IPA Psychoanalytic Training - Standards

October 4, 2017 | Author: fabiancostagrande | Category: Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalysis, Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, Psychology & Cognitive Science
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work in progress International Psychoanalytical Association - IPA 1910-2010 About Beginning of International Recognition International Psychoanalytic Congresses 1908-1918 International Psychoanalytic Congresses 1920-1932 International Psychoanalytic Congresses 1933-1938 International Psychoanalytic Congresses 1949-2009 IPA Psychoanalytic Training - Standards IPA Societies Europe - Australia - India - Israel - South Africa - Lebanon IPA Societies Latin America IPA Societies North American Region - China - Japan - Korea IPA Structure - Policy




September 2010 / July 2011

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Sigmund Freud Introducory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis From 1885 to 1917 – a period of 32 years – Sigmund Freud lectured regularly at the University of Vienna.

In 1885 he was appointed private lecturer and in 1902 he was appointed associate professor. Feb. 4, 1955: The bust of Sigmund Freud was unveiled in the Arcades of the University of Vienna. Copy of the sculpture by Paul Königsberger from 1920. Freud himself sat as model. Students and friends presented it to him on his 65th birthday in 1921.  

Fritz Wittels recalls that he would lecture "for almost two hours without any written material and without ever boring his listeners.“ *) *) Wittels 1924, quoted: Rohrwasser 2008

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In 1902 a circle of students forms around Freud

In fall of 1901 Freud sent a postcard to Alfred Adler, Max Kahane, Rudolf Reitler and Wilhelm Stekel inviting them to his home to discuss his work. On Nov. 2, 1901, Freud writes to Adler: “A small circle of colleagues and followers would like to give me the great pleasure of coming to my place one evening a week (8:30 p,m. post coenam) to discuss topics of interest to us in psychology and neuropathology. I have heard from Reitler, Max Kahane, Stekel. Would you be so kind to join us?” *) Freud letter to Adler, 2 Nov, 1901, quodted: B. Handlbauer, 1990, iii

Freud‘s consulting room, Berggasse 19, door sign and waiting room.

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1902: Wednesday Psychological Society at Prof. Freud’s 1908: Vienna Psychoanalytic Society Thus the so-called Wednesday Psychological Society was founded. Its members included not only doctors but also, as Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 26) remembers, “Besides doctors, the circle included others—men of education who had recognized something important in psycho-analysis: writers, painters and so on. “ ”The meetings are chaired by Prof. Dr. Freud with Otto Rank serving as a salaried secretary. The meetings generally take place every Wednesday evening at 8:30 p.m. at Prof. Freud’s; the letures begin at 9. The order of the speakers in the discussion is established by drawing lots.” *) The lots were kept in an “urn”. Sigmund Freud um 1900

The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society emerged from the “Wednesday Society” on April 15, 1908. *) Minutes WPV from 10.10.1906

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Psychoanalysis in Zurich “In 1907 the situation changed all at once“ ... Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 26)

“Moreover, nowhere else did such a compact little group of adherents exist, or could a public clinic be placed at the service of psycho-analytic researches, or was there a clinical teacher who included psycho-analytic theories as an integral part of his psychiatric course. Eugen Bleuler

Eugen Bleuler

The Zurich group thus became the nucleus of the small band who were fighting for the recognition of analysis. The only opportunity of learning the new art and working at it in practice lay there.“ Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 27) „After personal relations between Vienna and Zurich had been established, an informal society was also started, in the middle of 1907, in the Burghölzli, where the problems of psychoanalysis were discussed at regular meetings.“ Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 28)

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Zurich: Door to the World “Most of my followers and co-workers at the present time came to me by way of Zurich, even those who were geographically much nearer to Vienna than to Switzerland. [...] a focus of infection there was bound to be of great importance for the spread of the ‘psychical epidemic’, as Hoche of Freiburg has called it.“ Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 27)

