Division and Displacement of Families and its Economic Consequences:
Displacemen Displacementt of a household household not only affects the social social life of a family but also disturbs disturbs the economic conditions. After partition of the Kashmir state, a line was drawn on the chest of the valley, which divided the residents of the state into separate regions with no possibility of communicatio communication n across the line. Obviously, Obviously, this division division was neither neither preplanned preplanned nor there was any consideration of the interests of the inhabitants, in the minds of those upon whom, the sketch of Kashmir thrusted by the state of affairs, prevailed at that time. There were numerous numerous families families having assets and properties properties on both sides of the Line of Control. After division, many families residing in Azad Jammu & Kashmir left their property on the other side of the Line of Control, similarly, many families in Indian Administered Kashmir left their properties in Azad Jammu & Kashmir. So this ferocious line made it impossible for every effectee of Kashmir from having approach to their belongings or businesses. Unfortunately, no record is available regarding these families, by which we can assess the amount of loss. However, every 5th resident of Azad Jammu & Kashmir will claim to have some property on the other side of the Line of Control. Intra-state displacement:
By internal displacement, we mean shifting of residents of any region of the state into any other part. Massive internal displacement took place at various times in Kashmir. Soon after partition of Kashmir, a lot of people tried to migrate either to Pakistan or to the areas of Kashmir, which were administered by Pakistan. An important evident of such will of people to migrate is the incidence of 6th November. As Jammu is Hindu majority area, so the rate of migration remained high in that area. However, the tendency of migration was also seen in the other parts of the state. 2nd phase of massive displacement started soon after the operation Gibraltar. Subsequent to the operation Gibraltar, India and Pakistan fought each other, which resulted in one more displacement of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. 3rd phase started after the war between India and Pakistan in 1971 over Bangladesh. As Kashmir remained the root cause of tension between the two countries, so this area had to face the aftermaths of every war. Apparently, and even behind the scene, Kashmir dispute was not the cause of 1971 war, but being at the border and defense line of Pakistan, it had to be a part of the war. 4th phase of such displacement occurred after 1988. Thousands of people left their homes due to Indian brutalities, started as a consequence of insurgency, which persuaded thousands of people to cross the LOC.
Economics of Displacement of Families:
We can categorize these consequences as;
Economic impact on individuals
Economic impact on state
Economic impact on individual
We have already discussed that division of families resulted in division of their properties. To leave one’s own place is the most difficult decision of one’s life. Displacement from one’s own place means displacement from business, property, assets and social links and relationships. After migration it becomes dead impossible for a person to get a job of his taste and talent. Even, one looses his earlier economic and social status after migration, as it happened with a large number of people. Kashmiris, who left their worthwhile assets behind, had to survive in tents with meager essential facilities. Numeration of such refugees, who travelled across the Line of Control as follows:-
DETAILS OF REFUGEES & LOC AFFECTEES 1947
1965&197 1 50 thousand (Approx) 1990 onward
(Registered Families 6550 Settled in Camps 3735Families)
One can imagine the accumulative economic loss faced due to displacement and disturbance of such a large number of Kashmiris. 1.5 million Which migrated in 1947 were the … percent of total population at that time. And after only two decades Kashmiris were again compelled to face another … watan badari… and in 6 years period 50000 Kashmiris left their homes. Although they were made to settle in new lands but the face of life was not remained the same for them after migration. After 1989s insurgency a new wave of brutalities spread out in occupied Indian Administered Kashmir and took all areas of Kashmir in its cover. Poor Kashmiris again made to leave their home places. And this process remained in vogue till 2000. These refugees were settled in different camps n different parts of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Some figures about such refugees. DETAIL OF REFUGEES SINCE 1989 to (March 2011).
Name of District
No. of Camp
No. of Families
No. of Persons
Settled out of camps 1
Total out camps
Total in camps G.total 1.
