Investigatory Project

June 17, 2018 | Author: Nica Jane Mendoza | Category: Soap, Fluorine, Fluoride, Acid, Detergent
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There are many dangerous chemicals in our surroundings; most of them can be located inside inside our own homes. homes. Almost Almost every household household would contain contain cleaning cleaning liquids like liquid liquid detergent, mildew removers, insecticides and many other harmful chemicals; that is the reason why we decided to focus this investigatory project on creating an eco- friendly cleaning solution. The problem of the modern world is that we have created far too much hazardous chemical since it does the daily chores, like that of scrubbing the floor, in a faster and easier pace, unknowing that this can harm the ozone layer. Our investigatory project aims to create an environmentfriendly cleaning solution using citrus peelings and some of its extracts. With this investigation, we hope to find the answer to our problem; “Can we be able to create an environment- friendly cleaning solution from fruit peelings?” Hopefully, it is possible and we can be able to help be a factor of the movement against pollution.

Based on our research, cleaning solutions our often hazardous as well as corrosive, with this experiment, the group will be finding an alternative from cleaning solutions that contain ammonium, hydrogen bifluoride, hydrofluoric acid, and substances of the like. As an alternative, we will be creating a solution made out of common materials that can be usually found in the kitchen. Citrus peelings such as lemons and oranges contain an acid that can fight of germs and odors, Baking soda and vinegar are the ones that eliminate bacteria and that of the like. With these ingredients combined, we can create a successful cleaning solution that is beneficial to both man and its planet. II. PROBLEM

With the different hazardous chemicals found within the premises of everyone’s homes, the nature nature of this study study is to be able to create create a replac replaceme ement nt for these these chemic chemicals als and to successfully produce it. The problem that we are trying to solve is being able to successfully

create the cleaning solution we are looking for, using the peelings of citrus fruits, and being able to compare which among the three is the best cleaning solution. Hopefully, we can be able to reproduce the solution so that it could be a product that more people can use.


If the best out of the three kinds of cleaning solution will be chosen and be made using improvised yet organic materials then an ecological friendly solution acting to clean all types of  furniture will be produced.


If the best out of the three kinds of cleaning solution will not be chosen and will not be made using improvised yet organic materials then an ecological friendly solution acting to clean all types of furniture will not be produced.


In our time now, the environment of our world is getting worse and worse most especially our ozone layer, which is continuing to be thinner and thinner. One of the causes of  this tragic reality is some of the chemicals and substances used in solution products for cleaning and the like.

Based on the researches of the group, cleaning solutions contain a number of substances such as ammonium hydrogen bifluoride and hydrofluoric acid that can be corrosive and a hazard not only to humans but also to the environment. So the main goal of the group is to improve the original cleaning solution containing the said substances and other, more dangerous chemicals. With this investigatory project, a better cleaning solution will be created using much cheaper and

more effective materials such as the peelings of citrus fruits namely lemon, calamansi and orange. Improvisations can be made causing us much lesser time accompanying it with the best results for  all of us and for the world, most especially its environment.

A cleaning solution was chosen since this is a product that is widely and often used everywhere. If the type of solution for cleaning, which contains so much toxic, is used everyday  by a lot of people then a large amount of gasses and wastes from it can pollute the environment and its atmosphere. The group believes that the product can accomplish so much as well as being able to contribute to the preservation of our planet. V. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The first stain remover was plain water. People found it as an easy way to wash away mud at a stream or a river. The history of cleaning agents runs back to ancient Babylonian culture. Soap like materials were evacuated from ancient Babylonian remains. The 4500-5000 year old remains a lso have detailed description of making such materials. It is however not clear whether they used the fat and ash mixed material for cleaning purposes. Egyptian, Romans, Japanese, Greek and Chinese cultures of the ancient times paid attention to cleanliness and used different materials for cleaning purposes. Chinese used the fruit of soap-nut tree (Sapindus Mukorossi) for cleaning soft silk  clothes. The nut yielded a soap-like material, which thoroughly cleans the silk and is soft on the fabric. Soap making started in Europe in the seventh century. Soap making in Europe was mostly a family tradition and people kept the technique of soap making a secret. They used animal fat and plant oils to make soap. They also knew the technique of adding perfumes to the soap for fragrance. The soaps were used for bathing and laundry purposes. Italy, Spain and France were the leaders in soap making.

