Intellectual property rights...
An Assignment on Intellectual Property rights Topic:- Procedure for Obtaining Patents Under the guidance of Dr. S.Z Amani
Ankit Yadav ,B.A LLB(H), Roll no. 05, 9th Semester, 5th year
Thank You Ankit yadav
Procedure For Obtaining A Patent
A patent is one o the orms o intelle!t"al property. #he o$%e!t o the patent la& has $een e'plained $y the S"preme o"rt in M/s. Bishwanath Parsad Radhey Shyam v. Hindustan Metal Industries as ollo&s*+ #he o$%e!t o patent la& is to en!o"rae s!ientii! resear!h, ne& te!hnoloy and ind"strial proress. #he rant o e'!l"sive privilee to o&n, "se or sell the method or prod"!t patented or a limited period, stim"lates ne& inventions o !ommer!ial "tility.- #he pri!e o the rant o the monopoly is the dis!los"re o the invention at the patent oi!e, &hi!h ater the e'piry o the period o monopoly, passes into p"$li! domain. A patent is ranted only or an invention &hi!h m"st $e ne& and "se"l. t m"st have novelty and "tility. #he patents are ranted to en!o"rae inventions and to se!"re that the inventions are &orked in ndia on a !ommer!ial s!ale and to the "llest e'tent that is reasona$le pra!ti!a$le/ &itho"t "nd"e delay. 12atent3 is a rant made $y the overnment to an inventor, !onveyin and se!"rin him the e'!l"sive riht to make, "se and sell his invention or a term o -0 years. A system o patents serves many "se"l p"rposes. 5 the invention is !ommer!ially "tili4ed, the patent ens"res %"st re&ard in terms o money and re!onition or the inventor, or all the time and eort, kno&lede and skills, money and other reso"r!es invested to !ome "p &ith the invention. or the so!iety, !ommer!ial e'ploitation o an invention means ne& and $etter prod"!ts, hiher prod"!tivity, and more ei!ient means o prod"!tion.6 #he o$%e!tive o rantin the patent is to ens"re that it is &orked ("tili4ed) in the !o"ntry7 and it is not meant to $lo!k prod"!tion or "rther resear!h and development. A patent system en!o"raes te!hnoloi!al innovation and dissemination o te!hnoloy.8 #his in t"rn stim"lates ro&th and helps the spread o prosperity and $etter "tili4ation o reso"r!es. n an ae
&hen te!hnoloy and kno&lede are the reatest enerators o &ealth, the n"m$er o patents iled and ranted nationally and internationally is a ood indi!ator o the health o s!ien!e and te!hnoloy in a !o"ntry. 2atent is ranted $y a state and hen!e has territorial appli!a$ility. #hat is, it is valid only in the !o"ntry, &hi!h rants the patent. #here is no me!hanism to o$tain a lo$al patent and &e have to apply separately in all the !o"ntries &here &e &ant the invention to $e prote!ted. Ho&ever, the 2atent ooperation #reaty9 o the :orld ntelle!t"al 2roperty ;ranisation0 seeks to a!ilitate rant o patents in the parti!ipatin !o"ntries. #here &ere 69 !o"ntries, party to the 2# as on April , -00. ndia %oined the 2# on "irements o that !o"ntry. ?a!h !o"ntry has to e'amine the appli!ation independently or rantin a patent. #he pra!ti!e o rantin
monopolies $y patent has a lon history o over 600 years. #he term patent !an $e tra!ed to the term Letters Patent , a rant in the orm o a do!"ment rolled "p &ith the @in3s or "een3s seal appended at the $ottom, !onerrin !ertain rihts and privilees on an individ"al.5 #he rant &as not sealed or !losed $"t it &as open to p"$li!. #ho"h letters patent &ere ranted or vario"s p"rposes, they &ere most oten ranted to inventors, and hen!e the &ord 1patent3 &as event"ally "sed to des!ri$e the inventor3s monopoly.6 #he la& relatin to patents in ndia is overned $y the 2atents A!t, 980 as amended $y 2atents (Amendment) A!t, 999, 2atents (Amendment) A!t, -00- and 2atents (Amendment) A!t, -005 &hi!h !ame into or!e &ith ee!t
rom an"ary -005. n o"r dis!"ssion, &e &ill reer to this a!t as the ndian 2atents A!t. #he p"rpose o patents is to aord prote!tion to the inventor or the invention or a limited period in e'!hane or the dis!los"re o all the ne!essary kno&lede to ens"re its !ommer!ial &orkin. t provides an e'!l"sive riht to the inventor or e'ploitin the invention and aords prote!tion aainst "na"thorised "se o the invention $y third parties. #he main o$%e!tive o national patent leislation is to a!!elerate the te!hnoloi!al and ind"strial development o the !o"ntry.8 A patent is an e'!l"sive monopoly riht ranted to the inventor (patentee) to make, "se, li!ense or sell the invention or a limited period o time. Ater the e'piry o the patent term, any$ody rom the p"$li! !an "se the invention as it passes into p"$li! domain.