Karl Abraham 1910 Psa. Society Berlin

Ernest Jones 1911 American Psa. A. 1913 Londoner Psa. Society 1919 British Psa. Society

Abraham A. Brill 1911 New York Psa. Society

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Zurich: Bridge to the University

Burghölzli, end of 19.th century

”The association experiments started by the Wundt School had been interpreted by them in a psychoanalytic sense, and had proved applicable in unexpected ways. By this means it had become possible to arrive at rapid experimental confirmation of psycho-analytic observations and to demonstrate directly to students certain connections which an analyst would only have been able to tell them about. The first bridge linking up experimental psychology with psychoanalysis had been built.“ Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 28)

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Zurich: Bridge to the New World 1909 Clark University: Invitation

sitting: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanlay Hall, C. G. Jung. , standing: A.A. Brill, E. Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.

“In the autumn of 1909, Stanley Hall, the President of Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, invited Jung and myself to take part in the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the foundation of the University by giving a number of lectures in German. .“ Freud (1914d, SE XIV, 31)

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1911: First Courses for Psychoanalysis in Vienna

Courses for psychoanalysis. The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society VPS decided to hold courses for beginners and advanced students to promote a broad understanding of psychoanalysis. The first course “The Technique of Psychoanalysis“ was taught by Dr. Sadger (Wien IX., Liechtensteinstrasse 15) from 1Dec. 15, 1910 to Jan. 15, 1911. Dr. Alfred Adler from Jan. 1 to Jan. 31: “Introduction to Psychoanalysis“. Dr. Wilhelm Stekel from Feb.1 to Feb. 28: “The Practice of Psychoanalysis“ (including demonstrations with patients and practical exercises.) CZ, I, 1910, 129-135

Isidor Sadger

Alfred Adler

Wilhelm Stekel

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1911: Cycle of 12 lectures at the Vienna Society of Physicians 1912: Viktor Tausk gives a series of 20 lectures in Vienna

1911: The Vienna Society of Physicians organizes a cycle 12 lectures:”Introduction to psychoanalysis” in the large auditorium of the Institute of Physiology; two lecture evenings per week, each two hours

Speaker Dr. Viktor Tausk. Disposition: Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Interpretation of Dreams, Sexual Theory, Theory of Neurosis general applicability of psychoanalytic theories in other areas of intellectual life, principles of a theory of the unconscious The first lecture was given on May 16, 1911. CB, VI, 1911, 2

Viktor Tausk

1912: Dr. Viktor Tausk (Vienna) is presently giving a series of 20 lectures with the title “Theoretical and practical introduction to psychoanalysis”. The lectures are being held every Tuesday evening from 8 to 10 p.m. at the “Institute for the Treatment of Nervous Walking Disabilities.” By Dr. Karl Weiss, Vienna IV, Schwindgasse 14. There forty people in the audience, consisting of doctors and students. Each lecture was followed by a discussion. IZP, I, 1913, 101-102

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First activities in Berlin “In 1907 Karl Abraham moves to Berlin where he opens a psychiatric-neurologic practice in which he also offers psychoanalytic treatment. 1908: 1st meeting of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Society with Karl Abraham, Iwan Bloch, Otto Juliusburger, Magnus Hirschfeld and Heinrich Koerber. There were already twenty participants at the second meeting

Karl Abraham

1910: Max Eitingon moves to Berlin. […] The Berlin Psychoanalytic Society is constituted as the ’Berlin Local Group of the International Psychoanalytic Association.“ Its first members are: Otto Juliusburger, Heinrich Koerber, Joahnn Marcinowski, (?) Simon, Arnold Georg Stegmann, Wilhelm Strohmayer, Wolfgang Warda, Max Eitingon and Karl Abraham. Karen Horney, Carl Müller-Braunschweig and Josine Müller come to Berlin; all three begin an analysis with Abraham. […] 1911: Tanja Rosenthal, Karen Horney and Margarete Stegman are admitted as the first women to the group which has grown to eleven members (end of 1911). In June 1912 two non-physicians join as extraordinary members. 1912: Theodor Reik moves to Berlin.“ Source: http://dpg-psa.de/in_ge_chron.htm.19.7.2011

