “Importance of Belief in Life After Death.” This is the blessing of the Qur’an, which has so humanized Muslims that they could not become so tyrannical, even when they had attained domination, as the non-Muslims have been in all periods of history, and are even today. A person who has eyes can himself see how Muslims behaved towards Hindus during their eight -hundred-year-long rule in India and how the Hindus are now treating them after they have attained power; how the Muslims treated the Jews during the past 1,300 years and how the Jews are treating the Muslims in Palestine. The other meaning of this verse is that Allah (swt) will show the people in the external world around them, as well as in their own selves, such signs as will make manifest that the teaching of the Qur’an is the very truth. No doubt, the external world is the same as man has seen in the past, and his own self also is of the same nature as it has been in every age, yet these Signs of God are so numerous that man has never comprehended them fully, nor will he ever be able to do so. In every age, man has met with many new Signs, and this will go on happening until Resurrection Day.

(G) PROPHESY ABOUT CHRISTIANS (ETERNAL HATRED AND ENMITY BETWEEN DIFFERENT CHRISTIAN SECTS) Holy Qur’an, 5:14 “Likewise, from those who said, ‘We are Christians,’ We have accepted a firm covenant, but they, too, have forgotten much of what they had been told to bear in mind. Therefore, We have given rise among them to enmity and hatred to last until the Day of Resurrection, when God will make clear to them what they have done.” This verse begins with a particularly significant description: “Likewise, from those who said: ‘We are Christians,’ We have accepted a firm covenant.” This mode of expression tells us that they simply professed to be Christians, without giving practical credence to their claims. The essence of their covenant was to believe in God’s Oneness. Yet, it was in regard to this very issue that deviation crept into the history of Christianity. It is this central clause in their covenant that became the forgotten part of what they had been enjoined. When it was forgotten, every deviation became possible, and enmity broke out between the numberless sects and churches of Christianity, old and new. God tells us that their enmity and hatred will continue until the Day of Resurrection. Moreover, they will suffer the punishment of the Hereafter, when they will be shown a clear image of what they have done in this life. Ancient and modern history has witnessed much conflict, hostility, and enmity among those who claim to be Christians. All this gives factual endorsement to what God tells us in His Truthful Book. Their wars against each other have caused great bloodshed. They have fought each other because of conflicts over principles of faith, disputes over religious supremacy, and quarrels over political, economic, and social issues. Many generations have passed, but their hostility and their wars have not subsided. They will continue to flare up until the Day of Judgment, as stated by the One Who always says the truth. This is all a natural result of their violation of their pledges to God, and their negligence of what He commanded them to do. As already stated, the first item in their covenant is to believe in God’s Oneness, and it is this first item that they abandoned shortly after Jesus (pbuh) Christ had been raised by God. These deviations and fights among different Christians are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

EVIDENCE 9 SCIENTIFIC STATEMENTS IN THE QUR’AN Strictly speaking, science means knowledge that has been soundly established. It does not include the theories, which, for a time, explain a phenomenon or a series of phenomena only to be abandoned later. The Holy Qur’an is a constitution for the regulation of human life on earth. However, sometimes the Qur’an does make a scientific statement, when needed to strengthen the faith of man. But the Qur’an does not go into the details, which are left for human minds to work out. Similarly, sometimes the Holy Qur’an refers to universal facts that are not known to man.

STATEMENT 1 (BIG BANG) Holy Qur’an, 21:30 “Did the believers [in the teaching of the Prophet] not realize that the heavens and the earth were one solid mass, then We tore them apart, and We made every living thing of water? Will they, then, not believe[that We created all this and Mohammed is Our Messenger]?” Two facts that are beyond human perception are mentioned in this verse. The verse seems to suggest that this universe was initially one huge mass that was later separated into different parts, so that the earth and other heavenly bodies were given shape as separate entities. We accept this as an absolute certainty, simply because it is stated in the Qur’an. We certainly do not know how the heavens and the earth were parted, or ripped one from the other. We accept astronomical theories that are not in conflict with this general fact mentioned in the Qur’an. What we will not do, however, is take up the Qur’anic text and try to fit it to any astronomical theory. We do not seek an endorsement of the Qur’an through human theories, because the Qur’an states only what is certain. The most we can say is that the astronomical theory of the big bang that is accepted today is not in conflict with the general import of this Qur’anic statement, revealed many generations prior to the development of the big bang theory. It seems that God not only made water a means of life, but also the very basis from which He caused all life to originate in and from. The same point is made elsewhere in the Qur’an: “And God has created every living being from water” (Qur’an, 24:45). This short sentence states a great crucial fact. Scientists shower praise on Darwin for having identified that water was the first environment where life began. The Qur’an announced this fact centuries ago—much before Darwin.

STATEMENT 2 Holy Qur’an, 65:12 “Allah is He Who created seven heavens and of the earth also their like. His Command descends among them. [This you are being told] so that you may know that Allah has power over everything, and that Allah’s knowledge encompasses all.” “Also their like” does not mean that He created as many earths as the heavens. It means that He has also created several earths, as He has created several heavens. “Of the earth” means that just as this earth, which is inhabited by man, is serving as bed and cradle for the creatures living on it, so has Allah (swt) made and set other earths also in the universe, which serve as beds and cradles for the creatures living on them. Moreover, there are clear pointers in the Qur’an to the effect that living creatures are not found only on the earth, but also in the heavens. (For instance, see Qur’an, 42:29 below). In other words, the countless stars and planets seen in the sky are not all lying desolate, but like the earth, there are many among them that are inhabited.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Holy Qur’an, 42:29 “Among His Signs is the creation of the heavens, the earth, and living things, which He has scattered in both. He can gather them all together whenever He wills.” “In both” means both the earth and the heavens. This is a clear pointer to the fact that life does not only exist on the earth, but on other planets as well. What type of life there is on other planets we do not know.

STATEMENT 3 Holy Qur’an, 41:11 “Then He turned to the heavens, which was only smoke at that time. He said to the heaven and the earth: ‘Come into being, whether you like it or not.’ They both said: ‘We come in submission.’” Two things need to be explained here: First, “heaven” means the whole universe, as becomes obvious from the sentences that follow. In other words, “turning to the heavens” means that Allah (swt) turned to the creation of the universe. Second, “smoke” implies the initial and primary stage of matter, in which it lay diffused in space in a shapeless, dustlike condition before the formation of the universe. Scientists of the modern age describe the same thing as nebulae, and the same also is their view of the beginning of the universe—that is, before creation, the matter of which the universe was built lay diffused in a smoke-like nebulous form.

STATEMENT 4 Holy Qur’an, 51:47 ‘We have built the heaven with Our Own might and We are expanding it.” That is, the huge universe that We have created is not a finished work, but We are expanding it continuously, and new and ever new manifestations of our creation are appearing in it at every moment. Modern research observations and calculations carried out by means of modern technology in the 20th century have revealed that the universe is constantly expanding, and the stars and galaxies are constantly moving away from each other. This phenomenon of expansion of the universe can be compared with a balloon that is being inflated. As the balloon inflates more and more, any two points on the surface of the balloon get farther and farther from each other. From the moment of the big bang, the universe has been constantly expanding, like the surface of a balloon that is being inflated.

STATEMENT 5 Holy Qur’an, 25:53 “And He it is Who has joined the two seas: one sweet and palatable and the other salty and bitter; and He has set a barrier and an insurmountable obstruction between the two, which keeps them apart.”

Holy Qur’an, 55:19-20 “He has given freedom to the two great bodies of water (seas) so that they may meet. Yet there stands between them a barrier which they do not transgress.”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Holy Qur’an, 27:61 “Who is it Who has made the earth a place of resort, and has caused rivers to flow in its midst, and has placed upon it firm mountains, and has placed a barrier between two masses of water? Is there any god associated with Allah [in these tasks]? Nay, but most of them do not know.” This happens whenever a large river flows into the sea. There are springs of sweet water at several locations in different seas, where the sweet water remains separate from the salty water of the sea. Sayyidi ‘Ali Ra’is, a Turkish admiral of the 16th century, mentions in his work, Mir’at al-Mamalik, one such place in the Persian Gulf. He writes that he found springs of sweet water under the salty water of the sea and drew drinking water from them for his fellow sailors. In more recent times, when the Arabian American Oil Company began drilling oil wells in Saudi Arabia, they used the water of the same springs of the Persian Gulf as drinking water, until the wells in the vicinity of Dhahran were dug. Also, near Bahrain, there are springs of sweet water under the sea, from which people have drawn upon for ages. This property of the seas, that is, that they meet and yet do not intermix, has only very recently been discovered by oceanographers. Because of the physical force called “surface tension,” the waters of neighboring seas do not mix. Caused by the difference in the density of their waters, surface tension prevents them from mingling with one another, just as if a thin wall were between them (Richard A. Davis, Principles of Oceanography. Din Mills, Ontario: Addison Wesley, p. 9293). It is interesting that, during a period when there was little knowledge of physics, surface tension, or oceanography, this was revealed in the Qur’an. This verse identifies this wondrous manifestation of God’s omnipotence as evidence of His Unity. But there is an additional, although more subtle, meaning implicit in the verse, too. No matter how bitter and salty the ocean of human society may become, God can always produce a righteous group of people in the same manner that He can produce a spring of water in the depths of a salty ocean. This spring of sweet water cannot be gulped down by the waves of salty water, no matter what.

STATEMENT 6 CREATION OF EVERYTHING ON THE PRINCIPLE OF PAIRS Holy Qur’an, 36:36 “Glorified is He Who Created in pairs all species, whether of the vegetable kingdom, of their own [i.e., human] kind, or of those things of which they know nothing.”

Holy Qur’an, 51:49 “And We have created everything in pairs.”

Holy Qur’an, 43:12 “(He) Who created all these pairs.” That is, everything in the world has been created on the principle of pairs. The whole system of the universe is functioning on the principle that certain things are complementary and match certain others, and their combination brings into being countless new forms and combinations. Nothing here is so unique as may have no match, for the fact is that a thing becomes productive only after it has combined with its matching partner. The coming together of man and woman is the cause of man’s own birth. Procreation among animals also is due to the combination between the male and female. Man also knows that the law of sex is working in vegetation. Even among lifeless substances, when different things combine with one another, a variety of compounds come into existence. Among the elements, some can be combined with others and some cannot be. The combination of these that can combine results in various compositions. The basic composition of matter itself has become possible due to the close affinity between positive and negative electric charges (electron and proton), and causes wonderful things to happen in the world. The Holy Qur’an says here that everything is created in pairs, including things that human beings do not know at pres-


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind ent and may discover later. This law of pairs, which is the basis of the existence of the entire universe, contains in itself such complexities and finenesses of wisdom and workmanship, and there exist such harmonies and mutual relationships between the members of each pair, that an objective observer can neither regard it as the result of an accident, nor can he believe that many different gods might have created these countless pairs and matched their members, one with the other, with such great wisdom. The members of each pair being a perfect match for each other and the coming into being of new things with their combination itself is an explicit argument of the Creator being One and only One. The creation of the whole universe on the principle of pairs, and the existence of all things in the world in couples, is a reality that testifies expressly to the necessity of the Hereafter. If you consider it deeply, you will yourself come to the conclusion that everything in the world has a partner and nothing becomes productive without combining with its partner, so how can the life of the world be without a match and partner? Its match and partner necessarily is the Hereafter. Without that partner, this world would be absolutely fruitless.

STATEMENT 7 EMBRYOLOGY IN THE QUR’AN Holy Qur’an, 23:12-14 ‘We created man of the extract of clay; then We made him into a drop of life-germ, then We placed it in a safe depository; then We made this drop into a clot of congealed blood; then We made the clot into a lump (mudgha); then We made the lump into bones; then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We caused it to grow into another creation. Thus Most Blessed is Allah (swt), the best of all those that create.” HUMAN BEINGS CREATED FROM `SULALAH (Quintessence of Fluid)

Holy Qur’an, 32:7-9 “He began the creation of man from clay; then He causes him to be begotten out of the quintessence or the highest essence of a humble fluid; then He shaped him and breathed into him of His Spirit; and He gave you ears, eyes, and heart, yet you are seldom grateful.” The Arabic word used here, sulalah, means “quintessence,” “the essence,” or “the best part of a whole.” We have come to know now that only one single spermatozoon that penetrates the ovum is required for fertilization out of the several million produced by man. That one spermatozoon out of several million is referred to in the Qur’an as sulalah. Sulalah also means “gentle extraction from a fluid.” The fluid refers to both male and female germinal fluids containing gametes. Both ovum and sperm are gently extracted from their environments in the process of fertilization.

Holy Qur’an, 40:67 “He it is Who created you from dust, then from a sperm, then from a leech-like clot of blood, then He delivers you as an infant, then He makes you to grow up to attain full strength.”

Holy Qur’an, 39:6 “He shapes you in your mother’s womb, giving you one form after the other, under three dark veils.” [The three dark veils are the belly, the womb, and the caul or membrane enclosing the fetus.]”

Holy Qur’an, 55:14-16 “He created man from dry, rotten clay like the potter’s, and the Jinn from the flame of fire, So, 0 Jinn and men, which wonders of your Lord’s power will you deny?”


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Holy Qur’an, 96:1-2 ‘Read (O Prophet) in the name of your Lord, Who created man out of a clot of congealed blood” hanging like leech-like substance.”

Holy Qur’an, 86:5-8 ”Let man then reflect on what he is created of: he is created of gushing fluid that issues from between the backbones and the chest bones. Allah is well able to bring him back [to life].” Holy Qur’an, 71:14 “Although He has created you in successive stages.” That is, He has brought you to the present stage after passing you through different stages of creation and phases of development. In the beginning, you lay in the form of sperm and ovum separately in the loins of your father and mother. Then the two were combined by the power of Allah (swt) and you were conceived. Then for nine months in the womb of your mother, you were gradually formed into a perfect human form and endowed with all those capabilities that you need to function as a man in the world. Then you came out as a child from your mother’s womb, and you were developed from one state to another constantly, until you attained full youth and then old age. While passing through all these stages, you lay wholly in the power of Allah (swt) at all times. Had He so willed, He would not have allowed you to be conceived, but allowed another person to be conceived in your place. Had He so pleased, He would have made you blind, deaf, dumb, or a cripple in your mother’s womb, or made you mentally deficient. Had He so liked, you would not have been born as a living child. Even after your birth, He could have destroyed you at any time by causing you to fall victim to a sudden accident. About that God under Whose power you are so powerless, how could you have taken it into your head that you could commit any insolence against Him, could regard Him with every treachery and ingratitude, could rebel against Him as and when you pleased, and could do all this with impunity?

Holy Qur’an, 75:3 “Does man think that We shall not be able to put his bones together? Why not? We have even the power to shape and restore his very finger tips.” Of all the parts of the body, only fingertips are mentioned. Probably the reason for this is that each human being has his or her own special fingerprints, not resembling anyone else’s, indicating that our Lord is the Most Superior Creator of everything.

Holy Qur’an, 76:1-3 “Has not there been a long period of time when man was nothing, not even worthy to be mentioned? Indeed, we created man from a drop of mingled sperm in order to try him, and therefore We made him capable of hearing and seeing. We showed him the way, whether to be grateful or ungrateful.” This means that the world existed long before man came on the scene. “Mingled” means the female ovum has to be fertilized with the male sperm before man is born. Before birth, a part of man existed in the form of a microscopic germ in a sperm-drop of the father, and a part in the form of a microscopic ovum in the mother. For long ages, man did not even know that he comes into being when the sperm germ and ovum combine. Now both have been observed by means of powerful microscopes, but even now no one can say how much of man exists in the father’s germ and how much in the mother’s ovum. Then, the initial cell that comes into being by the combination of the two at the time of conception is such an insignificant thing that it can be seen only through highly powerful microscopes, and no one seeing it at first sight can claim that it is a man taking shape, nor that even if a man emerges from this humble beginning, what will be his size and stature, what will be his form and figure, and what will be his capabilities and personality. This is the meaning of the sentence that at that time he was not yet a thing worthy of any mention, although a beginning of his being as a man had been made.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

GENDER DETERMINATION The gender of a fetus is determined by the nature of the sperm and not the ovum. The gender of the child, whether female or male, depends on whether the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XX or XY, respectively. Gender determination occurs at fertilization and depends upon the gender chromosome in the sperm that fertilizes an ovum. If it is an X-bearing sperm that fertilizes the ovum, the fetus is a female, and if it is a Y- bearing sperm, then the fetus is a male.

Holy Qur’an, 53:45-46 “And it is He indeed who created the pair of male and female from a sperm-drop when it is emitted [by man into the womb].”

Holy Qur’an, 75:37-40 “Was he [man] not a mere sperm-drop, which is emitted [in the mother’s womb]? Then he became a clinging, or leechlike, hanging blood clot; then God formed him and fashioned his limbs in due proportion; then from it He made two kinds, male and female. Has He not then the power to give life to the dead?” Here, again, it is mentioned that it is the sperm that comes from man that is responsible for the gender of the fetus.

Holy Qur’an, 2:223 “Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls before hand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.” Here there is also a hint, when God says that the relationship between man and woman is like the relationship of a farmer and his field. The farmer puts seed into the field, the field or the earth makes the seed (whether it is corn, wheat, etc.) germinate, sprout, and grow into a plant. Similarly, it is man who puts the seed (for male or female) into the womb of a woman (the field), which makes this seed grow and develop until delivery (sprouting). Sometimes, a mother-in-law blames her daughter-in-law for having delivered female children only and no male child. If any were to blame, she should blame her own son for that, and not her daughter-in-law.

Holy Qur’an,77:20-24 “Did We not create you out of a mean fluid, and kept it lodged in a secure place for an appointed term? Behold’ We had power to do this, as We are excellent Possessors of power’ Woe on that day to the deniers [of truth]!”

Holy Qur’an, 23:78 “It is Allah (swt) who has endowed you with the faculties of hearing and seeing, and has given you heart [or brain] to think, but you do not show any gratitude.”

Holy Qur’an, 82:6-8 “O man, what has beguiled you concerning your Lord, the gracious, Who created you, fashioned you, proportioned you, and put you together in whatever form He pleased?”

COMMENTS ON ABOVE VERSES IN LIGHT OF LATEST SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AN DISCOVERIES These comments are from the book, “Qur’an and Modern Science: Compatible or Incompatible?” by Dr. Zakir Naik, Islamic Research Foundation, 56/58 Tandel Street (North), Dongri, Mumbai—400 009 India.”) In the early nineties, a group of Arabs collected all these verses concerning embryology in the Qur’an, translated them into English, and presented them to Dr. Keith Moore, then a professor emeritus of embryology and former chairman of the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Department of Anatomy at the University of Toronto, in Canada. He is one of the highest authorities in the field of embryology. He was asked to give his opinion regarding the information present in the Qur’an concerning the field of embryology. After carefully examining the translation of the Qur’anic verses presented to him, Dr. Moore said that most of the information concerning embryology mentioned in the Qur’an is in perfect conformity with modern discoveries in the field of embryology, and does not conflict with them in any way. He added that there were, however, a few verses on whose scientific accuracy he could not comment. He could not say whether the statements were true or false, since he himself was not aware of the information contained therein. There was also no mention of this information in modern writings and studies on embryology. One such verse says: “Lord created man out of a clot of congealed blood” (Qur’an 96: 2). The Qur’anic word is `alaq &, which has been translated as “clot of congealed blood.” The word alaq, besides meaning a congealed clot of blood, also means something that clings, a leech-like substance. Dr. Keith Moore had no knowledge as to whether or not an embryo in the initial stages looks like a leech. To check this out, he studied the initial stage of the embryo under a very powerful microscope in his laboratory, and compared what he observed with a diagram of a leech, and he was astonished at the striking resemblance between the two! In the same manner, he acquired more information on embryology, which was hitherto not known to him, from the Qur’an. Dr. Keith Moore answered about eighty questions dealing with embryological data mentioned in the Qur’an and hadith. Noting that the information contained in the Qur’an and hadith was in full agreement with the latest discoveries in the field of embryology, Professor Moore said: “If I was asked these questions thirty years ago, I would not have been able to answer half of them for lack of scientific information.” Dr. Keith Moore had earlier authored the book, The Developing Human. After acquiring new knowledge from the Qur’an, he wrote, in 1982, the third edition of the same book. This book was the recipient of an award for the best medical book written by a single author. It has been translated into several major languages of the world, and is used as a textbook of embryology in the first year of medical studies. In 1981, during the 7th medical conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Dr. Moore said: “It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Qur’an about human development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Mohammed (pbuh) from God or Allah (swt), because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Mohammed must have been a Messenger of God or Allah (swt).” Dr. Joe Leigh Simpson, chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Baylor College of Medicine, in Houston, proclaims: “These hadiths, sayings of Mohammed (pbuh), could not have been obtained on the basis of the scientific knowledge that was available at the time of the writer (7th century). It follows that not only is there no conflict between genetics and religion (Islam), but, in fact, religion (Islam) may guide science by adding revelation to some of the traditional scientific approaches... there exist statements in the Qur’an shown centuries later to be valid, which support knowledge in the Qur’an having been derived from God” (The reference for this statement of Dr. Joe Leigh Simpson is the videotape, (“This is the Truth”, for a copy, contact the Islamic Research Foundation, India, as referenced above.”) In embryonic stages, the reproductive organs of the male and female, i.e., the testicles and the ovaries, begin their development near the kidney, between the spinal column and the eleventh and twelfth ribs. Later they descend. The female gonads (ovaries) stop in the pelvis, while the male gonads (testicles) continue their descent before birth to reach the scrotum through the inguinal canal. Even in the adult, after the descent of the reproductive organs, these organs receive their nerve supply and blood supply from the abdominal aorta, which is in the area between the backbone (spinal column) and the ribs. Even the lymphatic drainage and the venous return go to the same area (Qur’an, 86: 5-7).

HUMAN BEINGS CREATED FROM NUTFAH (Minute Quantity of Liquid) The Glorious Qur’an mentions no less than eleven times that the human being is created from nutfah, which means a minute quantity of liquid, or a trickle of liquid that remains after emptying a cup. This is mentioned in several verses of the Qur’an, including 22:5; 23:13; 16:4; 18:37; 35:11; 36:77; 40:67; 53:46; 75:37; 76:2; and 80:19.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Science has confirmed, in recent times, that only one out of an average of three million sperms is required for fertilizing the ovum.

FETUS PROTECTED BY THREE VEILS OF DARKNESS According to Professor Keith Moore, the three veils of darkness mentioned in Verse 39:6 of the Qur’an refer to: 1) The anterior abdominal wall of the mother 2) The uterine wall 3) The amnio-chronic membrane.

   EMBRYONIC STAGES In Verses 23:12-14, quoted earlier in this chapter, God states that man is created from a small quantity of liquid, which is placed in a place of rest, firmly fixed (well-established or lodged), for which the Arabic word qararin makin is used. The uterus is well-protected from the posterior by the spinal column, supported firmly by the back muscles. The embryo is further protected by the amniotic sac containing the amniotic fluid. Thus the fetus has a well-protected dwelling place. This small quantity of fluid is made into alaq (meaning “something which clings).” It also means a leech-like substance. Both descriptions are scientifically acceptable, as in its very early stages, the fetus clings to the wall, and also appears to resemble a leech in shape. It also behaves like a leech (bloodsucker), acquiring its blood supply from the mother through the placenta. The third meaning of the word alaq is a blood clot. During this alaq stage, which spans the third and fourth week of pregnancy, the blood clots within closed vessels. Hence the embryo acquires the appearance of a blood clot, in addition to acquiring the appearance of a leech. In 1677, Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were the first scientists to observe human sperm cells (spermatozoa) using a microscope. They thought that a sperm cell contained a miniature human being that grew in the uterus to form a newborn. This was known as the perforation theory. When scientists discovered that the ovum was bigger than the sperm, it was thought by De Graf and others that the fetus existed in the miniature form in the ovum. Later, in the 18th century, Maupertuis propagated the theory of biparental inheritance. The alaqah is transformed into a lump for which the Qur’an uses the word mudgha, which means, “something that is chewed (having teeth marks),” and also something that is tacky and small, which can be put in the mouth like gum. Both of these explanations are scientifically correct. Professor Keith Moore took a piece of plaster seal and made it into the size and shape of the early stage of fetus and chewed it between his teeth to make it into a mudgha. He compared this with the photographs of the early stage of a fetus. The teeth marks resembled the somites, which are the early formation of the spinal column. This mudgha is transformed into bones (izam). The bones are clothed with intact flesh or muscles (lahm). Then Allah (swt) makes it into another creature. Professor Marshall Johnson is one of the leading scientists in the U.S., and is the head of the Department of Anatomy and director of the Daniel Institute at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia. He was asked to comment on the verses of the Qur’an dealing with embryology. He said that the verses of the Qur’an describing the embryological stages cannot be a coincidence. He said it was probable that Mohammed (pbuh) had a powerful microscope. On being reminded that the Qur’an was revealed 1,400 years ago, and microscopes were invented centuries after the time of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), Professor Johnson laughed and admitted that the first microscope invented could not magnify more than ten times, and could not show a clear picture. Later he said: “I see nothing here in conflict with the concept that divine intervention was involved when Mohammed (pbuh) recited the Qur’an” (Dr. Zaker Naik’s book).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind According to Dr. Keith Moore, the modern classification of embryonic development stages that is used throughout the world is not easily comprehensible, since it identifies stages on a numerical basis, i.e., stage I, stage II, etc. The divisions revealed in the Qur’an are based on distinct and easily identifiable forms or shapes that the embryo passes through. These are based on different phases of prenatal development, and provide elegant scientific descriptions that are comprehensible and practical. Similar embryological stages of human development have been described in Verses 75:37-40 and 82:7-8 quoted above.

EMBRYO PARTLY FORMED AND PARTLY UNFORMED At the mudgha stage, if an incision is made in the embryo and the internal organ is dissected, it will be seen that most of them are formed, while the others are not yet completely formed. According to Professor Johnson, if we describe the embryo as a complete creation, then we are only describing that part which is already created. If we describe it as an incomplete creation, then we are only describing that part which is not yet created. So, is it a complete creation or an incomplete creation? There is no better description of this stage of embryogenesis than the Qur’anic description, “partly formed and partly unformed,” as in the following verse.

Holy Qur’an, 22:5 ‘“We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed.” Scientifically, we know that at this early stage of development there are some cells that are differentiated and some cells that are undifferentiated—some organs are formed and yet others unformed.

SENSE OF HEARING AND SIGHT The first sense to develop in a developing human embryo is hearing. The fetus can hear sounds after the twenty-fourth week. Subsequently, the sense of sight is developed, and by the twenty-eighth week, the retina becomes sensitive to light. Consider the Qur’anic Verses 32:7-9, 76:1-3, and 23:78 quoted above. In all these verses, the sense of hearing is mentioned before that of sight. Thus, the Qur’anic description matches the discoveries of modern embryology.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

CHAPTER 18 Why Muslims Believe Mohammed (pbuh) is the Messenger of God EVIDENCE 1 Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) Exemplary and Spotless Character and Morals Before Prophethood


hen any office or rank of responsibility needs to be given to a person, it is necessary to assess the qualifications and capabilities of the candidate. To do this, the best rule is to review the record of his entire life to date. If the person concerned is found to have been absolutely truthful and trustworthy in the past, the same can be expected from him in the future. However, if there is no evidence of truthfulness or honesty in his life, then trusting him for the future, based only on what he says or claims is not wise. When God appoints someone as His Messenger, He does not pick anyone from the street at random. Nor does He appoint anyone for this mission as a part-time worker who, after working for a certain time, is free to do whatever he wants. On the contrary, when God wants to send His Messenger to a certain community, nation, or country, He specially creates him for this tremendous responsibility, endows him with the best capabilities of head and heart necessary for the performance of his mission, equips him with excellent qualities, attributes, and morals, and protects him from all sins from the very beginning of his life. This chosen person does not lie and is straightforward, honest, trustworthy, and truthful. His integrity is beyond any doubt. He is free from all corruption. His conduct is exemplary. He is a model personality for all to emulate. He has excellent virtues and qualities. These are the prerequisites of prophethood, so that people should not feel any hesitation or difficulty in accepting a prophet as the Messenger or Prophet of God when he is actually appointed to this position by God. Nobody could raise a finger about the morals or character of any Messenger of God concerning his life before prophethood, saying: “Are you not the same who lied, committed adultery or fraud, cheated, etc.?”

Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was born to the noblest family of the Arabs. He was from the most noble branch of the Quraish—the clan of Hashim. The Quraish was the most noble of the Arab tribes. They had the purest genealogy and the most respected place in all Arabia. They were the descendants of Ishmael, the eldest son of Prophet Abraham. Immediately after the birth of Mohammed (pbuh), his grandfather took him to the house of God in Makkah (Ka’bah), prayed to God, thanked Him, and named the baby “Mohammed,” which was rather a rare name (The word “Mohammed” means “praised one”). On the seventh day, Mohammed’s (pbuh) grandfather invited the chiefs of Quraish to feast, who, after hearing the name “Mohammed,” asked him why he did not name the baby according to the customs of his forefathers (the Quraish generally named their children after a deity). The grandfather replied: “I want him to earn the praise of Allah in heaven and of Allah’s people on earth.” Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) other name is “Ahmad,” which is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. The word “Ahmad” is a superlative degree of the word meaning “praised one,” meaning “the most praised,” or “the most glorified.” One of the names of God, the Lord of Heavens and Earth, is “Mahmood” (the Praiseworthy). All three names (Mohammed, Ahmad, and Mahmood) originate from the same word, “hamad,” which means “to glorify God,” and, surprisingly enough, this was destined to be Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) life mission. The name of a person proclaiming his life mission is certainly a very rare phenomenon. There is, thus, a predetermined will running throughout the life of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). It is also a strange coincidence that Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) father’s name was “Abdullah,” which means “the servant of Allah” (and not the servant of any idol of Arabs), as was customary in that Arab society. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said that “Abdullah” is the best name that a man can have.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind His mother’s name was “Amina,” which means “a woman who is safe, protected, or content.” The word “Amina” originates from the root “aman,” which means peace, safety, security, faith, honesty, or trustworthiness. The words “momin” (a believer, or one who is safe), “ameen” (trustworthy), and “amanat” (trust) also come from this root. The name of the Prophet’s (pbuh) foster mother (the woman who nursed him) was “Haleema,” which comes from the word “haleem,” meaning forbearance. The following description about Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) early life is given by S. Abul A’la Mawdudi in his book, Towards Understanding Islam. (Published by The Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1981.) He is entirely different from the people among whom he was born, and with whom he spent his youth and early manhood. He never tells a lie. The whole nation is unanimous in testifying to his truthfulness. Even his worst enemies never accused him of telling a lie on any occasion whatsoever during his entire life. He talks politely and never uses obscene or abusive language. He has such a charming personality and winsome manners that he captivates the hearts of those who come into contact with him. In his dealings with people, he always follows the principles of justice and fair play. He remained engaged in business and trade for years, but he never entered into any dishonest transaction. Those who deal with him in business have full confidence in his integrity. The entire nation calls him “the Truthful and the Trustworthy.” Even his enemies deposit their costly belongings with him for safe custody, and he equitably fulfills his trust. He is the very embodiment of modesty, in the midst of a society which is immodest to the core. Born and bred among a people who regard drunkenness and gambling as virtues, he never touches alcohol and never indulges in gambling. His people are uncouth, uncultured, and unclean, but personified in him is the highest culture and the most refined, aesthetic outlook. Surrounded on all sides by heartless people, he himself has a heart overflowing with the milk of human kindness. He helps orphans and widows. He is hospitable to travelers. He harms no one; instead, he goes all out to suffer hardships for the sake of others. Living among those for whom war is their bread and butter, he is such a lover of peace that his heart melts for the people when they take up arms and cut each other’s throats. He keeps aloof from the feuds of his tribe, and is foremost in bringing about reconciliation. Brought up in an idolatrous society, he is so clear-minded and possesses such a pure soul that he regards nothing in the heavens and the earth worthy of worship except the One True God. He does not bow before any created thing, and does not partake in the offerings made to idols, and refused to do so even in his childhood. Instinctively, he hates all worship of any creature besides God. In brief, the towering and radiant personality of this man, in the midst of such a corrupted and dark environment, may be likened to a beacon-light brightening a pitch-dark night, or to a diamond in a heap of dead stones. Described below are some examples of his characters prior to his prophethood.

(1) Witness about Truthfulness At the beginning of his mission, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) started preaching secretly. In the third year of his prophethood, he was commanded by God to preach the new faith openly, and start with his own tribe and relatives first. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) then climbed up a mountain known as Safa, in Makkah, his home town. He called the people in the same manner in which the Quraish used to rally people at the time of crisis. People rushed to the foot of this mountain to find out what was so serious a matter. Then, the Prophet (pbuh) said, in a loud voice: “If I inform you that a big army of an enemy is advancing (on the other side of the mountain) to attack you, would you believe me?” All of them said in one voice: “Of course we will; you are always truthful, you have never lied.” “If so,” said the Prophet (pbuh), “I tell you that unless you declare that there is no god but Allah (One True God), there shall descend on you a grievous penalty.” (S.A. Maududi, in his translation of the Holy Qur’an: Introduction to Chapter 111 of the Holy Qur’an.)

(2) Witness about his Trustworthiness in his Promise or Commitment `Abdullah ibn Abi Hamzah, who, after the advent of Islam, became a follower of the Prophet (pbuh), related that once in the course of making a deal with Mohammed (pbuh), he asked Mohammed (pbuh) to wait for a while, because there was something still left in its finalization. Mohammed (pbuh) consented to wait, but `Abdullah forgot for three days to come


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind back to him. On the third day, he found Mohammed (pbuh) still waiting for him on the promised spot. `Abdullah added that Mohammed (pbuh) did not scold him, as one could have expected under the circumstances, and said only: “You put me to much trouble; you have kept me waiting for three days.” For another example of his trustworthiness before his prophethood, see the section, “An Example of Unmatched Honesty and Trustworthiness,” in this chapter.