Pocedue $o o(tainin' a %atent #he A!t laysdo&n the detailed pro!ed"re to $e o$served $y the appli!ant in ettin a patent. #he pro!ed"re involves the ollo&in ormalities to $e !ompleted $y the appli!ant. i.
S"$mission o Appli!ation.
?'amination o Appli!ation.
A!!eptan!e o !omplete spe!ii!ation.
;pposition o rant o patent.
Crantin and sealin o patent.
!"# Submi$$ion of A%%&ication An appli!ation or a patent or an invention
may $e made $y a person !laimin to $e the tr"e and irst inventor o the invention or his assinee9, or $y the leal representative o any de!eased person &ho immediately $eore his death &as entitled to make s"!h an
appli!ation-0. #he term tr"e and irst inventor means that the !laimant has to $e the a!t"al inventor and not merely $e the irst importer o the invention or the irst person to &hom the invention is !omm"ni!ated rom o"tside ndia. n !ase the inventor is employee o an orani4ation, the inventions made d"rin the employment &o"ld $e patenta$le in the name o the employee. Ho&ever, the o&nership o the patent (i.e. rihts o "sin, man"a!t"rin, sellin et!.) &ill $e dependent on the terms o !ontra!t $et&een the employee and employer.- t is a !ommon pra!ti!e in the Resear!h D "est and the pres!ri$ed ee is paid. A !omplete spe!ii!ation iled may in!l"de !laims in respe!ts o developments o or additions to the invention des!ri$ed in provisional spe!ii!ation. #he inventor is entitled to apply or a separate patent in respe!t o s"!h developmentsEadditions. n !ase o a !onvention appli!ation the patent
appli!ation m"st $e a!!ompanied &ith a !omplete spe!ii!ations only. #he !laimE!laims o a !omplete spe!ii!ation relate to a sinle invention, or to a ro"p o inventions, &hi!h orm a sinle inventive !on!ept e.. in an instr"ment there may $e or 0 dierent inventions "sed. All these !o"ld $e separately patented7 or they !an $e patented toether as a ro"p7 i they orm an interated instr"ment./0 #he spe!ii!ation m"st !ontain/ the ollo&in* •
#itle, s"i!iently indi!atin the s"$%e!tFmatter7 Relevant dra&ins7/ re>"ired a model o sample o anythin ill"stratin the invention sho"ld $e "rnished $eore the a!!eptan!e o the appli!ation7 //
"ll and parti!"lar des!ription o the invention7 "irements o the A!t7 -. &hether there is any la&"l ro"nd o o$%e!tion to the rant o the patent "nder the A!t7 /. &hether the invention has $een anti!ipated $y p"$li!ation $eore the date o ilin o appli!ant3s !omplete spe!ii!ation7 and . on any other matter &hi!h may $e pres!ri$ed. ; these matters, sear!h or anti!ipation $y previo"s p"$li!ation and $y prior !laim is important. #his sear!h re>"ires investiation in the p"$li!ations and spe!ii!ations o prior appli!ations and spe!ii!ations o patents already ranted to see &hether the same invention has already $een p"$lished or !laimed or is the s"$%e!t matter o e'istin or e'pired patents. 5 #he e'aminer has to make his report &ithin the period as may $e pres!ri$ed rom the date o s"!h reeren!e. #he a!t dire!ts the ontroller not to reer an appli!ation or makin the aoresaid report to the ?'aminer in respe!t