Economic impact on state
Economic Consequences of Migration/Displacement to Azad Jammu & Kashmir Besides, the individuals, who suffered a lot form the displacement, lot of severe impacts of displacement were faced by Government/Public of Azad Jammu & Kashmir as well. A sketch of these impacts is presented below:The migrants outside Azad Jammu & Kashmir: There are about 30, 00,000 Kashmiris living in the different parts of Pakistan. They share many economic resources of the Azad Jammu & Kashmir state. Migrants Quota
There is 12% quota for the migrants in all civil services, created in Azad Jammu & Kashmir, out of which, 9% is reserved for refugees, who migrated during or after 1989, and the
remaining has been reserved for the people residing and settled in the Pakistan territory. It is surprising that no economic benefit shifts from these Kashmiris to the Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Even, a single penny is not paid by these individuals to the Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir in form of taxes etc. Most of these Kashmiris, who migrated to Pakistan before 1960, are the land/property holders in Pakistan. No money is transferred by these people to Kashmir in form of remittances. These people enjoy better employment, business and educational opportunities while residing in Pakistan, yet they Burdon the economic resources of the tiny state-AJK, without participating in the economic development of the State. Political Share of Migrants
12 out of 41 elected members in Azad Jammu & Kashmir Assembly represent the migrants residing outside the geographical boundaries of the State of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. 1.
These 12 electoral units outside Azad Jammu & Kashmir are a strong tool for the Government of Pakistan to create greater influence in the Assembly of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. In the last election, MQM participated in election from all electoral units of Azad Jammu & Kashmir and was unable to get votes 10% of the winning candidates in any of the seats. But this party was able to inject two members in Azad Jammu & Kashmir Assembly, from the seats of Kashmiris in Karachi. Similarly, from the regions in political influence of PMLQ, only those candidates were elected who have political links with this party.
These elected members enjoy equal political and other rights and privileges and status to the territorial members. They get their pay and allowances from Azad Jammu & Kashmir budget but consume/invest them in Pakistan, which is a burden on the economy of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Most important role played by these members affect the economic policy making under the influence of political leadership of Pakistan.
Migrants residing in Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Migrants residing in Azad Jammu & Kashmir are refugees, migrated after 1989. Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir provides a lot of subsidy to these individuals in form of ‘survival allowance’. The economic impacts are as follows: 1.
Subsidies provided to these migrants are to be acquired from external sources, hence create influence of external powers in the Azad Jammu & Kashmir.
The economic resources are to be distributed on basis of population. These migrants are not counted in census yet they share the economic resources alongwith the other residents of the territory, which disturbs the natural distribution of resources in Azad Jammu & Kashmir.
Losses Due to Cross Border Firing:
After 1988, cross border firing between troops of India and Pakistan started at the Line of Control. This proxy war was the most drastic event for the economy of the areas on Line of Control. Daily exchange of heavy fire became a routine. Hundreds of people were killed in crossfire along the Line of Control and a large number of common citizens sustained injuries. Thousands became disable and unable to lead a
normal life. Besides, the loss of human lives, there was catastrophic loss of infrastructure, properties, assets and other sources of livelihood. Some roads of crucial importance were affected by the cross border firing, which made the life of the residents of these areas extremely vulnerable. In-fact, this firing made the lives of the residents of such areas a tragic story. The worst effectee of the Cross Border Firing were the areas of Neelum Valley, Leepa Valley, Chakothi, Forward Kahoota, Titrinot, Abbaspoor, Hajira, Nakiyl, Khooi Ratta and Samahni. A brief description of these losses is given in this chapter. 1.
Loss of life is perhaps the most obvious cost of violent intractable conflict. The count of those who lost their lives in Pakistani side of Kashmir is in thousands. Thousands of people were injured seriously and became dependents of the others for their livings. The district wise detail of human losses according to the record of Revenue and Rehabilitation Department is as under:Distt.