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First teaching activities in Budapest 1909: Last year Dr. Ferenczi in Budapest taught a private course on psychoanalysis, which about 12-13 people attended. He is thinking of doing a psychoanalytic seminar again this year with the more promising members of this group. CB, III, 1910, 6-7

1913: The local Budapest group of the I. Psa. A. was created on May 19, 1931, [...] „As every year, Dr. S. Ferenczi taught a course on psychoanalysis for physicians [...]He was also asked to teach a further training course for judges and state prosecutors “on the juridical and sociological relevance of psychoanalysis “. IZP, I, 1913, 617

1919: Ferenczi is appointed to the first chair for psychoanalysis at the University of Budapest ”Dr. S. Ferenczi, currently central president of the ”I. Ps.-A. “, was appointed by the government of the Hungarian Soviet Republic to a full professorship with an equal status at the University of Budapest and in the current summer semester is already teaching a three-hour course on “Psychoanalytic Psychology for Physicians Doctors” to a packed auditorium.“ (IZP, V, 1919, 228) The Horthy regime that soon followed immediately annulled this appointment.

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Vienna Psychoanalytic Society: Announcement for 1914/15 Theoretical and practical training in psychoanalysis In the winter semester 1914/15 the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society offered courses on psychoanalysis for physicians and students from all faculties, for both men and women. The courses are intended to complement the courses taught by Prof. Freud at the University of Vienna and should provide an theoretical and practical training in psychoanalysis. Depending on the number of students who opt for one or the other modality, the individual courses can last for an entire semester or just ten weeks. The semester courses take place once a week as a two-hour lecture, the ten-week courses three times a week as two-hour lectures either from 7 to 9 or from 8 to 10, depending on what the participants agree to with the instructor. The fee is 60 K for doctors and for all participants 30 K. Students who have been exempted from all or half of the tuition fees only pay half.

The following courses are planned: A) An advanced course (several chapters on libido theory.) B) A course on medical psychoanalysis with practical demonstrations for physicians and medical students. Sigmund Freud and Viktor Tausk. The history of a tragic conflict.

Applications will only be accepted until 28 October a. c. They are to be sent to Dr. Viktor Tausk, neurologist in Wien, 9. district, Alserstraße 32 who is in charge of organizing the courses. [...] The psychoanalytic society and the lecturers reserve the right to change the program if this should become absolutely necessary due to circumstances. IZP, II, 1914, 481-482.

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Because of the war, the activities of the society and teaching were for the most part suspended. 1916-17: Dr. H. von Hug-Hellmuth gave a series on lectures titled “New Paths to Understanding the Child’s Psyche” at the women’s education association (Frauenbildungsverein) in Vienna with the following program:

Hermine Hug-Hellmuth

I. Vortrag 18. Februar: Einführungsvortrag: Die Rolle des Unbewußten im Seelenleben des Erwachsenen und des Kindes. II. Vortrag 25. Februar: Das Liebesbedürfnis des Kindes. III. Vortrag 3. März: Das Triebleben des Kindes; seine Ein- und Unterordnung. IV. Vortrag 10. März: Die zweifache Lüge der Erwachsenen in der Kinderstube. V. Vortrag 17. März: Kinderlaunen, -unarten und -fehler. VI. Vortrag 24. März: Vom Fragen der Kinder. VII. Vortrag 31. März: Das Kinderspiel. VIII. Vortrag 7. April. Kinderträume; Tagträume des Kindes. IX. Vortrag 14. April: Seelische Gesundheit des Kindes: die Vorbedingung zur Erzielung von Edelmenschen. IZP, IV, 1916-17, 68-70

Freud, Sigmund Freud (1916-17a): Introducory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. SE XV, XVI. "This volume is a faithful reproduction of the lectures which I delivered [at the University] during the two Winter Terms 1915/16 and 1916/17 before an audience of doctors and laymen of both sexes." (Preface, Freud, 1916-17a, SE XV, 9.)

