Introduction to Criminology Terms
terms in studying criminology...
INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY
CONCEPT OF CRIMINOLOGY
CRIMINOLOGY - It is the entire body of knowledge regarding crimes, criminals and the efforts of the society to prevent and suppress them. It is also a study of crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the making of laws, the breaking of law and the reactions towards the breaking of laws.
CRIMINOLOGY is a body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It defined also as a multidisciplinary study of crimes.
PAUL TOPINARD - He was the Anthropologist who introduced the word criminology, sometime in 1889. He derived it from the Latin word ―crimen‖, which can be translated to offense.
R.A. 6506 - An act that created the Board of Criminologists of the Philippines and for other purposes. It took effect on July 1, 1972.
CRIMINOGENIC PROCESSES — explain human behavior and the experiences which help the nature of a persons' personality as reaching mechanism. Factors and experiences in connection thereto infringe differently upon different personalities producing conflict which is the aspect of crime.
CRIMINAL PSYCHODYNAMICS criminals in action
DEMENTIA PRAECOX — a collective term of mental disorder that begins shortly after puberty and leads to general failure of the mental faculties with the corresponding physiological impairment. Delusion — a false belief about self cause by morbidity, paranoia and dementia praecox.
EROTOMANIA — a morbid propensity to love or make love; uncontrollable sexual desire by members of either sex.
EPISODIAC CRIMINAL — a non criminal person who commits crime when under emotional stress.
LOGOMACY — a statement that we would have no crime if we have no criminal law and that we can eliminate crimes by merely abolishing criminal law.
KLEPTOMANIAC — an uncontrollable morbid propensity to steal. He is pathological stealer. Masochism — a condition of sexual perversion in which a person derives pleasure from being dominated or cruelly treated.
MELANCHOLIA — a mental disorder characterized by excessive brooding and depression of spirits. Megalomania- a mental disorder in which the subject thinks himself ad great or exalted.
ANTHROPOLOGY — science devoted to the study of mankind and its development in relation to its physical, mental and cultural history.
CRIMINALISTICS - the sum total application of all science in crime detection.
CRIMINALIST - a person who is trained in science of application of instruments and methods to the detection of crime
CRIME- An act committed or omitted in violation of a law, forbidding or commanding it. It is a generic term for offense, felony and delinquency.
DELINQUENCY - An act or omission that violates simple rules and regulations, punishable by a short period of imprisonment or a small fine.
FELONY - An acts or omission punishable by the revised penal code.
OFFENSE - is an acts or omission punishable by special law.
MISDEAMEMOR - is act or omission in violation of city or municipality ordinances
DEVIANT BEHAVIOR - refers to a behavior which is outside the range of normal societal toleration
CRIMINAL - one who committed acts punishable by the laws and has been convicted by final judgment.
DIVISIONS OF CRIMINOLOGY
1 Criminal Etiology - it is an attempt at scientific analysis of the causes of the crime. 2 Sociology of law — an attempt at scientific analysis of the conditions which penal/criminal laws has developed as a process of formal and social control. 3 Penology — concerned with the control and prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders. NATURE OF CRIMINOLOGY
Criminology cannot be considered as a science because it has not yet acquired universal validity, not stable and homogenous as it varies from one place to another. However, it is a science when applied to law enforcement and prevention of crimes under the following nature: 1 It is an applied science- by application of different scientific instruments. In can also be applied in the study of causes of crime, anthropology, sociology, psychology and other natural science. 2 It is a social science — its study is a part of social science because crime is a social phenomenon and a social creation. 3 It is dynamic — criminology changes as the social condition changes.
NATURE OF CRIMINOLOGY
1 It is an Applied Science- It involves other sciences such as psychology, sociology, psychiatry, anthropology, medicine, chemistry, mathematics, etc., in a process known as instrumentation.
2 It is a Social Science- Crime is a social phenomenon, thus, its study involves the society as a whole. 3 It is Dynamic- Criminology changes as social condition does. 4 It is Nationalistic- Practice of criminology must be in adherence to the laws of the nation.
OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN CRIMINOLOGY
1 2 3 4
Crime Criminals Criminal Behavior Victims of Crime
MAJOR ALLIED SCIENCES OF CRIMINOLOGY AS A FIELD OF STUDY 1 Sociology (Sociological Criminology) - The study of crime that is focused on a group of people and the society as a whole. 2 Psychology- (Psychological Criminology) - Deals with the study of behavior and mental processes of criminals. 3 Psychiatry (Psychiatric Criminology) - A science that deals with the study of criminal behavior in terms of motives and drives. 4 Anthropology (Anthropological Criminology) - Deals with the study of mankind, particularly, the culture and physical features of distinctive groups of people. 5 Physiology (Physiological Criminology) - Studies function of various organs of the body, in relation to the behavior of a particular person.
SCOPE OF STUDY OF CRIMINOLOGY 1 Criminal Ecology — study of criminality in relation to special distribution in a community. 2 Criminal Epidemiology — study of the relationship between environment and criminality. 3 Criminal Physical Anthropology — study of criminality in relation between mind and behavior of a criminal. 4 Criminological research — study of crime correlated with antecedent variables, state of crime trend 5 Victimology — study of the role of the victim of crime
6 Criminological Theories — study of the different theories as the genesis of criminal behavior
WHERE CAN INCREASE IN CRIME IN URBAN CENTERS BE ATTRIBUTED? 1 Lack of sound prevention planning 2 Interplay of accelerated social changes which are the aftermath of the development 3 Apathy of the community towards involvement in the campaign against criminality.
BROAD WAYS OF SOCIAL RESPONSES TO THE CRIME PROBLEM 1 Prevention per use 2 Rehabilitation 3 Control APPROACHES TO THE GOAL OF PRODUCING CRIMES 1 Crime suppression or reaction measures undertaken after the commission 2 Crime prevention or proaction measures undertaken before the commission of crime. TRIAD OF CRIME
The so called triad of crime consists of desire, capability and opportunity. These are the factors which led to the commission of crime.
AMOUNTS AND KINDS OF CRIMES IN THE PHILIPPINES DIFFICULT TO PORTRAY: REASONS 1 A lot of crimes are not reported to the police 2 Not all crimes are reflected in the records in the police crime registers. 3 Many crimes which are directly referred to the prosecutors are recorded in the police crime registers. 4 There is yet no earnest and persistent effort on the part of the police or any agency of the government for determining systematically the extent of unreported crimes in the country.
WAYS OF COMBATING A CRIME 1 To wage a massive information dissemination campaign on crime prevention 2 To strengthen law enforcement agencies 3 To formulate effective rehabilitation program for the convicted offender. LEVELS OF CRIME PREVENTION 1 Primary level — identification of factors in the environment which contributes to criminally deviant behavior. 2 Secondary level - identification of individual or group of persons with criminally deviant behavior. 3 Tertiary level - formulation of rehabilitation measure to prevent recidivism. AGENCIES OF THE GOVERNMENT THAT IS PRIMARILY CHARGED WITH THE CAMPAIGN TO PREVENT CRIMES
1 The CRIME PREVENTION AND COORDINATION SERVICES of the NAPOLCOM 2 The Regional Offices of the NAPOLCOM for the provinces and the cities. 3 Offices of the NAPOLCOM provincial Officers in every province for the municipalities or towns. CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIME
It does not respect age, sex, culture, customs, race, and religion of the society. It is a worldwide phenomenon. It occurs in all existing economic strata. Its causes are multifarious. It is difficult to eradicate. There must be a certain external consequence or harm caused. The harm must be forbidden by law There must be an intentional or reckless action. ―Mens Rea‖ must be present.
There must be a fusion or concurrence of mens rea and conduct There must be a casual relationship between the legally forbidden harm and the act. There must be a legally prescribed punishment for the act.