o a !laim or patent or medi!ines and dr"s !overed "nder Se!tion 5(-) o the A!t, and an appli!ation or rant o e'!l"sive marketin rihts to sell or distri$"te the arti!le or s"$stan!e in ndia.6 Ho&ever, s"!h an appli!ation &ill $e reerred to the ?'aminer or makin a report as to &hether the invention &ithin the meanin o the A!t in terms o se!tion / 8 or the invention is one or &hi!h no patent !an $e ranted "nder se!tion o the A!t. :hen an appli!ation is reerred to an
e'amination, $y the ontroller o 2atents, the ?'aminer has to make investiation as to &hether the invention has already $een p"$lished or !laimed $y any other person "nder the A!t. the report o the
?'aminer is adverse to the appli!ant o re>"ires any amendment o the appli!ation or o the spe!ii!ation, to ens"re !omplian!e &ith the provisions o the A!t, it is the d"ty o the ontroller to !omm"ni!ate the ist o o$%e!tions to the appli!ant and to ive the appli!ant an opport"nity o hearin. #he ontroller may re"se to pro!eed &ith the appli!ation or spe!ii!ation i it is !ontrary to the provisions o the A!t.5 He may also re>"ire that the appli!ation, spe!ii!ation or dra&ins to $e amended to his satisa!tion. ;n his ail"re the ontroller !an re"se the appli!ation.5S"$%e!t to the provisions o se!tion 9, at any time ater the ilin o an appli!ation and $eore rant o the patent o the "nder this A!t, the ontroller may, at the re>"est o the appli!ant dire!t that the appli!ation shall $e postF dated to s"!h date as may $e spe!iied in the re>"est and pro!eed &ith the appli!ation a!!ordinly.5/ :here it appears to the ontroller that the invention has $een anti!ipated as reerred to "nder this A!t 5, he may re"se appli!ation "nless the appli!ant*
. sho&s that the priority date o the !laim o his spe!ii!ation is not later than the date on &hi!h the relevant do!"ment &as p"$lished7 or -. amends this !omplete spe!ii!ation to the spe!ii!ation o the ontroller. the !onse>"en!e o the investiations, it appears to the ontroller that an invention !annot $e perormed &itho"t s"$stantial risk o inrinement o a !laim o any other patent, he may dire!t that a reeren!e so that other patent sho"ld $e in the appli!ant3s !omplete spe!ii!ation $y &ay o noti!e to the p"$li! "nless*F . the appli!ant sho&s to the satisa!tion o the ontroller that the there are reasona$le ro"nds or !ontestin the validity o the said !laim o the other patent7 or -. the !omplete spe!ii!ation is amended to the satisa!tion o the ontroller. #he ontroller may delete the reeren!e to that other patent "nder the !ir!"mstan!es mentioned "nder se!tion 9(-). #he ontroller has po&er to make orders reardin s"$stit"tion o appli!ants "nder this A!t.55 Abandonment of a%%&ication*+ An appli!ation or a patent shall $e deemed to
$e a$andoned i an appli!ation or !omplete spe!ii!ation has $een reerred $y the ontroller to the appli!ant &ith the statement o o$%e!tions and appli!ant ails to !omply &ith the re>"irements &ithin s"!h period as may $e pres!ri$ed. any appeal is pendin, the Appellate Board !an i' any time or !omplian!e o the re>"irements o ontroller. the e'aminer raises any o$%e!tions, the ontroller &ill !omm"ni!ate the ist o the o$%e!tions to the appli!ant. 58 the o$%e!tions raised $y the e'aminer are removed satisa!torily &ithin - months, the ontroller &ill a!!ept the !omplete spe!ii!ation.5 the o$%e!tions are not removed satisa!torily, the appli!ation is re"sed ater ivin an opport"nity o hearin to the appli!ant.