No of No of No of No martyrs martyrs in martyrs in injured 90-95 95-2001 2002 90-95
Mzd Hattian/ Neelum
of No of No in injured in injured 95- 2001 2002
Human losses caused loss for individuals as well as for the state, because they either lose their loved ones, which is irreparable loss or became disable and dependent of the others. On the other hand, it is loss of state in the respect that it causes the decrease in manpower and also payment of compensation to the heirs of martyrs and the injured persons. The available detail of compensation paid is as under:Period
16-4-200 to 30-6-2001
1-7-2001 to 30-6 -2002
1-7-2002 to 30-9-2002
Loss of Property and Livestock and Loss of land:
Besides, the human losses, losses of property and other personal assets carried a huge amount. Numerous vehicles, shops, farms and other assets in private sector were damaged. Numeration of such losses is as under: Detail of such damages before 995 is not available, however it can be estimated or in relation to available figures after 1995. Detail of damaged properties due to cross border firing 1995-2002. S . Distt . No
Damage d shops
Loss of cattle and live stock was uncountable. The loss of cattle i.e. cows, buffalos, goats etc against which compensation was paid only in district Poonch, during 2002 was more than 340 cattle. Another loss was the loss of land because of army occupation for camps in different areas and a wide area stood destroyed by installing mines etc. which can and will not be able for any purpose for a pretty long period. A detail of the farms which came under mines is as below: Distt.
No of Farms
Area in kanal
No of owner.
Mzd / Hattian/ Neelum
The above schedules show the detail of personal losses, whereas, losses in public sector is as under:Detail Government and public properties damaged by firing across the Line of Control. S . No
Loss of wild life:
Kashmir once known as "paradise on earth," home to vast wildlife reserves including some species so rare they existed only in Kashmir, are now quickly falling victim to the desolation which has encompassed much of this piece of land. Rare species of fauna and flora has vanished from the forests. The massive deployment of Indian armies on the borders of Kashmir in 1947, resulted in large scale poaching as the troops living in the border areas indulged in killing rare species like the Ibex, Blue Sheep, Urian, the big horned sheep, Antelope and Snow Leopard. At first, the soldiers were killing the animals for food needs but when the poorly paid soldiers realized how valuable the animal furs and skins were, in the international markets, they started to slaughter the Kashmiri animals with much greater zeal. Barking Deer, Cheetal, Nilgai, Musk Deer, Himalayan Black Bear, Shapu, Ibex, Blue Sheep, Marmot and Lynz may soon become extinct if their unrestricted slaughter is not checked. The wildlife population throughout the valley is rapidly declining because of extensive areas of deforestation resulting in the loss of natural habitat for wildlife. For the past seven years widespread use of high velocity rifles by security forces in villages and forests surrounding the Himalayan Valley in their pursuit to apprehend the Kashmiri Freedom Fighters, have further added to the total loss of specie lives lost in an already precarious situation. Over 300 species of birds which included Pheasants, Quills, Partridges, Vultures, Kites, Eagles and a large number of colorful birds, all of which use to reside in the lush forests of Kashmir have virtually disappeared. Today those forests stand naked and void of any visible sign of bird life. Along with loss of forest, Kashmir has also lost a number of wildlife sanctuaries. A rich variety of birds, Ducks, Geese Cranes, Croots, Terns and water-fowls however still nest in the wetlands, lakes and streams in Kashmir. At this time there is no effective legislation in force to prevent environmental and ecological damage which is being inflicted upon the natural resources of this beautiful Himalayan state by the presence of military forces and constant fighting. Un-utilized Economic Resources:
Economic Resources cover the out put from hydropower potential, tourism, forests, minerals, agriculture, industry, handicrafts and improved employment opportunities. Unstable political position of this area put an un-seizable restriction on the utilization of these precious resources. In this section, we will discuss the facts and figures about these economic resources and analyze, as to how, the Kashmir dispute has affected the progress of utilization of these economic resources. Hydropower Potential:
Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir (AJK), due to its topography has been endowed with abundant hydel potential. According to official estimates, territory of Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a potential to generate about 4600 MW of Hydroelectricity, the cheapest source of energy. Total deficit in energy, Pakistan is facing these days, is about 5000 MW. So, only Azad Jammu & Kashmir can fulfill more than 90% of deficit of the energy requirements for entire country. Besides, this direct and explicit advantage of hydropower projects to power sector, these projects may be extremely useful in improving many economic and social indicators at local and national level. Azad Kashmir Hydro Electric Board has identified about 53 potential sites with a total capacity of 4635 MW with high, medium and small head. Out of these, 8 projects are in operation, 2 sites are under implementation in the public sector and 7 sites have been offered to the private sector. Mainly, these sites are run-of-river sites, with some as daily storage projects. The projects which are working in Azad Jammu & Kashmir produce total of 1036 MW, projects which are under implementation in public sector and private have total capacity of 974MW and 829 MW respectively. While identified raw sites which are identified by HEB having capacity above 50 MW with the total capacity of 1152 MW, indicates the details of raw site projects of below 50 MW with the total capacity of 177 MW, while Table 5: Identified Hydropower Potential in AJK with capacity larger than 50 MW S. No.