Freud, Sigmund Freud (1933a): New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis and Other Works. SE XXII.

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Vienna: Resumption of teaching after the end of the war Training courses on psychoanalysis. On 3 February 1919 the training courses on psychoanalysis that had been interrupted by the war were resumed by the Vienna ps.a Society. A member of the local group,

neurologist Dr. Victor Tausk, has been in charge of the courses up until now.

He is presently teaching an introduction course, which is to be followed by an advanced course if enough participants sign up.

The lectures will be held in the small auditorium of the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Vienna. The first course ended in March.

The former provincial insane asylum is being turned into the psychiatricneurological ward of the University of Vienna.

Applications for this year’s summer courses that are to commence in the middle of May must be directed to the secretary of the Viennese local group or the lecturer (Vienna, IX. Alserstraße 32) by the end of April. Fee for doctors 60 K, for students 40 K. IZP, V, 1919, 138

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5th InternationalePsychoanalytic Congress Budapest 1918 Training Analysis Compulsory for Psychoanalysts

It was at the Budapest congress in 1918, which stood under the sway of Freud’s lecture “Lines of Advance in Psycho-Analytic Therapy” (SE XVII) that a colleague Nunberg stated: “one can no longer study psychoanalysis without undergoing analysis oneself.” Max Eitingon, IPA Congress Marienbad, 1936 IZP, 1937, 196f

Hermann Nunberg

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5th InternationalePsychoanalytic Congress Budapest 1918 Sigmund Freud (1919e): Wege der psychoanalytischen Therapie

... "it is possible to foresee that at some time or other the conscience of society will awake and remind it that the poor man should have just as much right to assistance for his mind as he now has to the life-saving help offered by surgery;" Freud, 1919e, SE VII, 167 Freud thus provided the decisive incentive at the 1918 IPA congress in Budapest to create an outpatient clinic in Berlin (Poliklinik) in 1920 and the Vienna Psychoanalytic Outpatient Clinic (Ambulatorium) in 1922. Sigmund Freud, 1926 Ferdinand Schmutzer Radierung

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14 Feb. 1920: Founding of the Outpatient Clinic in Berlin First institute for psychoanalytic training. Eitingon-Model With the Berlin Outpatient Clinic (Poliklinik Berlin) – mainly initiated by Eitingon and Abraham – the first institute for psychoanalytic training was established in 1920. The training based on the Berlin Eitingon model consists of three parts: Training analysis Supervision analysis Theoretical training Max Eitingon. Source: Festschrift 10 Years of the Berlin Institute

Poliklinik Berlin / Outpatient clinic in Berlin, Reception room Dr. Eitingon, room of the doctor on duty. Source: Festschrift 10 Years of the Berlin Institute

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7th International Psychoanalytic Congress Berlin 1922 Hitschmann Presents the Vienna Outpatient Clinic (Ambulatorium) (established in 1922 - like in Berlin also a Training Institute)

“The examination rooms of the cardiac word were to serve as analysis rooms. There was no couch and the patient (analysand) had to use a stool to climb up onto the table. The thin mattresses on the table had no springs” (Sterba, 1982) Eduard Hitschmann

„Herzstation“, Pelikangasse, Vienn IX. Morning: Cardiology / afternoon: Psychoanalysis