!,# Acce%tance and adverti$ement of com%&ete $%ecification$ *- ;n!e the
!omplete spe!ii!ation is a!!epted, ontroller notiies it to the appli!ant and also advertises it in the ;i!ial Ca4ette. ;n advertisement, the appli!ation and the spe!ii!ation &ith the dra&ins, i any, are open or p"$li! inspe!tion. rom the date o advertisement o the a!!eptan!e o the !omplete spe!ii!ation and "ntil the date o sealin o the patent, the appli!ant &ill have the like privilees and rihts as i a patent or the invention had $een sealed on the date o advertisement. Ho&ever, the appli!ant is not entitled to initiate any pro!eedins or inrinement "ntil the patent has $een sealed.60 Any person interested in
opposin the rant o patent may ive noti!e to the ontroller o s"!h opposition &ithin months rom the date o advertisement6 o the a!!eptan!e on the ro"nds like6-* . the invention &as &ron"lly o$tained $y the inventorEappli!ant7 or -. the invention !laimed has $een p"$lished $eore the priority date o the !laim7 or /. the invention, as !laimed in any !laim o the !omplete spe!ii!ation has $een anti!ipated in a spe!ii!ation iled or another patent earlier7 or . the invention as !laimed in any !laim &as p"$li!ly kno&nE"sed in ndia $eore the priority date o the !laim7 or 5. the invention is o$vio"s and !learly does not involve any inventive step7 or 6. the !omplete spe!ii!ation does not s"i!iently and !learly des!ri$e the invention or the method $y &hi!h it is to $e perormed7 or 8. the s"$%e!t o the patent is not an invention, &ithin the meanin o the A!t7 or is not patenta$le "nder this A!t7 or . the inormation "rnished is alse7 or
9. eoraphi!al oriin o $ioloi!al material is not dis!losed or alsely dis!losed7 or 0.the invention is anti!ipated havin reard to the kno&lede, oral or other&ise availa$le &ithin any lo!al or indieno"s !omm"nity in ndia or else&here7 or . in the !ase o a !onvention appli!ation (an appli!ation iled in ndia ollo&in a patent appli!ation or the same invention made in a !onvention !o"ntry), the appli!ation &as not made in the pres!ri$ed time. onvention !o"ntry means a !o"ntry notiied as s"!h $y the !entral overnment. ;n re!eipt o the noti!e o opposition, the ontroller shall notiy the appli!ant o it and may ive opport"nity o hearin to $oth parties, and arrive at a de!ision. Se!tion -5 "rther says that no other ro"nd is availa$le. :here the ontroller re!eives the noti!e o opposition6/, he &ill notiy it to the appli!ant and de!ide the iss"e ater hearin $oth sides. A person interested m"st $e a person, &ho has a dire!t, present and tani$le !ommer!ial interest or p"$li! interest &hi!h may $e in%"red or ae!ted $y the rant o patent.6
#his is the last stae in o$tainin a patent. :here the appli!ation or a patent alon &ith !omplete spe!ii!ation has $een a!!epted either &itho"t opposition or ater the opposition, a patent shall $e ranted i the appli!ant makes a re>"est in the pres!ri$ed manner or a rant o patent. 65 #he re>"est has to $e made &ithin si' months rom the date o advertisement o the a!!eptan!e o the !omplete spe!ii!ation. #he patent so ranted shall $e sealed &ith the seal o the patent oi!e and the date o sealin o patent shall $e entered in the reister.
Patent$ of addition ++ n respe!t o any improvement in or modii!ation o a
pre!io"s invention already patented, a patent !alled 1patent o addition3 may $e o$tained. #he term o the patent addition &ill r"n !on!"rrently and terminate &ith the main patent. A patent o addition shall not $e ranted $eore the rant o the patent or the main invention. n !ase, the patent &as ranted to the de!eased person or a $ody !orporate &hi!h had !eased to e'ist, $eore the patent &as ranted, the ontroller may amend the patent $y s"$stit"tin or the name o that person to &hom the patent o"ht to have $een ranted and the patent has to $e deemed to have ee!t. Date of %atent #he patent shall $e dated as o the date on &hi!h appli!ation
or the patent &as iled. 68 #he date o every patent has to $e entered in the reister. n the !ase o any !omplaint o an inrinement !ommitted $eore the date o p"$li!ation o the appli!ation, a s"it or other pro!eedin !annot $e instit"ted. ?very patent shall $e in the pres!ri$ed orm 6 and shall have ee!t thro"ho"t ndia. A patent shall $e ranted or one invention only.69
A patent !oners on the patentee, his aent or assinee the e'!l"sive riht to the patented invention or a limited period to the e'!l"sion o all others. #he patentee not only ets a monopoly riht over the said invention or a limited period to make or "se the invention or to market it, $"t also the riht to prevent others rom makin, "sin or marketin s"!h invention d"rin the period o prote!tion. Im%o$ition of condition$ =nder the A!t, a patent is ranted s"$%e!t to !ertain
!onditions. #he s"$%e!t matter o the rant may $e "sed $y the overnment or
its "se, or hospitals. So also it !an $e "sed or the p"rpose o e'periment or resear!h in importin instr"!tions to p"pils. #he rant o a patent "nder this a!t, &ill $e s"$%e!t to the !onditions that80*F i.