FACTORS THAT ENHANCES CRIMINALITY 1 Criminal Demography - Study of the relationship between criminality and population. 2 Criminal Epidiomology - Study of criminality in relation to the uneven distribution of crime 3 Criminal Ecology Study of the relationship between criminality and the environment. 4 Criminal Physical Anthropology - Study of criminality in relation to the physical condition of man. 5 Criminal Psychology - Study of behavior and mental processes in relation to crime. 6 Criminal Psychiatry - Study of criminal behavior in terms of motives and drives. 7 Victimology - Study of the role of the victim in the commission of crime. It also refers to the scientific analysis of the adverse effects of crime. It was initiated by Benjamin Mendelson, a European defense lawyer who created his own classification of victims
OTHER CLASSIFICATION OF CRIME
1 Traditional Crime- committed every now and then 2 Crimes Due to Social Change- poverty crimes ex. Prostitution 3 Emergency Crime- committed to take advantage of an abnormal situation 4 Victimless Crime- act committed by consenting persons in private, there is no intended victim. 5 Index Crime- act that involves actual physical harm to a victim by another
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL
1 Acute Criminal- one who commits crime due to fit of passion 2 Chronic Criminal- one who plans the commission of crime ahead of time 3 Ordinary Criminal- lowest mammal in criminal profession 4 Professional Criminal- engaged in criminal activities with a high degree of skill 5 Active Criminal- commits crime due to aggressiveness 6 Passive Criminal- commits crime due to reward or promise 7 Socialized Delinquent- one who lacks proper moral values due to defective socialization process. 8 Accidental Criminal- one who commits crime when the situation is conducive 9 Habitual Criminal- one who commits crime due to lack of self control
THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION
1 Earliest Theory of Crime Causation a Demonological Theory- States that people commit crime because they are possessed by evil spirits b Trial by Ordeal- Variety of procedures established to determine the guilt or innocence of an accused c Thucydides- A Greek historian who first wrote the usefulness of death penalty 2 Era of Classical Criminology a PRE CLASSICAL THEORY - State that the criminal commits a crime because of supernatural powers or he is posses by demons or dammed by the underworld forces or other wordily forces. b CLASSICAL THEORY - Classical Theory — founded by Cesare Bacarria maintains that man is essentially moral creature with absolutely free will to choose between good and evil, therefore stress is a place upon the criminal himself that man is responsible to his act. The concepts include the following:
- human free will - Every man is responsible for his own act. - in every mistake or violation of the law, one has to
suffer the penalty - Man is essentially a moral creature who was given a free will to choose what is right and evil. HOWEVER, it is considered as: a Unfair - it treats all men as if they are robot without regard to individual differences and surrounding circumstances when the crime was committed. b Unjust - it imposes equal punishment time offender and recidivist.
c NEO CLASSICAL THEORY It asserted that certain categories of offender such a minor, insane incompetence shall be treated leniently irrespective of their criminal acts because these People are not capable of knowing what is right and wrong, they should not be regarded as criminals. children and lunatics cannot calculate pleasure and pain mitigating circumstances must be taken into account in imposing penalties. D POSITIVE AND ITALIAN THEORY — founded by Lombroso. This theory says that crime is an act as natural phenomenon and is comparable to a natural disaster or calamity. That crime and moral phenomenon cannot be treated and checked by the imposition of punishment but rather rehabilitation or the enforcement of individual measures. a Man is subdued by morbid phenomenon who constrains to do wrong even against his own volition. b Crime is essentially a social phenomenon and therefore cannot be treated by the imposition of imprisonment. CLASSES OF CRIMINALS: a born criminal — atavism b insane criminal — idiots, imbeciles c criminaloids — not born with physical stigmata but who are of such mental makeup that they display anti social conduct. 3 Period of Modern Criminology a Italian/Positivist TheoryMade emphasis on the scientific treatment of criminals, not on penalties. It asserted that crime, like any other act, is a natural
phenomenon and is comparable to disaster or calamity. This theory promoted the doctrine of determinism. b Determinism- States that there are existing situations or circumstances that interferes in the decision or action of man, thus, he is forced to commit crime, even without intention of doing it. 4 Period of Independent Criminology a Anomie Theory- Advocated by Emile Durkheim, this theory states that the absence of norms in the society provides a setting conducive to crime and other anti-social acts. Durkheim also proposed that crime is a natural thing in the society and it helps society for changes. b Psychoanalytical Theory- Proposed by Sigmund Freud, the Founder of Psychoanalysis. This theory maintained that people are influenced by unconscious forces including innate sexual and aggressive drives, thus they commit crime. He revealed that human personality has three-part structure: - Id- most primitive part of human personality. - Ego- guided by reality principle - Superegodirects acceptable behavior