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1922: First Training Courses at the Vienna Outpatient Clinic The courses listed in the following were held – or begun – in the period under report. Dr. Hitschmann: Einführung in die Psychoanalyse. Dozent Dr. Deutsch: Was muß der praktische Arzt von der Psychoanalyse wissen? Fr. Dr. Hug-Hellmuth: Kinderpsychologie für Anfänger (Semesterkurs). Fr. Dr. Hug-Hellmuth: Seminar über pädagogische Fragen (Semesterkurs). Dr. Siegfried Bernfeld: Kinderpsychologie für Vorgeschrittene (Semesterkurs). Dr. Siegfried Bernfeld: Psychologie der Erziehung und des Erziehers (Semesterkurs). The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society announces the following courses (January 1923) Dozent Dr. Deutsch: „Was soll der praktische Arzt von der Psychoanalyse wissen?“ Dr. Hitschmann: „Allgemeine Einführung in die Psychoanalyse.“ Dr. Hitschmann: „Die psychische Impotenz des Mannes und die Frigidität der Frau.“ Dr. Jokl: „Berufsneurosen.“ Dr. Nunberg: „Neurosenlehre“ (für Vorgeschrittene). Dr. Reik: „Religion und Zwangsneurose.“ Dr. Sadger: „Psychopathia sexualis“ (für Vorgeschrittene). Ort: Saal der Wiener Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung, IX., Pelikangasse 18. Anmeldungen: Ebendort Montag, Mittwoch, Freitag, 6 bis 7 Uhr abends, im psychoanalytischen Ambulatorium oder schriftlich beim Leiter der Lehrkurse, Dr. Hitschmann, IX, Währingerstraße 24. Ambulatorium: Training courses February 1924

Dozent Dr. Karl Friedjung gives lectures at the University in Vienna: Kindersexualität und ihre Bedeutung für die Erziehung und ärztliche Praxis. IZP, VIII, 1922, 535

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9th International Psychoanalytic Congress Bad Homburg 1925 Report: Clinics and Training Institutes

Frau Dr. Helene Deutsch: “The ‘Training Institute of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society’ was established in 1924. (...) The fact that the Viennese training institute as an autonomous institution does not create an organic unit with the outpatient clinic apparently distinguishes our organization from the Berlin institute, which has merged the outpatient clinic and the training institute. 1925 IPA Congress Bad Homburg

However, the difference is only a formal one and has resulted from the pressure of local circumstances.“ IZP, XI, 1925, 522-524

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9th International Psychoanalytic Congress Bad Homburg 1925 Report: Clinics and Training Institutes

Dr. Rickman reported on the London “Institute of Psycho- Analysis” founded in January 2005. The Institute organized training courses, set up a library and hopes to soon be able to establish an outpatient clinic. IZP, XI, 1925, 521 Dr. Ferenczi spoke about the prospects for establishing a psychoanalytic institute in Budapest and described the provisory structure of training. IZP, XI, 1925, 521

Dr. Eduard Hitschmann, head of the head of the Outpatient clinic of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society (Ambulatorium) “ (...) IZP, XI, 1925, 521-522 Dr. Eitingon: „The teaching activities at our institute can be seen as fairly consolidated since (and thanks to) the introduction of our ‘training guidelines’“ IZP, XI, 1925, 524-526

John Rickman No ordinary psychoanalyst. Exceptional contributions. Karnac, 2003.

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9th International Psychoanalytic Congress Bad Homburg 1925 Founding of the International Training Commission * - ITC Chair: Max Eitingon (1925-1934)

Each affiliated association of the IPA elects from its midst a training committee which consists of maximum seven members. The training committees of the affiliated associations come together in an “International Training Commission”.

The “International Training Commission” is the central body of the IPA that is responsible for all question related to psychoanalytic training. IZP, XI, 1925 , 527 * Firs called „Board“ Max Eitingon

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9th International Psychoanalytic Congress Bad Homburg 1925 Max Eitingon: Four Theories on the Issue of Training Essental: Working under Supervision I) Psychoanalytic training should no longer be left to the private initiative of individuals. II) The training of a candidate must be backed by collective efforts and collective responsibility, at least that of the analytic group of the country in which the candidate resides. To this end, institutions should be established in the respective countries; the guidelines of these institutions [...] should be uniform and also as similar as possible, [...] III) Training analysis is certainly the most important part of training but it no longer coincides with the entire training. Absolutely essential supplemental training programmes should be demanded and made possible, especially working under supervision.