Large scale soap manufacturing began in 1791, with the invention of a process of making soda ash from common salt by a French scientist Nicholas Leblanc. Several advancements came to Leblanc method of soap. The cost and time for making soda ash became lower. German scientists developed a method of making cleaning agents without plant oil or  animal fat. This chemically synthesized material is called detergent. This is harsher than soap (that produced from fat and oil). This happened in 1916, when the availability of fat and oils was scarce. Utilization of enzymes for detergent manufacturing was a breakthrough in detergent manufacturing. A no enzyme content detergents too are available today, but the biggest thrust is on enzyme added detergents. There is however different environmental problems associated with use of enzymes in detergents. Further researches produced higher quality detergents at lower costs. Detergents eventually went on to surpass soap as the preferred cleaning agent. Later researches on cleaning products were concentrated on safety of the users and environment, ease of use and lower production costs. Detergents and soaps are available as cakes,  powder and in liquid form. Detergents that mix well in saline water are also readily available in the market.


In the project, the group plans to make a cleaning solution that will both benefit the  people of the world plus the environment using only the juice of citrus fruits coming from its  peelings as its main ingredient. The specific fruits that will be used for this investigation are lemon, calamansi/Philippine lemon and orange.

Both baking soda and vinegar will be the

substance used as the substance to kill and repel the bacteria. Other materials of the same kind will also be used. If the planned materials are not available then similar requirements or 

ingredients can be used as a substitute.

Three cleaning solutions will be produced to determine which among the three is to be the best mixture that can easily kill germs and bacteria quickly. And at the same time, most importantly, is that it can be safe for every individual who will use this in the future and will avoid further damage to the atmosphere causing less greenhouse gasses. These are the main attainments that must be achieved and be focused when producing the solutions.

Furthermore, the group will only compare and get the best cleaning solution that will be created using natural ingredients and the product made must be both eco-friendly and ensures  protection when using it, surpassing the original solutions built for cleaning with a much efficient use that can contribute and help so much in a simple way.

The things said are the only one that the group will do. Other developments can be done  by the future researchers that will maybe engage with experiments that our like the group’s experiment. A successful result is expected at the end of the experiment. The group believes that more research and studying pertaining about this can make this project even more useful and effectual.


Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water . While it is extremely corrosive and difficult to handle, it is technically a weak acid. Hydrogen fluoride, often in the aqueous form as hydrofluoric acid, is a valued source of  fluorine,  being the precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine (Prozac), diverse  polymers such as  polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), and most other synthetic materials

that contain fluorine.

Ammonium bifluoride - Ammonium hydrogen fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4HF2. It is produced from ammonia and hydrogen fluoride. This colourless salt is a glass- etchant and an intermediate in a once-contemplated route to hydrofluoric acid.

Concentration - the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. This can apply to any sort of chemical mixture, but most frequently the concept is limited to homogeneous solutions, where it refers to the amount of  solute in the solvent .

Ammonia - It is a compound of  nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor .













To be added to one of the Juices extracted from



solutions; to see if it is an effective




cleaning solution

To be added to one of the Juices





solutions; to see if it is an effective




cleaning solution

To be added to one of the Juices extracted from



solutions; to see if it is an effective




cleaning solution

Kills the bacteria, viruses, germs and molds and it can White Vinegar

1 bottle





ecologically-friendly alternative substances




Equal with

Lowers the concentration of 

the vinegar 

the solutions

It is a mild and abrasive cleaning agent that can clean Baking Soda

1 bottle

up the greasy mess on stove tops, countertops and sinks. It also neutralizes odors in the kitchen.


This is the list of all the references that we used to guide our research work, we do not own these websites and will be only using them as references and not claiming it as our own.

Retrieved July 24, 2009, Friday at 11:40 am:

Retrieved July 24, 2009, Friday at 11:45 am: leaning+Solutions+Recipes.htm

Retrieved July 24, 2009, Friday at 11:48 am:

Retrieved July 24, 2009, Friday at 11:50 am:

Retrieved July 24, 2009, Friday at 11:55 am: purpose-cleaner.html

Retrieved July 24, 2009, Friday at 12:00 am: html

Retrieved July 25, 2009, Saturday at 9:00 pm:

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