c Human Ecology Theory- Advocated by Ezra Park, this theory is focused on the interrelationship of people with the environment. It maintained that crime is a result of a social change that goes along with the environmental changes. d Differential Association Theory- Advocated by Edwin Sutherland, the Dean of Modern Criminology and regarded as the most important criminologist of the 20th century, this theory maintained that the society is composed of different groups of people and organization having criminalistic and anti-criminalistic tradition. It also asserts that criminal behavior is learned through the process of communication and socialization and not inherited. e Somatotype Theory- Advocated by William Sheldon, this theory asserts that inheritance is the primary determinant of behavior and physique is a reliable
indicator of personality. He classified body types as follows: - Endomorph- predominance of soft, roundness though the regions of the body, low specific gravity and typically relaxed and comfortable disposition, extrovert, and has a viscerotonic temperance. - Mesomorph- athletic type, predominance of muscle, bone and connective tissue, normally heavy, hard and firm, smart and tough, routinely active and aggressive, characterized by romotonic or somatotonic temperance and most likely to commit crime. - Ectomorph - thin physique, flat chest, slender and poorly muscled, tend to look more exhausted and withdrawn, introvert and characterized by cerebrotonic temperance. f Containment Theory- Advocated by Walter Reckless, this theory asserts that for every individual, there exist a containing external structure (blocked opportunities) and a protective internal structure (conscience and self control), both of which provides defense, protection or insulation against crime and delinquency. g Instrumentalist TheoryAdvocated by Earl Richard Quinney, this theory asserts that the state is a device for controlling the exploited class- the class that labors for the benefit of the ruling class. It asserts that the upper class creates laws that protect their interest. h Social Class Conflict and Capitalism Theory- Advocated by Karl Marx, Frederick Engel and Willem Bonger, this theory asserts that laws are created in favor of the ruling class, thus, crime is reflected on the demoralized remaining population. i Strain Theory- advocated by Robert King Merton, this theory maintained that the failure of man to achieve a higher status of life causes him to commit crime in order to attain such status. It maintained that people are law abiding, but when under great pressure will resort to crime.
j Sub-culture Theory of Delinquency- Advocated by Albert Cohen, this theory claimed that the lower class cannot socialize effectively with the middle and the upper class, thus creates a sub-culture that rejects middle and upper class values through a process referred to as reaction formation. The sub-culture is called a gang and the kids are called delinquents. k Neutralization Theory- Advocated by Gresham Sykes, this theory stated that an individual will obey or disobey societal rules, depending upon his or her ability to rationalize whether he is protected from hurt or destruction. l Differential Opportunity Theory- Advocated by Lloyd Ohlin, this theory explained that the society leads the lower class to want things. It claimed that there is a differential opportunity or access to success goals by both legitimate and illegitimate means, depending on the specific location of the individual within the social structure. m Labeling Theory- Advocated by Frank Tennenbaum, Edwin Lemert and Howard Becker, this theory maintained that the original cause of crime cannot be known, no behavior is intrinsically criminal. Behavior becomes criminal if it is labeled as such. n Theory of Human Evolution- Advocated by Charles Darwin, this theory claimed that humans, like other animals are parasite. Man is an organism having an animalistic behavior that is dependent on other animals for survival.
OTHER THEORIES IN CRIMINOLOGY
A QUETELETS THERMIC LAW - Hypothesized that violent crimes predominate in warmer climates while property crimes are more prevalent in colder weather zone B HUMAN ECOLOGY - Deals with the relationship organism and physical environment.
C ECONOMIC THEORY - In Marx‘s the emergence of capitalism produce economic inequality (resulting to the commission of crime) in which proletariats are exploited by the bourgeoisie. D SOCIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY - The most varied in refuted and developed theory emphasizing the importance of ―imitation‖ in crime causation E Anomie (Normlesness) - lawlessness where there is disjunction between means and goals. F Social Process Theory - emphasize that the criminality can be considered as social disorganization or social condition due to the impact upon human behavior. G Social Control Theories - address the issue of how society maintains or elicits social control and the manner in which it obtain conformity or fails to obtain it in the form of deviance H Social Disorganization Theory- states that social indicators present in a society such as large number of single parent households, high percentage of out of school youth, unemployment problems and breakdown of social values are the causes of crimes. I Cultural Deviance Theory- a theory that views crime as a result of man‘s cultural values that permit or allow crime to happen or even demand behaviors that will violate the laws. J Cultural Transmission Theory- a theory which states that the cause of crime is the handling down of delinquency behavior as a socially learned behavior, transmitted from one generation to the next, especially among depressed and disorganized urban areas. K Culture Conflict Theory- states that different groups have different conduct norms and the conduct norms of one group may be in conflict with those of another, causing individual to commit crimes by conforming to the norms of their own groups which is in conflict with another. L Conflict Theory- states that people band together as a group because they are social animals with needs that are best served through collective action. It states further that people constantly clash as they try to advance the interest of their particular group over those of the others.
