IOG1 Element 2

September 25, 2017 | Author: kaveh | Category: Corrosion, Personal Protective Equipment, Safety, Valve, Employment
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NEBOSH International Technical Certificate in Oil and Gas Operational Safety

Element 2 Hydrocarbon Process Safety 1 • Contractor Management • Process Safety Management (PSM) • Permit-to-Work Procedures • Key Principles of a Safe Shift Handover • Plant Operations and Maintenance • Start Up and Shut Down

© RRC Training

© RRC Training

Contractor Management The Scale of Contractor Use

Contractor Management To achieve safe working with contractors: • Risk assess the contractor’s job

• Support vessels • Make sure contractors follow site rules • Diving services • Work on drilling and exploration rigs • Etc.

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• Good comms - ensure all contractor employees know identity of site contact person (and how to contact) • Include contractors in safe working procedures/PTW systems

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Contractor Management – 5 Steps

Contractor Management



Assessing contractor competence:


•Choosing a contractor

Experienced in the type of work?

•Contractors working on site

Trained in offshore safety requirements?


• 4

•Keeping a check

Any recent enforcement action taken against them?

•Reviewing the Work



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© RRC Training

Contractor Management Safe Shift Handover – Understanding the Hazards/Issues •

Enough time allowed?

Formal meetings held?

Conflict between the shifts (how much the off-going shift actually achieved, etc.) ?

Off-going shift left work they don’t want to do?

Included contractors?


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Process Safety Management (PSM) Some methodologies used to classify Fire and Explosion risk: • •

Dow Fire and Explosion Hazard Index (DF&EI) Mond Fire and Explosion and Toxicity Index (MFETI) Risk Classifications from the Dow index

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Process Safety Management How the Dow Index works: Awards a characteristic for each factor in the fire/explosion hazard analysis:

Dow Index Advantages



Intended for designer use at early stages harder to apply to existing plant

Main items (material factor): MF

Requires evaluation of all aspects of a process unit that increases the potential severity of a fire or explosion

General process hazards factor: F1

Easy to use

Not good at determining normal expected loss

Special process hazards factor: F2 Based on actual loss experience

Interpretation requires judgement

Process unit hazards factor: F3 (F3 = F1 x F2)

Fire & Explosion Index (F&EI) = F3 x MF

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Recognised by industry as good for ranking chemical process risks

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Process Safety Management (PSM)

Process Safety Management

Some PSM controls:

MoC control will be needed when, e.g.

• Inventory control

• equipment is replaced with non-identical parts

• Spacing of operating plant

• new items or equipment is added to the system

• Positioning and protection of control rooms and critical equipment (isolation)

• changes are made to the operating procedures (if outside established design basis and safe operating envelope).

• Administrative controls, e.g. Management of change (MoC)

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© RRC Training



Process Safety Management

Process Safety Management

MoC Procedures should identify:

Some documentation that may be involved in the MoC evaluation:

• the scope of the changes (what needs to change)

• Original process system designs (basis for design)

• the roles and responsibilities of those managing and making the changes

• Process flow diagrams • Cause and effect diagrams

• how risk analysis is to be undertaken

• List of control, alarm and trip settings

• methods used to communicate the changes

• Equipment specifications

• training of personnel involved

• Drawings detailing classification of hazardous areas

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© RRC Training

Process Safety Management Process Safety Management Change proposal document design elements and issues:

Roles and Responsibilities –Making The Change

• Description of the proposed change

• Map the organisational changes (prevent gaps)

• Date of proposal

• Match personnel and skills to the task (further training?) • Phase the changes.

• Reasoning for the change (why needed etc). • Authorisation (personnel) for different types of change • Involve competent personnel to assess changes • Monitoring of adherence to procedures • Independent auditing of SMS

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© RRC Training



Permit-to-Work Procedures

Permit-to-Work Procedures The Typical Features of a Permit-to-Work Document

The Role and Purpose of a Permit-to-Work System • To ensure non-routine/hazardous work is assessed, planned, authorised and carried out safely.