(3) Witness about his Excellent Morality Zaid was the son of Harithah bin Shurahbil, a person of the Kalb tribe, and his mother, Su’da bint Thalabah, was from the Bani Ma’n, a branch of the Tay tribe. When Zaid was eight years old, his mother took him along to her parents. On their way, the people of Bani Qain bin Jasr raided their camp, plundered their goods, and took some prisoners, Hazrat Zaid included. They sold Zaid at the fair of Ukaz, near Taif. His buyer was Hakim bin Hizam, a nephew of Hazrat Khadijah (who later married Mohammed, pbuh). Hakim brought him to Makkah and presented him to his aunt, Hazrat Khadijah (rau). When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) married Khadijah, he found Zaid in her service, and was so impressed by his good manners and conduct that he asked Khadija to give Zaid to him. Thus, this fortunate boy entered the service of the best of men, whom Allah after a few years would appoint as a prophet. Zaid’s father felt his loss very painfully. He could not forget his son, because he knew that the boy would have been sold as a slave. As was the habit among the Arabs, he expressed his sorrow in highly moving poetry: “I wonder would you ever come back? My dearest wish would then have come true. I am reminded of him by the sun when it rises, and his memory comes back to me when the sun goes down. When the wind blows, I am also reminded of him. Long is my sorrow, little is my hope.” (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K.,, 1995). Reciting such poetry at gatherings and bazaars was the surest method for news to travel in Arabia at that time. Travelers mentioned such poetry as they heard it, and probably changed it as they traveled. Afterwards, when his father and uncle came to know that their child was in Makkah, they came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and made this passionate appeal: “You are the grandson of `Abd al-Muttalib, the old master of this city. You are the son of the great master of his people. You and your people are neighbors of God in this blessed city. Your reputation has been established for a long while that you feed the hungry and help those who are in need. We have come to you on account of our son, your slave, to request you to be benevolent and to agree to sell him to us.” Mohammed (pbuh) replied: “What would you say if I made you a better offer?” They asked: “What sort of proposal?” He said: “I will call Zaid and give him a choice. If he chooses to go with you, then that will be it (you don’t have to pay me anything). But if he chooses to stay with me, then, by God, I would not disappoint someone who chooses me.” They said: “Your proposal is more than fair.” Mohammed (pbuh) called Zaid and asked him: “Who are these two?”Zaid said: “This man is my father, Harithah ibn Sharahil, and this is my uncle, Ka’bibn Sharahil.” Mohammed (pbuh) said: “I am giving you the choice: if you wish, you may go with them, or, if you wish, you may stay with me.” Zaid unresistingly said: “I will stay with you.” This came as a shock to the two men. His father said: “Zaid, do you prefer to remain a slave over rejoining your parents, your home, and your tribe?” Zaid replied: “I have seen certain things with this man, and I will never leave him to go anywhere.” At this point, Mohammed (pbuh) took Zaid by his hand, and together they went to where the people of the Quraish used to meet, near Ka’bah, where Mohammed (pbuh) declared: “Bear witness that this boy is my son; he inherits me, and I inherit him.” That was the formal method of adoption practiced in Arabia. Zaid’s father was pleased by this outcome of his mission, because he was sure that Zaid would come to no harm in the company of Mohammed (pbuh). (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K.,, 1995).

(4) Witness of Mohammed’s (pbuh) Intelligence and Wisdom Because of his honesty, sincerity, and truthfulness from his childhood, as a young bachelor he was given the title of Al-Amin (the most trustworthy), signifying his integrity, purity of conduct, unselfish love of people, and that he was a great humanitarian. He was asked to arbitrate in many disputes, as the only trusted person in the community. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was 35 years old when the Quraish resolved to rebuild Ka’bah (Allah’s house, located in


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind the middle of the Masjid Al-Haram). In the east corner of Ka’bah, there is a black stone called Hijr-i-Aswad. This stone is from the time of Prophet Abraham (pbuh), and is considered to be very sacred. The work of construction of Ka’bah continued peacefully, until the time came to put the sacred black stone back in its proper place. Then strife broke out among the chiefs, which lasted for four or five days, each contesting for the honor of placing the stone in its place. Daggers were on the point of being drawn and great bloodshed seemed imminent. At last, the oldest and the most respected among the chiefs, Abu Ummiya bin al Mughira, made a proposal which was accepted by all. He said: “Let the first man who enters the sanctuary (Masjid-al-Haram) tomorrow morning decide this matter, or he will arbitrate.” It so happened (or it was God’s will) that Mohammed (pbuh) was the first man to enter the MasIidi-Haram the next morning. At the sight of him, the people shouted: “He is trustworthy, we agree. Lo! He is Mohammed.” It is reported in Musnad Ahmad that on seeing him, the people shouted “The trustworthy has arrived.” The Apostle (pbuh) examined the whole case and resolved the dispute in this manner: He took a sheet and, placing the Hijr-i-Aswad on it, said to the chiefs of the tribes: “Hold the edges of the sheet, and carry it to its laying place.” When they had done that, the Apostle (pbuh) lifted the stone and laid it in its place. This proceeding satisfied everyone. In this way, the Apostle (pbuh) set a clear example of his intelligence and wisdom before his people.

EVIDENCE 2 Mohammed’s (pbuh) Zeal for Search of Peace Within and Without Mohammed’s (pbuh) zeal for peace is reflected in his anxiety to raise his community in particular, and mankind in general, from the lowest of the low in morality to the highest of the high in spirituality. Despite his happy married life, his heart was restless over the evils that were rampant among his people. There was clearly a wide moral and intellectual gap between him and the people of Makkah. This gap continued to increase as the years went by. He found everything around him to be out of harmony with his soul. His people were deeply sunk in ignorance and barbarism. The community was engrossed in idolatry and polytheistic customs and practices. The filth of immorality and indecency prevailed all around, wickedness and corrupt practices were rampant in society, the powerful were suppressing the powerless, girls were being buried alive, tribes were subjecting one another to surprise attacks, and sometimes the war of vengeance continued for a hundred years at a stretch. This grieved the Holy Prophet (pbuh), but he could find no way to cure the malady. This anxiety was weighing him down.

He retires in a cave outside Makkah in his spare time Mohammed (pbuh) was in search of that light or power with which he might change the corrupt and immoral world around him into a new and better place. What is most significant, is that when this young man could spare time from his business and household work, he did not spend it in useless pursuits or in indolence, but retired to a cave, the Cave of Hira, in the nearby mountain, Jabal-un-Noor, and in seclusion he prayed to God according to his knowledge and wisdom, and searched his mind for the truth. There he pondered over the degradation of his nation and the world-at-large, and its remedies. He would meditate and reflect on the universe around him and about its Creator. He did believe strongly in the existence of One God, but he wanted to know more about Him. He might have pondered in this cave: “What am I? What is this unfathomable thing I live in, which people call the universe? What is life, what is death? What am I to believe? What am I to do?” Privacy and detachment from the impurities of life were two indispensable prerequisites for Mohammed’s (pbuh) soul to come into close communion with the Unseen Power that lies behind all aspects of existence in this infinite universe. The Cave of Hira is more than one thousand feet high outside of Makkah. A visit to the cave, high up on the mountain, negotiable only by a natural but difficult and winding pathway, would give one the impression that it was really meant for deep meditation. A visit to a lonely and almost abandoned hill cannot but give quite a shake-up for a moment to an honest,


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind reflective person in search of his soul. He will find in the awesome serenity of its solitude an irresistible challenge of the majesty of the Creator. This cave was a perfect place for retreat. Mohammed (pbuh) would go to this cave and remain there for weeks, meditating. He would take his food and water with him, return home when it was finished, and go again and meditate. I had the opportunity to visit this cave. It is almost at the top of the hill—to reach it, one has to climb right to the top of the mountain and descend a short distance down the other side. The climb is steep, dangerous, slow, and fatiguing. With only a bottle of water and a few cookies in my bag, I could not make it to the top without a couple of rest stops. The cave is small, with an entrance that is wide enough for one person to get in comfortably, but does not easily accommodate two persons standing to pray. The entrance narrows at the top and is about six or seven feet high. The ceiling slopes down as you go inside, until it becomes very low towards the end, where there is a little opening that ensures good light and ventilation. The rocky floor of the cave, though flat, is so uneven that I felt very uncomfortable sitting on this floor during my prayers in the cave. I wonder how Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) could sleep, and even sit, for a long time on this uneven and hard floor, especially when he could not carry with him a rug or carpet—it was hard enough to climb this mountain with only water and food for a few days or a week. In addition to loneliness in the pitch-dark nights outside the city of Makkah, he was also exposed to snakes, scorpions, other poisonous insects, and wild animals. Despite all these hardships, his zeal to find a way out of the total darkness that enshrouded his people—and thus find a peace within and a peace without—kept him coming to this cave again and again. He certainly did not aspire to the role that was later assigned to him. Addressing the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), God says in the Holy Qur’an: “You had not entertained any hope that scriptures would be given to you, but this was an act of grace by your Lord” (Qur’an, 28:86).

The Light Comes It was now the fortieth year of Mohammed’s (pbuh) life. He was meditating in this cave when, one night, the light of revelation suddenly burst upon him. Unexpectedly, a glorious angel (Gabriel) appeared to him in the form of a man and said to him: “Read!” Since Mohammed (pbuh) did not know how to read, he replied: “I do not know how to read.” Whereupon, as the Prophet (pbuh) himself narrated: “The angel embraced me and pressed me so hard that I reached the limit of my endurance. Then he released me and said: ‘Recite!’ I said: ‘I cannot read!’ and again Gabriel embraced me hard until I was exhausted. Then he released me and said: ‘Recite’ and again I said: ‘I am not a reader.’ Then the third time he embraced me as before, and then released me and said: ‘Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught by the pen, has taught man that which he knew not.”’ Mohammed (pbuh) recited these very verses after the angel who thereafter left. (S.A. Maududi, in his translation of the Holy Qur’an: Introduction to Chapter 96 of the Holy Qur’an.)

EVIDENCE 3 Mohammed (pbuh) Neither Aspired for Prophethood, nor was he Aware that he Would be Appointed Prophet After this initial encounter with Gabriel, and the Revelation of the first five verses of Sarah Al-Álaq (Surah 96), the Prophet (pbuh) came down the mountain, trembling and shivering. He was shaken and frightened by the enormous responsibility of prophethood of Allah (swt) given to him by Allah (swt). He went home and cried out: “Cover me, cover me.” After a while, when the initial fear diminished, he narrated the whole incident to his wife, Khadijah (rau), saying: “I fear for my life.” Being mature, perhaps, in experience, Khadijah (rau), calm and self-possessed, consoled him by saying that it could not be a devilish prank, and that Almighty Allah (swt) could not ever mean any harm to one who was by nature so good, so kind, and so God-fearing as he was. Her statement, reported by Bukhari, is an eloquent testimony not only to her own deep insight into men and matters, but also to her implicit faith in Allah (swt) Almighty and the personal character of her husband. She is reported, on good authority, to have said: “No, by Allah (swt), never will Allah (swt) put you in any awkward situation causing discomfiture. Verily, you do good to your near relations. You are helpful to all and sundry. You provide for the destitute, entertain the guest, and uphold the cause of the right, even in adverse circumstances.” (S.A. Maududi, in his translation of the Holy Qur’an: Introduction to Chapter 96 of the Holy Qur’an). Thus Khadijah (rau) sums up succinctly her own estimation of her husband—a real and remarkable tribute to a husband, coming from a proverbially doubting wife. So she was the first to believe and she was his first supporter.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Then Khadijah (rau) took him to her cousin, Waraqah Ibn Nawfal, who was a learned and noble man, who belonged to the People of the Book. After hearing the details of the incident, Waraqah said: “He who came to you was the same Namus (angel with a special mission) who came to Moses. I wish I were younger and would live until the day your people expel you.” The Prophet (pbuh) asked: “Will my people expel me?” He said: “Yes, no one has come with a message of the kind that you have brought without arousing the enmity of his own people.” (Hadith Book of Imam Bukhari, ‘K. al-Imaan’, ‘Bab Ba’ad’ al Wahy ilaa Rasul Allah Sallallahu calayhi wasallam’). This report of the incident depicts the graphic impact that an extraordinary event naturally produces in a simple, straightforward person. Had Mohammed (pbuh) been anxious to become a prophet, had he been thinking that he must somehow obtain that position, had he been deliberating and concentrating his thoughts in anticipation of an angel’s arrival, he would have gleefully jumped up and down when Gabriel appeared in the Cave of Hira. He would have come down the mountain with gusto, instantly proclaiming that he had been appointed a prophet. But what happened was something totally different. Mohammed (pbuh) was stunned by the incident. He was trembling, he was filled with fear. It also needs to be pointed out that no one is more knowledgeable about the mental state and thoughts of a man than his wife. Had his wife, Khadijah, known that her husband was preparing himself to assume the role of a prophet, that he was waiting for the Angel Gabriel to come, she would not have said what she did. On the contrary, she would have said something like: “Why should you worry? You have received what you have been looking forward to for so long. Go out and proclaim it, and work for a successful execution of the venture, while I get ready to receive offerings from your would-be devotees.” But what Khadijah had seen during the fifteen years of their companionship was enough to convince her that Satan would not approach a person of his character and nobility, and that God would not subject a person like him to distress and suffering. She instantly knew, therefore, that what her husband had seen was true, that he had indeed been endowed with prophethood.

No Plans or Ambitions This narration is explicit in that Mohammed (pbuh) was completely unaware that he would be appointed as a prophet and entrusted with a great mission. Nor had he desired or tried to become a prophet, indeed, the idea never even crossed his mind. In this respect, his situation was similar to that of Moses. Moses (pbuh) was on his way to Egypt, when he was suddenly summoned by God and appointed as a prophet. So extraordinary were Moses’ accomplishments after assuming his prophetic mission, that no one who was familiar with the earlier part of his life would even have imagined them. Something identical happened with the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). The Makkans were familiar with his life until the time he came down from the Cave of Hira with a message. They knew about his occupational activities, his manner of discourse, the subjects on which he dwelt, and his interests and concerns. In fact, the whole of his life was an open book for them. It was a life replete with truthfulness, honesty, trustworthiness, and chastity. It was a life characterized by a concern to keep his word and to discharge his obligations. It was a life conspicuous for its decency, for its service to God’s creatures, and for its compassion and tenderness. Nevertheless, there was nothing in it that foretold that this noble man would become a prophet. Not even his close relatives, neighbors, and friends could have said that he was engaged in preparations leading to his prophethood. No one had heard him speak about the subjects that later became the focal points of his discourse, after that transforming moment in the Cave of Hira. Until then, no one had ever heard him use such words and terms, nor that special diction which they later heard from his lips. He had never risen to preach any idea, to espouse any cause, or to support any movement. On the contrary, none of his activities gave the faintest idea that he was seized with a passion to solve societal problems, or that he was poised to initiate any activity aimed at religious or moral reform.

EVIDENCE 4 Mohammed (pbuh) All of Sudden is a Completely Changed Man After Revelation Until the day before this transforming moment, he was simply an honest trader engaged in earning his livelihood in a straightforward and lawful manner. He lived a normal and a happy life with his family, helped the poor, was kind to his relatives, and was hospitable to his guests. He was a person who relished solitude, so that he could concentrate on devotion and worship. But lo and behold, this man suddenly rose with a world-shaking message, started a revolutionary movement, came forth with a piece of literature that had no parallel, expounded a full-fledged philosophy of life, and set about promoting a system


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind of ideas, morality, and civilization. All this was far too big a change to be, psychologically speaking, the result of deliberate preparation and conscious effort, and it could not have been a product of his conscious mind. It was not possible for him to produce, by himself, a new philosophy of life, a new ideology, a new cultural and social system, and an altogether new kind of literature. The transformation that came about was so great that no amount of gradual preparation could have produced it. And if he was indeed preparing for this, how could he have concealed his preparations from those around him, from those among whom he spent his days and nights? Had his life gone through those stages of preparation, there would have been many in Makkah who would have said: “See, did we not tell you? He was going to claim something big!” But history is a witness. The Makkan unbelievers accused the Prophet (pbuh) of many things, but none accused him of this. Waraqah Ibn Nawfal’s reaction was the same. He was a relative of the Prophet (pbuh), namely, his brother- in-law. As a pious and learned Christian, he could easily distinguish genuine prophethood, scripture, and revelation from their counterfeit versions. He was much older than Mohammed (pbuh), and had spent the whole of his life observing what happened around him. As soon as Waraqah heard the details of what had happened in the cave, he said that Mohammed (pbuh) had been visited by the same angel who brought Revelation to Moses (pbuh). For him, the situation was similar to that of Moses (pbuh): a simple and good- natured man who had never thought of prophethood had suddenly gone through the extraordinary experience that heralds such a mission. Hence, that is why Waraqah Ibn Nawfal did not hesitate to conclude that this had not come about by Satan’s spell, nor was it the outcome of the Prophet’s (pbuh) chimerical play of his inner self. What this truthful and honest man had experienced was a fact rather than a fantasy. (Hadith book by Imam Bukhari, k. al-Imaan, Baab Kayf Kana Baad alWahy ila Rasul Allah Sallallahu calayhi wa Sallam). From this narrative, it also becomes obvious how pure was the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) life and how sublime was his character before prophethood. Khadijah (ra) was no young lady; she was fifty-five years old at the time this event took place and had been the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) life companion for 15 years. No weakness of the husband can remain hidden from the wife. She had, during this long period of married life, found him to be such a generous and noble man that when he told her of his experience in the Cave of Hira, she accepted without the least hesitation that it was indeed Allah’s own angel who had come to him with Revelation.

EVIDENCE 5 Persecution of Mohammed (pbuh) and His Steadfastness Before God designated Mohammed (pbuh) as His Messenger: (1) He was a fairly prosperous trader. (2) He was held in high esteem by his people. (3) He was leading a happy life with his family. After prophethood, he spent his entire time in preaching the Message of God, leaving him no time to operate or continue his trade. In addition, whatever money he had, he spent on his new mission. Those very people who used to greatly admire and respect him turned against him. His teachings were a death-blow to the old customs and their wrong ways of life, and were taken by the Quraish as an insult to their so-called religion (paganism/ idol-worshiping) and to the ways of their forefathers. Besides the religious and social reasons, there were political reasons as well behind the hostile treatment by the Quraish toward the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The Quraish were virtually the leading tribe of the Arabian Peninsula. The location of the great mosque, al-Masjid al-Haram, and the House of Allah, Ka’bah in Makkah, gave them a central position in the midst of all Arabian tribes and clans. They were considered the most respectable and the trustees of the House of Allah. To accept a new faith meant to abolish all the past customs, thus they would lose that important position, power, and authority that they had held for centuries. Therefore, the Quraish left no stone unturned in opposing and persecuting the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). Every conceivable torture and cruelty was perpetrated on him, and this continued, not for a day or two, but uninterruptedly for thirteen long troublesome years in Makkah. At last he was exiled, but he was not given respite even there. He was tormented in various ways in his abode of refuge. The whole of Arabia was incited against him. He was persecuted and hounded continuously


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind for a full eight years there. He suffered it all, but did not budge an inch from the stand he had taken. He was resolute, firm, and inflexible in his purpose and stand. Mohammed (pbuh) was ridiculed on every occasion, dirt was thrown at him, and his path was strewn with thorns and filth. Once, while he was praying in Ka’bah, Uqbah turned his sheet into a rope, cast it around the neck of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), twisted it so as to choke the Prophet (pbuh), and when Mohammed (pbuh) prostrated on the ground, he pulled it hard. In the meantime, Abu Bakr arrived at the spot and pushed Uqbah back. It is narrated that once, when the Prophet (pbuh) was preaching: “There is no god save Allah,” a man followed him and ruthlessly pelted stones at him. The Prophet (pbuh) was profusely bleeding, and the wicked fellow cried: “0 people, be on your guard, he is a liar.” It is also recorded that once Abu Jahl, the staunch enemy of the Prophet (pbuh), threw dust on his sacred head and shouted: “0 people, do not be taken in by his words. This man wants you to abandon the worship of Lat and Uzza (the two main idols of the Arabs).” The Prophet (pbuh), however, paid no heed to them. Once the Prophet (pbuh) was walking around Ka’bah, and in his every round a band of mischief mongers headed by Abu Jahl made sarcastic remarks and laughed. The Prophet (pbuh) remained unmoved. Once, when the Prophet (pbuh) was prostrating while praying near Ka’bah, Uqbah brought the dirty entrails of a she-camel and placed them on his back. A loud laughter arose among the infidels. The ringleaders of Makkah adopted every method to tyrannize the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and his few companions. Despite all kinds of persecution, he remained firm in his mission like a rock. (Hadith books by Imam Muslim and Imam Bukhari).

Pressure from Abu Talib Then these Makkan chiefs sent a group of their representatives to Abu Talib, the Prophet’s (pbuh) uncle. The tribal chiefs gave Abu Talib a grim warning that either he should stop his nephew, or be prepared for sufferings. Under the combined pressure of Makkan chiefs, Abu Talib sent for Mohammed (pbuh) and told him what the leadership had said, and then told him: “Spare me and yourself. Put not a burden on me that I cannot bear.” Hearing this, Mohammed (pbuh) said: “0 my beloved uncle! By God, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left on condition that I abandon my mission, I would not abandon it until God makes me victorious or I perish therein.” Abu Talib said, “0 my nephew! Go and preach what you please, for by God I will never forsake you.” (“Mohammed the Final Messenger,” by Dr. Majid Ali Khan, published by Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, India, 1998. Also, “History of the Prophet, pbuh,” by Ibn Hisham, and many books of Hadith).

Attempt to Bribe the Prophet (pbuh) Seeing the failure of their mission, the Quraish leaders tried to bribe the Prophet (pbuh) by offering him all the worldly glory they could imagine. They said: “If you want to possess wealth, we will amass for you as much as you wish. If you aspire to win honor and power, we are prepared to swear allegiance to you as our overlord and king. If you have a fancy for beauty, you shall have the hand of the most beautiful maiden of your own choice.” But all on the condition that he abandon his mission. The terms were extremely tempting for any human mortal, but they had no significance in the eyes of the Great Prophet (pbuh). His reply fell like a bombshell upon the deputation of the leaders of Arabia. They thought they had played their trump, but they were disappointed. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: “Pray! I want neither wealth nor power. I have been commissioned by God as a Warner to mankind. I deliver His message to you. Should you accept it, you shall have felicity and joy in this life and eternal bliss in the Life Hereafter. Should you reject the Word of God, surely God will decide between you and me.”(“Muhammad the Final Messenger,” by Dr. Majid Ali Khan, published by Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, India, 1980. Also, “History of the Prophet, pbuh,” by Ibn Hisham, and many books of Hadith).

Total Boycott of Mohammed (pbuh), His Followers, and His Supporters to Starve Them to Death When the non-believers of Makkah failed to stop Mohammed (pbuh) from his mission, despite using all sorts of persecutions and enticements, and when all efforts to remove the protection of Abu Talib from the Prophet (pbuh) were unsuccessful, they realized that there could be no meeting ground between them and the Muslims. A meeting of all the opposing chiefs in Makkah was called early in the seventh year of Mohammed’s (pbuh) prophethood, which drafted an agreement of a total boycott of Muslims and their supporters—the entire clan of Banu Hashim. They wrote down their resolution on a scroll, and posted it inside the Ka’bah. This added an air of solemnity to the resolution, which made it much harder for anyone who cared for the Muslims or wished them well to contravene them. Under this agreement, they were not to conduct any business, have social dealings, inter-marry, visit, or even have verbal contact with any of the members of the Bani Hashim or Bani Abdul-Muttalib clans until Mohammed (pbuh) was given to them to be killed. With the exception of Abu Lahab, Abu Talib’s own brother, all the Muslims and non-Muslims of these two clans supported Abu Talib. Abu Talib and all the


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind members of Bani Hashim and Bani Abdul-Muttalib withdrew to a valley, and were thus confined within a narrow pass called Shib of Abu Talib. The Quraish had blocked Shib of Abu Talib from every side, so that no supplies of any kind could reach the besieged people. Only during the Haj season were they allowed to come out and buy some articles of necessity. But even at that time, whenever Abu Lahab noticed any of them approaching the marketplace or a trading caravan, he would call out to the merchants, exhorting them to announce forbidding prices on their merchandise, and would pledge that he himself would buy that merchandise so that they would not suffer any loss. This boycott, which continued uninterrupted for three years, broke the back of the Muslims and the Bani Hashim, so much so, that at times they were even forced to eat grass and the leaves of trees, and drink the juice of boiled hide. When their children cried from hunger, their cries reached far and wide, and the Quraish heartlessly gloated. This siege lasted for three years, during which they suffered indescribable miseries. At last, some of the Makkan leaders took pity on Banu Hashim, and broke the agreement hanging in the Ka’bah, a part of which was already eaten by insects. Then they went and brought everyone back to their homes.

Prophet’s Trip to Taif Due to lack of food during the boycott, Abu Talib’s health deteriorated so much that he died soon after the lifting of this siege. Three months after the death of Abu Talib, Khadijah (ra), the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), also passed away. Mohammed’s (pbuh) uncle had been a great protection against the hostilities of the entire Quraish. With his death, the Quraish had a free hand, and so they intensified the persecution of the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers. His wife’s great moral support and mature advice had been a great solace to the Prophet (pbuh) in the most critical times. She wholeheartedly cooperated with the Prophet (pbuh) in his mission, and helped his cause financially. When the time came, she gave away all her wealth in the service of Islam and lived a poor life. Her death disrupted his home life, as his outside life was shattered by the death of his uncle. The Hashemites (members of Banu Hashim, clan of Quraish tribe) were aware of the high price they paid for protecting Mohammed (pbuh), but like the rest of the Quraish clans, the majority of the Hashmites were still holding to their pagan beliefs. After the death of Abu Talib, many of them decided to cut their losses and withhold the support that they had previously extended to Mohammed (pbuh) on the basis of tribal loyalty. Because of this new situation, the Prophet (pbuh) started exploring new avenues in his search for support. After some deliberation, he decided to go to Taif, about sixty-six miles from Makkah. He went on foot, because he could not afford an animal to ride. His only companion on this trip was his faithful servant, Zayed Ibn Harithah. He went to Taif with the intention to invite the chiefs of Taif to Islam, and even if they did not accept Islam, they might at least be persuaded to allow him to work for his mission there peacefully. He stayed at Taif for a few days, and approached all of the chiefs and nobles of the Bani Thaqif and talked to them about his mission. But they not only refused to listen to him, but plainly gave him notice that he should leave their city, for they feared that his preaching might “spoil” their younger generation. Thus, he was compelled to leave Taif. When he was leaving the city, the chiefs of Thaqif set on him a crowd of teenagers and servants who chased and stoned him for a long way, from either side of the road, until he became broken down with wounds and his shoes filled with blood. Due to loss of blood, Mohammed (pbuh) became unconscious, so his servant, Zayed ibn Haritha, carried him on his shoulders. Mohammed (pbuh) was weary, exhausted, and wounded, but confident of the help of his Lord. At a time when the whole world seemed to have turned against him, he turned to his Lord for help, using the following heart-melting and memorable words. “O Allah! To You alone I make complaints of my helplessness, the paucity of my resources, and my insignificance before mankind. You are the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy. You are the Lord of the helpless and the weak, O Lord of mine! Into whose hands would You abandon me? Into the hands of an unsympathetic distant relative who would sullenly frown at me, or to the enemy who has been given control over my affairs? But if Your wrath does not fall on me, there is nothing for me to worry about. “I seek protection in the light of Your Countenance, which illuminates the heavens and repels darkness, and which controls all affairs in this world, as well as in the Hereafter. May it never be that I should incur Your wrath, or that You should be wrathful to me. And there is no power nor resource but Yours alone.” (Hadith Book by Imam Muslim).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Grieved and heartbroken when he returned and reached near Qarn al-Manazil, he felt as though the sky was overcast by clouds. He looked up and saw Gabriel in front of him, who called out: “Allah has heard the way your people have responded. He has, therefore sent this angel in charge of mountains. You may command him as you please.” Then the angel of the mountains greeted him and submitted: “If you like, I would overturn the mountains from either side upon these people.” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) replied: “No, but I expect that Allah will create from their seed those who will worship none but Allah, the One.” (Hadith Book by Imam Bukhari, Dhikr al-Malaaikah; and Hadith Book by Imam Muslim, Kitab al-Maghazi; Nasa‘ee, Al-Ba‘ulh). After this, he went to stay for a few days at Nakhlah, perplexed as to how he would face the people of Makkah, who, he thought, would be still further emboldened against him after hearing what happened to him at Taif. He then came to the Cave of Hira and sent word to Mut’im bin Adi seeking his protection. Under the Arab custom, no one seeking protection could be refused, even if he was an enemy, and so Mut’im accepted and sent his sons to go armed and bring the Prophet (pbuh) to Ka’bah, and then announced from the back of a camel that he had given protection to the Prophet (pbuh) . The Prophet’s (pbuh) experience in Taif was the most excruciating torture that human beings could endure, physically as well as mentally.

Unanimous Decision of Quraish to Kill Mohammed (pbuh) After Mohammed (pbuh) successfully passed this severest test, God’s help came. First, he was honored by the Ascent to Heaven, where he was called to God’s presence and witnessed the Reality with his own eyes. Then later, God opened the heart of some people of Madinah to Islam. In the eleventh year of the Prophethood, a deputation of six men from Madinah came to the Prophet (pbuh) and pledged their support. The following year, a larger deputation of twelve men came, and after detailed talks, pledged their support at what is called the first pledge of Aqabah. On the occasion of Hajj, a much larger group came, and in the second pledge of Aqabah, at a secret meeting in the darkness of night, a full-fledged political agreement was arrived at, and the people of Madinah, later called the Ansar, expressed their willingness to face the hostility of the entire world in the cause of Islam. This agreement marked the beginning of a new stage in the history of Islam, which was to be totally different from the stage that was coming to a close. Shortly afterwards, the Prophet (pbuh) advised his followers in Makkah to immigrate to Madinah. He said: “God has promised you a new home and new brethren.” His followers in Makkah abandoned their homes and belongings and started to leave in small groups, secretly, so that they would not be stopped by the non-Muslims of Makkah. The Prophet (pbuh) himself stayed on in Makkah, waiting for God’s permission to leave. Within a few weeks, the majority of Muslims left Makkah for Madinah. Only those who were forcibly detained by the Quraish, and those who were not physically able to take this trip, were left behind, along with the Prophet (pbuh), his close friend Abu Bakr, and his cousin Ali (raa). The pagans of Makkah were deeply worried about their entire pagan and economic structure. Madinah, the prospective headquarters of the growing Islamic movement, enjoyed the most advantageous strategic position. It commanded the commercial routes leading to Makkah. Security of the caravan routes was crucial for the perpetuity of the pagans’ prosperous economic life. They realized that soon Mohammed (pbuh) would also go beyond the reach of their influence. He would organize himself, and then return with force to settle accounts with them. The Quraish were aware that if Mohammed (pbuh) could establish a new base for his faith, their tribe stood to lose its dominant position in Arabia. Action had to be taken without wasting any more time. Therefore, a conference of all the chiefs of the various tribes and clans in Makkah was called to discuss the matter urgently. In this meeting, it was decided that the assassination of Mohammed (pbuh) would be the best solution. To guard against revenge from the Prophet’s (pbuh) clan on the murderer, they decided to make this act the joint responsibility of all the tribes and clans by picking one strong man from every tribe. All these eleven men were armed with swords and were advised to strike Mohammed (pbuh) all at one time, (so that no single tribe is held responsible, and the Banu Hashim,...the Prophet’s tribe...would not be able to fight all these tribes, and hence, would be forced to accept the ransom money instead of fighting). For the implementation of this evil plan, these eleven sturdy men put a siege around the house of the Prophet (pbuh) after sunset. They kept vigil all night long, waiting to kill him the moment he left his house early in the morning, peeping now and then through a hole in the door to make sure that he was still in his bed.

Mohammed (pbuh) Forced to Migrate from Makkah to Madinah But Mohammed (pbuh) was God’s Messenger. God had guaranteed his protection until he had completed his mission. So the Angel Gabriel came to him and told him not to sleep in his bed that night. Instead, he was to start his journey to Madinah. The Prophet (pbuh) moved with maximum urgency and extra care. His counter- plan was to take all precautionary measures,


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind and he set out on his way to Madinah with extreme caution, trusting that God would look after him. At the time of this siege, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his cousin Ali were in the house. The Prophet (pbuh) told Ali to sleep in his bed and cover himself with a green mantle, assured him full security under God’s protection, and told him that no harm would come to him.