6 Azad Patan
8 Chakothi Seri
13 New Bong Escape
Source: Private Power Cell, Govt. of AJ&K
`RAW SITES IDENTIFIED IN AJK (BELOW 50 MW)`
Hydro potential, if utilized properly can enhance the process of progress in many ways. For example hydro power projects need heavy physical infrastructure, and it can provide employment to labour, engineears etc. similarly, after running of project it can facilitate the user in numerous ways. Causes of under utilization:
Hydropower potential is most valuable asst of Kashmir valley. Hurdles in utilization: Many feasible site for hydropower generation are situated at the Line of Control. Thus it is not possible to utilize these resources due to security risks. For example Nala qazi ang can be utilized to produce 100MWs on the down stream of Leepa Valley but this opportunity cannot be utilized because some parts of this stream are in occupied Kashmir. Te potential in Neelum valley could ot be utilized because of being the physical infrastructure needed for power generation demand easy way of transportation. Travelling with necessary material alongside Line of Control is pretty difficult. Another fact is that the civil infrastructure like school, colleges, and other places were destroyed intentionally by Indian troops. In such condition, no one can take risk to construct any mega project. Due to all these reasons 1036 MW electricity is being produced which is 22 % percent of total potential. The construction of a dam\ tunnel is unsafe from the defense point of view because the destruction of tunnel etc can cause more losses in public and private sector. So gaining license for such project was impossible in upside of noseri. Mangla project royality issue:
Mangla project is one of largest source of energy for entire Pakistan. In current financial set up Pakistan, province can get 25 % royalty of the income of any project in their geographical
boundary. At this rate the royalty of mangla project exceeds the total budget of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. However, no royalty was being paid to govt of Azad Jammu & Kashmir until near past. Azad Jammu & Kashmir government got a nominal royalty when the Pakistan govt wanted to extend mangla project. Tourism:
Azad Jammu & Kashmir is blessed with Immense natural beauty, Numerous picturesque spots, Dense green alpine forests , Crystal blue glacial lakes, Winding rivers, silvery streams, majestic Mountains, Flora & fauna and bracing climate all go together to make it an excellent tourist resort. Now we will discuss main features of tourism and their under utilization with direct link to Kashmir Dispute. Historical and Archaeological assets:
Azad Kashmir is rich in archaeological and historical heritage. It has a good number of archaeological sites, historical forts and other monuments which have withstood the ravages of time and other factors to unfold the ancient history of the State of Jammu & Kashmir. Main Archaeological & Historical Assets: • Red Fort, and Black Fort, Muzaffarabad: Both are now in their worst condition because no attention has been paid to their proper look after and necessary repair. Especially the Red fort is damaged badly because of earth quake in 2005. Muzaffarabad is the crossroad for important picturesque places like Leepa and Neelum. If tourism were common on these places, the rate of visits by tourists would be increased many times because usually people prefer to visit those areas which have plenty of tourist spot rather than to visit only one spot in a remote area, even how much beautiful it would be. • Sharda Fort & Buddhist place of learning: Sharda is located at LOC and the road which links Sharda with Capital Muzaffarabad have been subject to Indian firing during 1990s and early 2000s. Also the road is not in better condition so the access to this ancient archealogical heritage has been very difficult. Even after the cease as a result of CBMs introduced by Musahrraf regime, the condition of road to access these points is neither facilitating nor secure. • Mughal Mosque (Bhimber) Sarae Saadabad (Samahni): like Sharda, thaese points are also situated near Loc and due to security concerns, tourism is not common here. • Other places of arcealogiacl significance include Bagh Fort, Baral Fort & Rani Bowli in