EXPLANATIONS TO CRIMINAL ETIOLOGY
PERSONALITY a Psychopathic personality - emotionally abnormal but who do not manifest breaks with reality that characterized psychosis b Psychomatic Person - one whose Behavior is largely amoral and asocial and who is characterized by the irresponsibility, lack of remorse or shame or aggravated by the physics or emotionally process of the individual c Alcoholism - when a person is intoxicated, he is almost certain to start a fight
ENVIRONMENTAL a home - the ―Cradle‖ of human personality‖ children are the mirror of the family b bad neighborhood c broken homes - communication gap and parent and children rates Delinquency
CLASSES OF DELIQUENTS
1 Environmental delinquent - occasional law breakers. 2 Ecological approach - these approach concerns itself with the ―biotic grouping of men‖ thus resulting from migration competition another with sometimes create conflict between the immigrant and in habitant of such place thus lending to social discrimination 3 Economic approach - financial hardship is one of primary causes of criminality therefore; it is necessary of every human being to contemplate or consider with deep regret and
confession the strong temptation which has frequently for so many years and want necessities to support life. 4 Sociological and cultural approach - the social in its general sense include assessment of those forces resulting from man‘s economic, financial, education, political, religious as well recreational.
PROMINENT PERSONALITIES IN THE STUDY OF CRIMINOLOGY
DR. CHARLES GORING — English Statistician who studied the case histories of 2,000 convicts and found that heredity is more influential as determinant criminal behavior than environmental ALPHONSE BERTILLON — one who originated a system of classifying criminals according to bodily measurements. Human skeleton is unchangeable for the period of 20 years. W.A. BONGER — an international authority in criminology who classified crimes by motives of the offender as economic crimes, sexual crimes, political crimes, and vengeance as the principal motives.
JEREMY BENTHAM(1823) - he advocate the ―utilitarian hedonism‖ or ―Hedonistic Calculus‖ the theory that a person always in such a way as to seek pleasure and avoid pain
CESARE LOMBROSO - a famous authority in the field of criminology who advocated the positivist theory. He classified crime into: a atavist - born criminal b Criminaloids - those who have less physical stamina or luck of control. c Insane criminal disorder
d Occasional criminal - who don‘t seek for the crimes but they are drawn into it because of insignificant reason that paused them to do Types of Criminaloids
- criminaloids or epileptoid - those who are suffering from disorders - habitual - career offenders - pseudo-criminals - those who kills in defense
RAFAEL GAROFALO - Italian law professor who coin the term ―CRIMINOLOGIA‖. In 1885 He developed a concept of the natural crime and defined it as violation of the prevalent sentiments of pity and probity. Types of criminal according to Garofalo: a murders-satisfied from revenge b violent and criminals c deficient criminals-commit crimes against property d lascivious criminals-crimes against chastity
ENRICO FERRI - believe in the ―law of saturation‖. Society can tolerate only number crime. Factors of criminality: a physical and geological environment b the individual c social environment
DAVID EMILE DURKEIM - He focused on the sociological point of view of the posivitist theory. Includes the consideration of customs, obligation, laws morality and religious belief as factors to criminality
SIGMUND FREUD - the use of psychology in understanding behavior. Freud view guilt as a motive for bad behavior. In his ―PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY‖ he maintains that: a Criminal behavior is a form of neurosis b Crime is a result of compulsive need for punishment to alleviate guilt and anxiety c Criminal behavior is gratification of need
d Criminal behavior experience.
e Criminal conduct represents displace hostility.
ROBERT EZRA PARK- Strong advocate of the scientific method in explaining criminality by a sociologist. The human ecology explain the isolation or segregation, competition, conflict social, contract, interaction and social hierarchy as factor of criminality.