An Example of Unmatched Honesty and Trustworthiness Despite all this hostility of the people of Makkah to Mohammed (pbuh) and his message, they had no doubt whatsoever of his integrity and honesty. Anyone who had something precious would entrust it to Mohammed (pbuh), certain that he would find it safe whenever he wanted it. What is amazing in this situation is that they did not realize that a person of such honesty and integrity would not lie to God. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was so concerned, even in that critical hour, about returning their entrusted valuables—the valuables of those who were thirsty for his blood and whose swords were hanging over his head—before he left his house, he gave Ali all the things that people had kept in his custody and directed Ali to deliver them to their respectful owners the next morning. Sleep overpowered all the would-be assassins, and the Prophet (pbuh) came out of his besieged house, and walked right through them, putting some dust over all their heads. He then went straight to Abu Bakr, who had prepared two camels for their journey to Madinah. Thus, the greatest benefactor and sympathizer of humanity was made homeless, and was leaving Makkah. He was leaving that day those streets and lanes that he had frequented since his childhood, the city he had loved so much, and where he had made the call to truth, because of which he suffered abuse and tortures. He was also leaving that center of spirituality where he had prostrated thousands of times and prayed for the well-being of his people. The Will of God and his life’s mission demanded this sacrifice, and he willingly offered it. Before leaving Makkah, he cast his eyes at Ka’bah, and declared: “By God, you are the most sacred spot in the sight of God, and I would have never left you if I was not forced to leave.” (“Mohammed the Benefactor of Humanity,” by Naeem Siddiqui, published by Markazi Maktaba I Islami Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1999). Although Madinah is to the north of Makkah, the Prophet (pbuh) and his companion headed south, towards a cave in one of the numerous mountains surrounding Makkah. There in the Cave of Mount Thawr, they stayed for three days. The Prophet (pbuh) realized that the people of the Quraish would be chasing him, so in a bid to out-maneuver them, he went south. The Quraish men waiting to kill the Prophet (pbuh) felt reassured, because when they looked through a hole in the door they saw someone sleeping in the Prophet’s (pbuh) bed. They were waiting for the zero hour, when someone came and informed them that the Prophet (pbuh) had already left. They rushed in, and to their utter surprise, found Ali to be the person lying in the Prophet’s (pbuh) bed. They brought Ali to Ka’bah, beat him brutally, and confined him there for an hour, attempting desperately to make him divulge the secret of this disappearance of the two fugitives, but to no avail. They then went to see Asma, Abu Bakr’s daughter, but here also their attempts were in vain. While at her door, Abu Jahl slapped the girl so severely that her earring broke. (“Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum Biography of the Noble Prophet,” by Safiur Rahman Al-Mubarak Puri, published by Dar us Salam, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Also quoted in Rahmat al lil Alameen, 1/96, Ibn Hisham 1/487). The Quraish announced a reward of one hundred camels for anyone who could capture the Prophet (pbuh) or his companion, dead or alive. They blocked all the streets leading out of Makkah, and placed heavily armed surveillance at all the major exits. Horsemen, infantry, and tracers of tracks scoured the country all around Makkah. Once, they even reached the entrance of the cave where the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr were hiding. When he saw the enemy very close, Abu Bakr whispered to the Prophet (pbuh): “If any of them bends and looks into the cave, he is sure to find us.” The Prophet (pbuh) reassuringly answered: “Do not worry. God is with us.” (Holy Qur’an, 9:40). It was a miracle of God that first He brought the chasers so close to the cave, and then diverted their attention away from the cave, and thus showed that they simply could not challenge God. It is reported that as soon as Mohammed (pbuh) and Abu Bakr entered the cave, God assigned a spider to weave a web at the entrance to the cave. When the chasers saw the spider’s web at the entrance, they concluded that the presence of this web at the entrance of the cave showed that nobody had entered the cave, and therefore they did not bother to look into the cave. Thus the spider’s web, which is the weakest thing, proved to be stronger than a fort. It is also reported that a pigeon laid eggs at the entrance of the cave after Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and Abu Bakr moved into the cave.. [“Authenticated Miracles of Mohammed,” by Badr Azimabadi, published by Adam Publishers & Distributors, Delhi, India). The Prophet (pbuh) had started planning for this hijrah (migration) long before it actually took place. Moreover, the planning for migration was carried out in high secrecy. No one received more information than what was actually needed


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind by him. The Prophet (pbuh) was ahead of the Quraish in his plans for migration. The night that the leaders of the Quraish decided to kill him, he had everything well-prepared—he had decided on the place where he was going to hide, who would accompany him, who would stay in his bed, who would deliver his food and drink at the place of hiding, and who would bring him news of the activities of the Quraish while he was hiding. He planned for the removal of the footprints of those who would visit him in the cave, by appointing a shepherd to bring goats and sheep. He had appointed a guide for the journey from Makkah to Madinah, and he had also prepared animals for riding. On the third day, when Mohammed’s (pbuh) intelligence reported that the Quraish had called off the hunt for them in the vicinity, Mohammed (pbuh) and Abu Bakr (ra) commanded their servant to bring them their camels for escape. The servant, Amer Ibn Fuhayrah, managed to bring three camels (the third camel for himself). Asma, the Daughter of Abu Bakr (ra), brought them some provisions—food and water—for the trip. Their guide, Abdullah Ibn Urayqit, also joined them, and this small caravan of four left on the fourth day for Madinah. The Quraish’s frantic chase had somewhat died, but not completely. The temptation of a large reward could incite anyone to try to stop them from migrating. While most people gave up the chase, any group of travelers in the desert, however small, might have been a source of grave danger to these four travelers. Almost everyone in Arabia was fully aware of their flight and the reward offered for handing them over to the Quraish. This caravan of four, therefore, started their journey of about three hundred miles to Madinah, taking a totally unfamiliar route. Traveling at night, and hiding and resting in the day, they reached Quba, a suburb of Madinah, after seven days. During this journey, once they were caught by Suraqah bin Malik, a scout and well-built man who was induced by the big reward of a hundred camels. This is Suraqah’s own story of events: “As I was riding fast, chasing them, my horse tumbled and I fell down. I wondered how this could happen to me. Still I persisted, and I rode on. When they reappeared fully in my view, my horse tumbled and I fell down for the second time. I was not deterred, and I rode on. As I approached them a third time, my horse’s front legs sank into the sand and I fell down. As the horse pulled his sinking legs out, I saw that they were followed by a column of smoke. I realized that there was no way I could overpower Mohammed (pbuh). I, therefore, shouted to them and asked them to stop. I assured them that I simply wanted to speak to them, and I would not do them any harm. They stopped. I asked the Prophet (pbuh) to write me a note which would serve as a token that he would recognize at a later date. He asked Abu Bakr to write me the note, which I used at the time of the conquest of Makkah to gain access to the Prophet (pbuh) and declare my acceptance of Islam. “Having taken the note, I set off to return home. The Prophet (pbuh) called me and said: ‘What would you say, Suraqah, if you were to wear the bracelets of the Emperor of Persia?’ I said: ‘Khosaru Ibn Hormuz?’ He said: ‘Yes.’ I did not answer. I went back and met several people chasing him in that direction. I told everyone I met that I was sure Mohammed (pbuh) did not go that way.” (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). It is worth noting here that when the Muslim armies overran the Persian Empire, a few years after the death of the Prophet (pbuh), Umar, the second Caliph, called in Suraqah and gave him Khosaru’s bracelets to wear, in fulfillment of the Prophet’s (pbuh) promise. Needless to say, the promise was given in the most unlikely circumstances. A man chased by his own people, with a huge reward on his head, was promising complete and total victory over a great empire. At that moment, anyone else in his position would have been fully preoccupied with his own safety. This man of faith, however, has given us, by this promise, a feeling of what it means to be absolutely certain of the truthfulness of one’s faith and its eventual victory. The Prophet (pbuh) was given a warm welcome by the people of Madinah, and his entry into the city was similar to that of a king into the capital after a great victory. After his arrival in Madinah, the Prophet (pbuh) wasted no time in tackling the major problems in building the first Islamic state. The Prophet (pbuh) established a special bond of brotherhood between the immigrants from Makkah and the Muslims of Madinah. Thus, he fostered firm and close relations among the Muslim community. Then he acted to knit the Jews of Madinah and the Muslims into a special system, for which a written agreement was made. This may justly be called the first written constitution of the world. In this constitution, the final political, legal, and judicial authority was given to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), with the Overlordship of God and Divine Law of fundamental importance in the organized society of Madinah. This constitutional agreement laid the foundation of an Islamic state and Islamic system of life, with Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) as the first head of that state.

No Peace Even After Migration to Madinah But the people of Makkah, other pagan tribes of Arabia, and the Jews of Madinah did not let the Prophet (pbuh) be in peace, even after his migration to Madinah. Within the first five years of his migration to Madinah, three major attacks were


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind launched on the Muslims by these enemies. The objective of these attacks was to kill Mohammed (pbuh), and thus finish Islam once and for all.

First Attack by Makkans In the first battle, which took place at Badr in the second year of migration (called hijrah), the Quraish forces were crushed by the Muslims, despite the fact that their number was three times the Muslim fighters and they were far better equipped than the Muslims. At the end of the day, the Quraish losses amounted to seventy dead, including some top leaders, and seventy taken as prisoners. Fourteen Muslims fell as martyrs in the battle.

Second Attack by Makkans To be soundly beaten by a force that was just one-third their number, and far inferior in equipment, was a great humiliation for the Quraish that they neither expected nor could tolerate for long. Revenge was, therefore, the catchword all over Makkah. Moreover, the Makkans had also realized that their prosperity depended to a great extent on their prestige, and in order to maintain it, they must in no uncertain measure regain what they had lost at Badr. From the Makkans, therefore, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) could expect nothing but an intensification of the struggle, for in the hearts of the Makkans, religious hostility had now mingled with personal rancor, and all burned for revenge. They were determined to crush the commonwealth of Islam once for all. Emissaries were sent to all the tribes to make common cause against the rising faith that was threatening to sweep away the idolatry and the corrupt practices that were common, not only in the land of Arabia, but in the whole of the then-known world. As a consequence, the pagan Makkans managed to enlist the support of two well-known tribes, the Kinannah and Tihanah, and thus mustered an army comprised of three thousand men, and marched to Madina under the command of Abu Sufyan, in the third year of the migration of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) learned about this pending attack of the Quraish, and mobilized his force of seven hundred fighters, which was less than one-fourth the size of the Quraish army and was also very poorly equipped, as compared to the Quraish army. The battle took place near the mount of Uhad, which is about four miles from Madinah. In the beginning, the battle went well for the Muslims. Before the start of the battle, the Prophet (pbuh) appointed some archers to guard the opening of a certain key location. He gave these archers strict instructions that no matter what happened, they were not to leave their posts. But when the archers saw that the Muslims were winning, these archers deserted their positions and joined the main Muslim army. The cleft was undefended. Seizing this opportunity, the bulk of the Makkan cavalry attacked the Muslim forces from the rear. This totally changed the situation. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) lost some of his eminent companions. He himself sustained serious injuries, and the Makkans concentrated their efforts on killing him. He only narrowly escaped, despite a strong circle of defense by Muslims around him. Utbah bin Abi Waqqas pelted him with stones. One of the stones hit him on the face, which wounded his lower lip and broke two lower front teeth. Abdullah bin Shihale, another Makkan, managed to hit him on the forehead, causing a cut in the forehead. Amr Ibn Qamiah succeeded in hitting him on the helmet or mask, which penetrated into his holy cheeks. Amr then hit the Prophet (pbuh) on the shoulder with his sword, and the Prophet (pbuh) fell into one of the holes dug and designed by the Makkans to be used as traps. The Prophet (pbuh) was unable to rise again. Ali Ibn Abu Talib held the Prophet’s (pbuh) hand while Talha Ibn Ubaidilah lifted him. This injury to the Prophet (pbuh) caused him pain for a whole month. In response to all these sufferings, the Prophet (pbuh) said: “My Lord, forgive my people, for they have no knowledge.” (Page 268 of Biography of the Noble Prophet by Safi ur Rahman Mubarak Puri, as quoted in the Book of Hadith, Fath Al- Bari, 7/373). In a moment, however, a number of other Muslims joined the circle around the Prophet (pbuh), and they were so determined and desperate to defend him that they formed an impregnable barrier between the Prophet (pbuh) and the enemy. Umm Ammarah, a Muslim woman from Madinah, had been on the battlefield since the morning to give water to the Muslim fighters to drink. When the Muslims suffered defeat, she threw down her water jug, drew her sword, and joined the other fighters around the Prophet (pbuh) for his protection. She shot a number of arrows until she herself was wounded. The Muslims showed unprecedented, rare bravery and sacrifice in protecting the Prophet (pbuh) from the enemy. They shielded the Prophet (pbuh) with their own bodies and used their chests to protect the Prophet (pbuh) against the enemy arrows. In contrast, if we accept the statements in the Gospels as true, then the closest followers of Jesus (pbuh), who had


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind witnessed all his miracles, at the time of the test, deserted Jesus and even disowned him with an oath (Matthew, 26:56; Matthew, 69-74; Mark, 14:50; Mark, 14:66-72; Luke, 22:54-61). The Makkan army chiefs were almost certain that they had killed Mohammed (pbuh), and, therefore, they believed they had achieved their objective and decided to return to Makkah. Meanwhile, the Muslims regrouped and perused the Makkans to make sure that they would not come back to attack again. The Muslims lost seventy martyrs in this battle. Four of them were those who had migrated from Makkah and the rest were from Madinah. The Quraish, on the other hand, lost twentyfour men; it may be mentioned that the Muslims were only seven hundred who fought against three thousand idolaters, who were much better equipped than the Muslims. The Prophet (pbuh) then asked the wounded among his companions to stay in their homes and tend to their wounds. He himself went home, but could not dismount without assistance. He leaned on his two companions, Sa’d Ibn Ubadah and Sa’d Ibn Mu’adh, until he was inside his home. When Bilal called for the Maghrib prayer, the Prophet (pbuh) came to the mosque in a similar manner. When the prayer was finished, he went back home. A number of leading personalities of the two Ansar tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj, spent the night in the mosque guarding the Prophet (pbuh), for they feared that the Quraish might decide to mount a raid on his home during the night.

Third Attack by Makkans The Muslim army’s setback in the battle of Uhud that resulted from the error of the archers appointed by the Prophet (pbuh) boosted the morale of the Arab pagans, the Jews, and the hypocrites so much that they began to entertain the hope that they would soon be able to exterminate Islam and the Muslims completely. All these hostile elements forged an alliance with the Quraish to wipe out the Muslims in Madinah. When all these tribes mobilized their forces, they raised a strong army of ten thousand men, which marched towards Madinah under the command of Abu Sufyan in the month of Shawwal (the tenth lunar month) in the fifth year of the Prophet’s (pbuh) settlement in Madinah. When the Prophet (pbuh) received intelligence of this new threat, he realized that his companions were no match for the large army of their enemies. After consultation with his companions, he decided to dig a ditch around Madinah, so that the attackers could be physically prevented from engaging the Muslims in an open fight. Even before the enemy could reach Madinah, he got the trench dug in the most vulnerable locations in six days. This kind of defensive stratagem was unknown to the Arabs. Thus, they had to lay a long siege in winter, for which they had not come prepared. The siege was prolonged for more than twenty-five days and it was winter season. The supply of food, water, and forage was becoming more and more scarce every day. Then, suddenly one night, God sent a severe windstorm, accompanied by thunder and lightning, which hit the camp. This was a miracle of God for the Prophet (pbuh). In addition to the cold and darkness, the enemy tents were blown away, leaving the enemy in disarray. They could not stand these severe natural disasters attacking them. They left the battleground during the night and returned to their homes. When the Muslims awoke in the morning, there was not a single enemy soldier to be seen on the battlefield. The Holy Prophet (pbuh), finding the battlefield completely empty, said: “The Quraish will never be able to attack you after this; now you will take the offensive!” (Hadith Book by Imam Bukhari, 2/590). This was a correct assessment of the situation. Not only the Quraish, but the entire united front of all the enemy tribes had made their final assault against Islam and had failed. However, small attacks from different other tribes continued for a while. But despite these attacks, Islam started spreading rapidly. Looking at all these persecutions of and sufferings by Mohammed (pbuh), one might ask for what did he suffer all those hardships? His nation offered to accept him as their king, and to lay all the riches of the land at his feet, if only he would leave off preaching his religion and spreading his message. But he chose to refuse the tempting offers, and to suffer for his cause instead. Why? Was he to gain, in any way, if those people became pious and righteous? Why was it that he cared not a bit for riches or luxury, kingship or glory, ease or plenty? Was he playing for some higher material gains, so that these blessings sank into insignificance in comparison with them? Were those gains so tempting that he could elect to go through fire and sword, and bear tortures of the soul and torments of the body with equanimity for years? One has to ponder over it deeply to find an answer. Can anyone ever imagine a higher example of self-sacrifice, fellow-feeling, and kindheartedness towards his fellow beings than that a man may ruin his own happiness for the good of others, while those very people for whose betterment he is


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind striving his utmost should stone him, abuse him, banish him, and give him no quarter, even in his exile, and that, in spite of this all, he should refuse to refrain from striving for their well-being? This is an irrefutable proof of the prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh), which no reasonable and fair- minded person can deny. Hence, the Qur’an mentions it as proof on various occasions.

EVIDENCE 6 Conquest of Makkah—An Unmatched Example of Magnanimous Forgiveness Makkah is the spiritual headquarters of the religion of men, from the day man started his life on earth. God says in the Qur’an: “Verily, the first house (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing and guidance for all the world” (3:96). This building in Makkah, called Ka’bah, was originally constructed by Adam (pbuh), the first man and the first Messenger of God. It collapsed during the flood of Noah, and its traces were obliterated. Following that, it was rebuilt by Prophet Abraham (pbuh) on the same foundations (Qur’an, 2:127). When Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) came, this building, which was established for the worship of only One True God, housed hundreds of idols and was under the control of the pagans of Makkah. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was very keen to bring about the total transformation of Makkah from a pagan city that was profoundly hostile to Islam to the spiritual headquarters of Islam and its solid base forever. The city that housed the most ancient temple built for worshipping God alone must always remain a cornerstone in the structure of Islam, as a base where Muslims would always enjoy total security. For Makkah to be a Muslim city was to establish a strong link between Islam and the former divine religions, and to make this link felt by every Muslim in every age. On the other hand, for Makkah to remain an un-Islamic city was unthinkable. The Prophet (pbuh) never took any revenge on anyone for any personal harm done to him. He was a living example of the teachings of the Holy Qur’an. The Holy Qur’an says: “The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel [the evil] with one which is better, then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, [will become] as though he was a close friend” (4:34). At another place in the Holy Qur’an, God says: “And We have sent you [0 Mohammed], but not as a mercy for the world” (Holy Qur’an, 21:107). Mohammed (pbuh) was not merely a human being, but also the Messenger of God, and as such, he was endowed with special virtues and a special mission. One of his special virtues was that he was an embodiment of mercy and was most forgiving. As mentioned earlier, in the battle of Uhud, when his whole face turned bloody and two teeth were broken by the Quraish, he prayed: “O my Lord! Forgive them for they do not know!” (As already quoted at the end of battle of Uhad). Similarly, on his trip to Taif, when he was stoned until he fell unconscious, on his way back, Angel Gabriel came to him and said: “Herewith is the angel in charge of mountains, you just order him and he will bring the two mountains of Taif together, crushing and destroying everything and every living being.” The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said: “No, if these people do not believe, maybe tomorrow their children will” (“Mohammed the Final Messenger,” by Dr. Majid Ali Khan, published by Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, India, 1998). As the Messenger of God, his mission was to bring into worship, obedience, and the service of God as many people as he possibly could, without any bloodshed, revenge for personal injuries, compulsion, or force. Hence, he decided to capture Makkah secretly, so as to avoid any bloodshed. From a brief description of the conquest of Makkah given below, it is shown that this was a unique event in the entire history of mankind. Normally, when conquerors subdue their old enemies, particularly those who worked tooth and nail to persecute, torture, and kill them, they invariably commit atrocities immediately after their victories. These atrocities take the form of revenge, looting all valuable things, killing, rape, theft, and the summary execution of war criminals. Courts are formed for war crimes committed by the vanquished, but not by the victors, and so on. In the case of conquest of Makkah, the idea of vengeance or retaliation was far from the mind of the Prophet (pbuh), despite the fact that the people of Makkah persecuted Mohammed (pbuh) and his companions for twenty years, plotted to exile him and kill him, inflicted on him and on his companions all kinds of injury and harm, did not let him live in peace even in his exile, fought him at Badr and at Uhud, blockaded him in the campaign at al-Khandaq, incited the Arab tribes to rise against him, and would even then tear him apart if only they had the power. The objective of Mohammed (pbuh) in his march on Makkah was not the conquest of Makkah, but to conquer or win


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind the hearts of the people of Makkah who were his sworn enemies. The word “conquest” has the connotation of military confrontation involving bloodshed, which he did not want. That is the reason why: (a) He kept his plan of marching towards Makkah so secret that even his wife did not know. (b) Before leaving Madinah for Makkah, he prayed to Allah (swt) to enable him to take the people of Makkah by surprise, so as not to give them any opportunity to prepare for battle, and thus they might choose not to put up any resistance, and victory for the Muslims could be achieved without bloodshed. (c) With a view for securing a complete news blackout concerning his march on Makkah, he chose an unfamiliar circuitous route from Madinah to Makkah, which confused the patrol parties of the Quraish, and while they wandered about elsewhere, the Muslim army of 10,000 strong, pious, God-fearing, and devoted followers of Mohammed (pbuh) was suddenly in the vicinity of Makkah. This, incidentally, fulfills the prophecy of Prophet Moses (pbuh): “He came with ten thousands of holy ones” (Deuteronomy, 33:2). (d) The Prophet (pbuh) encamped at Marr-uz-Zahran, not far from Makkah. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered that each man should light a separate hearth for cooking. This was to give the impression to the Quraish that the Muslim army was much greater than it really was. (e) The Quraish, for their part, felt gravely apprehensive ever since the Muslims arrived at Zahran. They sent Abu Sufian, Budayl bin Warqa, and Hakim bin Hazam, the relative of Khadijah, to reconnoiter the field and assess the danger. They came to heights above the Muslims’ camp to survey the situation, and were very much impressed at seeing the whole desert lit up with fires of the camps in the darkness of the night. Abu Sufian remarked: “I have never seen in my life such a great army as this.” After this, he went to the camp of the Prophet (pbuh) in the company of the Prophet’s (pbuh) uncle AlAbbas. While he was passing by the camp of Umar (raa), Umar recognized Abu Sufian, and rushed to the Prophet (pbuh) and asked the Prophet’s (pbuh) permission to kill Abu Sufian. However, Al-Abbas intervened, and said: “0 Prophet of God, I have extended my protection to this man on account of the urgent need of this hour of the night.” At this, Mohammed (pbuh) said: “0 Abbas, take this guest to your tent and bring him over in the morning.” Abu Sufian was brought by Al- Abbas to the Prophet’s (pbuh) camp the next morning, and there he accepted Islam. Al-Abbas said to the Prophet (pbuh): “0 Prophet of Allah (swt), Abu Sufian is a proud man. Would you not grant him some privilege?” The Prophet (pbuh) answered: “Yes, indeed! Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufian shall be secure, whoever remains in his own house shall also be secure, and whoever enters the mosque shall be secure.” (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adel Salahi. Also, “History of the Prophet” by Ibn Hisham, and many others.) You might have heard the preachment “Love thy enemy,” but you have never seen a practical example of how the enemy is loved, except in the life of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), because he is the one who prevailed over his enemies, and thus had the opportunity to demonstrate it. Presented here is only one example in the life of the Prophet (pbuh), but there are many more that will be quoted later, in Evidence 7. This Abu Sufian is the same man who was the leader of the Quraish armies against the Muslims in the battles of Badr, Uhad, and Trenches, to name but a few. How many Muslims were killed because of him, and how many times had he tried to root out Islam and kill the Prophet (pbuh)? He was such an arch-enemy of Islam, that when he came to see the Prophet (pbuh), along with Al-Abbas, all those who were present on the occasion recommended the Prophet (pbuh) to kill him. Had Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) been an ordinary commander or leader of any victorious army or nation, Abu Sufian would have paid dearly for his past hostility to the cause of Islam. Abu Sufian was not only pardoned all his crimes, but he was sent to his people with a position of honor. His house was made a haven of safety for anyone who wished to enter his house and stay there. Returning to Makkah, Abu Sufian informed the people of Makkah of the great strength of the Muslim army, pointing out to them the utter futility of offering any resistance to such a large army. (f)  The Prophet (pbuh) ordered all his commanders and solders not to fight, kill, or harm any person, unless they were attacked. When the Prophet (pbuh) heard that one of his commanders, Sa’ad Ibn Ubadah, was threatening revenge, he replaced him with his son. The people whose life the Prophet (pbuh) was so keen to spare were the same people who repeatedly plotted to kill him, and forced him and his companions to leave their residences in Makkah and go into exile to save their faith and lives, and to escape persecution.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind To Mohammed (pbuh) and his followers, this conquest meant only one thing: the supremacy of the Great Lord, rather than ambition for pomp, grandeur, and power. Had the Prophet (pbuh) had any of such worldly ambitions, there was nothing left in Makkah that could have thwarted him. “If he had worn a mask at all,” says Bosworth Smith, “He would now, at all events, have thrown it off. If lower aims had gradually sapped the higher, or his moderation had been directed by his selfish interest, we should now have seen the effect. Now would have been the moment to gratify his ambition, to satiate his lust, to glut his revenge. Is there anything of the kind? Read the account of the entry of Mohammed (pbuh) into Makkah, side by side with that of Marius of Sullah into Rome. Compare all the attendant circumstances, the outrages that proceeded, and the use made by each of his recovered power, and we shall then be in a position better to appreciate the magnanimity and moderation of the Prophet of Arabia (pbuh). There were no proscription lists, no plunder, and no wanton revenge”. (“Mohammed and Mohammedanism,” by Bostworth Smith, published by Smith, Elder & Co., 1876).

Entry into Makkah The next morning, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) marched into Makkah peacefully. All the armies of Muslims entered peacefully, except that of Khalid bin Walid. When he was entering the city, some obstinates amongst the Quraish and Banu Bakr, under Safwan, Suhail, and Ikramah (bin Abu Jahl), the inveterate enemies of Islam, shot at the Muslims with arrows. Two of the Muslims were martyred by the arrows aimed by them. Hadhrat Khalid, therefore, asked the Muslims to respond. A small fight took place, and the leaders of the enemies fled. Unlike other conquerors, the Prophet (pbuh), on his triumphant entry into Makkah, was so humble that he lowered his head so much in thanksgiving, gratitude, and prayer to Allah (swt) that his forehead touched the seat on the animal he was riding. There was no ceremony, no beating of drums or music, or other celebration.

The Sermon of Victory When the Prophet (pbuh) victoriously entered Makkah, he gave the following sermon, which was meant not only for the Makkans who assembled there, but for all mankind. “There is no deity but Allah (swt). He has no partners. He fulfilled His promise, and helped His servant, who singlehandedly shattered all confederacies. Yes, all the proud privileges, all the old claims for blood and revenge, are here this day under my feet. The only exceptions are the custodianship of Holy Ka’bah and the office pertaining to the supply of water to the pilgrims. O Quraish, on this day does God sweep away all the pride of the pagan days and all notions of superiority by birth. All mankind is descended from Adam, and Adam was made of clay.” He followed the sermon with a quote from the Qur’an: “0 human kind’ Verily, We have created you of a male and a female, and We have made you nations and tribes that you might know one another. Verily the noblest of you with Allah (swt) is the most God-fearing of you. Verily Allah (swt) is All-Knowing Aware” (Qur’an, 49:13). This address epitomizes beautifully the essence of Islam. It is a proclamation of the Oneness of Allah (swt). There is none worthy of worship except He, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe. He is the sole Sovereign and Master of the universe. There is none to share His power and sovereignty.

Similarly, the Prophet (pbuh) also Imprinted Upon the Minds of the People the Concept of the Brotherhood of Mankind This concept strikes at the very root of all types of man-made distinctions, e.g., those of race, color, and language, and completely sweeps away all kinds of hierarchical privileges of life, social and political. It was a pronouncement of very great significance. Herein was sounded the death knell of the doctrine of polygenism, ascribing multiple ancestry to mankind and the idea of castes or classes forming a barrier to common humanity. There is no distinction between man and man. All are equal, because they are descendants of the same parents. Superiority of one over another in this vast brotherhood does not depend on nationality, wealth, or rank, but on one’s conscious adherence to the commands of Allah (swt). The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was sent to the world to break all kinds of chains, which the clever amongst the human race had forged in order to keep it in perpetual bondage. The idols of caste, creed, and color were also destroyed, along with the idols of stone and clay. Humanity could not have regained its lost dignity if these were not broken. The Holy Prophet (pbuh), in his declaration, struck at the very root of all kinds of false distinctions, and established the brotherhood of mankind (see also Chapter 5).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Tribe, race, and nation are convenient labels by which their differing characteristics are known, but they should have none of the imperialistic design that we find in the aggressive nationalism of the past and the present—a nationalism based upon feelings of vanity, arrogance, and hatred against others. Taking vengeance on account of murder had great significance in Arabia. If any member of a family happened to be killed by someone, the event was preserved in the memory of future generations and would not rest in peace. On this occasion, Mohammed (swt) cast off the practice of recompense for blood, and ushered in a new era of peace and tranquility in its true perspective in Arabia. Having said that, the Prophet (swt) looked at the audience and saw before him the mighty chiefs of the Quraish, and other hostile people who had been the most active in attempts to crush Islam—those who broke his teeth, who wounded him in the face, who made his whole face bloody, who had covered his passage with thorns, who tried to starve him, his companions, and his supporters to death by imposing a complete economic and social boycott which lasted for three years, who had made his feet bleed while preaching, who were not satisfied with anything less than taking his life, who had more than once attacked him in his place of exile, and also those who used to burn Muslims’ chests with hot irons, keeping the poor victims lying on burning sand, and sometimes even on burning charcoal. There all of the Quraish stood totally under Mohammed’s (pbuh) hand, indeed, under his feet, totally subject to his command. Indeed, their very life depended upon the first word emerging from his lips. All these thousands of men, of Muslims in battle array, stood at the ready, waiting for that one word to instruct them to wipe out the whole of Makkah and its people within minutes. Allah (swt) gave him complete power over his enemy. But since Mohammed (pbuh) was sent as a mercy to the entire world, he chose to forgive, thereby giving to all mankind and all future generations the most perfect example of goodness, truthfulness, nobility, and magnanimity. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Do you know what treatment I am going to mete onto you?” They said: “You are a noble brother and a son of a noble brother.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “There is no charge against you, and all of you are free. May God forgive you” (“Mohammed the Final Messenger,” by Dr. Majid Ali Khan, published by Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, India, 1998). When the Makkans heard this, they could not believe it at first. It touched the deepest chord of the human heart in the audience. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) actually deserved the titles: “Best of Humanity,” “The Pride of Mankind,” and “The Mercy for Nations.” It is not a victory of man’s self glory, but of humility; not that of power, but of sincere and constant service to mankind and its Creator; not a victory of man’s selfishness, but of man’s selflessness and his perfect realization of Allah’s (swt) Grace and Mercy at every step of his life. Stanley Lane Pool had said: “The day of Mohammed’s (pbuh) greatest triumphs over his enemies was also the day of his greatest victory over himself. In the hour of triumph, every evil suffered was forgotten, every injury inflicted was forgiven, and a general amnesty was extended to the population of Makkah” The Prophet (pbuh) then sent for Uthman Bin Talha, who was the custodian of the key of Ka’bah. He got the key from him and opened the Ka’bah door. When the Prophet (pbuh) entered Ka’bah, he found three- hundred and sixty idols in it, and also saw that its walls were painted with pictures of angels and prophets. The Prophet (pbuh) erased all the pictures from the walls of Ka’bah, and knocked down each idol with his bow, reciting a verse from the Holy Qur’an: “And say, Truth [i.e., Islamic monotheism or this Qur’an] has come, and falsehood [i.e., polytheism] has vanished. Surely! Falsehood is ever bound to vanish’’ (Qur’an, 17:81). It may be mentioned that this Uthman Bin Talha, from whom the Prophet (pbuh) got the key of Ka’bah, was the same person who had once refused to open the door of Ka’bah for the Prophet (pbuh); and the Prophet (pbuh) had prophesied that a day would come when: “The key will be in my hand one day and I will entrust it to whomsoever I like,” whereupon Uthman had said: “That will be the day when all the people of the Quraish have been killed.” And the Prophet had said: “No, that will be the day of the true dignity of the Quraish.” The Prophet (pbuh), ignoring the request of Hazrat Ali for custody of the key, not only gave it to the same Uthman bin Talha who recalled what he had once said, but also said: “If any person takes the key of Ka’bah from Uthman Bin Talha or his descendents, he will be cruel.” According to another report, the Prophet (pbuh) said to Uthman Bin Talha: “Take it forever, for you and for your progeny, until the resurrection.” Despite the passage of over 1,400 years, the key of Ka’bah continues to be in the hands of the descendants of Uthman Bin Talha. (“Mohammed the Final Messenger,” by Dr. Majid Ali Khan, published by Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, India, 1998.)