any ma!hine, apparat"s or other arti!le in respe!t o &hi!h the patent is ranted or any arti!le made $y "sin a pro!ess in respe!t o &hi!h the patent is ranted, may $e imported or made $y on $ehal o the overnment or the p"rpose merely o its o&n "se7
any pro!ess in respe!t o &hi!h the patent is ranted may $e "sed $y o on $ehal o the overnment or the p"rpose merely o its o&n "se7
any ma!hine, apparat"s or other arti!le in respe!t o &hi!h the patent is ranted or any arti!le made $y "sin a pro!ess in respe!t o &hi!h the patent is ranted, may $e made or "sed and any pro!ess in respe!t o &hi!h the patent is ranted may $e "sed $y any person or the p"rpose merely o e'periment or resear!h in!l"din the impartin o instr"!tions to p"pils7 and
in the !ase o patent in respe!t o any medi!ine or dr", the medi!ine or dr" may $e imported $y the overnment or the p"rpose merely o its o&n "se or or distri$"tin to an dispensary, hospital or other medi!al instit"tions maintained $y or on $ehal o the overnment or any other dispensary, hospital or the medi!al instit"tion &hi!h the !entral overnment may, havin reard to the p"$li! servi!e that s"!h dispensary, hospital or medi!al instit"tions renders, spe!iy in this $ehal $y notii!ation in the oi!ial a4ette. #he A!t, rants patent or a term o -0 years "nder
se!tions 5/. #his se!tion &as amended $y the 2atents (Amendment) a!t, -00&ith ee!t rom -0.05.-00/. 2revio"sly the term o patent &as not the same or all kind o invention. n !ertain !ases, it &as ranted or 8 years and in other
!ases or years. Go& it is provided or -0 years or all inventions rom the date o illin o appli!ation or the patent. #he patent shall !ease to have ee!t not&ithstandin anythin thereon or in this A!t on the e'piration o the period pres!ri$ed or the payment o any rene&al ee8-, i that ee is not paid &ithin the pres!ri$ed period or &ithin that period had e'tended "nder this A!t.8/
#he %"stii!ation or the rantin patent riht is dis!"ssed in detail in Chiron corporation v. Organon e!ni!a Ltd."#o.$%&8. t has $een pointed o"t that it is enerally a!!epted that the opport"nity o a!>"irin monopoly rihts in an invention stim"lates te!hni!al proress in at least o"r &ays* irst, it en!o"raes resear!h and invention7 se!ondly, it ind"!es an inventor to dis!lose his dis!overies instead o keepin them a se!ret7 thirdly, it oers a re&ard or the e'pense o developin inventions to the state at &hi!h they are !ommer!ially pra!ti!al and o"rthly, it provides an ind"!ement to invest !apital in ne& lines o prod"!tion &hi!h miht not appear proita$le i many !ompetin prod"!ers em$arked on them sim"ltaneo"slyI+ ?n!o"raement, ind"!ement and re&ard are the main a!tors "nderlyin the patent system. #he p"$li! interest altho"h apparently %eopardi4ed $y the rant o monopoly, is se!"red $y in!reased ind"strial a!tivity, developin ne& te!hnoloies and dis!los"re o ne& and "se"l invention. "rthermore, patent la& !ontains a n"m$er o sae"ards, s"!h as !omp"lsory li!ensin and !ro&n "se, to !"r$ any sinii!ant a$"se o the patent monopoly. #h"s the presen!e o a stron and ee!tive patent system may $rin n"mero"s $eneits s"!h as the dissemination o inormation and providin an in!entive to invest in the development o ne& prod"!ts and pro!ess &hi!h &ill event"ally all into the p"$li! domain.
I/IO01AP2Y /i$t of ook$ •