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• Title and permit number • Reference to other permits/isolation certificates in place • Equipment, distribution board, circuit or job location; plant identification • Description of job • Hazards identified and precautions necessary • Protective equipment and PPE required • Authorisation • Date, time and duration of the permit • Identification of employees in control of the work • Permit acceptance • Extension/Handover arrangements (e.g. shift handover) • Returning to service on completion of work • Cancellation © RRC Training

Permit-to-Work Procedures

Permit-to-Work Procedures

Roles and Responsibilities of those using Permits-to-Work:

Types of Permits-to-Work

• Permit applicant

Separate permits are required for different tasks, e.g.:

• Issuing authority

• • • • •

• Performing Authority • Permit user

Hot work Live electrical or high voltage work Working at height Working over water Work in confined spaces

NB need for Training and Competence in use of system.

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© RRC Training



Permit-to-Work Procedures

Permit-to-Work Procedures Interfaces with Contractors

Interfaces with Adjacent Plant Need to consider implications/interactions e.g. • Permit issued to shut down one item of plant when another, exactly the same, is already shut down for work. (Remember Piper Alpha disaster!)

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Treat contractors as employees in the permit-to-work system. Work role

PTW Role


Permit user

Manager appointing contractor Issuing authority

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Permit-to-Work Procedures

Permit-to-Work Procedures

Safe Isolation, Lock-Out and Tag-Out Systems


Principal requirements:

• Stop machine/plant normally.

• Removal (isolation) of energy sources

• Discharge residual energy.

• Stop all moving parts (in safe position) • Method of prevention of accidental re-application of the energy source • Adequate warnings and safeguards for those working on isolated equipment and machinery

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• Switched OFF main electrical isolator. • Fit lock (labelled/coded) to isolator to secure in OFF position. Safe isolation must always be proven before commencing the work to be done. © RRC Training



Permit-to-Work Procedures

Permit-to-Work Procedures

LOCK-OUT / TAG-OUT SYSTEMS (for multiple lock-offs)

Other considerations

• Safety clamp – where > 1 person requires access

Fuse removal – if TOTAL SEPARATION from an electricity supply is needed.

• A warning notice

Other energy sources may need • Pipe disconnection • Blanking (with locks) • Locking of valves Physical restraints to prevent fall” of machinery parts after isolation of the power © RRC Training

© RRC Training

Permit-to-Work Procedures

Key Principles of Safe Shift Handover


Shift Handover communication problems:

• Tidy away all tools used • Correctly refit removed items

• During plant maintenance running across > 1 shift.

• Lock ‘owner’ unlocks and removes it (may need alternative for shift change-over) • Remove clamp (if multiple locks)

• Where safety systems may have been over-ridden (e.g. fire deluge switched onto manual). • During deviations from normal working (e.g. breakdowns).

• Warning notice ‘owner’ removes it • Person who carried out isolation to check if safe to re-connect the energy source(s). • Reconnect © RRC Training

• During extended absences by workers. • Handover between experienced and inexperienced staff. © RRC Training



Key Principles of Safe Shift Handover Plant Operations and Maintenance

To make handovers more effective: • Make shift change-over comms a high priority

Asset Integrity

• Conduct handovers face-to-face • 2-way - ensure BOTH shift crews take joint responsibility for information accuracy • Allow sufficient TIME • Use verbal and written

The ability of an ‘asset’ to carry out its intended function effectively and efficiently over its planned lifecycle, at the same time safeguarding the health and safety of those exposed and the operating environment.

• Analyse information needs of incoming crew • Etc. © RRC Training

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Plant Operations and Maintenance Lifecycle phase

Example deliverables/activities


Safety studies

Construction and hook up

Procurement quality plans


Function test




MoC process


Decommissioning plan

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Plant Operations and Maintenance Inspection and testing often legal requirement (e.g. lifting equipment) but generally required:

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Plant Operations and Maintenance

Plant Operations and Maintenance

Examples of Inspection/Testing requirements Maintenance Strategies: • Pressure vessels (including pipelines) – in accordance with a written scheme of examination. Safety of pressure vessels, internal and external inspection and hydraulic testing every 10 years.