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind When Uthman Bin Talha heard this, he said: “Truly, you are a Prophet of God.” The Prophet then said: “Today is the day of generosity and trust”. This general amnesty by the Prophet (pbuh) to the people of Makkah was very effective in achieving his objective of winning the hearts of his former enemies. Mohammed (pbuh) not only did not take revenge and spared their lives, but also guaranteed their safety, protected their properties, and loved their children. This was far more than they had hoped. This magnanimity of the Prophet (pbuh) not only disarmed all opposition, but also awakened the Makkans to the call of truth which the Prophet (pbuh) had preached. Their minds were agitated and their consciences were stirred, and they began to reflect calmly over the blessings and appeal of Islam. Blind hostility gave way to sober reflection, which opened door for the mass conversion of the Quraish to Islam. They started entering into the fold of Islam not by ones or twos, but in crowds (Qur’an, 110:1-3). Other factors which played a role in this mass conversion are given below: (a) They were very much impressed by the high standards of morality, behavior, and discipline which the Islamic teachings had developed in the followers of Mohammed (pbuh). They saw great spiritual and moral revolution through Islam in the lives of Muslims. They very keenly observed the Muslims praying in congregation and admired their discipline and their dedication. (b) They also noticed with keen interest how strictly and faithfully the followers of Mohammed (pbuh) were obeying his commands and instructions. For example, all Muslims strictly obeyed him when he commanded them not to loot any property and not to hurt anyone in retaliation for any harm done by them in the past. Similarly, the Prophet (pbuh) asked all those Muslims who had migrated from Makkah to Madinah, and who were present at the fall of Makkah, not to claim any property which they abandoned in the cause of Allah (swt) when they migrated from Makkah to Madinah. On hearing this, all the immigrants gave up their claims to their abandoned properties in Makkah. (c) These pagans of Makkah noticed that, although the members of the Muslim community belonged to different tribes, there was a strong bond of brotherhood among them, and that their love and respect for Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was much greater than for anybody or anything else, and that their loyalty to Islam was much stronger than their loyalty to their own tribes. (d) For the first time in their lives, the people of Makkah were able to listen to the Qur’an without any bias. Thus, when they reflected on the meanings of the various verses of the Qur’an that they heard, they discovered that the religion of Islam was much more profound and sublime than their pagan beliefs that led them to worship idols of stone and wood, etc., made by their own hands. (e) The people of Makkah also learned more about Islam through their interaction with their Muslim relatives who had immigrated with the Prophet (pbuh). Because of these various reasons, people started converting to Islam, first on a small scale, then in a mass conversion. This process of embracing Islam consisted of making a pledge to the Prophet (pbuh) to obey Allah (swt) and the Prophet (pbuh) as best as one could. To accept these pledges of embracing Islam, the Prophet (pbuh) sat at the Al-Safa Hill, and beneath him, Umar ibn al-Khattab accepted the pledges on behalf of the Prophet (pbuh). No one was forced to convert to Islam, but the people of Makkah themselves realized that they had been in the wrong for too long, and that the right course for them was to acknowledge their mistake and make amends. The conversion of Hind, the wife of Abu-Sufian, will illustrate that these pledges were given in a very relaxed atmosphere, with a complete freedom of choice and without any coercion whatsoever. Abu Sufian made the proclamation: “Whoever enters the precincts of Ka’bah will be safe, whoever enters my house (i.e., the house of Abu-Sufian) will be safe, whoever does not raise his sword against the Muslims will be safe, and whoever remains in his own house will be safe.” When Hind heard this, she pulled out the moustache of her husband, and cried out: “O Banu Kinana! Kill this man. What is he saying?” She continued to abuse him, and people gathered there, but Abu-Sufian quietly said that it was no use talking like that,


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind for no one could confront the Prophet (pbuh) now. Later, when the Prophet (pbuh) was still in Makkah, he got news that the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif, along with their satellites, were planning to attack the Prophet (pbuh) in Makkah. The battle took place at Hunayan, the pagan Arab tribes were defeated, and the Muslims acquired a large amount of riches in the form of silver, camels, goats, sheep, etc. The Prophet (pbuh) was very generous in giving this booty to the people of Makkah in general, and to Abu-Sufian in particular. At this, the same Abu-Sufian said to the Prophet (pbuh): “You are indeed very generous. May my parents be sacrificed for your sake. I fought you, and you were the most honorable of foes, and I have made peace with you, and you have proved to be the best of friends. May God reward you with His best blessings.” Hind had lost her father and brother at the battle of Badr, and took revenge by arranging the killing of the Prophet’s (pbuh) uncle at the Battle of Uhud. When he was killed, she disfigured him, opened his stomach, took out his liver, and tried to eat it raw. Now she came to the Prophet (pbuh) to pledge her loyalty to Islam. However, she hid her face so that he would not recognize her. She feared that he might want to avenge his uncle’s death. Nevertheless, the atmosphere was relaxed, and she was able to comment on every item in the pledge required of women. When the Prophet (pbuh) said to the Makkan women: “Pledge to me that you will not ascribe divinity to anyone other than God,” Hind said: “You are certainly asking us to give you more than you asked of the men.” He continued: “And not to steal.” Hind said: “I used to take some money from Abu-Sufian, little by little, behind his back. I did not know whether that was permissible or not.” Abu-Sufian, her husband, who was present, said: “Whatever you have taken in the past is yours.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Then you are Hind bint `Utbah?” She answered: “Yes, indeed. Forgive the past, and may God forgive you.” The Prophet (pbuh) continued outlining the terms of the pledge: “And not to commit adultery.” Hind said: “Messenger of God, would an honorable woman be an adulteress?” When the Prophet (pbuh) stated the next pledge: “And not to kill your children,” she said: “We reared them from when they were young, until they grew up, and then you and your companions killed them at Badr.” (Umar ibn al-Khattab chuckled merrily at this comment.) No one could have tolerated this insolence, but she was exploiting the most forgiving nature of the Prophet (pbuh). (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). The Prophet (pbuh) then continued with the other terms of the pledge. This incident shows how relaxed the people were when they were pledging to enter Islam, and that they were doing it under complete freedom, without any degree of coercion.

The Love of the Ansar for the Prophet (pbuh) The citizens of Madinah, who had gathered around Mohammed (pbuh), entertained the fear that, as the Lord had given him victory over his native city, he might choose to stay there. Their apprehension was not out of place. Victor in his own home-town, where stood the sanctuary, the Holy House of God, and center of worship, it was quite likely that the Prophet (pbuh) would now make Makkah his capital. Immediately, revelation came upon him and apprised him of the thoughts of the Ansar. He dispelled their fears, and assured them with the following words: “O Ansar! Have you entertained such thoughts?” They replied in the affirmative. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) remarked: “Bear this in mind, I would never stay here. I am the servant and the Apostle of Allah (swt), and have migrated to Madinah at His command. I will live with you and die with you.” On hearing this, the faces of the Ansar gleamed with joy, and they said: “O Messenger of Allah (swt)! Whatever we have said is due to our attachment to Allah (swt) and His Apostle, since we cannot afford your separation” (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995; also “History of the Prophet,” by Ibn Hisham). Evidently, neither relatives, nor native city, nor even the holy sanctuary itself could dissuade Mohammed (pbuh) from honoring a pledge. His word given at the conclusion of the Covenant of Aqabah was to be honored in exemplary faithfulness and loyalty, and the occasion proved to be just what the moral teacher needed.

Top Priority At the height of his victory, the Prophet (pbuh) did not forget for a moment the fact that he was a Messenger of God, and that his message came first. His top priority was to win each and every person to the cause of Islam, and not to harm any person, no matter how hostile he/she had been to him, to his companions, or to the cause of Islam. To win everyone over to Islam, he gave a general pardon. All that was required of anyone to be safe was to stay at home. Even those who had committed an unpardonable crime were given a free pardon if they came to Mohammed (pbuh) and regretted their earlier misdeeds. Pardon was not difficult to arrange, once a person showed his willingness to live with the new situation.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Indeed, the Prophet (pbuh) was keen to win over the very person who was contemplating his assassination on the day of fall of Makkah. The Prophet’s (pbuh) actions in Makkah suggest that he would have been prepared to sit with every individual to explain the message of Islam to him personally, and show him the benefits of leading an Islamic life. The Prophet (pbuh) was keen to win every single individual, so he treated them as human beings to whom God’s Message was addressed. The Messenger of Allah (swt) stayed in Makkah for nineteen days. He used that time to define the way to Islam, and sent missions to all quarters inviting them to adopt Islam. He wanted the city’s change of character to be complete. He took care to remove all appearances of idolatry from every place in Makkah. Already mentioned is the fact that he ordered the removal of all the idols from in and around Ka’bah. Now he ordered that no one in Makkah should keep an idol in his home. It was the habit of the people of Makkah to have in their homes idols that they would touch whenever they went out or came back, seeking their blessings. The people of Makkah carried out that order, and all idols were broken. Hind binte `Utbah took an axe to break her idol. As she did so, she said: “We were deceived by you.” The Prophet (pbuh) also sent several expeditions to the surrounding area to remove and break all the idols. Khalid ibn al-Walid was dispatched as the head of a detachment of thirty horsemen to the valley of Nakhlah to destroy the idol known as Al-Uzza, the biggest idol in the whole district. Khalid carried out the Prophet’s (pbuh) orders, and destroyed the home where the idol was kept. Its custodian was shouting at the top of his voice: “Al-Uzza, show them your anger,” but Al-Uzza was nothing more than a statue. (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). Amr ibn al-as was sent with the detachment of Muslim forces to Hudhayl, where he destroyed its idol, Suwa. Its guard asked Amr, when he saw him approaching: “What do you want?” Amr told him that he wanted to destroy Suwa, and the guardian tried to persuade him not to do so for his own safety. Amr said to him: “You are still as ignorant as ever.” (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K.,, 1995). Said ibn Zayd was sent to destroy another main idol, Manat, which was worshipped by the tribes of Madinah before they became Muslims. Thus, the marks of idolatry were removed from Makkah and the surrounding area, and the majority of the people of Makkah became Muslims. By conquering Makkah, Mohammed (pbuh) had vindicated his prophetic claim. But this conquest had been achieved without bloodshed, and Mohammed’s (pbuh) peaceful policy paid off. Within a few years, paganism was quite dead in Makkah, and some of Mohammed’s (pbuh) most committed enemies, like Ikrimah and Suhayl, became devout and fervent Muslims. After the victory of Makkah, the greatest obstacle to the spread of the mission of truth was removed, as Makkah was the stronghold of the leadership of the days of ignorance. Its removal opened the avenues of rapid progress for Islam. Many of the clans that hesitated to accept Islam because of their alliance with the Quraish, their economic dependence on them, or their fear of their religious and social dominance, now accepted Islam. The path was now cleared for them to come forward freely and accept Islam, and many clans came forward of their own accord to become the servants of Islam and followers of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). However, there were some very powerful Arab tribes that did not give up their opposition to Islam. The Arabs had not been subject to a king or a ruler for ages, and, besides, fighting was in their blood, just as it has been in the blood of some of the tribes in Afghanistan. Moreover, there were many other reasons why the pagan Arabs disliked the Prophet (pbuh). He was destroying their idols, which represented their deities, in whose names the chiefs made their living. Also, Islam was imposing discipline, which meant restraints such as fasting for one month from dawn to dusk, which is quite hard, particularly in the hot climate of Arabia, praying five times every day, and obligatory charity by all those Muslims who are above a certain income level. There was no union or discipline among various tribes of Arabia. One of the objectives that God had sent Mohammed (pbuh) was to bring about union and discipline in Arabia, to which all his energies were directed. He was considering preaching to the people, when unexpected news halted him. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was informed that the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif had formed a powerful opposition, and were mobilizing some other tribes against the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers. Mohammed (pbuh) was not an impractical idealist. He believed in practical idealism. No sooner did he receive this news, than he decided to put a stiff resistance to the invading army, before it made any headway. Swiftly he set out at the head of twelve thousand troops—10,000 that accompanied him from Madinah and 2,000 recruited locally.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

The Battle of Hunayn With four thousand warriors, the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif, along with their satellites, marched against Makkah and encamped themselves in the valley of Hunayan. Under the advice of their chief, Malik b Awf al-Nasari, they brought all their females, children, camels, and cattle with them to the field, with the idea that their presence would restrain them from fleeing, and they would fight to death in their defense. It was a very tough battle for the Muslims, but Allah (swt) gave the Prophet (pbuh) victory. The Muslims attacked them so fiercely that the enemy forgot all their plans and their boasts. They fled, leaving their women, children, and property behind. The booty which fell into the hands of the Muslims that day consisted of: 1) 28,000 camels 2) 40,000 sheep 3) 4,000 pieces of silver 4) 6,000 prisoners This booty was distributed to the Muslim army. In this distribution, the Prophet (pbuh) was very generous to the soldiers from Makkah (the new converts), only to make them more inclined towards Islam. This gave a feeling of resentment and discontent among the Ansar from Madinah, particularly the youth. They grumbled among themselves, and said: “The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has been partial to his own kinsmen. Our swords are red with blood, but the Quraish are loaded with booty.” On hearing the grumbling of the Ansar, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) called them to a tent made of leather, and inquired of the matter. When he found the statements to be true, he made this historical speech to the Ansar: “O Ansar! What new thing have you found in your hearts? Were you not misguided, and Allah (swt) gave you guidance? Were you not the enemies of one another, and Allah (swt) made you brothers? Were you not indigent, and Allah (swt) gave you prosperity?” On every question, the Ansar replied: “Very true, Allah (swt) and His Messenger have been very kind to us.” Then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: “O Ansar! It will be just if you replied in this way: when others rejected you (O Prophet!), we accepted you. When others left you (O, Prophet!) in distress, we gave you shelter. When you were poor (O Prophet!), we helped you.” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) continued: “But you do not like, O Ansar, that other people take away sheep and goats, and you take home Mohammed (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah (swt)? By Allah (swt), who holds my soul in His hand, if all the people go one way, while the Ansar (helpers) take another, I will tread along the path of the Ansar.” Hearing this, the Ansar were deeply moved. They wept so much that their beards were wet with tears, and they sobbed loudly, saying: “We need only Mohammed (pbuh).” Then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) clarified that the Makkans were new converts to Islam, and whatever they got was not given as their right, but only to acquaint them with the generosity of Islam. (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). The convincing speech of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to the Ansar removed their unfounded misunderstanding about him with regard to his generous grants to some Quraish and Bedouin tribes. The speech reflects that the real value of life is in love, and not in wealth. He who has the love of his people has something more than wealth can buy. Mohammed (pbuh) was not only a Messenger of God, but the wisest and most beloved of men. He showed people how the saying, “love thy enemy” can be carried into effect. All this discussion took place at Jirana, and when everyone was satisfied and happy, Mohammed (pbuh) returned to Makkah, performed Umra, or the shorter pilgrimage, appointed Attab bin Usaid his deputy over Makkah, and Maadh bin Jabal as a religious teacher of the Makkan people, and he returned to Madina with the Ansar and the Muhajirin to attend to other matters that were brewing in the North of Arabia. This, in brief, was the story of the Conquest of Makkah.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

Evidence 7 More Examples of Loving the Enemy It has already been shown how, at the conquest of Makkah, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) forgave all the people of Makkah who persecuted him for twenty-one years. Below are a few more examples of Mohammed (pbuh) loving his enemy. (1) Once there was severe famine in Makkah, and the people were forced to eat the meat and bones of dead animals. Abu Sufyan bin Harb, an avowed enemy of Islam in those days, went to the Prophet (pbuh) and requested the favor of a prayer for rain, which the Prophet (pbuh) performed, and it rained torrentially. (2) When Thumamah bin Athal held up the food grain supply to Makkah from Najd, Mohammed (pbuh) asked him to lift the ban. (3) Mohammed (pbuh) and other Muslims were praying on the plain of Hudaibiyah, when 70 to 80 men who intended to kill the Muslims during the prayer sneaked down from the mount of Tanim and were captured. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) freed them without taking any ransom or giving any punishment. (4) After the conquest of Makkah, the Prophet (pbuh) looked around at the gathering in front of him, and turning to his uncle, he said: “O `Abbas, where are thy brother’s two sons, `Utbah and Mu’attib? I see them not.” These were the two surviving sons of Abu Lahab. Abu Lahab, though uncle of the Prophet (pbuh), was a strong enemy of the Prophet (pbuh), opposed the Prophet (pbuh), and he persecuted the Prophet (pbuh) in every possible way. It was `Utbah who had divorced Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Prophet (pbuh), under pressure from his father. It seemed that they were afraid to appear. “Bring them to me,” said the Prophet (pbuh), so `Abbas fetched his nephews, who entered Islam and pledged their allegiance. Then the Prophet (pbuh) took them each by the hand, and walking between them, led them to the great place of supplication, which is named al-Multazam, and which is that part of the Ka’bah wall that lies between the black stone and the door. There he made a long prayer, and noticing the joy on his face, ‘Abbas remarked on it. He was answered: “I asked my Lord to give me those two sons of mine uncle, and He hath given me them.” (5) When Mohammed (pbuh) was migrating to Madinah, the pagan chiefs of Makkah had set a reward of 100 camels for capturing him alive or dead. Saraqa b. Malik Ju’shum took to his horse in pursuit of the Prophet (pbuh), and thrice did he cast his divining arrows, and thrice he got the reply: “Do him no harm.” He refused to be put off, and went ahead, but, lo, thrice his horse stumbled, its forelegs went into the ground, throwing him away from the horseback. He then came to the conclusion that the Prophet was protected against him and would have the upper hand. Psychologically speaking, he had lost his nerves. He decided to turn back, but before doing so he called out to the Prophet requesting to write him a document on safety for the day, when he would gain victory over the Makkans. The document was promptly given to him. Saraqa embraced Islam after Makkah was captured. When he came to see the Prophet, the latter did not even ask Saraqa why he had gone in pursuit of him on the behest of his enemies. (6) At the fall of Makkah when the Prophet (pbuh) was going round the Ka’bah in his tawaf, a man from the Quraish called Fudalah ibn’ “Umayr was watching him with burning grudge in his heart. He thought to himself: “Why do I not kill Mohammed (pbuh) now that he feels safe? I do not care what happens to me afterwards if I can avenge our defeat?” With this thought in mind, Fudalah maneuvered himself into a position which enabled him to walk right behind the Prophet. The Prophet suddenly turned to him and said: “Is that Fudalah?” The man answered, “yes it is Fudalah, Messenger of God. “ The Prophet asked him again: “What have you been saying to yourself? Fudalah answered: “Nothing, I was only praising God. The Prophet laughed and said: “Seek God’s forgiveness.” He put his hand on Fudalah’s chest and pressed it a little until he calmed down. Fudalah used to say later: “I swear by God that when he lifted his hand off my chest, there was no one on earth dearer to me than he was.” Apparently, Fudalah used to be a playboy. On the way home, he passed woman with whom he had an illegitimate relationship. She invited him in, but he refused and told her that he was now a Muslim. He accepted the faith and believed in God alone, and renounced idol worship.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (7) Safwan ibn Umayyah who was one of the young generations of the Quraish leaders was chief of the Jumah clan. Because he had lost his father and brother in the battle of Badr, he was very bitter against the Prophet (pbuh). He had a friend Umayr who also had lost some relatives in the battle of Badr. One day Umayr said to Safwan “Had it not been for the fact that I have young children who have no one support them if I am killed and the fact that I am heavily in debt, I would have gone to Madinah and killed Mohammed (pbuh). I have a good pretext to go near him. I have brother whom the Muslims have taken prisoner, and I would pretend that I want to negotiate his ransom.” Safwan liked this idea very much. He promised Umayr that he would settle all his debts and would look after his children if he would go to Madinah and kill Mohammed (pbuh). This was agreed in absolute secrecy. Umayr reached Madinah with a sword in his hand to kill the Prophet (pbuh). When he met the Prophet (pbuh) and told him he had come to negotiate the release of his brother, the Prophet (pbuh) told him word-for-word his secret conversation with Safwan. Umayr was surprised and said to himself that no one but a messenger from God could have known his secret. He was thus caught red-handed, but was forgiven by the Prophet (pbuh). He accepted Islam. When Safwan heard about his friend’s conversion to Islam, he became very furious. (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). (8)  After Makkah had fallen to the Muslims, Safwan fled to Jeddah to take a ship for Yemen. `Umayr, however, told the Prophet (pbuh) that Safwan, who was the chief of his people, had run away to cast himself into the sea. The Prophet (pbuh) was so moved by the plight of his former enemy, that he granted him immunity. On `Umayr’s request for a sign to prove it to Safwan, the Prophet (pbuh) gave him his turban, which he had worn entering Makkah. `Umayr overtook Safwan before he could embark upon the ship and begged him to return with him. Safwan was not agreeable, however. He said: “I go in fear of my life, because of Mohammed (pbuh).” But `Umayr, who not very long ago was after the blood of the Prophet (pbuh), replied: “He is too clement and too honorable to kill you.” At last, Safwan returned, and asked the Prophet (pbuh): “I have been told that you have granted me immunity. Is this correct?” When the Prophet (pbuh) replied in the affirmative, Safwan asked for two months in which to make up his mind, so the Prophet (pbuh) gave him four months to decide. But four months was a long time in the company of the merciful Prophet (pbuh). Safwan accepted Islam well before the time was up. (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). (9) Wahshi had killed Hamza in the battle of Uhad. When Makkah was conquered, he fled to Taif, but when Taif also surrendered, he was at an impasse, but someone said to him: “Good heavens, what is the matter? He does not kill anyone who enters his religion. You cannot get peace anywhere, except in his company.” He went back to seek forgiveness. The Prophet (pbuh) recalled the mutilated corpse of his uncle on seeing Wahshi, but forgave his crime. He simply said: “Hide your face from me, and never let me see you again.” (“Mohammed the Final Messenger,” by Dr. Majid Ali Khan, published by Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, India, 1998). (10)  `Ikramah was the son of Abu Jahl, the worst enemy of the Prophet (pbuh). He hated Islam like his father, and had fought against the Muslims on several occasions. After Makkah was occupied by Muslims, he reflected on his past crimes and thought it wise to leave for Yemen. His wife, Umm Hakim, embraced Islam and went to Yemen to console him and to bring him back to Makkah. As soon as the news of his arrival was received, the Apostle (pbuh) got up so hurriedly that his shawl fell from his shoulders. He hailed `Ikramah with the words: “Welcome to thee! 0 émigré rider!” The father of this man had been the leader of persecutors and had caused the Prophet (pbuh) untold miseries. Was rubbish not thrown by Abu Jahl over the Prophet (pbuh), and had he not conspired to kill him? Had he not let the infidels rise against the Muslims? But now, his son was received with open arms to tell the world that the enemy is loved in this way! (“Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995). (11)   There was another man, Habbar al-Aswad, who was responsible for the death of Mohammed’s (pbuh) daughter, Zainab. He was one of those few heartless criminals who had been condemned after the conquest of Makkah. He wanted, at first, to go away to Iran, but on reconsideration went straight to the Prophet (pbuh) and confessed his guilt. “I wanted to leave for Iran,” said he, “but looking back to your clemency I have come to you, O Prophet of God.” The Prophet (pbuh) replied: “The reports you have received about me are all correct.” The confession of Habbar so softened the heart of the merciful Apostle (pbuh) that he forgave him instantly, forgiving even the death of his own daughter! (“Seerah” by Ibne Hisham). (12)   During the Khaybar expedition, an attempt was made to poison the Messenger of Allah (swt). A Jewess, Zanyab bint al-Harith, the wife of Sallam ibn Mishkam, presented him with roasted mutton, having inquired beforehand which part of the meat the Prophet (pbuh) liked best. When she was told the shoulder, she put a strong poison in it with the intention of killing him. As soon as the Prophet (pbuh) put a piece of meat in his mouth, through divine providence, that piece of meat informed the Prophet (pbuh) that there was poison in it, and that he should not eat it. The Prophet (pbuh) spat it out right away.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind He summoned the Jews, who gathered around, and asked them: “Will you be truthful about something I will ask of you?” They said: “Yes.” He asked: “Did you put poison in this mutton?” They replied: “Yes.” He asked: “What made you do it?” They replied: “If you were false, we would be rid of you. But if you are really a Prophet (pbuh), the poison would not harm you.” Zainab was then brought to the Messenger of Allah (swt). She confessed: “I wanted to kill you.” He answered: “Allah (swt) would not give you power over me.” His companions asked: “Shall we kill her?” “No!” he said, and she was set free. However, when Bishr ibn Abara’ ibn Ma’rur, who had also eaten some of the mutton, died a painful death, Zainab was killed for the murder of an innocent person. (“Dalaail an Nubuwwa,” by Imam Al-Baihaqi, Vol. 6). (13)   Once the Prophet (pbuh) was returning from Najd after an expedition. On his way back to Madinah, he was lying alone in the shade of a tree, far from his companions. His sword was hanging by the tree. A Bedouin, in ambush, took hold of his sword, and after unsheathing it, said to him: “Mohammed (pbuh), who shall save you?” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) replied very calmly and quietly: “Allah (swt).” The Bedouin was terrified, and the sword fell down from his hands. In the meantime, his companions appeared. Now the sword was in the hands of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The unbeliever was shaking out of fear. But the Merciful Prophet (pbuh) said: “Do not fear,” and he did not retaliate. (14)   In the battle of Uhad, when the Muslims were put to flight and the enemy tried to get at the Prophet (pbuh), he was hit by a stone, which smashed two of his teeth, scarred his face, and injured his lip. The Prophet’s (pbuh) incisor was broken, and blood began to run down his face. He wiped the blood, saying: “How can a people prosper who have stained their Prophet’s (pbuh) face with blood, while he summoned them to their Lord? O God, show them the right path, for they know it not.” This was the practical example of loving one’s enemy. It demanded putting one’s life at stake, rather than preaching a high flown dictum to a peaceful crowd. (15)   As mentioned in Evidence 5 in this chapter, “Prophet’s Trip to Taif,” although the Prophet (pbuh) was physically and mentally hurt very badly, when he was given the option by Angel Gabriel to destroy all the people in Taif, he said: “No, but I expect that Allah (swt) will create from their seed those who will worship none but Allah (swt), the One.” This is how the enemy is loved and forgiven—a shining example, without any parallel in the annals of the world. One has not to indulge in rhetoric and high-sounding words to teach a lesson, but to wade through blood and tears to set a noble example.

EVIDENCE 8 Achievements of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) Impact of His Teachings on the Life of His Followers The object of all divine dispensations is to deliver mankind from all the destructive evils that beset him, and to implant noble conduct, as well as a strong sense of responsibility and accountability for all his conduct and behavior before an AllPowerful, Ever-Watching, Just, and Impartial God on the Day of Judgment in the Hereafter. This is the basis of all good, real happiness, peace, and prosperity. The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is, in this respect, the most successful of all prophets, and this, in itself, affords ample evidence of the truth of his prophethood. The value of light is appreciated after profound darkness, and the flash of lightening appears to be more dazzling in an atmosphere of utter darkness. Imagine the mission of a physician who treats a hopeless patient, and does it at a place that lacks medical facilities, instruments, and medicine, yet he succeeds in his efforts to treat the patient beyond the limit of the patient simply rising from his deathbed to become a healthy person, but to the extent that the patient himself turns into an expert physician and healer as well. If so, who can doubt the perfection of the master healer? The greatness of a reformer can be judged from the degree of the moral degradation and corruption of the society in which he has to work as a reformer. Arabia, the country in which Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was born, and wherein he started his mission, stood isolated, cut off by vast oceans of sand. The occupants of this arid peninsula were very poor, and their poverty was only equaled by their ignorance and backwardness. Syed Abul A’la Maududi, in his book, Towards Understanding Islam, gives the following description of the condition of the Arab society at the time of the birth of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind “In all Arabia there was not a single educational institution. There were no libraries, and books were rare treasures. No one seemed interested in the production and advancement of knowledge. The few who could read, were not educated enough to be in any way involved with the existing arts and sciences.” “Their literary taste was of a high degree. But a study of the remnants of their literature reveals how limited was their knowledge, how hollow were their standards of culture and civilization, how saturated their minds with superstitions, how barbarous and ferocious their thoughts and customs, and how uncouth and degraded were their conceptions of morality.” “It was a country without a government. Every tribe claimed authority and considered itself as an independent unit. In fact, there was no law except the law of the jungle. Looting, arson, and murder of the innocent and the weak were the order of the day. Life, property, and honor were constantly at stake. Different tribes were always at drawn swords against one another. Any trivial incident was enough to cause a war to burst out in ferocious fury, which sometimes even developed into a country-wide conflict lasting for several decades.” “Whatever notions they had of morals, culture, and civilization were primitive and uncouth. They could hardly discriminate between pure and impure, lawful and unlawful, civil and uncivil. Their life was wild. Their methods were barbaric. They took pleasure in adultery, gambling, and drinking. Looting and plundering was their motto, murder and raping their habits. They would stand stark naked before each other, without any qualms of conscience. Even their women would be naked at the ceremony of going around the mosque in Makkah. Out of sheer foolish notions of prestige, they would bury their daughters alive, lest anyone should become their son-in-law. They would marry their stepmothers after the death of their fathers. They were even ignorant in elements of everyday routines, such as eating, dressing, and washing.” “Concerning their religious beliefs, they suffered from the same evils which were wreaking havoc with the rest of the world. They worshipped stones, trees, idols, stars, and spirits; in short, everything conceivable except God. They did not know anything about the teachings of the prophets of old. They understood that Abraham and Ishmael were their forefathers, but they knew next to nothing about their religious teachings, or about the God whom these prophets worshipped. The stories of A’ad and Thamud were found in their folklore, but they contained no traces of the teachings of Prophets Hud and Salih. The Jews and Christians transmitted certain legendary folk tales to them about the Israelite prophets. However, these stories presented a terrible picture of those noble souls. They adulterated their teachings with figments of their imagination, and tarred their lives black. Indeed, the picture presented in these traditions about the institution of prophethood and the character of the Israelite prophets is exactly the opposite of all that these noble followers of truth stood for.” (Towards Understanding Islam,” by S.A. Maududi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1981). Such were the people among whom Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was born and raised. Despite the fact that he himself was unlettered and unschooled, could neither read nor write, and had not the opportunity to have the company of any learned man, he brought about an astounding revolution in the lives of a very large number of his converts to Islam with very feeble means and meager resources. It may be mentioned that he started his mission in Makkah, where he was born, but due to severe opposition he had to migrate to Madina, another town about two hundred miles north of Makkah. Thus, he and his movement were uprooted from his place of birth, and flourished in all new environments, among new people, new neighbors, new friends, new resources, and within a foreign land. A brief description of the changes that he brought in the lives of his followers is given below. The reader will be fully convinced that such great changes are miracles that only a prophet can accomplish. There is a well-known saying that a tree is known by the fruit it bears. Likewise, the academics and their standards of education are known by their alumni. Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) institution of learning did not offer a course of study only in one subject, as the earlier prophets did. Rather, it was like a university that turned out specialists in various subjects suitable for different jobs and requirements. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) transformed his followers from being the lowest of the low to being the highest of the high. These followers established personal standards of virtue and piety that no other group of people since then can match. They established a society based on justice, equality, fairness, human dignity, and goodness that no other society can match. These people became united for the first time in history, rose up to develop the greatest intellectual institutes of their day, and spread their territorial boundaries from Spain to the edge of China, establishing in the short span of twenty-five years an empire that held dominion over more kingdoms and countries than ever the Roman Empire did in eight hundred years. He transformed in less than a quarter of a century a society—primitive, patriarchal, proud, and superstitious, steeped in utter misery, both moral and material—into an enlightened, forward-looking, God-fearing, and egalitarian society founded on what we now describe as modern concepts of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility, and internationalism.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind It was quite an achievement, by any standard, to have founded and left behind, in such a short span of life, a virile nation of over half a million people according to a conservative estimate, differing in stock and culture, but welded together and sustained by an ideology that transcended all geographical boundaries and ethnographical distinctions.

Specialists of Mohammed’s (pbuh) School (1)   Just and Ideal Rulers Those who graduated from this “university” included men of wisdom who ruled over nations and countries. They include Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. There was also Mu’awiya, who held in his hands the reins of all the lands from Africa in the west, to the borders of India in the east. They proved themselves such ideal rulers as never seen by the world before or after. Their administrations overshadowed the greatest kingdoms of all times, and their rules of justice eclipsed the Roman and Persian legal systems.

(2)   Military Generals and Conquerors This institution produced great generals like Khalid bin Walid, S’ad bin Abi Waqas, Abu Ubayda bin Jarrah, and Amr bin Al’as, who overthrew the two despotic empires of the east and the west in a few years. They became great conquerors, whose victories are still admired with amazement. Sa’d snatched the crowns of Iraq and Iran. Khalid and Abu Ubayda turned out the Byzantines from Syria, restoring the land of Abraham to its rightful owners. Amr bin Al’as swooped down upon the ancient land of the Pharaoh, while Abdallah bin Zubair and Ibn Abi Sarah swept out the enemy from North Africa. Their conquests demonstrate their military genius, which has few parallels in the history of the world. It may be mentioned here that: (a) The Muslims, at those times, did not have any prior military training. (b) They did not have any regular or standing army. (c) All the fighters were volunteers, and they were not paid any salaries. (d) They had to bring their own weapons and transportation. (e) They were poorly equipped with weapons, as compared to their enemies. (f) They fought against regular, well-trained, experienced, and seasoned armies of very well-established large empires. (g) Despite all these odds, Muslims fought successfully, even when the enemy was more than tenfold their number. The secret of their success was not superiority in numbers or arms and weapons; rather, it was the spirit of sacrifice infused by the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in the service of God, and for the welfare of mankind. Is this not a great miracle of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and a proof of his prophethood?

(3)  Successful Administrators There were also very capable and successful administrators and governors among the alumni of Mohammed’s (pbuh) “university” of Medinah: Bazan bin Sasan ruled over Yemen, Khalid bin Said over Sanaa, Muhajir bin Ummiya over Kinda, Zaid bin Walid over Hadrmaut, Amr bin Hazam over Najran, Zayid bin Abu Sufyan over Taima, and Ala bin Al-Hadram over Bahrain, besides scores of others exercising authority over populous countries.

(4)  Legislators The graduates of Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) school also included excellent legal scholars and legislators, such as Umar bin A-Khattab, Ali bin Abi Talib, `Abdallah bin Abbas, Abdallah bin Masud, Abdallah bin Amr bin Al-as, Ayesha, Umme Salam, Abi bin Ka’b, Muadh bin Jabal, Zaid bin Thabit, and Ibn Zubayr. These are some of the illustrious legislators who laid the foundations of Islamic jurisprudence. They can, verily, be compared to the greatest legislators of the world.

(5) General Biographers and Chroniclers The fifth category of specialists that Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) produced is of reporters, general biographers, and chroniclers, such as Abu Huraira, Abu Musa Ashari, Anas bin Malik, Abu Said Al-Khudri, Abadah bin Sabit, Jabir bin `Abdallah, and hundreds of others who narrated and recorded all the details of Islamic faith and practice, as well as the events and occurrences of the Prophet’s (pbuh) life.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(6) Lovers of Knowledge There was another group of studious learners, who were so dedicated to learning all about the faith from the great teacher that they cut themselves off from every other pursuit that attracts people’s attention, having no other place to live except the mosque of the Prophet (pbuh).

