Introduction to Subject Cataloging

July 14, 2017 | Author: Roxanne Peña | Category: Adjective, Syntax, Cognitive Science, Psychology & Cognitive Science, Grammar
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Introduction to Subject Cataloging...


Introduction to Subject Cataloging

Introduction • Library catalogs and other retrieval systems provide a subject approach to the records in their system through access points based on subject content. • Two approaches on searching by subject: • Keyword / free-text searching • Controlled vocabulary

History of Subject Access in Library Catalogs • Classed or Classified Entry • Dictionary or Alphabetical Specific Catalog • Online Catalog

Subject Vocabularies • List of Subject Headings for Use in Dictionary Catalogs (1895, 1898, 1911) • Subject Headings Used in the Dictionary Catalogues of the Library of Congress (1910-1914) • Later renamed as Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)

• Minnie Earl Sears’ List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries (1923) • Later renamed as Sears List of Subject Headings

Charles Ammi Cutter’s Principles of Subject Cataloging • User and Usage • Uniform and Unique Headings • Specific and Direct Entry • Consistent and Current Terminology • Cross References • See reference • See Also references • General references

General Methods of Subject Analysis 1. Read/examine the work in detail 2. Identify the main and subsidiary subjects 3. Represent the content according to a particular system or scheme.

General Guidelines on Assigning Subject Headings • Levels of Subject Cataloging • Chapter or the whole book

• Specific (Co-Extensive) Entry • Number of Headings • Nature of the content, structure of available headings, and policies of the cataloging agency

• Multitopical and Multi-Element Works

Sears List of Subject Headings

Development • Neither Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) nor the earlier American Library Association (ALA) list was just suitable for the access needs of small and medium-sized libraries. • To accommodate the needs of the aforementioned libraries, Minnie Earl Sears developed a new standard list of subject headings. • “List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries” • “Sears List of Subject Headings” – starting from the 6th edition • Latest edition: 21st (2014)

• Editors: • • • • • • •

Isabel Stevenson Monro (4th & 5th ed.) Bertha M. Frick (6th - 8th ed.) Barbara M. Westby (9th - 12th ed.) Carmen Rovira and Caroline Reyes (13th ed.) Martha T. Mooney (14th ed.) Joseph Miller (15th – 20th ed.) Barbara A. Bristow (21st ed.)

Types of Main Headings • Topical Headings • Single noun headings • Phrase headings • Compound headings • Adjectival headings • Prepositional headings

• Form headings • Geographic headings • Name headings

Topical headings • Words/phrases for common things or concepts that represent the content of various works. • Considerations in assigning topical headings • Literary warrant / language of the material • Common usage • Uniformity • Cutter’s rule of specificity • Choosing a single word/phrase from among its synonyms or near-synonyms

• Clear and unambiguous

Forms of headings • Single nouns • Abstract ideas and the names of disciplines of study are usually stated in the singular, e.g. Biology, Existentialism • Actions are expressed in the singular, e.g., Editing, Fraud • Concrete things are most commonly in the plural form, when those things can be counted, e.g. Playgrounds, Children.

• Compound headings • Subject headings that consist of two nouns joined by “and”. • Used mainly to connect: • Topics or concepts which are usually treated together in works • Opposite subjects that are usually treated together in works

• Examples: Bow and arrow; Good and evil; Forests and forestry; Publishers and publishing; Cities and towns; Rugs and carpets; Church and state; Television and children

• Adjectival headings • Nouns with adjectives • Examples: Unemployment insurance; Buddhist art; English language; Space flight; College students

• Prepositional phrase headings • Some concepts that involve two or more elements • Examples: Insects as carriers of disease; Violence in popular culture; Cooking for the sick; Religion in public schools

Form headings • Describes the form of a work, not the subject content. • Types: • Physical forms (e.g., Sound recordings; Motion pictures) • General arrangement of the material and purpose of the work (e.g., Atlases; Dictionaries; Almanacs; Gazetteers) • Names of literary forms and genres (e.g., Fiction; Poetry; Drama; Science fiction; Children’s plays)

Geographic headings • Names of places and political jurisdictions • Examples: • • • • • • • •

Africa North America United States Philippines Chicago (Ill.) Vatican City Korea (North) Arctic regions

Name headings • 3 major types: • Personal names • Corporate names • Uniform titles

• Individual/personal name headings are usually established in the inverted form, with dates (if necessary), and with See references from alternate forms. • Corporate names are commonly established names of corporate bodies, such as business firms, institutions, buildings, sports teams, performing groups, etc.