• Emergency / Breakdown maintenance • Opportunity maintenance • Working adjustments

• Lifting equipment – six monthly if persons carried ; 12 months for other, unless specified in written scheme by the operator.

• • • • •

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Running repairs Servicing and inspection Shutdown maintenance Planned preventive maintenance (PPM) Routine condition-monitoring

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Plant Operations and Maintenance Plant Operations and Maintenance Some Corrosion Types: • • • • • • • • •

General wastage of material (uniform corrosion) Galvanic corrosion (dissimilar metals in contact) Pitting (localised attack) Intergranular corrosion Stress corrosion Erosion corrosion Corrosion fatigue High temperature oxidation Hydrogen embrittlement

Corrosion control practice and procedures include: • Selection of (inherently corrosion resistant) materials, e.g. C-Mn steel of offshore vessels and pipework • Chemical treatments e.g. corrosion inhibiters in pipelines • Surface coatings e.g. paints • Cathodic protection • Process and environmental controls • Initial design • Monitoring/inspection/testing for corrosion

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© RRC Training



Plant Operations and Maintenance Corrosion Inspection and monitoring will include risk-based assessment of: • • • • • • • •

The operating environment The composition of produced fluids Metal wastage Pitting corrosion Erosion caused corrosion Cracking Assessment of the corrosivity of fluids Development of biological activity

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Plant Operations and Maintenance Three monitoring system types: In-line systems – devices placed in the system that have to be removed for monitoring, such as corrosion (weight-loss) coupons, bio-studs, etc. On-line techniques – using corrosion monitoring devices fixed in the system or process equipment Off-line monitoring – which requires inspection and non-destructive testing

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Plant Operations and Maintenance

Plant Operations and Maintenance Risk based Maintenance and Inspection Strategy

Asset Integrity Competency and Training, e.g. for: • Asset integrity managers e.g. performance standards for SCEs • Others, e.g. corrosion awareness





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• Ensure the risks are reduced to ALARP • Optimise the inspection schedules • Inspect the most critical items of plant, equipment and components • Use the most appropriate inspection methods

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Plant Operations and Maintenance Plant Operations and Maintenance Control of Ignition Sources in Maintenance and Operations

Techniques, Principles and Importance of Safe Operation Procedures and Maintenance

• Electrical equipment –routine inspection and testing

Safe Operation

• Smoking – restrict to designated areas

Safe operation requires planned activities, controlled timetables and full operational guidelines to be in place.

• Cooking and heating appliances – designated areas (galley), master (gas) isolator valve clearly visible (gas).

Standard Operation Procedures

• Mechanical overheating – maintenance

Day-to-day procedures (“standards of performance”) to ensure that “normal” activities are conducted safely.

• Arson – security

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• Hot work (welding, burning etc) – use of permit-to-work

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Plant Operations and Maintenance Plant Operations and Maintenance

Hot Work Permit Requirements • Area safety inspection

Other Activities undertaken:

• Fire-fighting equipment available

• Cleaning and Gas Freeing (‘degassing’)

• Location and nature of the work

• Purging

• Name of the person in charge

• Venting

• Permitted time-span of the activity and the level of supervision required

• Draining of water, product, oxygen and noncondensibles (NCD)

• Actions to be taken when the work is finished e.g. fire checks

• Inerting

• If done in confined space – then additional precautions! © RRC Training

© RRC Training



Start Up and Shut Down

Start Up and Shut Down Testing, Commissioning and Hook-Up

Safe Start up/shut down of HC-containing equipment For maintenance – usually controlled within permit-to-work system (described earlier)

• Tests on pressures, temperatures and flow-rates may be required, and assurance that relief valves, diverter valves, bursting discs, etc. are functioning correctly.

Water and Hydrates Presence and Removal

• Leak testing

• Hydrates may cause blockages in gas systems - removal may require shut down and venting

• NDT e.g. on weld integrity • Commissioning and hook up may require PTW system

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© RRC Training


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