(7) Their Steadfastness and Moral Uprightness This great teacher developed such strong character and morals in his “students,” that despite severe persecutions and a social and economic boycott to such an extent that on two occasions a number of them were forced to leave home and emigrate to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), and finally emigrate en masse to Madinah, none of them denounced any of the teachings of Islam. Persecution of converts to Islam varied according to their status. Those who belonged to the higher classes were subjected to taunts and ridicule. Others were subjected to very severe persecution. Bilal, who was an African slave, was taken out day after day to the open desert by his master. At midday, when the sun was at its hottest, he was made to lie on the sand without any clothes to protect his back from the burning sand. A large stone was put on his chest to increase the torture. He was beaten and dragged with ropes over the burning sand. Repeatedly, he was asked to denounce Islam and declare that he believed in idols. Just as often, he repeated: “He (God) is one! He is one!” Bilal’s ordeal lasted for a long time, until Abu Bakr purchased him from his master and set him free. Khabbab ibn Al-Aratt was another slave. The unbelievers experimented with all kinds of torture on him. They once tore off his clothes and forced him to lie flat on his back on burning charcoal until the fire cooled under him. This caused a permanent mark, but he survived the torture. Abu Fukayha was very often tied by his legs, pulled along, and throttled. A heavy rock so big was placed on his chest that his tongue would come out. Ammar was frequently forced to lie down on burning sand and was beaten mercilessly. Zubayr was rolled up in a mat by his uncle and made to inhale smoke. Sa’id bin Zayd was often bound with ropes and beaten, and so was Uthman tortured by his uncle. But none recanted, none repented, nor did anybody ever forsake the faith once accepted. They were all surely possessed by the truth that never gives way to falsehood. During the period of the boycott imposed on the Muslims by the Quraish, the Prophet (pbuh) and his kinsmen had very often absolutely nothing, except the leaves of trees, to fill their bellies for days together. Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas relates that once he happened to lay his hands on a piece of dry hide, which he roasted and ate with water. Utba bin Ghazwan says that seven of his friends had developed sores in their mouth from eating these unnatural things. Another group of men who were taught moral uprightness are those who gave their lives for their faith, but never thought of retracting their steps. Hala, son of Khadija from her former husband, was minced by infidels. Samiya, the mother of Ammar, died of the injury inflicted by Abu Jahl. Yasir was cruelly tortured on a rock to die a violent death. Khubayb was crucified. Zayd welcomed death by bowing his head before the assassin’s scimitar. Haram b. Milhan and his seventy companions were treacherously killed at Bir Mauna by the tribes of Usayya, Rel, and Dhakwan. Asim was slain with seven others at al-Raji by Banu Hudhayl. The blood of Ibn Abi al-Auja and his forty-nine companions was shed by Banu Salim in 7 A.H/628 A.D. K’ab b. Umar Ghifari and his friends were massacred on the plain of Dhat ul-Atl’a, but the martyrs never strayed from the path of truth they had discovered at the feet of their teacher. A well-known religion flatters itself for the crucifixion of a single man, but how many martyrs were there among the learners of this school of Madinah? There was hardly a family left in Makkah where one or more of its members had not embraced Islam. Indeed, the violence and bitterness of the people of Makkah was due to the fact that their own kith and kin—brothers and sisters, sons and daughters, nephews, brothers-in-law, and so on—had embraced Islam with such a great zeal and enthusiasm that they were prepared to endure every hardship, brave every sacrifice, and face every adversity. They would struggle in the cause of Islam with great patience, fortitude, and high spirits. Their resistance, therefore, brought them into conflict with their own nearest and dearest. As the Holy Qur’an states: “You will never find any people who believe in God and the Last Day [Hereafter] loving those who have opposed God and His Messenger, even though they be their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kinsfolk” (58:22). This was witnessed by all Arabia in the battles of Badr and Uhad. The emigrants from Makkah fought against their own


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind tribe and closest kinsmen only for the sake of God and His religion. Abu Ubaidah killed his own father, Abdullah. Musab bin Umair killed his brother, Ubaid bin Umair. Umar killed his maternal uncle, As bin Hisham bin Mughirah. Abu Bakr became ready to fight his son, Abdur Rahman. Ali, Hamzah, and Ubaidah bin Harith killed Utbah, Shaiba, and Walid bin Utbah, who were their close kinsmen. At the end of the battle of Badr, when Masab bin Umair saw that an Ansari Muslim had captured Musab’s real brother, Abu Aziz bin Umair, and was tying him, Musab shouted out to the Ansari Muslim, saying: “Tie him tight. His mother is a rich woman and she will pay you a large ransom.” Abu Aziz said to Musab: “You are my brother and saying this?” Musab replied: “Not you, but this Ansari Muslim is my brother now, who has captured you.” (Holy Qur’an, 58:22, commentary by S. A. Maududi). Thus, after embracing Islam, these converts became so remarkable for their moral uprightness, their veracity, and their steadfastness that the world could hardly fail to notice the superiority of the Message and its divine origin. In the second year of migration of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his companions from Makkah to Madinah, the pagans of Makkah launched an attack on Madinah to kill Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), and thus to end Islam. The people of Madinah, who converted to Islam and were called Ansar, had provided hospitality and protection to the Prophet (pbuh) and to the Muhajirun (immigrant Muslims from Makkah). The Prophet (pbuh) decided to face the Quraish army at Badar. He therefore gathered together both the Ansar and the Muhajirun, and informed them of the situation, and wanted their opinions. To this, Miqdad, one of the Muhajirun, responded in the following words [ “Mohammed Man and Prophet,” by Adil Salahi, published by the Islamic Foundation, U.K., 1995): “O Messenger of God! Proceed as God has commanded you to. We are with you, regardless of what you decide. We shall not say, as the Children of Israel said to Moses: ‘Go forth, you and your Lord, and fight. As for us, we shall remain here sitting’ (Holy Qur’an, 5:24) . We rather say: ‘Go forth, you and your Lord, and fight, and we shall fight on your side, as long as the eyelid of any one of us still moving’’ (Ibn Hasham, Vol. 1; Al-Waqidi, Vol. 1). Sa’d Ibne Muaz, the leader of the Ansar, gave the following answer: “O Messenger of God, we have decided to believe in you. We affirmed the veracity of your claim (to be the Messenger of God), and we bore witness to the truth of your teachings. We have also given you our pledge, and concluded with you a firm covenant to hear and to obey. O Messenger of God! Do as you wish. By the One Who has sent you with the truth, if you were to take us to the sea and command us to jump into the sea, none of us should remain behind. We shall not mind if you confront the enemy with us tomorrow. We shall persevere in battle, shall remain faithful in the encounter with the enemy, and possibly God will enable us to achieve what will soothe your eyes. So take us along to the battlefield with God’s blessing” (Al-Waqidi, Vol. 1). Out of many examples, below are only three more specimens reflecting the different shades of the character that Mohammed (pbuh) developed among his followers. (Following first two examples are from “First Things First,” Khalid Baig, published by Open Mind Press, California, USA): (a) Muslim men are prohibited from wearing gold. Once a companion of the Prophet (pbuh) was wearing a gold ring, probably without knowing that Muslim men are prohibited from wearing gold. The Prophet (pbuh) took his gold ring and threw it away, saying it was like wearing burning charcoal from hell. Later, someone suggested to that man that he pick up the ring and use the gold for some other legitimate purpose. But he refused, saying: “No, by God, I will never take something when it has been thrown away by the Prophet (pbuh).” (b) Jareer ibn Abdullah once sent his servant to buy a horse. The servant bought a horse for three hundred dirhams, and brought the seller with him so he could be paid. When Jareer ibn Abdullah looked at the horse and realized that the horse was worth eight hundred dirhams, and the seller had undervalued it, Jareer ibn Abdullah said to the seller: “Your horse is more valuable than three hundred dirhams, and in my judgment it is worth eight hundred dirhams. I will therefore buy it for eight hundred dirhams.” When Jareer was asked why he did that, he answered: “I gave the seller fair price, because I have promised the Prophet (pbuh) to always be sincere and a well-wisher for every Muslim.” (c) God said: “Who is he who will give to God a loan? A good loan, so that God may return it manifold, and he shall have the best reward” (Qur’an, 57:11). How Generous and Beneficent is Allah, that if a man spends the wealth granted by Himself in His way, He calls it a loan on Himself, provided that it is a good loan, that is, a loan which is given with a pure intention, without any selfish motive of winning reputation or renown, or of doing a favor for somebody, but only for the sake of Allah’s approval and to win His goodwill and rewards. Allah makes two promises in this regard: 1) that He will repay it, increasing it manifold, and 2) that He will also give from Himself the best reward of it.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind According to a hadith reported by Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud, when this verse was revealed and the people heard it from the Holy Prophet (pbuh), Hazrat Abud Dahdah Ansari asked: “O Messenger of Allah, does Allah want a loan from us?” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) replied: “Yes! O Abud Dahdah.” He said: “Kindly show me your hand.” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) extended his hand towards him. He took the Prophet’s (pbuh) hand in his own hand, and said: “I give away my garden in loan to my Lord.” Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud says that the garden had six hundred date-palms and his own house, where his family lived. Saying this to the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he went straight back home, and calling out to his wife, said: “Come out, O mother of Dahdah, I have loaned this garden to my Lord.” She replied: “Dahdah’s father, you have made a good bargain!” And she immediately left the garden with her effects and children (Commentary of Holy Qur’an, 57:11, by S. A. Maududi) . This incident throws light on the type of faith that the Prophet (pbuh) developed in his followers. Neither an inscrutable miracle, nor an irrefutable message has ever made a Prophet (pbuh) acceptable to his people. The secret of his success lay in his uncommon personality—his transparent sincerity and acute sensitivity, his wide-reaching sympathies, and solicitude of all and sundry, without discrimination. His outstanding trait of selfless social service would first soften the heart of the common man, and then appeal to the mind through the heart. People are seldom converted by dialectics. The raison d’être of all religions is to serve the Creator through service rendered to his creatures. A religious system lacking the content of social service is just a cult. Nine-tenths of the contents of din, or religion, comprise man’s social obligations. And it is in the proper discharge of these obligations (called huqooqul ibaad in the religious parlance) that his ultimate salvation depends, for there is no other way of fulfilling his obligations to his Creator, or expressing his gratitude for His bounties. Thus, it is the acute sense of ultimate accountability in man—the rock-bottom of eemaan (faith)—that gives an abiding meaning to his life and turns it into a challenging mission. In the ultimate analysis, it is the degree of one’s commitment to the basic doctrine of accountability that determines one’s status in the Qur’anic terminology. No one with even the foggiest notion of accountability can be dubbed a kaafir (unbeliever), no matter how far he may have strayed from the right path in some of his concepts. This does not, in any case, exhaust the list of the students of this institute, nor its achievements. These are just some random glimpses.

(8) Just Fantastic and Incomparable—As Only a Prophet Could Be There is yet another aspect of this impact. If one examines those academies whose teachers were the prophets of God, one would find normally ten to a thousand learners or disciples, but never more than ten or twenty thousand, at the most. But when one comes to the last prophetic school, one sees more than a hundred thousand pupils around the great mentor. Moreover, if one tries to find information about the students of earlier prophets, where they lived, what they did, and what were their achievements, morals, and characters, and what improvements they brought about in the human society of their times, most likely one will not get any answer. However, in the case of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), one will find the names and addresses, characters and achievements, of all. He changed their ways of thinking, their very habits and morals. He turned the uncouth into the cultured, the barbarous into the civilized, the evil-doers and bad characters into God-fearing and righteous persons. Their unruly and stiff-necked natures were transformed into models of obedience of law and order. A nation that for centuries had produced not one single great man worthy of that name, now gave birth, under his influence and guidance, to thousands of noble souls who travelled to far-off corners of the earth to preach and teach the principles of religion, morality, and civilization. Is it not a miracle that these unlettered and uncivilized, rude and savage Bedouins, worshippers of idols and fetish, were turned into wise and polite, cultured and sagacious people by one of them, who was as unlettered as any of them? How could the militarily untrained Prophet (pbuh) make commanders and generals of them? How did they get the reservoir of courage, zeal, steadfastness, and intrepidity through a man who was himself helpless and defenseless? How were the people who had never bowed their heads before God made reverent worshippers, pious, and godly? You have just had a glimpse of Mohammed’s (pbuh) great seminary, and its students of various categories: scholars, legists, warriors, judges, and rulers. They included the poor and the rich, slaves as well as masters, and combatants as well as martyrs. Have you not reflected on Mohammed (pbuh), the emblem of perfection, whose virtues were reflected in different shades and colors, and in his companions and disciples? It was the Prophet’s (pbuh) sagacity that showed its face in Abu Bakr and Uthman. His intrepidity


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind found expression in Khalid, Abu Ubayda, Saad, and Jaafar Tayyar. His devotion, piety, and prayers illuminated the arch and pulpit in the form of Ibn Umar, Abu Darr, Salman, and Abu Darda. His knowledge and learning brightened the minds of Ibn Abbas, Abi bin K’ab, Zayd bin Thabit, and Abd Allah bin Masud. His patience displayed itself in the perseverance of Bilal, Suhyeb, Ammar, and Khubayb. Like the glorious lamp of heaven, Mohammed (pbuh) illumined every nook and corner of the world, the peak of mountains, sandy deserts, running streams, and verdant pastures; his were the streams of rain showering life and vitality over all lands and peoples, which helped all nations to blossom out their latent qualities. Regardless of the varied talents and accomplishments of the Prophet’s (pbuh) companions, the feature uniformly conspicuous in all was the sparkling spirit of faith. Whether one was rich or poor, a king or a friar, a ruler or the ruled, a judge or a witness, a commander or a cavalier, a teacher or a student, an ascetic or a trader, a fighter or a martyr, Mohammed’s (pbuh) light of love-divine, spirit of selflessness, zeal for sacrifice, sympathy for his fellow beings, and, above all, his ardor for achieving the pleasure of God, had made a dent in every heart. Whatever position one occupied, and wherever it happened to be, this was the burning emotion that stirred them all, irrespective of their differing dispositions and individual traits. Their God was One, the Qur’an was their common scripture, they owed allegiance to the same Prophet (pbuh), bowed their heads in the same direction, and the ultimate aim of their endeavor was the same—to make this world a better place for mankind, to do good to every man, to preach the Message of God to one and all, and to make the truth triumphant over everything else. These are but brief glimpses of Mohammed’s (pbuh) many-sided and comprehensive character. His diverse qualities are like flowers of different colors and hues. Like natural phenomena, human character also shows a multifariousness of characteristics, traits, dispositions, and capacities. And, for the guidance of all these diverse human characters and characteristics, there can be no comprehensive and everlasting guide and teacher, save Mohammed (pbuh), the last of the Prophets of God.

His Impact on Human Thought The achievements of this great man do not end just with his impact on his followers. He has impacted the entire human race. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, in his book, Towards Understanding Islam, describes his contribution to human thoughts in the following words. “To arrive at a full appreciation of his worth, one has to view him against the background of the history of the world as a whole. This reveals that this unlettered dweller of the desert of Arabia, who was born in the Dark Ages, some fourteen hundred years ago, is the real pioneer of our modern age. He is not only the leader of those who accept his leadership, but also of those who do not, even of those who denounce him. The only difference being that the latter are unaware that he is still imperceptibly influencing their thoughts and their actions, and is governing the principles of their lives, and is the guiding spirit of the modern times.” “It was he who turned the course of human thought away from superstition, from love for the unnatural, the inexplicable, and monasticism, towards a rational approach, love for reality, and a pious, balanced, worldly life. It was he who, in a world which regarded only supernatural happenings as miracles and demanded them for the verification of the truth of a religious mission, urged that rational proof should be the criterion of truth.” “It was he who, in place of groundless speculation, led human beings to the path of rational understanding and sound reasoning on the basis of observation, experiment, and research. It was he who clearly defined the limits and functions of the sense of perception, reason, and intuition. It was he who brought about a rapprochement between spiritual and material values. It was he who harmonized faith, knowledge, and action, who, in short, evolved true religiosity on the basis of the scientific spirit.” “It was he who eradicated idolatry, man-worship, and polytheism in all forms so thoroughly, and created such a firm faith in the Unity of God that even those religions that were based entirely on superstition and idolatry were forced to adopt a monotheistic approach.” “It was he who changed the basic concepts of ethics and spirituality. Those who believed that asceticism and self-annihilation alone led to moral and spiritual purity—that purity could only be achieved by running away from life, disregarding all the desires of the flesh, and subjecting the body to various types of tortures—he showed the path of spiritual evolution, moral emancipation, and attainment of salvation through active participation in the affairs of the world around them.” “It was he who brought home to man his true worth; those who acknowledge only a God-incarnate or a son of God as their moral preceptor or spiritual guide were told that human beings with no pretensions to Godhead could become vicege-


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind rents of God on earth; those who proclaimed and worshipped powerful personages as their gods were made to understand that their false lords were mere ordinary human beings, and nothing more. It was he who stressed the point that no person could claim holiness, authority, and over-lordship as his birthright, and that no one was born with the stigma of untouchability, slavery, or serfdom. It was he and his teachings that inspired thoughts of the unity of mankind, equality of human beings, true democracy, and real freedom.” “Laws which he gave have penetrated deep into the structures of society, and this process continues up to this day. The basic principles of economics that he taught have ushered in many a movement in world history, and hold the same promise for the future. The laws of governance that he formulated brought about many upheavals in political theories and continue to have influence even today. The fundamental principles of law and justice, which bear the stamp of his genius, have influenced to a remarkable degree the administration of justice in the courts of nations. This unlettered Arab was the first person to formulate a framework of international relations and lay down laws of war and peace. No one previously had even the remotest idea that there could be an ethical code of war, and that relations between different nations could be regulated on the basis of common humanity.” (“Towards Understanding Islam,” by S.A. Maududi). An important question emerges here: from where did this unlettered and unschooled man—the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh)—get this know-how and wisdom fourteen hundred years ago, which is not available even in the 21st century anywhere in the world, even in the most modern institutions? It leads us to the definite conclusion that this knowledge was revealed to him by God Who appointed him as His Messenger or Prophet for mankind.

Only a Prophet Can Bring Such a Great Revolution Continuing from Towards Understanding Islam, by S. A.. Maududi” “In the cavalcade of world history, the sublime figure of this wonderful person towers so high above all others that they appear to be dwarfs when contrasted with him. None of them was a genius capable of making a deep impression on more than one or two aspects of human life. Some are brilliant theoreticians, but are lacking when it comes to practical action. Some are men of action, but with little knowledge. Some are renowned as statesmen only, others are masters of strategy. Some have devoted their energies to ethical and spiritual problems, but have ignored economics and politics. In short, one comes across heroes who are experts in one walk of life only.” Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the only example where all the excellences have been blended into one personality. He is a philosopher and a seer, as well as a living embodiment of his own teachings. He is a great statesman, as well as a military genius. He is a legislator, and also a teacher of morals. He is a spiritual luminary, as well as a religious guide. His vision penetrates every aspect of life. His orders and commandments cover a vast field, from the regulation of international relations down to the habits of everyday life like eating, drinking, and personal hygiene. On the foundations of his philosophy, he established a civilization and culture without the slightest trace of a flaw, deficiency, or incompleteness. Can anyone point to another example of such a perfect and well-rounded personality? Most of the famous personalities of the world are said to be the products of their environments. But his case is unique. His environment seems to have played no part in the making of his personality. At most, one might accept in the light of Hegel’s philosophy of history, or Marx’s historical materialism, that the time and environment demanded the emergence of a leader who could create a nation and build an empire. But Hegelian or Marxist philosophy cannot explain how such an environment could produce a man whose mission was to teach the highest morals, to purify humanity, and to wipe out prejudice and superstition, who looked beyond the artificial compartments of race and nation-state, who laid the foundation of a moral, spiritual, cultural, and political superstructure for the good of the whole world. Who practically, not theoretically, placed business transactions, civics, politics, and international relations on moral grounds, and produced such a balanced synthesis between worldly life and spiritual advancement that, even to this day, it is considered a masterpiece of wisdom and foresight. Can anyone honestly call such a person a product of the all-pervading darkness of Arabia? He is absolutely independent of his environment. When we look at his achievements, we are irresistibly drawn to the conclusion that he actually transcends the limitations of time and space. His vision breaks through all temporal and physical barriers, passes beyond centuries and millennia, and encompasses within itself the whole of human history. He is not one of those whom history has cast into oblivion, and he is not praised only because he was a good leader in his own time. He is the unique and incomparable leader of humanity, who marches with time, who is modern in every age and in every era.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Those who people style “makers of history” are only creatures of history. In fact, in the whole history of mankind, he is the unique example of a “maker of history.” One may scan the lives and circumstances of the great leaders of the world who brought about revolution, and one will find that on such occasions the forces of revolution were gathering momentum for the destined upheaval, were taking their course in certain directions, and were only waiting for the right moment. In harnessing these forces, the revolutionary leader played the part of an actor for whom the stage and the role is set beforehand. On the other hand, the Prophet (pbuh) is the only person who had to genuinely create a revolution; he had to mold and produce the kind of men he wanted, because the spirit of revolution and its necessary conditions were nonexistent He made an incredible impression on the hearts of thousands of his disciples by his forceful personality, and molded them to his way of thinking. By his iron will, he prepared the land for revolution, and directed events into the channels he wanted. Can anyone cite another example of a maker of history of such distinction, another revolutionary of such brilliance and splendor?”

Evidence 9 Miracles of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) A miracle is a supernatural act of God. It is a sign from Allah, shown through a prophet or for a prophet, to prove the truthfulness of his mission. Some facts about miracles are given below. (a) All miracles happen with the power, will, and permission of God only, and not by any personal power or will of a prophet. (b) In the occurrence of a miracle, usually the usual law of cause and effect is temporarily suspended by God. For example, when Prophet Abraham was thrown into a burning fire, Allah (swt) commanded the fire not to cause any harm to Abraham. “We said, 0 fire become coolness and safety for Abraham” (Qur’an, 21:69). Other examples of such miracles are the resurrection of the dead, conversion of a stick into a serpent, causing water to flow from the fingers of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), curing the sick, etc. (c) Sometimes miracles follow the known laws of nature. Examples of this type of miracles are the storm of Noah (pbuh), the wind storm for the people of Hud (pbuh), the earthquake for the people of Saleh (pbuh), the eruption of the volcano for the people of Lut (pbuh), the outbreak of famine in Makkah in the life of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), and the blowing of harsh wind during the Battle of the Trench. Although these events are not against the known laws of nature, they did not occur as mere chance or coincidence, but Allah (swt) caused them to occur to defend His prophets and their true followers, and to destroy or humiliate the deniers of His prophets and His Message. (d) A miracle is a challenge to the world, and is inimitable by anyone.

Some Characteristics of the Miracles of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) (1) Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) miracles are so numerous and comprehensive that Muslim scholars have written voluminous books about these miracles, and they still warrant another book entirely. These miracles are much greater in number than the miracles of all the other known prophets put together. (2) Since he is Messenger of God for the entire world for all the people for all time, up to the Day of Resurrection, his miracles are of all kinds, varieties, or categories—intellectual and non-intellectual, on earth, in the air, and in heavenly bodies. His miracles on earth are among living beings, and organic and inorganic objects. They include his predictions or prophesies, and his knowledge of the unseen. There are miracles about him before his birth, and miracles of divine protection of the Prophet (pbuh) on various occasions. (3) Since he is the last Messenger of God, and there will be no more prophets or messengers of God anywhere or anytime in the world, some of his miracles are of a permanent or everlasting nature. (4) His miracles are much more profound and astonishing than the miracles of earlier prophets. (5) Compared to those of all earlier prophets and messengers, the record of the miracles of Mohammed (pbuh) is most authentic, very well-documented, and transmitted to generations after him in the most reliable form, through the testimony of an unbroken and continuous chain of reporters.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (6) While the miracles of earlier prophets were witnessed only by the people who were present at the time the miracle occurred, some of the important miracles of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) are of a permanent nature, and can be witnessed not only today, but also by all future generations all over the world.

Kinds of Miracles of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) There are two kinds of miracles of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh): 1) intellectual miracles, and 2) physical miracles. Since the Holy Qur’an lays great stress on rationality, it does not give much importance to physical miracles, because of the following: Physical miracles force a person to believe without being mentally and intellectually satisfied, and therefore this faith is not firmly established in a believer. The history of past communities show that these physical miracles often created false beliefs. Some messengers and prophets in the past who showed physical miracles were raised to the status of God or shareholders with God, because of their physical miracles. A typical example is that of Jesus (pbuh) and his followers. Since intellectual miracles are more important, they are described first below, and then physical miracles are described, since there are people who like to see them.

Intellectual Miracles (1) Miracle of Al-Qur’an Among the various miracles granted by God to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the Holy Qur’an is the most prominent. Since it is a very important miracle of the Prophet (pbuh), and needs comprehensive treatment, it was discussed in Chapter 17, “Why We Believe that the Holy Qur’an is the Book of God.” Here it may only be mentioned that, despite the fact that Mohammed (pbuh): (a) Did not attend school (b) Could neither read nor write (c) Was born in a country that was utterly backward (d) Was raised in a most primitive and uncivilized environment (e) Did not have the opportunity to spend any time in the company of any learned man or a scholar The Holy Qur’an, which he received from God and presented to the world, is not only of matchless eloquence and an inimitable masterpiece of language and style, but also full of such universal and everlasting wisdom, knowledge, and guidance, that the like of which has never been produced by anyone before or after him. The Holy Qur’an is a great miraculous Message of God. Its eloquence and unique flawless language and style are so captivating and impressive that the Arabs who were acclaimed masters of eloquence were so much affected by the miraculous beauty of the Qur’an, that: (a) Leading enemies of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) used to listen to the recitation of the Qur’an secretly, in the darkness of night, hiding from each other and from Mohammed (pbuh). (b) Some staunch enemies of Mohammed (pbuh), like Umar and the greatest orators and poets of the time of Mohammed (pbuh), such as Unays al-Ghifaaree and Al-Kindii, converted to Islam after listening to or reading a few verses of the Qur’an. (c) Some other enemies of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) declared the Qur’an magic or sorcery, and were so frightened of becoming influenced by its miraculous message, that to avoid hearing it, they put their fingers in their ears whenever the Qur’an was being recited. They also used to visit the camps of all pilgrims to Makkah, telling them: “There is a magician in Makkah, do not go near him. He creates disunity between parents and children, and between brothers and sisters, through magic.” (d) Eyes of hardened desert dwellers were filled with tears on hearing the Qur’an.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (e) The spirits of believers were elevated to heights of ecstasy. God has challenged mankind in the Qur’an to attempt to match the Qur’an in the following words: “Say, `If all mankind and Jinn [all visible and invisible creations] assemble to produce anything equal to the Qur’an [in eloquence, style, rhyme, and superb meaning], they cannot do it, even though they cooperate together for this purpose and support one another all they can”. (Holy Qur’an, 17:88) The Qur’an is a living miracle, not only because of its unmatched eloquence, style, and contents, but also because of its constant conformity with past, present, and future truth; its confirmation of previously unknown history; statements of scientific facts over a thousand years in advance of validation; its predictions; its transcendent character that never shows a trace of a particular man, of any one society or epoch of history, or of any specific region of the globe. The Holy Qur’an is not a passing event in history that appears one day and disappears the next. No, it is a fact, stable and durable, which remains unchanged and eternally present for the admiring contemplation of all the people of the world. The Holy Qur’an is not a temporary wonder that deceives the mind and is alien to the new knowledge that has come to influence mankind. It is the truth, the truth which proves itself; and while it appeals to reason, it transcends reason, and thus it shows its divine origin.

(2) Physical Miracles Physical miracles of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) can be grouped into the following: A. Miracles about the Prophet (pbuh) at the time of his birth and soon after. B. Miracles in heaven. C. Earthly miracles. D. Divine protection of the Prophet (pbuh).

(A)   Miracles about the Prophet (pbuh) at the Time of His Birth and Soon After (i)   Ibn sa’d reported that Mohammed’s (pbuh) mother said: “When he was born, a light issued out of my body that lit the palaces of Syria.” Imam Ahmed reported on the authority of Arbadh bin Sariya something similar to this. (Imam Ahmed’s Book of Hadith). (ii) According to a popular tradition among early Muslims, the “eternal” flame of the fire-worshiping Zoroastrians in Persia was miraculously extinguished at the time of the birth of Mohammed (pbuh). (iii) Ibn Hussan, in his famous book of the history of the Prophet (pbuh), says that on the day of Mohammed’s (pbuh) birth in Makkah, Hassan Ibn Thabat heard a Jew screaming at the top of his voice on a hill in Medinah (about two hundred miles north of Makkah): “O my Jewish community tonight, the star of Ahmad (another name for Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), in which he was born upon has risen. (iv) Again, Abu Naeem states in his book, Proof of Prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh), that Zaid Ibn Amr Ibn Nuffail was in Syria on the day of Mohammed’s (pbuh) birth, and there a respected Jewish scholar said to him: “A prophet has appeared in your country because his star has risen. Go back to your country! Believe in him and follow him” . (v)   It was the general custom of wealthy Arabs to send their children to Bedouin nurses, so that they might grow up in the free and healthy surroundings of the desert, whereby they would develop a robust frame and acquire the pure speech and manners of the Bedouins, who were noted both for chastity of their language and for being free from those vices that usually developed in sedentary societies and accompany material abundance and prosperity. The Prophet (pbuh) was entrusted to Halimah, a Bedouin woman of the tribe Banu Sa’d, a branch of Hawzin. The woman did not accept the child without reluctance, since the care of the fatherless child was less likely to be well-rewarded than that of one whose parents were alive. Traditions delightfully relate how Halimah and the whole of her household were favored by successive strokes of good fortune while the child Mohammed (pbuh) lived under her care.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Halimah, the nurse of Allah’s Messenger (pbuh), narrated that she, along with her husband and her own nursing child, set out from her village in the company of some women of her clan in quest of children to nurse for pay. She said: “It was a year of drought and famine, and we had nothing to eat. I rode a brown she -ass. We also had with us an old she-camel. By God, we could get not even a drop of milk. We could not have a wink of sleep during the night, for my child kept crying because of hunger. There was not enough milk in my breast, and even the she-camel had nothing to feed him. “At length we reached Makkah, looking for children to care for. However, not a single woman among us would accept the Messenger of God (pbuh) to nurse. As soon as we were told that he was an orphan, we each refused him. We had fixed our eyes on the pay that we would get from a child’s father. An orphan! What are his grandfather and mother likely to do? So we spurned him. Every woman who came with me found a baby to nurse, and when we were about to depart, I said to my husband: ‘By God, I do not like to go back with the other women without a baby. I should go to that orphan and take him.’ He said, ‘There is no harm in doing so, and perhaps God may bless us through him.’ So I took him simply because there was no other alternative left for me but to take him. When I lifted him in my arms and returned to my place, I put him on my breast, and to my great surprise, I found enough milk in it. He drank to his heart’s content, and so did his foster brother, and then both of them went to sleep, although my baby had not been able to sleep the previous night. My husband then went to the she-camel to milk it, and, to his astonishment, he found plenty of milk in it. He milked it and we drank to our fill and enjoyed a sound sleep during the night. “The next morning my husband said, ‘By God, Halimah, you must understand that you have a blessed child.’ And I replied, ‘By the grace of Allah, I hope so’.’’ (History of the Prophet by Ibn Ishaq, see also Biography of the Noble Prophet (The Sealed Nectar), by Safi ur Rahman Al-Mubarak Puri, published by Dar us Salam, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2002). The tradition is explicit on the point that Halimah’s return journey and her subsequent life, as long as the Prophet (pbuh) stayed with her, was encircled with a halo of good fortune. The donkey that she rode when she travelled to Makkah was lean and almost foundered; on the way back it recovered speed, much to the amazement of Halimah’s fellow travelers. By the time they reached the encampments in the country of the clan of Sa’d, they found the scales of fortune turned in their favor. The barren land sprouted forth luxuriant grass, and their beasts came back to them satisfied and full of milk. The child grew up to be strong and healthy and learned the pure chaste Arabic of the desert.

B.   Miracles in Heaven (i) The Prophet’s (pbuh) Miraculous Journey to Heaven The Prophet’s (pbuh) miraculous journey to heaven was made by supernatural means in the company of Angel Gabriel, from the sacred Mosque in Makkah to the sacred Mosque in Jerusalem, and then from there he ascended through the sphere of the heavens, meeting several great prophets and angels on the way, until he reached the immediate presence of God Almighty, far beyond, where none, not even Angel Gabriel, could ascend. Allah (swt) took Mohammed (pbuh) on this tour of the universe on the twenty-seventh night of the month of Rajab (7th month of the Islamic calendar), one year before the migration of the Prophet (pbuh) from Makkah to Madinah. This journey is known as Isra and MiraI, in which extraordinary signs of Allah (swt) were shown to him, and some special commands and instructions were given to him. The guardians of the heavens were ordered to make preparations to accord a befitting welcome to this special guest. More comprehensive details about this trip are given in the books of hadith of Bukhari, Muslims, and others. On this trip, the Prophet (pbuh) also led, at Jerusalem, a congregational prayer of the prophets (i.e., all prophets, from Adam to Jesus, prayed behind him). In the entire history of mankind, this extraordinary event and such a great miracle occurred only once, and that was for Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). When Mohammed (pbuh) reported this miracle to the people of Makkah on the following day, the disbelievers of Makkah scoffed at him, and some of the Muslims also were skeptical, saying, how could Mohammed (pbuh) have gone to Jerusalem and back in one night, while a one-way journey to Jerusalem is at least twenty days by caravan. When challenged, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) described Jerusalem in great and accurate detail to those who had been there, although Mohammed (pbuh) had never been there before. In addition, Ibn Hisham, the famous historian, had narrated that during this journey, Mohammed (pbuh) reported seeing a Bedouin on a caravan who was seeking a lost camel, directed the Bedouin to his camel, which Mohammed (pbuh) was able to see from his high vantage point in the sky. Mohammed (pbuh) also reported that this approaching caravan was two days distant from Makkah, and he described distinguishing markings of the lead camel. He also described how one camel had broken its leg, and features of the camels of all other riders. When the caravan reached them after two days, the people found that all the descriptions given by Mohammed (pbuh) about the distinctive lead camel


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind and all the other riders were correct. Also, the Bedouin confirmed having been guided to his lost camel by a voice from the nighttime sky.