Sudhanoti, Mangla Fort, Ramkot Fort, Baghsar Fort, Throchi & Bhrund Forts (Kotli), Burjun Fort, Mirpur. Mountain Based Adventure Tourism: Azad Jammu & Kashmir is blessed with varied mountainous landscape ranging from low hills to high mountains (2000 to 6000 m). The World famous Peak, Nang Parbat or the Killer Mountain, is situate at an aerial distance of about 15 Kilometer from Shounther Pass of Neelum Valley. The beauty of Fairy Meadow in the footstrips of Nanga Perbat and lush green high hills of the Shounther Pass can give rise to an ideal mountain adventure. However the approach had been almost impossible to Nanga Perbat via Neelum Valley because of the boarder skirmishes.
Neelum Valley and the Kaghan Valley run parallel to each other with a mountain range separating the two valleys. There are various various routes which join the two valleys. Some of these routes pass through a height of above 16000 feet. Unlike the Gilgit Baltistan regions, these mountainous routes pass through lush green peaks. These routs contain all the feature of an ideal mountainous attraction including glaciers, waterfalls, streams, wildlife and an environment which can not be imagined sitting outside these regions. These routes include jagran Batta Kundi, Route, Lawat, Patlian, Batta Kundi Route, Dawarian, Ratti Gali,etc. Neglected Beauty of AJK:
Nobody can deny the natural beauty present in various places of AJK. You can compare the beauty of Grez Valley with the beauty of Switzerland, the streams of upper neelum valley with the sterams of northern areas and Chitral. The snow fall in Leepa is not less than the snow fall of Malam Jabba. Lake of Ratti Gali and Patlian Sar are not behind saif-ul-malook and Satpara in any respect. But : Jab Jan Kay Laly Paray hon…..) We will discuss some important spots which have scenic beauty and are under developed because of being in disputed territory and being at security risks due to proxy wars between India and Pakistan. Neelum Valley:
About 200 kilometers long the picturesque Neelum Valley is situated to the North & North East of Muzaffarabad. Running parallel to the Kaghan Valley . It is separated from if only snow-covered peaks, some over 4000 meters above sea level. Excellent scenic beauty, panoramic view, towering hills on both sides of the noisy Neelum river, lush green forests, enchanting streams and attractive surroundings make the valley a dream come true. The area is ideal for trekking. Some of the places of tourist interest are: Kundal Shahi to Ahtmuqam: Kundal shahi is about 74 kms from Mzd and it is junction between jagran valley, on one side which ends at Batta Kundi. It is a beautiful valley surrounded by high mountains and is rich with natural captivating beauty. On the other side of junction alongside the River Neelum, it leads to salkhala and then athmuqamIt is an attractive place known for its variety of fruit. Travelling further on this road, leads to Neelum,then to lawat and then to Dwarian. Neelum has fascinating scenery. It is situated on the bank of meandering river Neelum across from where the Indian held Kashmir is also visible. The panoramic lush green valley is profound in wild fruit and wildlife. Dowarian is surrounded by mountains full of conifer trees. A mule track upto Rattigali Pass, about 30 kilometers towards west, connects the Neelum and Kaghan Valleys. Sharda Kel:
Located at a distance of 30 kilometers from Dowarian. It is a breath-taking green spot at an altitude of 1981 meters. Shardi and Nardi are two mountain peaks overlooking the valley, reputedly named after legendry princess Sharda, it has a captivating landscape with numerous springs and hill sides covered with trees. On the right bank, opposite to Sharda, the Neelum is joined by the Surgan Nallah along which a track leads to Nurinar Pass and through it to the Kaghan Valley.19 kilometers journey from Sharda upstream takes one to Kel. The Shounter Nallah joins river Neelum at this place and leads to Gilgit Agency over the Shandur Pass (4420 meters above sea level). The area from Kel to Taobat is called the Halmat. The border