Max Eitingon. Source: Festschrift 10 Years of the Berlin Institute

IV) From the above three theories regarding training, we would like to draw the following conclusion for the future: of the candidates seeking to pursue psychoanalytic therapy generally only those can become members of the IPA if they have completed the entire training program. IZP, XI, 1925, 515-520

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9th International Psychoanalytic Congress Bad Homburg 1925 Introduction of Internationally Obligatory Training Standards

1910 The IPA was founded as a scientific association. Initially, membership in the IPA did not require clinical training and practice of psychoanalysis. Therapeutic training was one of its applications. 1925 With the introduction of internationally obligatory training standards membership in the IPA required completion of psychoanalytic training. 19125 IPA Congress Bad Homburg

”Since no certificates were issued at the end of training, membership in the IPA came to resemble a sort of diploma displacement. As a result, the IPA increasingly changed froma scientific association into a professional organization of psychoanalysts.” (Schröter 2002), (Bohleber 2010)

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9th International Psychoanalytic Congress Bad Homburg 1925 Opposition from the USA against lay analysis

Dr. Oberndorf discussed the position of the American groups The strict American legislation against quackery as well as the certain disagreeable things that have been observed among American member candidates who sought to practice illegitimately made it necessary to exclude non-doctors. However, they were allowed to attend the scientific meetings as guests. IZP XI / 1925 / 527

Clarence Oberndorf Source: pep-web

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Resolution of Bad Homburg 1925 Committee for Formulating Terms of Admission Until then no Measures The fears of the American are reflected in a statement made by Brill where he speaks of the necessity of medical standards as a prerequisite for psychoanalysts because psychoanalysis would otherwise be “completely swamped with scores of untrained and unsuited laymen who would then soon completely change the character of the psychoanalytic profession.” (Wallerstein 1998, 33). (Bohleber, 2010) Positions in Europe: Freud and Ferenczi stand up for lay analysis. Jones and Eitingon recommend medical training but it isn‘t obligatory.

Abraham A. Brill

Resolution of Bad Homburg 1925: To clarify the issue the training commission will appoint a committee to formulate terms of admission. The resolutions of the committee, which is only made up of Berlin analysts, will not be recognized. A further committee will be established. Its report was accepted in Wiesbaden in 1932: The individual societies are free to set the conditions for selecting candidates.

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On the Issue of Lay Analysis in Vienna

The official approval for the Vienna Psychoanalytic Outpatient Clinic was made dependent on the condition that “all teachers and students at this institute could only be doctors and that laymen were not allowed in with the exception of patients.”

Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1925?)

Prof. Wagner-Jauregg insisted at the Chamber of Physicians that nondoctors be able to practice psychoanalysis and prompted the health authorities ”to fully focus on institutes practicing psychoanalysis and to create a legal basis for psychotherapy to be practiced by laymen.“*) The clarification of the lay analysis issue was of existential importance for the outpatient clinic but also for those analysts who had no medical training to show for.

Arnold Durig

In 1924 Prof. Arnold Durig asked Freud to write an expertise and also had a conversation with him that apparently influenced him when two years later, in 1926, he created the figure of the unbiased partner in his monograph on the issue of lay analysis. * Minutes of the Provincial Health Council, 12 April 1924 / Prot. Landessanitätsrat, 4.12.1924)

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Legal Proceeding against Theodor Reik for Quackery Founding of a Separate Training Institute in Vienna With the decreee of November 25, 1924 the Viennese municipality banned Theodor Reik from practicing psychoanalysis with a decree issued on 25 November1924. In spring 1926 legal proceedings were initiated against Dr. Theodor Reik for quackery, because as a non-physician he had treated patients psychoanalytically. Freud intervened, spoke with a high-level official, wrote a letter to municipal councilor Prof. Tandler and a reader’s letter in the daily Neue Freie Presse in which he announced his monograph on >The Question of Lay Analysis
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