(ii)  Splitting the Moon into Two Parts Once, when the Prophet (pbuh) was in the Valley of Mina, there the nonbelievers of Makkah demanded a miracle for the proof of his prophethood. The Prophet (pbuh) pointed his finger toward the moon, and it split into two parts. One part went to one side of Mount Hira and the other to the other side. This incident took place on a moonlit night. The Prophet (pbuh) said to all who were present: “Be witness.” Once all the people saw the miracle clearly, the two pieces rejoined. It was not possible for any person with eyes to deny this clear miracle. However, the pagans said: “Mohammed has bewitched us, but he cannot bewitch the whole world, so let us wait for people to come from neighboring parts of the country, and hear what they say.” When travelers from neighboring parts arrived, they confirmed that they, too, saw the moon in two parts. (Holy Qur’an, 54: 1, and commentary on this verse by S.A. Maududi).

(iii)  The Miracle of Rainfall Anas (May Allah be pleased with him), a companion of the Prophet (pbuh), said that once, during the life of the Prophet (pbuh) in Madinah, there was a drought and famine. He reported: “One day, when the Prophet (pbuh) was preaching on a Friday, a nomadic Arab got up, and said, ‘The animals are perishing, and the children are hungry, so make a supplication to Allah (swt) for us.’ The Prophet (pbuh) then raised his hands, and we could not see a speck of cloud in the sky, but I swear by Him in whose hand is my soul, that he had not lowered his hands before the clouds were appearing like mountains, and before he descended from his pulpit, I saw the rain coming down on his beard. We had rain that day, the next, the day after, and on until the next Friday. Then the nomadic Arab, or someone else, got up and said, ‘Messenger of Allah (swt), the buildings are being broken down and the animals are being drowned, so make supplications to Allah for us.’ He then raised his hands and said, ‘O Allah, around us, but not on us.’ Then it stopped, and we went out walking in the sun”. (Reported in Hadith books of Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, also see Miracles of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), by M.A. Qazi, published by Kazi Publications, Chicago, USA, 1976).

(iv)   Clouds Shade the Prophet (pbuh) There are a couple of examples of when the Prophet (pbuh) was followed by clouds in the desert, providing him shade. When Mohammed (pbuh) was a child of twelve, he accompanied his uncle Abu-Talib on a business trip to Syria. A Nestorian monk of Syria noted that a cloud was shading the Prophet (pbuh) to protect him from the heat of the sun in the desert. When he was about twenty-four years old, he was sent on a business trip to Syria by Khadija. Maisra, who was a servant of Khadija, and who traveled with this caravan, reportedly observed Mohammed (pbuh) being followed by clouds in the desert. Similarly, when the Prophet (pbuh) left Taif on his way back to Makkah, the Prophet (pbuh) saw a cloud shading him to protect him from the heat of the sun.

C.  Earthly Miracles The earthly miracles occurred on both animate (living) and inanimate (non-living) things. These miracles were performed either to strengthen believers, or to provide for physical needs, such as water, food, milk, health, or other needs. These Earthly Miracles can be grouped into the four categories: C-I: Earthly Miracles on Inanimate Objects C-II: Miracles of the Prophets (pbuh) Concerning Living Beings C-III: Curing the Sick and, the Healing of Wounds C-IV: Miracles Concerning Blessings in Food C-V: Earthly Miracles on Inanimate Things


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(a)   Water from the Hands Once the Prophet (pbuh) was on a journey with his seventy-to-eighty companions, where there was no water for ablution (cleaning for prayers). One of his companions went in search of water, but came back with a bucket that had only a small quantity of water in it. The Prophet (pbuh) stretched out his four fingers towards the bucket, and so much water sprang out of his fingers that the Prophet (pbuh) and all his companions had enough water to make their ablutions and drink to quench their thirst. This miracle provided water for his companions to drink and to perform their ablutions, and also, at the same time, its ultimate aim was to support the message of the Prophet (pbuh), and to strengthen the faith of the believers. This miracle of the springing of water from the fingers of the Prophet (pbuh) happened not only once, but at least six times at different occasions and places. (Reported by Muslim and Al-Baihaqi).

(b)  Water at Hudaibia The Prophet (pbuh) once went to Makkah with fourteen hundred companions to perform umra (pilgrimage), but the people of Makkah did not let them enter Makkah, and they had to stay at Hudaibia, on the outskirts of Makkah. There was no water there, except a small quantity in a well in Hudaibia. This well-water ran out when some of the companions drank it. The Prophet (pbuh) asked for some water, rinsed his mouth, and then spat into the well. The water sprang from the well. All the people drank water to their satisfaction, and so did their animals, and then they made their ablutions. (Bukhari).

(c) Water of the Wells There were at least seven different occasions when water in a well or otherwise was too scarce to meet the needs of the people, when the Prophet (pbuh), through different acts of miracles, increased this water so much that it not only satisfied the needs of the people, but in some cases it provided a surplus, and in some other cases it became a permanent source of water. These miracles are in addition to the miracles of springing water from or through his fingers.

(d) The Moving of the Trees, a Clear Miracle of the Prophet (pbuh) Imam Muslim relates that Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah said, in a long hadith: “We traveled with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) until we came down a wide valley. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) went to relieve himself, so I followed him, carrying a container of water. He had nothing to cover himself with, only two trees that were beside the valley. He went towards one of them, bent some branches, and said, ‘Through permission of Allah the Exalted, move towards me.’ Almost immediately, the tree began to move, and it followed him in obedience and submission, just as a camel does when it is led by a nose string. “Then he went to the other tree, and took hold of one of its branches, and said, ‘Be led by me, by Allah’s permission,’ and it also followed him. Then, when half the distance had been crossed, he addressed both of them, saying, ‘Join together over me, by Allah’s permission,’ and they did so.” When Jabir saw the Prophet (pbuh) coming back, he also saw that the two trees had parted, and each of them was standing straight, and had returned to its original place.

(e) Miracle of the Crying of the Tree Trunk (“Miracles of the Messenger (pbuh),” by Dar us Salam, Rayadh, Saudi Arabia, 2003) When the Mosque of the Prophet (pbuh) was completed in Madinah, there was no pulpit in the mosque in the beginning. The Prophet (pbuh), while delivering the Friday sermon, used to lean against the trunk of a date palm tree, which was one of the pillars of the mosque. Later, when the worshippers increased in number, and it was not possible to hear or see the Prophet (pbuh) when he was delivering the Friday sermon, a woman from the Ansar said to the Prophet (pbuh): “I know a carpenter. If you allow me, I may ask him to prepare a pulpit for you for delivering the Friday sermons.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Yes, if you wish.” This carpenter made a pulpit with three steps, and it was placed in the mosque at the place designated by the Prophet (pbuh). When the Prophet (pbuh) stood on this pulpit to deliver the Friday sermon, the date palm stem near which the Prophet used to deliver Friday sermons started crying so loudly that everyone present in the mosque heard it. This crying of the stem of the date palm tree was too clear to be dismissed as fancy. The Prophet (pbuh) came down from the pulpit, went to this tree stem, embraced it, and tried to console it. Then it began to groan, the groaning of a child who is consoled by his mother.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind According to Burayda, the Messenger (pbuh) put his hand on the pole when it began to weep, and said: “If you wish, I will restore you to the woods from whence you came, so that you may be rooted again, perfectly flourishing, and yield fruit again. Or, if you wish, I will plant you in Paradise, and God’s friends will eat from your fruits.” Then he listened to it, and the people in the mosque heard the pole say: “Plant me in Paradise, and God’s friends will eat from my fruits in the place where there is no decay.” God’s Messenger (pbuh) replied that he would, and added: “It has preferred the World of Eternity to the transitory one.” This stem finally became quiet. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “It wept for what it used to hear from the Reminder (i.e., the Holy Prophet, pbuh). In other words, this tree cried out of love for the Prophet (pbuh) and missed his company. This is a great and special miracle of the Prophet (pbuh), in which God Almighty transformed a dry and dead stem of a tree into a living thing, blessed with feelings and a rational mind. This miracle is more astounding than bringing a dead person to life. It is said that Hasan Basri, a great scholar (may Allah be pleased with him), when he described this miracle to his students, cried and said: “Look at this dead and dry trunk of tree, how much it loved the Prophet (pbuh). We, human beings and believers, should love the Prophet (pbuh) much more than this stem. If we really love him, we should strictly follow his message” (Qur’an and Sunnah). (“Prophet Mohammed (pbuh)’s Miracles” by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, published by The Light Inc, New Jersey, USA, 2002).

(f) A Bunch of Dates Testifies to His Prophethood A Bedouin came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and said: “Show me a sign of your prophethood.” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: “If I call this bunch of dates to me, would you then testify to my prophethood?” He said: “Yes.” He called to the bunch of dates. The dates came down from the tree and neared him, and when the Holy Prophet (pbuh) ordered them to return, they went back up the tree. Beholding this miracle, the Bedouin embraced Islam. (Tirmidhi).

(g) Tree Testifies to the Prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh) Ibn Umar said: “When we were on a journey with the Prophet (pbuh), a nomadic Arab approached, and when he came near to Allah’s Messenger (pbuh), he said to Mohammed (pbuh), ‘Do you testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone, Who has no partner, and that Mohammed (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger?” The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘Yes.’ The man asked, ‘Who will testify to what you say?’ Replying, the Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘This mimosa tree.’ He called to it at the side of the wadi, and it came forward, furrowing the ground until it stood in front of him. He asked it to testify three times, and when it had testified three times that it was as he had said it, it returned to its site. (Darimi, see also “Miracles of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh),” by M.A. Qazi, published by Kazi Publications, Chicago, USA, 1976).

(h) There are Many More Tree-Related Miracles in the Books of Hadith (i) Pebbles Glorify Al-Baihaqi relates that Abu Dhar (ra) said: “I cannot mention Uthman, except in good praise, and that is because of something I saw. I was the kind of person who used to follow the Prophet (pbuh) around, especially when he was alone. “That day, I saw him seated alone, so I slowly went and sat beside him. Then Abu Bakr came, greeted him, and sat on his right. Then Umar came, greeted them, and sat on Abu Bakr’s right. Then Uthman came, greeted them, and sat on the right side of Umar. There were seven or nine pebbles in front of the Prophet (pbuh). He took them in his hands, and they started supplicating Allah, until I could hear them, and he then put them down and they went silent. “He took them again, and placed them on Abu Bakr’s hands, where they glorified Allah until I could hear them, and he took them back. He then placed them on Umar’s hands, where they glorified Allah until I could hear them, and he then took them back. He then placed them in Uthman’s hands, where they glorified Allah until I could hear them, and he took them back, placed them down, and they went silent again. Then the Prophet (pbuh) said, `Such is the Prophet’s (pbuh) succession.’’ . (“The Miracles of the Prophet (pbuh),” by Hafidh Abi Al-Fada’ah Ishmail Ibn Kathi’r, translated by Ali Mwinyi Mziwa & Ibn R. Ramadhan, published by Dar al Ghad al Jaddeed, al-Mansura, Egypt.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(j) A Stone Greets the Prophet (pbuh) Imam Ahmed relates that Jabir Ibn Samura said: “The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, `I know of a stone in Makkah that used to greet me before my prophethood’’ (Reference as given above).

(k) Imam Al-Tirmidhy relates that Ali Ibn Abu Talib said: “I was with the Prophet (pbuh) in Makkah. We were moving around, and we did not pass a hill or a tree that did not greet the Prophet (pbuh), saying, `Asslam Alikum, O Messenger of Allah’’. (Reference as given above). (l) Jabir relates that when God’s Messenger (pbuh) came across a rock or a tree, it would say: “Peace be upon you, O Messenger of God.” According to Jabir ibn Samura, God’s Messenger (pbuh) once said: “I recognize a rock that used to greet me.” `A’ishah narrated: “God’s Messenger (pbuh) said, `After Gabriel brought me the Message, every time I passed a rock or a tree, it would say, “Peace be upon you, O Messenger of God.” (Muslim & Tirmidhi). (m) Primarily Imam Bukhari, but also such other traditionists as Ibn Hibban, Abu Dawud, and Tirmidhi, along with

Anas, Abu Hurayra, `Uthman, and Sa’id ibn Zayd (two of those promised Paradise) report: “God’s Messenger (pbuh), Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman climbed Mount Uhud. The mountain, either in awe or because of joy, trembled. God’s Messenger (pbuh) ordered it: “Be still, O Uhud, for on you there is a Prophet (pbuh), a truthful one, and two martyrs.” The mountain became still right away. In this way, God’s Messenger (pbuh) also predicted the martyrdoms of `Umar and `Uthman.

(n) As established through all interpreters’ meticulous verification and all traditionists’ reports, the Qur’anic Verse: “When you threw, it was not you that threw, but God threw” (8:17), refers to the following incident. During the Battle of Badr, God’s Messenger (pbuh) took a handful of soil and pebbles and threw them at the unbelievers’ army, saying: “May your faces be deformed.” The soil entered each unbeliever’s eyes, and, “May your face be deformed” was heard by each one. They consequently became preoccupied with their eyes, and had to retreat, although they had launched the attack . (Commentary of Qur’an verse 8:17). (o) The traditionists, mostly notable Imam Muslim, reported that the same incident happened during the Battle of Hunayn. As a result, and by God’s power and permission, each one was hit in the face by a handful of soil, and had to flee the battlefield, being preoccupied with their eyes. (p) ‘Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet (pbuh), relates that the Messenger of God (pbuh) covered `Abbas and his four sons (`Abdullah, `Ubaydullah, Fadl, and Qusam) with a piece of cloth, and prayed: “O my Lord, this is my father’s brother and these are his sons. Veil them from the fires, as I have veiled them with my robe.” The house’s roof, door, and walls joined this prayer at once, saying: “Amen, Amen” (i.e., may this prayer be accepted). (Bayhaqi and Ibn Maja). (q) Abdullah Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said that once, while delivering a sermon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) recited Verse 67 of Chapter 39 of the Holy Qur’an: “These people have not recognized the true worth of Allah, as His worth should truly be recognized (as for His Omnipotence), the entire earth on the Day of Resurrection shall be in His grasp, and the heavens shall be rolled up in His right hand,” and added: “God the All-Compelling glorifies Himself and says, `I am the All-Compelling, I am the All- Compelling, I am the Great and Exalted.’’ As he said this, the pulpit trembled so much that the people feared God’s Messenger (pbuh) would fall down. (Commentary of Holy Qur’an 39:37, by S. A. Maududi). (r) Ibn `Abbas, “The interpreter of the Qur’an,” and Ibn Mas’ud, a great companion, reported that Ka’bah contained three hundred and sixty idols fixed to stone with lead. On the day of Makkah’s conquest, God’s Messenger (pbuh) pointed at them, one by one, with a curved stick, reciting: “Truth has come, and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood is ever certain to vanish” (Qur’an, 17:81). Whichever idol he pointed at, fell down. If he pointed to the idol’s face, it fell backwards. If he pointed to the idol’s back, it fell on its face. Thus they all fell down. (s) When the Prophet (pbuh) laid siege to the city of Khaibar, a person came to the Prophet (pbuh), became Muslim, and said to the Prophet (pbuh): “I am a shepherd for the goats of the people of Khaibar. I am a custodian of these goats, so what should I do to them now?” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Throw some pebbles in their faces, and Allah will relieve you of their custodianship.” This new convert did what the Prophet (pbuh) told him, and all the goats ran back to their homes. (Baihaqi).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(t) Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal relates, on Abu Sa’id al-Khudri’s authority, and verifies that God’s Messenger (pbuh) gave Qatada ibn Nu’man a stick on a dark rainy night, saying: “This stick will light your surroundings as far as about seven yards. When you get home, you will see a black shadow that is Satan. Drive him away from your home.” Qatada left with the stick, which was emitting light like Moses’ whitened hand. When he arrived home, he found the person described, and drove him away. (u) During the Battle of Badr, which was a source of wonders, Ukkasha ibn Mihsan al-Asad broke his sword while fighting the polytheists. God’s Messenger (pbuh) replaced his broken sword with a stick, and told him to continue fighting. Suddenly, by God’s power and permission, the stick changed into a long white sword. Ukkasha fought with it, and kept it with him until he was martyred during the Battle of Yamama. (Reported by Imam Baihaqi). This incident is indisputable, for Ukkasha was so proud of that sword that throughout his life it was widely known as “the aid.” (v) Ibn `Abd al-Barr, one of the most brilliant scholars of his time, relates and verifies that `Abdullah ibn Jahsh, a cousin of God’s Messenger (pbuh), broke his sword during the Battle of Uhud. The Messenger (pbuh) gave him a stick, which then became a sword in his hand. Ibn Jahsh fought with it, and that miracle remained a sword after the battle. Years later, as reported by Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, in his biography of the Prophet (pbuh), it was sold to Buqhai Turki for two hundred dirhams. These two swords are miracles like Moses’ staff, except that they remained swords thereafter, while Moses’ staff lost its miraculous aspect after his death. (Reported by Imam Baihaqi). (w) Jabar (May Allah be pleased with him) says: “You people consider miracles as frightening things, and we people used to think of them as blessings. In the blessed days of the Prophet (pbuh), we used to hear glorification of Allah by the food at the time of eating.” (Bukhari).

C-II: Miracles of the Prophet (pbuh) Concerning Living Beings (a) A Camel Prostrating to the Prophet (pbuh) Imam Ahmad relates that Anas Ibn Malik (ra) said Ahlu Bait, among the helpers, had a camel that they used for irrigation. It once refused to be mounted, so they went to the Prophet (pbuh) and complained. The Prophet (pbuh) told his companions: “Stand up and let us go.” They entered the farm, and he went towards the camel. The helper said: “O Messenger of Allah (swt), the camel behaves like a mad dog. It could harm you.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “It cannot harm me.” When the camel looked at the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), it came towards him and prostrated in front of him. The Prophet (pbuh) led it to work. (Reported by Imam Ahmed).

(b) A Camel Complains of Mistreatment by its Owner Imam Ahmad relates that Abdullah Ibn Ja’afar (ra) said: “One day the Prophet (pbuh) asked me to follow him. Whenever he wanted to relieve himself, he preferred either a hilly area or a garden of date palms. One day, he entered a shelter among the shelters of the helpers, then, all of a sudden, a camel came towards him, made a rumbling voice, and shed tears. When the Prophet (pbuh) saw this, he caressed the back of its head and comforted it. In turn, it stopped crying. He then asked, ‘Who is its owner?’ A young man from the helpers said, `It is mine, O Messenger of Allah (pbuh).’ The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘Do you not fear Allah regarding this animal, that He has placed this camel under your ownership? It complained that you neglect feeding it and mistreat it.’’

(c) The Lion that Accompanied Safina (ra), the Servant of the Prophet (pbuh) Abul Razzaq relates that Safina (ra), a companion of the Prophet (pbuh), was left behind by the army (Muslims), in the land of the Romans. As he was trying to catch up with them, he suddenly came across a lion. He said to it: “O Abu Harith (one of the words for lions), I am the servant of the Prophet (pbuh).” He then proceeded to explain his situation to it. The lion then accompanied him until he reached the army. (“Dalaail An¬Nabuwwat” by Al-Baihaqi, Vol. 6).

(d) A Bird that Complained to the Prophet (pbuh) Abu Daud relates that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (ra) said: `We were traveling with the Prophet (pbuh), when a man took an egg from a bird’s nest. The bird came, flapping its wings at the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions. The Prophet (pbuh) then said, ‘Who among you made this bird miserable?’ Then a man among the companions said, ‘I took its egg.’ The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘Put it back, put it back, as a sign of compassion to it.’


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind

(e) The Horse Became Swift One night, the people of Medinah felt disturbed, and set forth in the direction of a sound, when Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) met them on his way back, riding on the horse of Talha, which had no saddle over it. A sword was slung around his neck, and he was saying: “There is nothing to be afraid of” and “I found it (this horse), like a torrent of water (indicating its swiftness), whereas the horse had been slow before that time.” (“Sirat un Nabi” by Allama Numan, published by Kazi Publications, Lahore, Pakistan, 1995, Vol. IV).

(f) Imam Baihaqi and Tabrani stated, on the authority of Umme Salmah, that Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was in a jungle, when, all of a sudden, a hind shouted: “O Prophet of Allah!” The Prophet (pbuh) turned and found a hind tied with a string, and a Bedouin sleeping nearby. The Prophet (pbuh) said to the hind: “What do you want to say?” The hind replied: “This Bedouin has hunted me. I have two small kids in the hill. You, please, release me, and I shall come back after feeding them.” The Prophet (pbuh) inquired: “Will you really come back?” It replied: “Yes.” So the Prophet (pbuh) released it, and it came back after feeding the kids. The Prophet (pbuh) tied it with the string. After that, the Bedouin woke, and seeing the Prophet (pbuh) there, asked him: “Is there any order for me?” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Release this hind.” He released it accordingly. The hind moved from there, uttering: “I bear witness that there is no true god except Allah, and I bear witness that indeed you are the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).” (g) When the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr (ra) were migrating from Makkah to Medinah, they reached the tent of a woman called Umm Ma’bad, who was a gracious lady. Fatigued and thirsty, the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions (Abu Bakr (ra), his freed slave, and their guide) wanted to refresh themselves with some food. They therefore asked if they could buy from her some meat and dry dates. But she told them that because of famine, nothing was available from her. The Prophet (pbuh) saw a goat in the tent, and asked her about it. Umm Ma’had said that her husband had taken all the flock to graze, and this goat was dry and too weak to walk. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “If you grant me permission, I may milk it.” She said: “You can try.” The Prophet (pbuh) prayed, wiped the udder, and massaged the udder. The goat stretched its legs in order to be milked, and so much milk came out that everyone drank his fill, and they left a large quantity of milk with Umm Ma’had. They then resumed their journey. (‘History of the Prophet” by Ibn Hisham). (h) Imam Ahmad and Bazar stated, on the authority of Anas bin Malik (ra), that the Prophet (pbuh), Abu Bakr (ra), Umar (ra), and an Ansari were together. All four went to an orchard of an Ansari, where there were some goats. The goats prostrated to the Prophet (pbuh). Hudhrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted to the Prophet (pbuh): “O Prophet of Allah (swt)! We are more than under obligation to respect you, therefore, we should prostrate to you.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Nobody should prostrate to anyone except Allah (swt).” (i) It is stated by Imam Baihaqi that Abdullah bin Masood (ra) used to graze the goats of Aqbah bin Mueet during his childhood. One day, the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr (ra) passed by Abdullah bin Masood, and asked him if he had milk. He submitted to the Prophet (pbuh): “I do have milk, but I am its trustee. These goats are with me as a trust from another man.” The Prophet (pbuh) said to him: “Bring a goat to me that has never been pregnant and never been milked.” So Abdullah bin Masood (ra) brought a goat. The Prophet (pbuh) massaged the goat’s nostrils and prayed to Allah (swt). Abu Bakr (ra) brought a big bowl. The Prophet (pbuh) milked the goat, poured it into the bowl, and allowed Abu Bakr (ra) to drink from it. Then the Prophet (pbuh) said to the udders: “Contract!” Thus, the udders became as they had been. Seeing this miracle of the Prophet (pbuh), Abdullah bin Masood (ra) embraced Islam. This very miracle caused him to embrace Islam. (j) Imam Baihaqi stated, on the authority of Juail Ashja’I, that he was accompanying the Prophet (pbuh) on a journey to fight on the path of Allah (swt). He stated: “I was riding a thin and weak mare. Because of the weak mare, I was lagging behind all the others. The Prophet (pbuh) asked about me, and I told him about the state of the mare, that it was very weak. The Prophet (pbuh) hit the mare slowly with his whip, and observed: ‘May Allah grant blessing in this mare.’ It then became so swift that it could not be stopped by normal forces, and I later sold one calf from it for twelve thousand dirhams.” (k) Imam Hakim, Tabrani, and Abu Naeem stated that five or six camels were brought to the Prophet (pbuh) on Eid-ulZuha. Every one of the camels advanced towards the Prophet (pbuh) and requested him to slaughter it, on account of their desire to be slaughtered by the hand of the Prophet (pbuh).

C-III: Curing of the Sick and the Healing of Wounds (a) During the Battle of Yawm Dhiquarad, an arrow hit Abu Qatada’s face. God’s Messenger (pbuh) wiped the injured man’s face, and Abu Qatada said: “I never felt the pain, nor did the wound fester.” (Imam Tirmizi and Baihaqi).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (b) Authentic tradition books, primarily Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, report that ‘Ali, who was suffering greatly from sore eyes, was appointed standard-bearer during the Battle of Khaybar. His pain ceased when God’s Messenger (pbuh) applied his healing saliva to ‘Ali’s eyes. The next morning, ‘Ali joined the battle, pulled up the citadel’s heavy, iron gate, and, using it as a shield, conquered the stronghold of Khaybar. (c) In the same battle, Salama ibn Akwa’s leg wound was healed when God’s Messenger (pbuh) breathed upon it. (Imam Bukhari). (d) The Prophet’s (pbuh) biographers, including al-Nasa’i, relate that ‘Uthman ibn Hunayf said: “Pray for my eyes to open and that I may be able to see.” God’s Messenger (pbuh) told him to perform his ablutions, pray two rak’ats, and say: “O God, my appeal is to You, and I turn towards You through Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the Prophet of Mercy. O Mohammed (pbuh), I turn towards God through you, that He may uncover my sight. O God, make him my intercessor.” He went to do as he was told. When he returned, his eyes had been opened already, and he could see very well. (e) The Prophet (pbuh) healed a boy with epilepsy. (Masnad Imam Ahmed, Vol. 1. Imam Ahmed relates that ibn Abbas (ra) said: “A woman came to the Prophet (pbuh) with her son, and said, ‘This son of mine has madness, it attacks him during the day and night.’ The Prophet (pbuh) gently put his hand on the boy’s chest and prayed for him. The boy choked, and something black came out of his mouth, after which he did not have any more attacks of madness.” (see also, Hadith Book by Ibn Maja). (f) Al-Ju’aid bin ‘Abdur Rahman narrated that he saw As-Sa’ib bin Yazid when he was ninety-four years old, quite strong, and of a straight figure. He said: “I know that I enjoyed my hearing and seeing powers only because of the invocation of Allah’s Apostle (pbuh). My aunt took me to him, and said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! My nephew is sick. Will you invoke Allah for him?’ So he invoked Allah for me” (Bukhari). (g) Yazid b. Abu `Ubaid said: “I saw the mark of a blow on the leg of Salama b. al-Akwa’ and asked, `What is this blow, Abu Muslim?’ He replied, `It is a blow I received at the Battle for Khaibar, which made the people say I had been killed. I went to the Prophet (pbuh), who blew spittle on it three times, and up to now I have had no trouble with it” (Bukhari). (h) ‘Abdallah b. Atik narrated that once he fell down from a stair and broke his leg. He said: “I tied it with a turban, went to the Prophet (pbuh), and told him what happened. He told me to stretch out my leg, and when I had done so, and he had passed his hands over it, it seemed as though I had never had anything wrong with it.” (Imam Bukhari). (i) Ibn Wahb, a great tradition authority, reports that when Mu’awwidh ibn `Afra, one of the fourteen martyrs of the Battle of Badr, fought with Abu Jahl, the accursed Abu Jahl cut off one of his hands. Mu’awwidh took his severed hand to God’s Messenger (pbuh). The Messenger (pbuh) stuck the amputated hand onto Muawwidh’s wrist and applied his saliva to it. It healed at once, and Muawwidh returned to battle and fought until he was martyred. Ibn Wahb reports that during the same battle, Hubayb ibn Yasaf received such a sword-blow on the shoulder that it seemed that his shoulder had been split in two. God’s Messenger (pbuh) held the parts together, breathed on them, and the wounded shoulder healed. (j) It is reported in Masnad Ahmad bin Hambal that Khalid bin Waleed’s foot was so severely injured in the battle of Hunain that he could not walk. The Prophet (pbuh) went to visit him in his camp, and put a little saliva from his mouth on the wound. The wound cured right away, as if there was never any wound there. (k) The father of Habib bin Fudaik (May Allah, swt, be pleased with him) had such a serious eye infection that he became completely blind. He went to the Prophet (pbuh), who restored his eyesight so completely that he could put thread in a needle, even when he was eighty years old. There are at least twenty more examples of curing different diseases (such as dropsy, eye diseases, etc.). (Baihaqi and Nisai). (l) Sanan Ibn Maja reports that at the time of Hajat-ul Widah, a woman came to the Prophet (pbuh), and said: “My child is dumb, he does not speak at all.” The Prophet (pbuh) washed his hands and then rinsed his mouth. A part of the water used in rinsing his mouth was sprinkled by the Prophet (pbuh) onto the child, and the remaining water he gave to the child to drink. This treatment cured the muteness of the child, who started speaking with this blessing of the Prophet (pbuh). (m) ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) once complained to the Prophet (pbuh) about his weakness in memory and in memorizing the Holy Qur’an. The Prophet (pbuh) taught him a certain prayer, which strengthened ‘Ali’s memory, and enabled him to memorize the Holy Qur’an much faster. (Tirmizi)


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (n) It is reported both in Tabrani and in Bihaqi that Shrajeel Jaefi (may Allah, swt, be pleased with him) had developed some sort of tumor on his palm, with the result that he could hold neither a sword nor a horse bridle in his hand. He came to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him about this problem. The Prophet (pbuh) put his palm on this tumor, pressed it, and turned his hand around on the palm with force. The result was a complete disappearance of the tumor, and not even a mark of tumor was left. (o) Summay bin Uttaya reports (in Baqhi) that a young man was brought to the Prophet (pbuh) who was dumb from birth. The Prophet (pbuh) asked him: “Who am I?” The boy right away said: “You are the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).” (p) It is reported in the Hadith of Ibn Maja that a man came to the Prophet (pbuh), and said: “My brother is sick, please pray for his health.” The Prophet (pbuh) asked what was his sickness. The man said: “He gets fits of madness and lunacy.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Bring that man to me.” When the man was brought to the Prophet (pbuh), he recited certain parts of the Holy Qur’an, and then blew over him. The man was completely cured. (q) It is reported in the book of Hadith by Tirmzi that once Uthman bin Abul Aas became very sick. The Prophet (pbuh) visited him to inquire about his health, and said to him: “Read this prayer seven times, and then move your hands on all your body.” Uthman followed his instructions and the sickness was gone. Uthman used to share this remedy to his friends, who would also then be cured. These are only a few examples of the curing of the sick and the healing of wounds. The books of Hadith and the books on the history of the Prophet (pbuh) report innumerable examples of these types of miracles.

C-IV: Miracles Concerning Blessings in Food About two dozen miracles of increasing the quantity of food (meat, dates, milk, bread, etc.) have been described on various occasions in different authentic books of Hadith. It is hard to describe all of them. Only one example is given below. At the time of the Battle of the Trench, the Prophet (pbuh) and about three thousand of his companions were working day and night, without food, in digging the trench. Jabar (may Allah, swt, be pleased with him), a companion of the Prophet (pbuh), had a lamb that he slaughtered at home. He had asked his wife to cook the mutton and prepare some bread. He then went to the Prophet (pbuh) and invited him to feast. He actually wanted him to come alone, but the Prophet (pbuh) made an announcement and invited all the companions to the feast (about three thousand in number). Jabar (may Allah, swt, be pleased with him) felt embarrassed. When the Prophet (pbuh) came to the house with his companions, he asked Jabar to bring the food. Then he said: “In the name of Allah (swt),” mixed his revered saliva into the food, and started serving the food. All the hungry companions ate to their full satisfaction. (Bukhari, Muslim and other Hadith books).

(D)   Divine Protection of the Prophet Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) started his mission by inviting people to worship, obey, and serve One True God, instead of worshiping idols and serving many gods. This was a struggle against ignorance, injustice, cruelty, oppression, aggression, exploitation, sin, immorality, and vice. As a result of this, all people, young and old, became his bloodthirsty enemies, and they made many attempts to kill him—while he was asleep, in the streets, in the battlefield, in an ambush, poisoning his food, dropping a heavy stone from high above, promising high and attractive rewards for his killer, etc. But a True Messenger of God not only lives a life of persecution and suffering, but also provides evidence of divine protection and ultimate success. God Almighty Himself takes responsibility for the protection, safety, and security of His Messenger, so that this Messenger may be able to convey the Message of God fearlessly. God assures Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) of this divine protection: “O Messenger (pbuh)! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord, for if you fail to do that, you have not fulfilled that task of his messengership. Allah (swt) will certainly protect you from the evil of people. Surely Allah will not guide the unbelievers [to succeed against you]” (Qur’an, 5:67). It is really a miracle that, despite so many evil designs on his life, particularly in the environment of Arabia at that time, when there was no government or any sign of peace, that he was able to complete his mission successfully. Quoted below are some examples of divine protection: When the Prophet (pbuh) started preaching Islam openly, he began to perform the Prayer in the precincts of Ka’bah in the way Allah (swt) taught him, and from this, the Quraish felt for the first time that he had adopted a new religion. The other people were watching it with curiosity, but Abu Jahl, in his arrogance and pride, threatened the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind forbade him to worship in that way in Ka’bah. Related to this, quite a number of the hadith have been related from Abdullah bin Abbas (ra) and Abu Huraira (ra), which mention the foolish behavior of Abu Jahl. Abu Huraira (ra) said that Abu Jahl asked the people of the Quraish: “Does Mohammed (pbuh) set his face on the ground before you?” When they replied in the affirmative, he said: “By Lat and Uzza (his two deities), if I ever caught him in that act of worship, I would set my foot on his neck and rub his face in the dust.” Then it so happened that he saw the Holy Messenger (pbuh) in that posture, and came forward to set his foot on his neck, but suddenly turned back, as if in a fright, and when asked what was the matter, he said there was a ditch of fire, a terrible apparition, and some wings between himself and Mohammed (pbuh). On hearing this, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) remarked: “Had he come near me, the angels would have smitten and torn him in pieces.” (Ahmad, Muslim, Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Marduyah, Abu Nu’aim Isfahani, Baihaqi). (i)   When Mohammed’s (pbuh) house was encircled by would-be assassins, sleep overpowered them all, and the Prophet (pbuh) left the house, passing among them while they slept. (Bukhari). (ii)  As mentioned before, when the Prophet (pbuh) left Makkah for Medinah, the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr hid in a cave south of Makkah. The Quraish reached the mouth of this cave in search of them, but although these pursuers reached very close to the mouth of the cave, they left without entering the cave, or even bending down and looking into the cave, due to one or more of the following reasons. (a) Allah (swt) diverted the attention of these pursuers away from the cave. (b) After the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr (ra) entered this cave, two things happened:

(1)  A spider spun a web across the opening of the cave.