village about 49 kilometers ahead of Kel, is a fascinating but unexplored sight Janawai, Sardari and Halmat are the most beautiful places of this area. Neelum Valley is called ‘ Malika-e-Husn’ ( queen of beauty) of the East. But the valley is throughout at Line of Control and has been passing through the danger (azab) of cross border firing. During proxy wars the road which links Neelum with remained detained due to which tourism was impossible. Also the residents of Neelum valley remained backward in process of development and progress. Govt tried to provide mean of communication and built a by pass road which used to pass from top of high mountains through its entire journey. But no significant result could be carved because it was too difficult to travel via this road. And also it did not remain safe from Indian firing in later 90s. If you look at the Saif-ul-Malook and Patlian, they lie at same altitude same geographical and climatic conditions on the two sides of same mountain. However the approach to Patlian is via Neelum Valley, that had been the valley of death in past. District Bagh: Suddhan Gali & Jandi Chontra
Suddhangali, located at a height of 2134 meters, links Chikar with Bagh, a town in the Bagh District. This scenic spot also serves as a based camp for those interested in hiking / trekking to the nearby 3045 meters high mountain. Haji peer has captivating scenes and natural beauty. Jandi Chontra is a scenic spot, situated at 17 Kilometers from Bhinmber and 67 Kilometers from Mirpur having a panoramic view. In addition this area is well known for the shrine of Baba Shadi Shaheed. Baghsar
Baghsar, 975 meters in elevation, is an ideal tourist resort in the Samahni valley. The Sar, local name for lake, is nearly half Kilometer long sheet of crystal clear water that sooths the sense of a tourist after a 64 Kilometer journey from Gujrat via Bhimber. On the top of hill is the famous Mughal fort over-looking the lake that adds grandeur to the whole area. This fourstoryed massive structure of granite is a feat of Mughal engineering that has strood the ravages of time. It has also played important roles in history during the times of Ahmad Shah Abdali, Rangit Singh and Ghulab Singh. It is said that empror Jhangir on his way back from Kashmir fell ill and ultimately expired in this fort. Rawalakot Rawalakot, the district headquarter, is situated in the heart of the district PoonchRawlakot is also known as Pearl Valley for its panoramic beauty. During summer, the place becomes full of green grass and beautiful flowers including many varieties of roses. Chottagala/ Banjosa
It is situated at a distance of about 20 kilometers from Rawalkote at an elevation of 1981 meters. It is a very attractive site full of scenic beauty. There is also small lake with boating facilities which can attract a large number of tourists. Pullandri
Pullandri is the district headquarter of Sudhanuti situated at an elevation of 1372 meters. It is at a distance of 97 kilometers from Rawalpindi via Azad Pattan, and is also connected with Rawalakote by 64 kilometers long metalled road. Hot Spring (Tattapani)
Tattapani is situated on the right bank of the river Poonch, at a distance of about 29 kilometers from Hajira and is connected with two fair-weather roads, i.e. via Hajira-Mandol and via Baluchi-Pakhonar road. It can also be reached from Kotli district head-quarter of Kotli district. The distance from Kotli to Tattapani is about 26 kilometers. Tattapani is famous for its Sulphur water springs. During winter season about 500 people visit this place daily to have hot water bath for the cure of skin and rheumatic ailments. Leepa Valley
This is the most fascinating valley in Azad Kashmir. A fair-weather road branches off for Leepa from Naile 45 kilometers from Muzaffarabad, climbs over Reshian Gali 3200 meters high and then descends to 1677 meters on the other side into the Leepa Valley . It spells bounds everyone who visits this valley. This valley remains open for the domestic tourists only from May to November. Some of the places of tourist interest are: Dao Khan Leepa:
The tourist spot is well recognized for its immaculate natural beauty. It is renowned for its calm and peaceful atmosphere. The place is approached by an unpaved road which is available from AJK Tourism department. Leepa is a small village about 60 kilometers, from Naili about 1921 meters above sea level. Its lush green river fields in summer and typical wooden Kashmiris houses present a wonderful view to the tourists. Walnut, Apples, Cherries and honey of Leepa are very popular and in great demand. Two peaks of Leepa Valley known as Bara Hazari and Yadori have rich fascinating beauty. Both the peaks remained snow capped throughout the year, but pleasant weather in summer attracts any people to visit these places. Nakot is a part of Leepa and is very famous for its lush green fields of rice. Jhelum Valley
This is an ideal valley both for domestic and international tourists. The curling Jhelum river passes through from East to West between the high green mountains joining river Neelum of Domel near Muzaffarabad city. A 59 kilometers long matalled, all weather road runs along the river Jhelum from Muzaffarabad to Chakothi, which is located adjacent to the control line. Some of the places of tourist interest are: Chinari Chakothi:
At a distance of 51 kilometers from Muzaffarabad and surrounded by high hills, it is situated on the left bank of the river Jhelum. Chekothi, 8 kilometers ahead of Chinari, is a border village. Only domestic tourists can visit this area. Chikar Loonbagla:
Chikar is beautiful summer station. The outstanding features of this beautiful place are its healthy climate and picturesque surroundings. Standing over the hill one can have a fascinating view of the sub-valleys. Loonbagla is another hill station, situated in the middle of dense green bluepine forests and linked by a fair weather road Kotli
Kotli, the district headquarter, is at a distance of 141 kilometers from Islamabad . It is linked with Mirpur by two metalled roads, one via Rajdhani and the other via Charhoi. It is also directly linked with Rawalpindi/Islamabad via Sensa, Holar and Kahuta. Kotli has all the basic facilities like bazaar, banks, hospital, colleges, telephone and telegraph office. A PWD rest house and Tourism rest house and a few middle standard hotels in the town provide accommodation facilities to the visitors. Tattapani ( Sulphur water springs) are easily accessible from Kotli by 26 kilometers long fair-weather road which is presently being widened and black topped. Mangla
Mangla is a small but beautiful modern town, situated at a distance of 110 kilometers from Islamabad and 16 kilometers short of Mirpur. The construction of Mangla reservoir having a perimeter of 400 kilometers has turned it into an attractive tourist spot. It has special attraction for the tourists coming on short visits because of its proximity to Jhelum, Lahore and Rawalpindi/Islamabad. It is linked with all-weather metal led roads. . Causes of under utilization and their link to dispute: Peace and political stability is is prime requirement for the development and and absence of the peace can disturbe the development in many ways. The drawing of Line of Control at the chest of paradise suddenly stopped most of investment opportunities. The continuation of Kashmir dispute affected the utilization of god gifted potential for development.
Causes of under utilization: Tourism is noe pof most important industries of many developed countries ike siga poor and Switzerland etc. tourism is major source of income for thesecountires. Kashmir is bestowed withmany precious spots which can be more attractive than these countries if developed by tourism point of view. But these sources remained un utilized due to following reasons: 1: ……….. 1st and most significant reason is that foreigners tourism is not allowed in Azad Jammu & Kashmir. In gilgit baltistan nearly 50% of all tourists are foreigners. The restriction on foreign tourism cuts short to the tourism to more than its half. 2: many spots of scenic beauty are lying on the cease fir line, where tere is no assurance of of life security. Therefore the beauty of these spots cannot be utilized for tourism. 3: the approaching routes to these spots are either life threatening or extremely uncomfortable. Forests Forests of AJK are enriched with world famous ‘Deodar’ and ‘Cheerh (Pine)’ trees, Carrying very high prices in national and international markets. The far-off areas like Neelum valley, Leepa valley, Nakial, Forward Kahota etc. are rich in forests. According to official figures 42% of area of AJK consists of forests but in last 60 years after independence a large portion of forests has been chopped down.