• Examples: • Clinton, Bill • Holmes, Sherlock (Fictional character) • University of the Philippines Diliman

• Uniform titles are the established names of sacred scriptures, anonymous literary works, periodicals, motion pictures, radio and television programs, etc. • Gone with the wind (Motion picture) • Beowulf • Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Hamlet

Symbols used in Sears List • UF = Used for • SA = See also • BT = Broader term • NT = Narrower term • RT = Related term • [Former heading] = Term that was used as a heading and is no longer • (May subdiv. geog.) = Heading that may be subdivided by name or place

Cross References • Purposes: • To guide users who consult the catalog under terms that are not used as subject headings to those that are • To call users’ attention to materials related to the topics being consulted

• Also helps catalogers select the most appropriate headings for the work being cataloged.

Subdivisions • Specific entry in subject headings is achieved in two basic ways: • Creation of narrower terms as needed • Use of subdivisions under an established term to designate: • Aspects of that term, e.g., Birds—Eggs; Food—Analysis • Form of the item itself, e.g., Agriculture—Bibliography

• Types of subdivisions: • • • •

Topical Geographic Chronological Form

Order of Subdivisions • [Topical]—[Geographic]—[Chronological]—[Form] • *[Geographic]—[Topical]—[Chronological]—[Form]

• Examples: • American literature—Southern States—Bibliography • United States—Civilization—1960-1970—Periodicals

Some examples of cancelled and replacement th headings (20 ed.) Cancelled • Hypertext • Soviet Union • Videodiscs • High fidelity sound systems

Replacement • Hyperlinks • Russia—History—1917-1991, Soviet Union • DVDs • [no replacement]

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Development • Originally developed by the Library of Congress. • List of Subject Headings for Use in Dictionary Catalogs (a.k.a. A.L.A. list) as base text for development. • Begun in 1898; first published in parts between 1909 and 1914, under the title Subject Headings Used in the Dictionary Catalogues of the Library of Congress. • Library of Congress Subject Headings – 8th edition (1975) • Latest edition: 38th (2016)

Formats of LCSH • Print (5-volume set) • Electronic (via

• Web (Classification Web) • Library of Congress Authorities (via

Types of Main Headings • Topical Headings • Single noun headings • Phrase headings • • • • •

Adjectival phrase headings Conjunctive phrase headings Prepositional headings Inverted phrase headings Free-floating phrase headings

• Form headings • Geographic headings • Name headings

Free-floating phrase headings • Designated as free-floating components which may be combined with any heading within designated categories to form new headings. • These headings are: • • • • •

[Name of city] Metropolitan Area ([Geographic qualifier]) [Name of region] Region ([Geographic qualifier]) [Name of city] Suburban Area ([Geographic qualifier]) [Name of river] Region ([Geographic qualifier]) [Name of geographic feature] Region ([Geographic qualifier])

Types of Subdivisions • Topical • Geographic • Chronological • Form • Free-floating

• • • •

General application Under specific type of headings Under pattern headings Indicated by “multiples” • Examples: Birth control—Religious aspects—Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.]; Vietnam War, 1961-1975—Foreign public opinion—Austrian, [British, etc.]

References: • Chan, L. M. (2007). Cataloging and classification: An introduction (3rd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. • Miller, J., & Bristow, B. A. (eds.) (2007). Sears list of subject headings (20th ed). New York: H.W. Wilson. • Library of Congress (2016). Library of Congress Subject Headings (38th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.

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