(2)  A pigeon nested right at the entrance of the cave, laid eggs, and sat on the eggs.

When the pursuers saw the spider web and the nesting bird, they felt certain that no one was in the cave. Thus, Allah (swt) brought the Quraish close to the cave, and then showed them that they simply could not challenge Him. This incident is referred to in the Holy Qur’an: “It will matter little if you do not help the Prophet (pbuh), for Allah surely helped him when the unbelievers drove him out of his home, and he was but one of the two when they were in the cave, and when he said to his companion, ‘Do not grieve. Allah is with us.’ Then Allah caused His tranquility to descend upon him, and supported him with hosts you did not see. And He humbled the word of the unbelievers. And Allah’s word is inherently uppermost. Allah is All-Powerful, All-Wise” (9:40). (Imam Ahmed Anas Bin Arqam, and Mughira bin Shaba. Sirat e Mustafa by Mohammed Idris Kandhalavi, published by Farid Book Depot, Delhi, India, 1999). (iii) As mentioned before, Suraqah, spurred by the temptation of a large reward, was at a striking distance from the Prophet (pbuh), when his repeated falls from his horse turned him into a friend. (Sira Ibn Hisham). On each of these three occasions, (i), (ii), and (iii), it may be said that the Prophet (pbuh) was saved by the direct intervention of Providence, or these may be considered to be miracles of the Prophet (pbuh). After this, Mohammed (pbuh) and Abu Bakr (ra) resumed their planned journey from Makkah to Medinah, when they met Abu Buraida with seventy of his men. Abu Buraida was also one of those driven by his lust for the reward of 100 camels declared by the Quraish. But when he met the Prophet (pbuh) and talked to him, Allah (swt) changed his heart. Instead of killing the Prophet (pbuh), he embraced Islam, along with his seventy men. (Biography of the Noble Prophet (The Sealed Nectar),” by Safi ur Rahman Al-Mubarak Puri, published by Dar us Salam, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2002). (iv) It is stated by Abu Naeem and Tabrani, on the authority of Hakam bin Abi al-A’as: “We, a few disbelievers, mutually agreed to a plan for killing the Prophet (pbuh). The plan was that we should attack the Prophet (pbuh) collectively when he comes out at night. Thus, one day, we were waiting for him. When the Prophet (pbuh) passed before us and came near us, we heard a violent cry. We understood that nobody would have remained alive in Makkah on account of this cry, and we, also, fell down unconscious. The Prophet (pbuh) went to Holy Ka’bah, said his prayers, and returned home. We remained unconscious. The next night, also, we intended the same. So, on that night, also, he came out of his house. When he approached near us, we saw that the hills of Safa and Marwah had come as an obstacle between us and the Prophet (pbuh), and


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind we could not reach him because of the two hills.” Thus Allah Almighty kept him safe from the evils of the disbelievers with His miracles. (v)  Imam Baihaqi and Abu Naeem stated, on the authority of Abu Imamah (ra), that Rakanah was a gigantic wrestler from the Quraish tribe. He used to herd the goats in the forest. One day, when the Prophet (pbuh) went to that forest, he came across Rakanah. There was no third person there. Rakanah said to the Prophet (pbuh): “You insult our idols and you worship a hypothetical God. If I had no relationship with you, I would have killed you today. Pray your God to save you from me, and I shall pray to my Laat and Uzza. If you defeat me in a wrestling match, you can have any ten of my goats that you like.” So a wrestling match took place between Rakanah and the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) defeated him. Rakanah said: “It is not you who defeated me, but your God became dominant, and Laat and Uzza did not help me. The result was that you defeated me, whereas nobody could defeat me until today. All right! We play another round of wrestling. If now you become victorious, you can have ten goats more of your choice.” Thus, the Prophet (pbuh) defeated Rakanah a second time also. Rakanah again repeated his words that Mohammed’s (pbuh) God became dominant over Laat and Uzza. Then, in the third wrestling bout with Rakanah, the Prophet (pbuh) defeated him. Rakanah said to the Prophet (pbuh): “Have thirty goats of your choice from my herd.” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “I shall not take the goats. I desire you to embrace Islam. By so doing, you will get freedom from hell.” (vi)  Jabir bin Abdullah reported: “We went along with Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah, swt, be upon him) on an expedition to Najd, and Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) brought us to a valley abounding in thorny trees. Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) stayed to rest under a tree, and he suspended his sword by one of the branches under which he was taking rest. We scattered in the valley and began to rest under the shade of different trees. A person came to where the Prophet (pbuh) was asleep, took hold of his sword, and said to the Prophet (pbuh), ‘Who can protect you from me?’ The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘Allah (swt).’ The disbeliever’s hand became paralyzed, and he was unable to use the sword.” (vii)  Ibn Hisham reports in his famous book, History of the Prophet, that once Umm Jameel, the wife of Abu Lahab, went looking for Mohammed (pbuh) with the intention of stoning him. Mohammed (pbuh) and Abu Bakr were sitting together, yet she asked Abu Bakr: “Where is Mohammed (pbuh)?” Her eyes were blinded by the presence of Mohammed (pbuh). (viii)  Jews made at least two attempts to kill Mohammed (pbuh), and each time God protected him. Once, when the Prophet (pbuh) was in Khaiber, a Jew invited the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions to eat and put poison in the meat. When the Prophet (pbuh) took the very first morsel in his mouth, the Prophet (pbuh) was informed of this poison in the meat, and he spit it out. On another occasion, the Jews of Bani Nazeer in Madinah planned to kill him by dropping a huge stone upon him from high above. But God informed the Prophet (pbuh) of their plan, and so he left the place where the stone was to be dropped. Not only did these plots prove to be true, but there were no incidents in which Mohammed (pbuh) claimed a plot existed that did not prove to be true. The above are only a few of many incidents of divine protection of Mohammed (pbuh) from his enemies.

EVIDENCE 10 Predictions of Mohammed (pbuh) and His Knowledge of the Unseen None other than Almighty God has personal knowledge of the future and of the hidden and the unseen. But God blesses anyone whom He pleases with as much of this knowledge as He wants, thus there are many examples of when: (a) Certain events of the future were revealed to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), which came to pass and are coming to pass, as he foretold. (b) Knowledge of certain events that happened hundreds or even thousands of miles away from him was transmitted to him without any earthly means, and these events were found to be true. (c) Secrets in the hearts of people became known to him. Not only the believers, but also those who did not believe in the prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh), remained in fear


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind that Mohammed (pbuh) would find, through revelation, whatever was going on in their minds and expose their secrets, crimes, insincerity, or deceit. Below are some examples of the predictions of Mohammed (pbuh). But there are countless predictions and examples of the knowledge of the unseen that are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an by God Almighty. These are not discussed here, but have been treated in Chapter 17, “Why We Believe the Holy Qur’an is the Book of God.” It has been reported in many books of hadith that in the very early part of his prophethood, when Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was still in Makkah, and when he had only handful of followers due to severe opposition, he predicted: “O, my companions! One day you will defeat all your enemies and conquer Makkah, Khaiber, Damascus, Jerusalem, Iraq, and Persia. You will share the treasures of the Persian and Byzantine rulers among yourselves.” He predicted that his followers would trample the two biggest empires of his time. This prediction was made at the darkest hour of his life and in the most adverse circumstances. (1) In the most authentic book of hadith (by Imam Bukhari), Khabbab bin al-Aratt (ra), a companion of Mohammed (pbuh), reports: “One day the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was lying on a stripped cloak in the shade of Ka’bah. We complained to him about the persecution from polytheists, and requested him to make a supplication to Allah (swt). Thereupon the Apostle’s face turned red and he sat upright, saying, ‘Before your time, a man was put in a pit dug for him, then his head was cut in two with a saw, but those sufferings and miseries failed to turn him away from his faith. Another person was combed with iron combs piercing his flesh, but he did not break from his faith. I swear by Allah (swt) that this matter (Islam) will reach its perfection, so that a rider will go from San’a to Hadrmaut, fearing nothing but Allah (swt) the Almighty, or a wolf that may attack sheep. But you are in quite a hurry.’’ People saw that this prediction was fulfilled in their life. (2) Again, it is reported by Imam Bukhari, in his book of Hadith, that Addi bin Hatim (ra) reported that: “Once I was with the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and a man came to him and complained of his poverty. In the meantime, another person came and complained to him of highway robbery. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (swt) turned toward me, and said, `Addi! Have you seen al-Hira?’ Thereafter he said, ‘If you live long enough, you will certainly see a woman traveling from al-Hira to go around Ka’bah, fearing none but Allah (swt) the Almighty. If you live long enough, you will see that the treasures of Kisra (Chosroess) will be conquered. If you live long enough, you will certainly see a man coming out with a handful of gold or silver looking for someone to accept it, but he will find none to accept it from him.’’ Addi bin Hatim added: “I have seen a woman traveling from al-Hira to go around the Ka’bah, fearing none but Allah the Almighty. I was among those who conquered the treasures of Kisra, son of Hurmuz, and if you live long enough, you will see the third thing that the Prophet (pbuh) foretold happen.” swt)

(3) Mohammed (pbuh) predicted: “The key of Ka’bah (house of God in Makkah) will be in my hand one day, and I will give it to whom I want.” As already mentioned in this chapter, when Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) started his mission in Makkah, one day he came to Ka’bah with the intention to pray inside Ka’bah. Uthman bin Talha was the custodian of the key of Ka’bah whom he asked to open the door. Uthman bin Talha harshly refused to open the door for him. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said: “O Uthman, one day the key of Ka’bah will be in my hand, and I will give it to whomsoever I wish.” Uthman said: “Will the people of Quraish be dead, or be so disgraced on that day that the key of Ka’bah will pass to your hand?” The Prophet (pbuh) said: “No, the Quraish will be more honorable that day.” This prediction was made at a time when Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) had only a few followers, and he and his companions were struggling for their very survival. When the persecution of the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions by the Quraish (people of Makkah) became too severe to be tolerated, the Prophet (pbuh) allowed his companions to migrate first to Abyssinia in Africa, and then later, to Madinah, a small town about two hundred miles north of Makkah. Finally, when the Quraish planned to kill Mohammed (pbuh), he slipped in the darkness of night to migrate to Madinah, hiding in the day and traveling at night. There in Madinah, homeless and penniless, in a new location and new environment, among new people, new friends, and new foes, he established himself in Madinah with his rational and appealing message, and with his captivating manners and excellent morals. He then captured the city of Makkah after eight or nine years there. At the time of the conquest of Makkah, Mohammed (pbuh) invited the same Uthman bin Talha to the door of Kaaba (the House of God), and asked him for the key. Uthman gave the key to the Prophet (pbuh) right away. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) returned the key to Uthman, and said: “Take this key. It will remain in your dynasty until doomsday.” Despite the passage of over fourteen hundred years, the key of Ka’bah continues to be in the hands of the descendants of Uthman Bin Talha. This prediction was made about nineteen years before the conquest of Makkah.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind This incident fulfilled two predictions of the Prophet (pbuh). First, that “the key of Ka’bah will be in my hand one day,” and second, that “this key will now remain in your dynasty until doomsday.” (Hadith Books of Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim). (4) As discussed earlier in this chapter, when Mohammed (pbuh) had been driven out of his homeland and was on his way to Medinah, traveling at night and hiding in the day, in this darkest hour of his life, he predicted that one day his followers would conquer Iran, and said to Suraqah: “Suraqah, how will you feel when you put on Khusroe’s (King of Iran) bracelets?” Muslim armies conquered the Persian Empire a few years after the death of Mohammed (pbuh), and Suraqah did wear those bracelets. (5) Imam Muslim narrated in his Hadith collection, on the authority of Umar (ra), that the Prophet (pbuh) had told them in advance of the battle of Badr about the names and places of the deaths of those pagans who were killed in the Badr war. Umar (ra) said: “I swear by that Being Who has commissioned the Prophet (pbuh) with true religion, that every killed person on the day of Badr was killed at the same place and in the same way as the Prophet (pbuh) had already told, and there was no deviation from the appointed place, even to the extent of a hair’s breadth.” It is very surprising that before this battle there was no hope for such a poorly armed army of less than one- third the number of the very well-equipped enemy to win the battle (6) Abu Naim reports from Ibn-i-Abbas: “Once my mother, Umm-ul-Fazl, passed in front of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). He called her and revealed that from that conception of hers she would bear a son, and when the boy was born, she should bring him to him. Thus, when I was born, she took me to the Apostle (pbuh) who said azan in my right ear and aqamat in my left one. Then he had me taste the spittle from his mouth and named me Abdullah. He then asked my mother to take me away, and said I was to be the father of the Caliphs. When my mother narrated the matter to my father, Abbas, he went to the Apostle (pbuh) and related what he heard from my mother. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) told him that I was, in reality, the father of the Caliphs. The prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) proved to be correct, because the Abbasid Caliphate had been in ascendancy for five hundred years.” (7) Ubayi bin Khalaf was a well-known enemy of the Prophet (pbuh). Imam Baihaqi says, in his book of Hadith, that whenever he would meet the Prophet (pbuh) in Makkah, he would say “O’ Mohammed (pbuh), I am preparing a horse to ride on it to kill you.” The Prophet (pbuh) used to say in return: “In sha Allah (swt) you will be killed by me.” He came with the Quraish army on this horse with the intention of killing Mohammed (pbuh) in the battle of Uhad, which took place near Madinah. In the battlefield, he challenged Mohammed (pbuh) with the following words: “Where is Mohammed (pbuh)? Send him for combat.” The companions of the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to stop him, but he continued coming towards the tent of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) remarked: “Let him come.” When he came near, the Prophet (pbuh) hit him with his spear near his neck. Because of that place being open and visible, and the rest of the body being covered with armor, this particular part could be seen. Even though he was hit with ordinary force, causing only an ordinary scratch on his neck, he fell down from the horse, ran away, and rushed into the army of the Quraish. The people told him not to worry about such an ordinary scratch from which even the blood did not flow, but he said: “This scratch is caused by the hand of Mohammed (pbuh). I shall not survive it.” Thus, on his way back to Makkah, he died, in fulfillment of the prediction of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). (8) On the authority of Sulaiman bin Sarw, Imam Bukhari reports in his most authentic book of Hadith that when the Quraish army lifted the siege of Medinah and ran away from the battlefield of the Battle of the Trench, the Prophet (pbuh) predicted: “Now the Quraish will not be able to attack, rather we shall invade them.” Thus this prediction came true. After this Battle of the Trench, the Quraish could not attack Madinah. Instead, the Prophet (pbuh) invaded Makkah and conquered it. (9) In the fifth year of hijra (migration of the Prophet (pbuh) from Makkah to Madinah), the Quraish of Makkah forged an alliance with the enemies of the Muslims, raised a strong army of ten thousand men, and marched towards Madinah with the intention of finishing the Muslims for good. The Muslims decided to dig a trench around Madinah to protect themselves. This is called the Battle of the Trench. During the course of digging this trench, they came across a very hard rock that they could not break with their spades. They therefore approached the Prophet (pbuh) for advice. The Prophet (pbuh) took the spade and struck the rock, uttering: “In the Name of Allah (swt), Allah (swt) is great, the keys of Ash-Sham (geographical Syria) are mine. I swear by Allah (swt), I can see its palaces at the moment.” On the second strike, he said: “Allah (swt) is great, Persia is mine, I swear by Allah (swt) I can now see the white palace of Madinah.” And


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind for the third time, when he struck the rock, which crumbled into very small pieces, he said: “Allah (swt) is great, I have been given the keys of Yemen, I swear by Allah (swt), I can see the gates of San’a while I am in my place.” Thus the Prophet (pbuh) predicted the conquest of Syria, Iran, and Yemen by the Muslims. These predictions later came true. Syria was conquered by Khalid bin Walid (ra) during the Caliphate of Umar ibn Khattab (ra), Iran was conquered by Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas (ra) during the Caliphate of Umar ibn Khattab (ra), and Yemen was conquered in 8 A.H. during the Caliphate of Umar bin Khattab (ra) (10)  Imam Baihaqi and Ibn Ishaq have stated in their Hadith collection that the Prophet (pbuh) sent Khalid bin Waleed (ra) to Ukaider, the rebellious ruler of Domat-ul-Jandal. The Prophet (pbuh) said to Khalid bin Waleed: “Ukaider will come out at night to hunt white antelopes, and he will surrender to you, and you will arrest him.” Thus, it happened the same as predicted. Khalid bin Waleed (ra) reached the fort of Ukaider on a moonlit night, and hid near his fort. At night, a few white antelopes came near the fort and began rubbing their backs on the wall of the fort. Ukaider was very fond of hunting white antelopes. Ukaider got up, came out of the fort that night, and hunted the white antelopes. Khalid bin Waleed (ra) besieged him and arrested him. His brother and his son were killed in combat. Khalid bin Waleed (ra) brought him to the Prophet (pbuh), who spared the life of Ukaider and entered into a peace agreement with him, and released him. (“Authenticated Miracles of Mohammed (pbuh)” by Badr Azimabadi, published by Adam Publishers & Distributers, Delhi, India, 2000). (11)  Imam Baihaqi has stated in Dalail-e-Nubuvvat, on the authority of Zaid bin Arqam (ra), that Zaid fell sick and the Prophet (pbuh) came to visit the patient, and said: “O Zaid! You will recover from this disease, you will remain alive after me, and you will become blind.” Unaisa, the son of Zaid, stated that Zaid bin Arqam (ra) did go blind. The prediction of the Prophet (pbuh) proved true. Recovering from the disease for which the Prophet (pbuh) went to visit him, and then becoming blind after the Prophet’s death took place in accordance with the prediction of the Prophet (swt). Then, after a long time, Allah (swt) Almighty set his eyes right, and then Zaid passed away. (12)  On the authority of Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr (ra), Imam Muslim reports in his book of Hadith that the Prophet (pbuh) predicted: “There will come a very cruel person in the tribe of Saqeef, and there will be another person in the same tribe who will be a big liar.” This very cruel person predicted by the Prophet (pbuh) was Hajjaj bin Yousuf, born in the tribe of Saqeef. On the authority of Hasham, Imam Tirmzi has stated in his book of hadith that Hajjaj murdered about one hundred and twenty thousand innocent human beings. Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr (ra), told Hajjaj to his face that he was proof of the prediction of the Prophet (pbuh). The other person of the tribe of Saqeef who was predicted to be a liar is Mukhtar Saqafi. He was a great liar and fraudulent. On the basis of a false excuse, he claimed vicegerency of Imam Mohammed bin Hanfiah, and on the pretext of taking revenge for the blood of Hazrat Imam Husain (ra), he exploited many people. In the end, he claimed that he was a prophet, despite the fact that Mohammed (pbuh) is the last prophet or messenger, and there will be no more Prophets or Messengers of God after him. (13)  Suhail bin Amro was a very good speaker. Before becoming Muslim, he used to produce great excitement and hatred against the Prophet (pbuh) among the non-Muslims of Makkah. He was arrested in the battle of Badr. When he was produced as a prisoner before the Prophet (pbuh), Umar (ra) said to the Prophet (pbuh): “Please allow me to break two of his front teeth, so that he may not be able to make any more effective and exciting speeches against us.” The Prophet (pbuh) predicted at that time: “I hope that one day he will make a speech that will please you. So do not break his teeth.” Suhail bin Amro became Muslim later. When the Prophet (pbuh) died, the people of Makkah were very much upset. When they were about to deviate from the path of Islam, Suhail stood up and made such a speech as was delivered by Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) in Madinah. This address of Suhail (ra) gave the people satisfaction, and they remained steadfast on the religion of Islam. Thus, on the death of the Prophet (pbuh), Suhail pleased all the Muslims, and so Umar (ra) was very happy, and the prediction of the Prophet (pbuh) was fulfilled.(Baihaqi). (14)  It is stated both in the Hadith book of Imam Bukhari and in the Hadith book of Imam Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that Negus, the King of Abyssinia in Africa, died at the very moment the Prophet (pbuh) informed his companions in Madinah that Negus had just died. Then the Prophet (pbuh) invited his companions, and offered his funeral prayers in absentia in Madinah. Negus was previously Christian, but embraced Islam on receiving the Prophet’s (pbuh) letter inviting him to Islam. When the king died, Allah (swt) informed the Prophet (pbuh) about his death at a distance of more than a thousand miles across the ocean.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (15)  Imam Bukhari reports, on the authority of Anas bin Malik, in his book of hadith, about the details of the battle of Mota, which was fought in the eighth year of hijra. The Prophet (pbuh) appointed Zaid bin Haritha as commander of this army, which he dispatched to conquer Mota. But he also predicted that Zaid would be martyred, then Jaffer would become commander, and he, too, would be martyred. Then Abdullah bin Rawahah would become commander, and he, too, would be martyred. Sometime later, during the battle itself, the Prophet (pbuh) was describing the battle scene to his companions like a person who was actually seeing it. He narrated these tragedies, one after the other, with tears in his eyes. But nothing happened contrary to what he had foretold about a month in advance. In the end, he observed: “Allah’s sword (i.e. Khalid bin Waleed) took the flag, and the Muslims became victorious.” He described all this like an eyewitness, although Mota was in Syria, more than a thousand miles from Madinah. (16)  When the Prophet (pbuh) decided to attack Makkah, he asked his companions to make preparations for an expedition, but he did not tell anyone, except a few close companions, what the goal of the expedition was. He wanted to keep it a secret, and not let the people in Makkah know about his planned invasion, so as to capture Makkah with a minimum of bloodshed. By chance, at about the same time, a woman arrived from Makkah who had been a slave girl of the Bani Abdul Muttalib, and then, after gaining her freedom, had adopted singing as her profession. She complained of her poverty to the Prophet (pbuh) and asked for some financial help. The Prophet (pbuh) collected some money from his companions and satisfied her need. When she was about to leave for Makkah, a companion of the Prophet (pbuh) named Hatib met her, and quietly gave her a letter addressed to some of the Makkan chiefs, and paid her ten dinars to carry the letter secretly. When she had left Madinah, Allah (swt) informed the Prophet (pbuh). So the Prophet (pbuh) immediately sent ‘Ali (ra), Zubair (ra), and Miqdad (ra) after her with the instructions: “Make haste. At Roudah Khakh (twelve miles from Madinah on the road to Makkah), you will meet a woman who carries a letter from Hatib to the pagans of Makkah. Seize that letter by any means you like. If she delivers the letter willingly, let her go; if she refuses to give it, kill her.” When these three companions reached the place, they found the woman there. They demanded the letter from her. She replied that she had no letter. They searched her but could not find any letter. At last, they told her to deliver the letter, otherwise they would strip her and search her. When she saw that there was no way to escape, she took out the letter from the braid in her hair and delivered it to them, and they brought it to the Holy Prophet (pbuh). When the letter was opened and read, it was found to contain information for the Quraish about how the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was making preparations to attack them. (In different traditions, different wordings of the letter have been reported, but the purport of all is one and the same.) The Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked Hazrat Hatib what induced him to act thus. He replied: “Sir, do not make haste in this matter of mine. I have not done this because I have become a disbeliever or an apostate, and have started preferring disbelief to Islam. But the truth is that my near and dear ones are still in Makkah. I do not belong to the tribe of Quraish, but had settled there under the guardianship of some of them. The families of the emigrants, who are still in Makkah, will be defended and protected by their tribes and clans, but I have no tribe that could give protection to my family, therefore I sent this letter to keep the Quraish under obligation, so that they would not harm my children.” (According to Hazrat Hatib’s son, Abdur Rahman, Hazrat Hatib’s children and brother still were in Makkah at that time, and according to Hazrat Hatib’s own report, his mother also was there.) Hearing what Hatib had to say, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said to the people: “Hatib has told you the truth.” That is, the real motive of his action was this, and not any treachery against Islam, or any intention to support disbelief. Hazrat Umar rose and said: “Permit me, O Messenger of Allah (swt), that I should cut off this hypocrite’s head. He has been treacherous to Allah (swt), His Messenger (pbuh), and the Muslims.” The Holy Prophet said: “This man participated in the battle of Badr. You may not know, O Umar, Allah (swt) may have looked favorably at the people of Badr and said to Hatib: “Do as you please, I have forgiven you.” (The words in the last sentence are different in different traditions. In some they are to the effect: “I have granted you forgiveness.” In some other: “I am your forgiver.” And in still another: “I will forgive you.”) Hearing this, Hazrat Umar wept, and said: “Allah (swt) and His Messenger (pbuh) have the best knowledge.” This is a résumé of those many traditions which Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Abi Dawood, Tirmidhl, Nasai, Ibn Jarit Tabari, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Abi Hatim have related on the authority of several reliable transmitters. (Commentary of Holy Qur’an 60:1, by S. A. Maududi). (17)  Imam Bukhari has reported in his famous book of Hadith that the Prophet (pbuh) announced from the pulpit, in the presence of his companions: “My grandson Hassan is a noble one. Through him, God will reconcile two large hosts.” Forty years later, when the two largest Muslim armies faced each other, Imam Hassan made peace with Muawiya and fulfilled this prediction.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (18)  It has been reported in many books of Hadith that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “Uthman (ra) will be killed while reading the Qur’an.” This prediction came true. Uthman (ra) was martyred while he was reading the Qur’an. (19)  Imam Muslim and Imam Bukhari have related, in their most authentic collections of Hadith, that when Saad ibn Abi Waqqas was seriously ill, the Prophet (pbuh) went to see him, and said: “Hopefully you will be spared, so that some may benefit through you, and others be harmed through you,” suggesting that Saad would be a great commander and make many conquests. While many would benefit from him by converting to Islam, many others would be harmed through him, because he would destroy their states. Later, Saad commanded the Muslim armies that destroyed Persia’s Sassanid Empire and brought many people under the guidance of Islam. (20)  When the Prophet (pbuh) was on his death bed, his daughter Fatima was very sad. He told her: “You will be the first family member to join me after my death.” She died six months after the death of the Prophet (pbuh), and thus the prediction proved true. [Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, see “Miracles of the Prophet (pbuh)” by Maulana Ahmed Saeed Dehalvi, published by Idara e Islamiat, Lahore, Pakistan, 2000). (21)  Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said to Aby Dharr: “You will be expelled from Madinah. You will live alone and die alone.” This was reported by Imam Ibn Hanbal. What the Prophet (pbuh) predicted happened twenty years later. (22)  It is reported in more than three different books of Hadith that once the Prophet (pbuh) woke up in Umm Haram’s house (Anas ibn Malik’s aunt), and said with a smile: “I dreamed that my community was fighting in the sea like kings sitting on thrones.” Umm Haram asked: “Pray that I may be with them.” He firmly replied: “You shall be.” Forty years later, she accompanied her husband Ubada ibn Samit during the conquest of Cyprus. She died there, and her tomb remains as a visited place. (23)  Imam Bukhari and some others report in the books of Hadith that the Prophet (pbuh) predicted: “Constantinople (Istanbul) will be conquered (by my community). How blessed is the commander who conquers it, and how blessed is his army.” Constantinople fell to Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, who thereby attained a high spiritual rank, in 1453. (24)  Ibn Hisham narrates, in the life history of the Prophet (pbuh), that after the conquest of Makkah, Bilal al-Habashi stood on Ka’bah’s roof and called the people to prayer (adhan). Several Qurayshi leaders, namely, Abu Sufyan, Attab ibn Asid, and Harith ibn Hisham, were sitting together near Ka’bah. Attab said: “My father is fortunate not to witness this moment.” Harith asked contemptuously: “Could not Mohammed (pbuh) find someone other than this black crow to be the Muazzin?” Abu Sufyan did not comment, thinking: “I am afraid that he will say nothing. Even if no one informs him, the rocks of this Batha (i.e., Makka) will do so.” Shortly thereafter, God’s Messenger (pbuh) came to them and repeated their conversation word for word. At that very moment, Attab and Harith embraced Islam. (25)  As already described in this chapter, before converting to Islam, Umayr and Safwan decided to kill the Prophet (pbuh) and collect a large reward. When Umayr came to Madinah with these intentions, God’s Messenger (pbuh) summoned him, related the plot, and placed his hand on Umayr’s chest. Umayr confessed and became Muslim. (26)  It is reported by Ibn Hanbal, Hakim, and Bayhaqi that the Muslims captured Abbas during the battle of Badr. When he was asked to pay a ransom for his release, Abbas said he had no money. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “You left money with your wife, Umm-e-Fadl, in such and such a place” (he gave the exact amount of money and named the place). Abbas confirmed this: “Only the two of us knew this,” and then attained perfect belief. (27)  Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim both report in their most authentic collections of Hadith that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “A pestilence will break out during Jerusalem’s conquest.” This city was conquered during the rule of Umar, and a widespread pestilence broke out, which killed about seventy thousand people in three days. (28)  Bayhaqi reports from Umm-e-Fadl: “Once I had Imam Husain in my lap, when the Holy Prophet (pbuh) came, and staring at him, burst into tears. I requested him to give the reason for his tears. Thereupon, the Apostle (pbuh) revealed that Jibrail (Gabriel) had informed him that his followers would kill his grandson, Husain.” Later, Imam Husain was slain in Kerbala, thus fulfilling the prophecy. (29)  Abu Daud, Bukhari, Muslim, and Ibn Hambal have stated in their books of Hadith: “God’s Messenger (pbuh) predicted the establishment of Basra and Baghdad, that treasures would pour into Baghdad from all over the world, and that the Arabs would fight the Turks and people living around the Caspian Sea, most of whom would later convert and rule the Arabs in their own lands. He said, `No Arabs will predominate among you, consuming your booty or striking off your heads.’’ This prediction came true.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (30)  Asim bin Kulaib reports from his father, on the authority of Ansar: “Once we accompanied the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to a funeral. On coming back from the graveyard, someone invited the Apostle (pbuh) on behalf of the widow. He accepted the invitation, and we went for the feast along with him. Food was served. We, along with the Messenger of Allah (swt), put morsels of food in our mouths. We noticed that the Apostle of Allah (swt) was moving a morsel around in his mouth. Then he said: ‘This flesh of a sheep has been taken without the permission of its owner.’’ “When informed, the woman sent her messenger to the Apostle (pbuh) to explain the matter on her behalf. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah (swt), I sent to an-Naqi (a place where sheep were sold) to bring a sheep for the feast. But no sheep were available there. Then I sent for a neighbor of mine to bring the sheep he had purchased for himself and charge the price to me. But he did not bring the sheep. Then I sent another man to his wife, who sent the sheep to me without the permission of her husband.’’ (Hadith books of Abu Daud, and Baihaqi). (31)  When the envoy of Khosroes, the King of Iran, came to Madinah, the Prophet (pbuh) told him: “Khosroes has just been killed by his son Shirviya Parwiz.” The envoy, whose name was Firouz, was shocked to hear this news. He investigated, found this news to be true, and he accepted Islam. (Imam Baihaqi, also Bukhari & Muslim). (32)  When the pagans of Makkah decided to completely boycott Mohammed (pbuh), his followers, and his supporters, including the entire clan of Bani Hashim, they drafted an agreement. They wrote down their resolution and hung it on the wall at Ka’bah. This siege had lasted for three years, when one day, Abu Talib said to the pagan chiefs: “My nephew received a revelation that ants had eaten away all the proclamation, except those parts that bore the name of Allah (swt).” He also promised to hand over Mohammed (pbuh) to them if his words proved untrue, otherwise they would have to recant and repeal their boycott. The Makkans agreed to the soundness of his proposition. Al-Mut’im went to see the parchment, and there he did discover that it was eaten away by ants, and nothing was left save the parts bearing the name of Allah (swt). (Imam Baihaqi in his Dilail-e-Nabuwwat). (33)  The Prophet (pbuh) had predicted that Egypt would soon be conquered by the Muslims. He had further said that Egyptians should be treated kindly, as they were related to Arabs (Hazrat Ibrahim’s wife and the mother of Hazrat Ishmail were from Egypt). This prediction came true when the Muslims conquered Egypt in the eighth year after the death of the Prophet (pbuh). (Imam Bukhari). (34)  The Prophet (pbuh) had predicted the fall of Bait-ul-Maqdis (Jerusalem) to Muslims. He had also predicted that it would fall after his death. This prediction came true during the Caliphate of Umar ibn Al-Khattab (ra). (35)  Umme Waraqa (ra) had requested permission to join jihad at the time of the battle of Badr. But the Prophet (pbuh) had asked her to stay at home to die as a shaheed (martyr). The prediction came true at the time of Caliph Hazrat Umar ibn Al-Khattab (ra), when a slave man and a slave girl strangled her to death. This tragedy occurred at her home, and thus she attained the status of shaheed, as predicted by the Prophet (pbuh). (36)  On the authority of Abu Huraira, Imam Muslim reports: “Once the Prophet (pbuh) was on Mount Haray, and there were with him Abu Bakr, Uthman, ‘Ali, Talha, and Zubair. The rock shook, and the Prophet (pbuh) commanded it to be at rest, for there were on it none else but the Prophet (pbuh), the siddeeq, and the martyrs.” The prediction later came true. (37)  Hazrat Anas bin Malik reports: “Once the Prophet (pbuh) ascended the hill Uhad, accompanied by Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. The hill began to shake and shook them also. The Prophet (pbuh) stamped it and asked it to be at rest, and said to it that there were on it one Prophet (pbuh), one siddeeq (truthful) and two shaheeds (martyrs). By the Prophet he meant himself, by the siddeeq, Abu Bakr, and by the two martyrs, Umar and Uthman” (Bukhari). This prediction proved true, as both Umar and Uthman (ra) were martyred. (38)  Jabir ibn Samurah reports in the hadith book by Imam Bukhari that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “When Khusra (Chosroes) is ruined, there will be no Khusra after him. And when Ceasar is ruined, there will be no Caesar after him. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, you will spend their treasures in Allah’s (swt) cause.” This prediction came to be true. The Romans lost to the Muslims the same provinces which he had snatched from the Persians. Muslims also conquered the land of Chosroes (Persia). The lines and traditions of the two Emperors did, indeed, come to an end, and the wealth of their treasuries was spent in the Islamic cause. (39)  One day, a companion of the Prophet (pbuh) came to him to inquire about virtue and sin. Before he asked anything, the Prophet (pbuh) said: “Should I tell you what you are going to ask?” He said yes. The Prophet (pbuh) replied: “You


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind have come to know the facts about virtue and sin.” He said: “By Him Who has sent you as Messenger, it is really so.” The Prophet (pbuh) answered: “The thought of doing good provides relief and pleasure to the heart, whereas sin creates anxiety and remorse.” (Masnad Ahmad and Baihaqi). (40)  Hudhaifa’s mother said to her son, angrily: “Why have you not visited the Prophet (pbuh) for such a long time?” He begged her to be excused, and said: “I shall go to him today, and request him to pray to Allah (swt), seeking forgiveness for both of us.” Hudaifa joined the Prophet (pbuh) in the evening prayer. The Prophet (pbuh) recognized Hudaifa, and said: “Allah (swt) has forgiven you and your mother,” meaning that he already knew the purpose for which he came. (Tirmizi). (41)  Once the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), along with some of his companions, went to the colony of the Jewish tribe of Bani Nazeer. These Jews considered this a golden opportunity to kill the Prophet (pbuh) and his important companions. Therefore, while the Prophet (pbuh) was standing under a wall, a man went to the top of the roof with the intention of dropping a heavy stone on the Prophet (pbuh) to kill him. But Allah (swt), Who had promised Mohammed (pbuh) to protect him from his enemies, informed him in time, and he left, and sent them the information of their evil design. (42)  As described earlier, when a Jewish woman tried to kill the Prophet (pbuh) by poisoning the roasted mutton that was served to the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions, the very first morsel of meat told the Prophet (pbuh) that there was poison in it. The Prophet (pbuh) stopped eating right away, and also stopped his companions from eating.