Average size of a full grown tree is 200 cubic feet carrying about Rs.120000 price in Islamabad TOTAL GEOGRAPHICAL AREA 3. 286 Million Acres, area under productive forests is 0.397 million acres. T
Area (Million) LAND UTILIZATION
Area Controlled By Deptt. Of Forest
1) Area Under Productive Forests
Area Under Deodar
Area Under Kail
Area Under Fur
Area Under Pine
Area Under Broad Leaves Trees
ii. Area Under Thinly wooded Forests
FOREST PRODUCTION Total Annual Forest Production
Annual Production Hectare
Source: Department of Forest Muzaffarabad.
These forests are not only used for combustion but also for making of best quality furniture and to get wood for building etc. The world’s best quality deodar is found in Neelum valley. Medicinal herbs found in these forests are another treasure with which the land of Azad Jammu & Kashmir is blessed. Herbs are also not utilized fully. Some amount of these herbs is exported to Pakistan and is used in making of medicine. And the rest of herbs are subject of smuggling. Causes of underutilization:
Currently a mjor sorce of revenue for Azad Jammu & Kashmir govt is the forests. Forests are destroyed because of these resons. 1: deforestation occurred for fuel and ….. to be asked to mr. karimi the great. 2: deforestation occurred by fire raged indain firing in forests of Neelum Valley, Leepa valy and some other areas 3: deforestation occurred due to heavy deployment of army at borders which needed more wood and forest area for their camps etc.
Table 6: Potential of Important Minerals in AJK Mineral Name
05.000 Million Tons Ruby 30.000 Million Tons
44.000 Million gms Un-assessed
07.000 Million Tons Dolomite
03.000 Million Tons
100.000 Million Tons Pozolana
01.000 Million Tons
34.000 Million Tons
08.000 Million Tons
Graphite Limonite Soapstone
01.000 Million Tons Granite 0.065 Million Tons 0.065 Million Tons
15.000 Million Tons 01.500 Million Tons 01.500 Million Tons
Source: Directorate of industries, Muzaffarabad
Routes destroyed by partition.
One of the most important pillar of any economy are the trade routes, via which the economic and trade activities take place. The entire area of Azad Kashmir consists mainly of high mountains and hilly areas, so communication among different areas is too difficult. Access to remote areas of AJK was not easy even before partition, hence, most of the routes which had significant importance for both tourism and trade, destroyed suddenly in consequence of partition. Most of these routes lie on the side of water routes or rivers and streams. However, many important routes pass through high hills. And links between two parts of Kashmir destroyed. There were three types of trade routes which were affected by the partition. 1: Routes which linked the Azad Jammu & Kashmir with Indian Administered Kashmir for example Mzd to SNGR route. No communication on such route is possible, except at the points which has been allowed after 2004 as CBM’s 2: routes which linked the cities of AJK to other parts of AJK, but some parts of these routes remained in Indian Occupation. Also no communication is possible on these routes. 3: these routes are entirely in AJK, but they are situated alongside the LOC and remained subjected to Indian firing before 2003. Even after seize fire; no complete security assurance is available on these roués. Example of such routes is Neelum valley road. Detail description of these routes is as under. Routes: 1.... SIALKOT TO JAMMU 28 M [SOCHEET GARH TO JAMMU 20M] 2.... BHIMBER TO JAMMU 56M [CHAMB TO AKHNOOR
3... SAMHANI TO RAJORI
[SAD ABAD TO NOSHERA 12.5M]
4.... KOTLI TO RAJORI VIA KHOI RATTA [TAIN TO SARYA 5M] 5.... SERHA TO MENDHAR 6.M] 6.....NAKIAL TO MENDHAR 13.5 .M ] 7....TITRINOT TOPOONCH CITY 6.5.M] 8....ALIA ABAD TO URI 17 M.] 9....CHAKOTI TO URI