EVIDENCE 11 His Knowledge of Past History Past Prophets and Communities As mentioned earlier, Mohammed (pbuh) could neither read nor write, nor did he have the opportunity to spend any time in the company of any scholar, and no Arabic translation of the Bible was available in Arabia at that time. However, through Revelation, he knew about many past prophets and communities. Mohammed (pbuh), on the basis of this knowledge, did not condone the wrong beliefs, concepts, and religious practices of earlier religions like Christianity and Judaism. As discussed in Chapter 2, he repeatedly said that the current Christian dogmas of Trinity, the god-head of Jesus (pbuh), Original Sin, salvation through belief in the death of Jesus (pbuh) on the cross, asceticism, etc., are all against the True Teachings of Jesus (pbuh). Similarly, through Revelation from God about the Israelite prophets and their communities, he talked about the perversions in the teachings of these prophets, and in the religious beliefs and practices preached by these prophets. The followers of these prophets have even ascribed very serious crimes and allegations to these prophets. The same characteristic is evident in Hinduism. When the Hindus reached the lowest point in their moral degeneration, they produced a literature that presents a very perverted image of Hindu ideals. This literature portrayed their gods, hermits, and monks as crass sinners. In doing so, they suggested that since such noble people could not refrain from indulging in grave sins, ordinary mortals are inevitably bound to commit them. Moreover, a person’s indulgence in immoral acts would not make him remorseful for the same acts that were committed earlier by their monks and hermits, or prophets of God. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) categorically declared the allegations against Israelite prophets untrue, and absolved them of all these blemishes, saying that all these prophets were very pious, god-fearing, and the embodiment of virtue and righteousness. For more details about the perversions of the teachings of these prophets and in the Old Testament and New Testament, see Chapter 2. Some historical narratives constitute a rejoinder to the objections raised by the unbelievers against Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). Although the stories concern the messengers and the nations of the past, they are clearly applicable to the conditions at the time of the Revelation. The unbelievers of Makkah, in fact all the polytheists of Arabia, were warned that their future was solely dependent on one thing—their attitude toward the message of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). They would be able to live in Arabia only if they accepted the message. If they rejected the message, they would be altogether removed from the scene. Subsequent events, as we know, fully vindicated this. Barely fifteen years after this prophecy, there were no polytheists in Arabia.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind Sometimes the stories narrated have a definite didactic purpose, and were narrated with a view to highlighting their relevance to the time of the Prophet (pbuh). In each of these stories, one of the parties is a prophet who, in respect to his teachings, greatly resembles Mohammed (pbuh) in summoning his people to the right way, in admonishing them, in sincerely seeking their welfare. At the other end of the scale, in each narrative are the unbelieving nations that greatly resemble the Quraish in the time of the Prophet (pbuh), with regard to their disbelief and moral degeneration. By recounting the tragic end of each of these unrighteous nations of the past, the Quraish are reminded of the moral purpose of these stories. Through the stories, they are told that if, because of their stubbornness, they fail to follow the Messenger of God during the term of respite granted to them, they will be subjected to the same destruction that befell those past nations that persisted in wrongdoing and error. Sometimes these revelations came in response to inquiries of non-believers who wanted to test whether he was the Prophet of God (pbuh) or not. Most of the time, these revelations about the earlier communities came to teach moral lessons to the Muslims from the historical accounts of earlier prophets and their communities. (i)  For example, in the case of the revelation of Chapter 12, called Sura Yousuf (Joseph), it was revealed in response to a question by the Quraish, who were considering ways of overcoming the threat posed by the Prophet (pbuh)—whether to kill, banish, or imprison him. At the same time, probably at the instigation of the Jews, some of the Makkans tried to test whether the Prophet (pbuh) derived his knowledge from on high or not. To this end, they asked him: “What caused the Israelites to migrate to Egypt?” They asked this question because the Arabs were unfamiliar with the story. There was no trace of it in their historical traditions. More importantly, the Prophet (pbuh) had not referred to it before. The Makkans, therefore, thought that there were only two possibilities. One, that the Prophet (pbuh) would answer the question, but would fail to answer it in detail. The other possibility was that under one pretext or the other, he would try to defer answering the question so as to gain time. They also thought that the Prophet (pbuh) would subsequently solicit help from some of the Jews, and this would inevitably and completely expose him. It would then become clear to all that he had no access to a divine source of knowledge. But the result of the test was quite contrary to their expectations. For God enabled the Prophet (pbuh) to narrate the whole story of Joseph then and there. Not only that, but the story was wholly applicable to the contemporary situation of the Quraish. It showed that the Quraish were playing the role of Joseph’s brothers. This revelation did the following: (a) It provided proof of the prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh) by giving a detailed and accurate account of the life of Prophet Yousuf (Joseph). (b) It provided evidence that the source of his knowledge was divine revelation, and not any human source or heresy. (c) It provided an implicit warning to the Quraish that their efforts to mistreat the Prophet (pbuh) would similarly end in failure and bring them nothing but humiliation and disgrace, as was the fate of the brothers of Yousuf (pbuh). This warning, in fact, was a sort of prophesy of the Holy Qur’an that came true, both in letter and in spirit, within ten years of the revelations of this chapter of the Qur’an. (d) It also provided consolation to the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions by illustrating that, like Prophet Yousuf, he would one day prevail, and, like the brothers of Yousuf, the Quraish would fail in their goal. There are dozens more moral lessons for all from this chapter, and the Holy Qur’an declares it as a best story. (ii) Similarly, through revelations in the Holy Qur’an, the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) describes very accurately all the important events in the life of Moses (pbuh), from his birth to death, some of which are not available in the existing Torah or any book of history. At the time of the birth of Moses (pbuh), the Israelites, who were living in Egypt at that time, were being treated as foreigners by the nationalist government of the Copts—the original inhabitants of Egypt. This nationalist government used all the methods and means possible to subdue the Israelites. They not only treated Israelites as slaves, but, over and above this, they adopted the policy of reducing their population by killing their sons at their very birth, and allowing their daughters to


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind live, so that their women should gradually pass into the hands of Copts, and thus produce the Coptic instead of the Israelite race. When Moses (pbuh) was born, God inspired the mother of Moses (pbuh), saying: “Suckle him, and when you see any danger for him, cast him into the river [in a basket], and fear not nor grieve, for We shall restore him to you, and shall include him among the Messengers” (Qur’an, 28:7). When the basket containing the baby passed the Pharaoh’s palace, which was on the riverbank, someone from the Pharaoh’s household picked up the basket with the baby. It was a lovely baby, and the Pharaoh and his wife (queen) decided to raise him, and started a search for a nurse to feed the baby. Moses’ sister watched the basket from a distance in a manner that (the enemies) did not notice (Qur’an, 28:11). All the ladies brought by the Pharaoh’s household to nurse the baby were rejected by the child. On seeing this, Moses’ sister said to them: “Shall I tell you of a house whose people will bring him up for you and will look after him well?” “Thus We restored Moses to his mother, so that her e yes might be cooled and she might not grieve, and she might know that Allah’s promise was true. But most people do not know this” (Qur’an, 28:12-13). A good thing in this was that Moses grew up among his own people, and became fully aware of his family, his community traditions, and his ancestral religion, and he was raised emotionally and intellectually as a full- fledged Israelite at the entire expense of the Pharaoh, who paid a stipend to his mother for this entire period. In a Hadith, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said: “He who works to earn his livelihood and keeps in view Allah’s (swt) goodwill has a likeness with the Prophet Moses’ mother, who suckled her own son, as well as received her wages for the service.” That is, although such a person works to earn a living for his children, since he works honestly with a view to pleasing God, is just and upright in his dealings with others, seeks lawful provisions for himself and his children in the spirit of God’s worship, so he does deserve a reward from Allah (swt), even for earning his own livelihood. Later, when Moses (pbuh) grew to maturity, he happened to kill a man belonging to his foes in defending an Israelite. Out of fear for his life in punishment of this murder, Moses (pbuh) secretly left for Midian. There he married, stayed for eight to ten years, and then returned to Egypt. While he was on his way to Egypt with his family, to his surprise, God appointed him as His Messenger, gave him some miracles, and commanded him to go to the Pharaoh. Then Moses (pbuh) and his brother Haroon both went to the Pharaoh. Moses (pbuh) said to the Pharaoh: “O Pharaoh, I am a Messenger from the Lord of the universe. And it behooves me to say nothing about Allah except what is true. I have come to you with a clear sign of having been sent from your Lord” (Qur’an, 7:104-1 05). Moses (pbuh) was sent to the Pharaoh to invite him to two things: first, to surrender himself to God, and second, to release the Israelites, who were believers, from his oppressive bondage. When Moses (pbuh) showed the miracles, the Pharaoh and his courtiers rejected them, and they dubbed Moses (pbuh) as a sorcerer so as to refute his claim. There were many magicians in Egypt in those days. The Pharaoh invited the top magicians within the country and Moses (pbuh) on a certain date, place, and time for a showdown with Moses (pbuh), hoping and expecting that his magicians would defeat Moses (pbuh), and thus prove that what Moses (pbuh) did was only magic and not miracles, and thus he was not a Messenger of God. But the actual outcome was quite the opposite. The sorcerers who had been assembled were not only defeated, but they unanimously acknowledged that the signs displayed by Moses (pbuh) in support of his claim were not feats of magic. Rather, his signs manifested the might of God, the Lord of the universe, and hence could not be overcome by magic. The Holy Qur’an describes the scene in the following words: “Thus was the truth established and their doings proved in vain. The Pharaoh and his men were defeated and put to shame, and the magicians flung themselves prostrate, saying, ‘We believe in the Lord of the universe, the Lord of Moses and Aaron’.’’ “The Pharaoh said, ‘What! Do you believe before you have my permission? Surely this is a plot you have contrived to drive out the rulers from the capital. So you shall see, I shall cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and then crucify you all.” “The y replied, ‘We shall surely return to our Lord. Will you punish us just because we believed in the signs of our Lord when they came to us? Our Lord! Shower us with perseverance and cause us to die as those who have submitted to You’.” (Qur’an, 7:118-125) These miracles of Moses (pbuh) were actually meant for the Pharaoh to believe in the prophethood of Moses (pbuh), but he did not. But the magicians did. This shows that those who do not want to believe will not believe, even if shown physical miracles.


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind After this encounter, the Israelites stayed for a long time in Egypt, many things happened, and Moses (pbuh) showed the Pharaoh and his people more miracles, but the Pharaoh and most of his people still did not believe. God finally appointed a night on which all the believers, both Israelites and non-Israelites, had to embark on the exodus. For these believers, the Qur’an uses the comprehensive term, “My servants. After assembling at the appointed venue, they set out to the Red Sea in a caravan. This caravan of migrants was pursued by the Pharaoh and his huge army. ‘When the Israelites saw the sea infront of them and the Pharaoh’s approach from behind, they cried, ‘We are overtaken.’ Moses said, ‘We are certainly not. My Lord is with me. He will direct me.’ Then We revealed to Moses [commanding him], ‘Strike the sea with your rod.’ There upon the sea split, and each part became like the mass of a huge mountain. We also brought the other party close to the same spot, and We delivered Moses and his companions, all of them, and then We drowned the others [the Pharaoh and his army].” (Qur’an, 26:63-66) After describing the exodus from Egypt, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) described all the events in the life of Moses (pbuh) until his death, including the Revelation of the Torah and some highlights of Moses’ message. Again, through Revelation from God, Mohammed (pbuh) spoke of the birth of Mary, the dedication of Mary by her mother to the service of God, the birth of Jesus (pbuh) to Mary without a father, his miracles while in the cradle, his mission in life, his miracles, his opposition by the Jews, his persecution, etc. Similarly, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) spoke through Revelation about the important events in the life of Prophet Abraham (pbuh)—his encounter with the idol worshipers of his country, his encounter with the king and his father, how he sacrificed the love of his parents, relatives, community, nation, and country, and sacrificed his property and business, and left the place where he was born and raised, and sacrificed the comforts of a settled life at home and became a traveling nomad—a man without home, a man without a country. He is the first known mahajar (emigrant) for the sake of Allah (swt) and for his faith. He is one of the greatest callers-towards-God, in the entire human race. He left Iraq and went to Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, and Arabia, preaching the message of Tawheed. He walked long distances, spreading what he believed and what was revealed to him. The area covered under the dawah activities of Abraham (pbuh) is very vast. In an age of poor transportation, traveling through vast tracts filled with dangers, dealing with various communities, who spoke several languages and believed in several types of false gods, and encountering reactionary forces of his time in several parts of that area, would have certainly posed not only difficult, but many different types of problems for him. It is difficult to imagine how he single-handedly performed this miracle in an alien land. These tremendous dawah activities of Abraham (pbuh) had demanded from him unmatched sacrifice. From the moment the truth was revealed to him until the moment he died, his life was a continuous tale of sacrifices and sufferings for Allah (swt). There is no conceivable object of man’s love and attachment in the world that Abraham (pbuh) did not sacrifice for the sake of truth. Likewise, there is no conceivable danger (which instinctively frightens man) that Abraham (pbuh) did not encounter for the sake of Allah (swt). To continue his mission, he—with the help of his son Ishmail—reconstructed the first house for the worship of God on earth (originally constructed by Adam (pbuh) at Makkah in Arabia). He settled his son Ishmail there at Makkah, and settled his son Isaac (Ishaque) in Palestine, and his cousin Lot in Jordan. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) then talks about the progeny of the two sons of Abraham (pbuh), Yaqoob (Jacob or Israel), his descendants Suleiman (Solomon), Daud (David), and many others, and also the story of Prophet Noah (pbuh) before Abraham (pbuh), his long struggle against his people, and the destruction of his deniers with the greatest flood in the history of mankind. “There is indeed an excellent example (model) for you in the life of Abraham and in the life of those who were with him” (Qur’an, 60:4). This example is so much loved by Allah (swt), that He made it commemorative until qiyama (last day). He wants us to remember it all the time. In order that we may not forget it, He made the arrangement to remind us every year on a large scale and in the most effective manner. This is through one of the most important yearly festivals of Eid-ul-Adha and the Haj or pilgrimage in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. After revealing the story of Prophet Noah (pbuh) to Mohammed (pbuh) in Chapter 71 and Chapter 11:25-48 of the Qur’an, God says: “We reveal to you this account of matters that are beyond the reach of human perception. Neither you nor your people knew about them before this. Be, then, patient. Surely, the good end is for the God-fearing.” There were striking similarities between Mohammed (pbuh) and Noah (pbuh). Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) received the same treatment from his people as did Noah from his. The message that each of them sought to preach was also the same. Likewise, the doubts and objections raised by the people of Mohammed (pbuh) with regard to his prophethood were the same


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind as those raised by Noah’s (pbuh) people several thousand years before. Again, what Mohammed (pbuh) said in response to the doubts and objections raised against him were exactly the same as what Noah had said. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is consoled by the statement that in the same way that Noah (pbuh) and his righteous people ultimately succeeded, so would he and his companions. It is God’s law that the opponents of the truth seem to achieve some measure of success in the beginning. But ultimate success is the lot of those who, out of their God-fearing, avoid all erroneous ways while seeking to serve the cause of the truth. The import of the story, therefore, is that believers should not feel heartbroken by their ephemeral sufferings or the success of their opponents. Instead, they should persevere, with courage and fortitude, in their struggle for the cause of the truth. Similarly, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) talked about many earlier communities and prophets, such as Add and Hud, Yunus (Jonah), Thamud and Salih, and Midian and Shuayb. The Qur’anic narration of the stories of the prophets makes it amply clear that the attitude of the nations to whom the prophets were sent had always been the same as that of the Makkans towards the Message of Mohammed (pbuh). Apart from this, the accounts of the various prophets and their people display the same striking resemblances. Likewise, Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) vindication of his teaching in response to the Makkans is identical to similar attempts by other prophets to vindicate their teachings. So doing, the Qur’an seeks to emphasize that in the same way that the error and misguidance of which men become victims have remained essentially the same throughout the ages, the Message of God’s Messengers has also been the same, in all places and at all times. Again, there is a striking resemblance in the ultimate fate of all those people who reject the message of the prophets, and who persist in their erroneous and evil ways. This, too, has been the same, namely utter destruction. Similarly, exactly the same situation that occurred in the past among the people of Shu’ayb (pbuh) also occurred in Makkah at the time these verses were revealed. The Quraish were seething with enmity towards Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and wanted to put an end to his life in much the same way as Shu’ayb’s (pbuh) people were inimical to him. The only thing that prevented the Quraish from violently laying their hands on the Prophet (pbuh) was that his clan, Hashim, stood firmly behind him. Thus the story of Shu’ayb (pbuh), in relation to his people, was exactly the same as that of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), in relation to the Quraish. The story of Shu’ayb (pbuh) is narrated here precisely because of the obvious resemblance it bears to the predicament of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). The people of Shu’ayb (pbuh) said to him: ‘O Shu’ayb! We do not understand much of what you say. Indeed, we see you weak in our midst. Were it not for your kinsmen, we would surely have stoned you, for you have no strength to overpower us” (Qur’an, 11:91). In response, Shu’ayb (pbuh) made the following statement: “My people! Are my kinsmen mightier with you than Allah, that you [hold the kinsmen in awe while] you cast Allah behind your back? Surely, my Lord encompasses all what you do. My people! Go on working according to your way, and I will keep working [according to mine]. Soon you will come to know who will be afflicted by a humiliating chastisement, and who is proved a liar. And watch, I shall also watch with you” (Qur’an, 11:92-93). The implication is very clear. The Quraish said similar things to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), who, in turn, made a similar statement to the non-believers of Makkah. These examples of his knowledge of past history are presented as proof of Mohammed’s (pbuh) prophethood. At the time of the revelation of those verses, the unbelievers in general, and the leaders of Makkah in particular, were bent upon proving that Mohammed (pbuh) was a false claimant of prophethood. In this vicious campaign, they enjoyed the support of Jewish scholars and Christian monks who lived in various parts of Hijaz. At the same time, the fact was that Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) had not suddenly appeared among them as if from nowhere. He was a resident of the same city, and the Makkans knew about each and every aspect of his life. For this reason, when these proofs of his prophethood were presented with an open challenge to any detractors, no one from Makkah, Hijaz, or the rest of the Arabian peninsula stood up to level the vile charge that is presently being made by Orientalists. True, the disbelievers then showed little reluctance in inventing lies and false accusations. But how could they fabricate such a stupid lie that would not even stand the test of critical scrutiny for a single day? How could they say that Mohammed (pbuh) had obtained all his information from this or that Jewish scholar, or such and such a monk, when they were unable to identify a single person in that regard? For as soon as they mentioned anyone specifically, it would be immediately


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind apparent to all that they were lying. Nor could they have accused Mohammed (pbuh) of owning a library of ancient books that he consulted and were the source of his discourse. They could not have said so, because they would not have been able to find a single scrap of paper around the unlettered Prophet (pbuh). Moreover, no one could contend that the Prophet (pbuh) had obtained the services of translators specializing in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek works. Nor could even the most brazen liars among them have the temerity to accuse Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) of obtaining all his information during his journey to Syria and Palestine. It was impossible for them to do so, for the simple reason that on those journeys he was not alone; he was one among a large caravan. Hence, if they brought such a charge against him, there would have been hundreds of first-hand witnesses—fellow travelers on that journey—who would have instantly refuted and dismissed their accusations as absolutely baseless. Furthermore, we know that within two years of the Prophet’s (pbuh) death, Muslims were engaged in warfare against the Romans. Now, if there had been a Christian monk or a Jewish rabbi in Syria or Palestine with whom the Prophet (pbuh) had had an interchange on the matters mentioned in these narratives, the Romans would have created a great fuss about this. They would have argued quite fiercely that Mohammed (pbuh), who had visited their country during the earlier part of his life, had obtained the information from several of their citizens. They would have said that after obtaining this information, he then returned to Makkah claiming to be a Prophet (pbuh) on the basis of the knowledge he had thus collected. At that time, the disbelievers were in dire need of refuting the challenge presented by the Qur’an. Yet not a single person came forward with anything that proved that the Prophet (pbuh) had drawn his information from any identifiable source other than that of Revelation. It is also pertinent to point out that the Qur’an does not make this challenge in this verse alone. There are several other instances that contain similar statements. For instance, after narrating the story of the Prophet Zachariah (pbuh) and Mary, the Qur’an says: (1) “(O Mohammed!) We reveal to you this account from a realm that lies beyond the reach of your perception, for you were not with them when they drew lots with their pens about who should be Mary’s guardian, and you were not with them when they disputed about it” (Qur’an, 3:44). (2) After narrating the story of Joseph (pbuh), the Qur’an says: “(O Mohammed!) This is some news from the unseen that We reveal to you, for you were not present with them when Joseph’s brothers jointly resolved on a plot”. (Holy Qur’an, 12:102). (3) Likewise, after narrating the story of Noah (pbuh) in some detail, the Qur’an says: “We reveal to you these accounts of matters that are beyond the reach of human perception. Neither you nor your people knew about them before this. Be, then, patient. Surely, the good end is for the God-fearing.” (Holy Qur’an, 11:49) (4) God, addressing Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), says: “(O Mohammed!) you were not then on the western side (of Mount Sinai) when We bestowed this commandment [of law] on Moses, and you were not among the witnesses. Thereafter, We raised up many a generation and a long time passed. You were then not even present among the people of Midian to rehearse Our verses to them. But it is We Who are sending news about that. Nor were you on the side of the Mount [Sinai] when We called out to Moses [in the first instance]. But it is mercy from your Lord [that you are being informed of all this]” (Qur’an, 28:44-46). The Prophet (pbuh) had no direct means of obtaining this information. These events, which had taken place two thousand years before, are now being narrated in the Qur’an as though they were eyewitness accounts. There could be no other source for all this information except God’s Revelation. The fact that the Qur’an frequently returns to these shows that it is one of the major arguments continuing its divine origin, that hundreds of years after these events occurred, an unlettered person was narrating them in detail. Obviously, no source for that information was available to him except that of Revelation. It will also be noted that this challenge—to identify any other source for this information other than Revelation—was one of the main reasons for Mohammed’s (pbuh) acceptance by his contemporaries as a prophet. They could appreciate that since there was no possible source from which the relevant information could have been drawn, the only possible explanation was Revelation. Just imagine how important it would have been for the opponents of the Islamic movement at that time to refute this Qur’anic contention. It stands to reason that they would have explored all possible avenues to challenge it. One


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind can also understand that had there been any weakness in the Qur’an, it would not have been difficult for the Prophet (pbuh)’s contemporaries to prove it to be wrong. The Prophet (pbuh) described in detail, through revelations in the Qur’an, how the people of Moses harassed, annoyed, and teased Moses, despite the fact that they knew that Moses was the Messenger of God and was their great benefactor. In conclusion, there is a warning to the followers of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), that if they treat the Message of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) as the Jews did the Message of Moses (pbuh), Jesus and other Israelite prophets (Peace be Upon Them All), and the other communities of the past did their Messengers and their Messages, then they, too, will be similarly punished and they will meet a similar fate.

EVIDENCE 12 Excellent Attributes, Morals, and Character of Mohammed (pbuh) Before writing on this topic, it must be said that Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) status is so exalted, and his personality stands so pre-eminent, dignified, and mighty in all qualities, habits, manners, and morals, that it is beyond human capacity to comprehend or describe. All these excellences that can be imagined as attainable are possessed by him. God Almighty Who blessed him with all these excellent attributes is the only One Who knows how exalted is the status of Mohammed (pbuh), and no one else knows.

(A)  Special Characteristics of Mohammed (pbuh), That No Other Human Being Has God Almighty blessed Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) with such unique bounties, favors, attributes, characteristics, and high status as we do not find in the personality of any other human being in the history of mankind. Below are some examples. (1)  While the mission of all prophets and messengers was limited only to their own people and for a limited time, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the only Messenger of God without any limitation of time and space—he is not a local or regional prophet, rather, he is the only prophet for all the people for all the times. His Message is complete, perfect, practical, workable, and the most useful for all the people and all of the times, whereas some of the guidance brought by other prophets was not practical or good for all the people or for all of the times. Prophet Jesus (pbuh), who was one of the prominent prophets preceding Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), said: “I have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. When he the spirit of truth (i.e., Prophet Mohammed, pbuh) comes, he will tell you all these things” 1. (John 16:12-13). This shows that Prophet Jesus’ (pbuh) message was incomplete and was not practical for all people for all time (2)  God’s Message for mankind that was delivered through Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the only message that God Almighty promised to preserve intact (Qur’an 14:9), suffering no loss, change, or corruption, and which remains pure, unaffected by falsehood, and free from distortion. This type of promise was not made by God regarding any other Divine Book given to any other Messenger of God. The result is that the Holy Qur’an today is exactly the same as it was revealed to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). However, all other Divine Books have been corrupted, distorted, changed, or completely lost. There is not a single Bible in the whole world that all Christians accept. The Catholic Bible has seven more Books than the Protestant Bible, and the Orthodox Bible has seven more Books than the Catholic Bible. (3)  No other person in the entire history of mankind brought such a great, all-comprehensive, and beneficial revolution as did Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). A French writer (Lamartine, in Histoire de la Turquie, Paris, Vol. II, pp. 276-277), says: “Never has a man undertaken a work so far beyond human power with so feeble means, for he (Mohammed, pbuh) had in the conception, as well as in the execution, of such a great design no other instrument than himself, and no other aid, except a handful of men living in a corner of the desert. Finally, never has a man accomplished such a huge and lasting revolution in the world.... If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astounding results are the true criteria of human genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Mohammed (pbuh)? The most famous men created arms, laws, and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers, which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, governments, empires, peoples, and dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the inhabited world, and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs, and the souls”. (4)  In the entire history of mankind, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the only one who deserves the title of “The World Leader” (see this chapter for details).


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (5)  Among all the greatest men in the history of mankind, he is the only one who accomplished his mission and vision in his lifetime (see this chapter for details). (6)  There is no other person in all humanity whose life history has been recorded so accurately and reliably, and in such great detail (see Chapter 4). (7)  He is the greatest benefactor and the most beneficent man in the entire human race. He did more good for more people than any other human being. (8)  As described earlier under the subheading, “Miracles in Heaven,” throughout the history of mankind, there was only one occasion when God Almighty invited a human being for a personal audience with Him in heaven. God gave this honor only to Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). On his trip to heaven, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) went so high and came so close to Allah (swt), that not even Angel Gabriel ever was so close to Him. (9)  During this trip, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) led congregation prayers at Jerusalem with all the prophets (Jesus, Moses, Abraham, Noah, and all the other prophets) praying behind him. This is an indication that Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the leader of all prophets.

(B)  Commendation of Mohammed (pbuh) by God in the Holy Qurán The following verses of the Qur’an shed some light on the commendation of Mohammed (pbuh) by God Himself. (i)  “And surely (O Mohammed) you have very high, noble, and sublime character and morals” (Qur’an, 68:4). The Prophet (pbuh) has himself said: “I have been sent to perfect the morals for mankind”. (Imam Bukhari). From the previous verse, it is evident that all virtues and noble qualities were concentrated in him. His wife A’ishah (ra) was asked about the character of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and she said: “His character was the Qur’an”. (Imam Muslim, Ahmed, Abu Daud, Nisai, Ibn Maja, Darmi, and Ibn Jareer; see also, commentary on this verse by Maududi). The evident meaning of this is that he possessed all those noble qualities and virtues that have been declared in the Holy Qur’an. (ii)  ”And we have not sent you (O Mohammed), except as a mercy unto the worlds” [i.e., to all people, creatures, animals, and plants] (Qur’an, 21:107). Both Muslims and non-Muslims need to know that no other single person in history can approach the mercy exemplified in the life of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). His love, his compassion, and his mercy encompassed not only humans, but also animals, and even plants. He was a Prophet (pbuh) remarkable for his humane character and for his love that encompassed all. (iii)  “Ever great and mighty indeed is Allah’s (swt) favor and grace upon you (O Mohammed, pbuh)” (Qur’an, 4:113). (iv)   “He (Mohammed, pbuh) does not speak of his own desire; it is but a revelation which is sent down to him” (Qur’an, 53:3-4). Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) said: “By Him in Whose hand is my life, never have I said anything but the truth”. (Commentary on this verse by Maududi). The fact is that, even in the private aspects of his life, never did the Prophet (pbuh) utter a word that was contrary to the truth. At all times and under all conditions, his words and deeds remained within the bounds that Allah (swt) had prescribed for living his life as a prophet and righteous man. (v) “There has come unto you (O mankind) an Apostle from among yourselves [i.e., a human being and a mortal like you, but only chosen by God to convey His Message to you]. It grieves him [the thought] that you might suffer [in the Life Hereafter]. Ardently anxious is he for you [O mankind, and] full of compassion and mercy towards the believers” (Qur’an, 9:128). Because of this, his was a life of absolute devotion to the welfare of mankind, and his only concern was to save man from the punishment of God, by bringing him into complete submission, surrender, and obedience to God. The zeal and selfsacrifice shown by Mohammed (pbuh) for the guidance of mankind was so intense that God Almighty said repeatedly in the Holy Qur’an: “(O Mohammed) will you worry so much, and consume yourself to death, grieving over them [non-believers] if they do not believe in the Message of the Qur’an?” (Qur’an, 18:6; 26:3; 35:8). The persecution that Mohammed (pbuh) suffered and the opposition that he faced in conveying the Message of God were beyond human endurance. However, the Prophet (pbuh) did not grieve over the persecution that he and his companions were suffering, but at the deviation and moral degeneration of his people. What was consuming him was that, although he was trying to bring them from their disgraceful state, they persisted in it. He was grieved because he was convinced that their deviation would inevitably lead them to destruction and the scourge of Allah (swt). Therefore, he was working day and night to save them, but it appeared that they were bent upon incurring the chastisement of Allah (swt)


ISLAM: God’s Final Message to Mankind (vi) “Indeed, the Prophet is preferable to the believers than their own selves, and the Prophet’s wives are [like] their mothers” (Qur’an, 33:6). That is, the relationship of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to the Muslims and of the Muslims to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) is of a superior nature, over and above all human relationships. No other relationship is in any way comparable with the relationship that exists between the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and the believers. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) is more compassionate and affectionate, and a greater well-wisher of the Muslims than their own parents, than even themselves. Their parents, wives, and children can harm them, can treat them in a selfish manner and mislead them, can make them commit errors and mistakes, can even push them into hell, but the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) case is different: he will do for them only that which results in and leads to their eternal well-being and enduring happiness. They can commit follies resulting in their own ruin and disaster, but the Holy Prophet (pbuh) will wish for them only that which is beneficial and useful for them. And when it is so, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) also has a right to expect that Muslims should regard him dearer than their own parents, their own children, even their own selves. They should love him more than anything and anybody else in the world. They should prefer his judgment and opinion to their own, and should submit to every command that he gives. The same thing has been said by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) in a Hadith, which Bukhari, Muslim, and others have related with a little difference in wording: “None of you can be a true believer until I become dearer to you than your own father, your own children, all mankind, and yourself.” (vii)   “Indeed, there has been the best model for you (O believers) in the Messenger of Allah” (Qur’an, 33:21). In other words, the Muslims should take the Prophet’s (pbuh) life as a model for themselves in every affair of life and mold their characters and personalities according to it. He is a perfect example of all that is best and the ultimate in perfection, and by imitating him one can reach the pinnacle of human excellence, piety, and hope for God’s pleasure and salvation in the Hereafter. That is why all aspects of his life, whether public or private, all that he did, said, and approved, and all details about his habits and manners have been preserved. (viii)  ”He who obeys the Messenger [Mohammed] has indeed obeyed Allah” (Qur’an, 4:80). (ix)  “O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet (pbuh), nor speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest all your good works be rendered vain, while you do not perceive” (Qur’an, 49:2). This sho