WILLIAM H. SHELDON – his key ideas are concentrated on the principle of ―SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST‖ as a behavioral science. He combines the biological and psychological explanation to understand the behavior. He advocated the‖ SOMATOTYPING THEORY‖ that explains the belief of inheritances as the primary determinants of behavior and the body physique is reliable indicator of personality. Classification of body physique a Endomorps - a type with a relatively predominance of soft, roundness throughout the regions of the body, they have low specific gravity. b Mesomorps - athletic type, predominate of muscle, bone and connective tissue, normally heavy, hard or firm, strong and tough. c Ectomorps - thin psyque, flat chest, delicacy, trough out the body, slender, poorly muscled
EDWIN SUTHERLAND- advocated the‖ DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY‖ this maintains that the society is composed of different group organization. He believes that behavior is learned not inherited. WALTER RECKLESS- advocate of the ―CONTROL THEORY‖ - it maintains that delinquency is the result of poor self concept. The absent of social control leads to criminality ROBERT KING MERTON - Primer sociologist of the modern days. Advocated the ―STRAIN THEORY‖. He maintains that the failure of man to achieve the higher status caused them to commit crimes in order to attain their goal. ALBERT COHEN (1918) - Advocated the ―SUBCULTURE THEORY‖ and ―DELIQUENCY THEORY‖. He includes the explanation of prevalence, origin, process and purpose, as factor to crime.
ERVING GOLFMAN AND HOWARD BECKER (1922-1982) - the advocate of the‖LABELING THEORY‖ the theory maintains that interaction cause them to behave criminally when one or both interpretation of the meaning of such interaction is wrong. CHARLES DARWIN - his theory maintains that man is an organism which is parasite and has an animalistic behavior. CHARLES BUCK MAN GORING (1870-1919) - An English statistician, who studied the case histories of 3,000 convicts. He came up with a conclusion that heredity is more influential determiner of criminal behavior than environment. ERNEST HOLTON – Accordingly, criminality is cause by heredity and the influence of environment. He conclude that criminals are originally inferior QUETELET - he discovered on his research that crimes against person increased during summer while crimes against property increase during winter PAUL TORPINARD - a French anthropologist who introduced the term ―CRIMINOLOGIE‖ in 1987. EMILE DURKHEIM-(1858-1917) - father of anomie tradition, he argued that crime is a normal part of society as birth and death. Criminal acts reflected society collective. Collectives sentiments will reach a universal degree of acceptance WILLIAM BONGER - an international authority in criminology who classified crimes by motives of the offenders as economic crimes, political crimes, and miscellaneous crimes with vengeance as the principal motive. R.H GODDARD - He advocated the theory of ―feeblemindedness‖. Feebleminded person is unable to appreciate the consequences of his behavior or appreciate the meaning of the law PETER RENIZEL - a private person who, in 1669, establish a work house in Hamburg at his own expense because he had observed that thieves and prostitutes where made worse instead by better pillory, and he hoped that they might improved by work and religious instruction in the work house. AUGUSTE COMTE - First proposed the positivist approach. He viewed the progression of knowledge as consisting of stage reflect upon the meaning of event. - Metaphysical stage - philosophy sought secular events to provide understanding thru a new spirit of inquiry
- Scientific stage - combination of the rational spirit of investigation with the scientific method, emphasizing empiricism or experimentation.
LAVATOR - Stated the way to discover the character of a person is by observation and measurement of outward appearance of an individual especially the face. He said that bald man, beard women, shift eye, weak chin arrogant nose are criminally inclined. (Physiological fragment)
FRANZ JOSEPH GALL/CHARLES CALDWELL/AND JOHANN CHRISTOPHER SPURZHEIM-claimed that the external formation of the skull indicates that confirmation of the brain and the development of its various parts the shape of the heads of the criminals differs from that of the non-criminals
TYPES OF MULTIPLE MURDERS 1 Serial murder - involves killing several victims in hire. 2 Spree murder - involves killing of two or more victims at two or more location. 3 Mass murder - involves killing of four or more victim at one location within one event. 4 Professional crimes - The use of knowledge that requires lengthy training in committing crimes. 5 Occupational Crimes/white Collar crimes - A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social statues in the course of his occupation. 6 Organizational crime - refers to crime committed on behalf and for the benefit of a legitimate organization. 7 Political crime - refers to criminal activity which committed for ideological purpose. Ideology - Refers to distinctive belief system, ideas, and abstract ideals which are perceived as providing the true meaning of life. Ex: communism, capitalism, Christianity 8 organized crimes - it includes groups of any individuals whose primary activity involves violating criminals laws to seek profits and power by engaging in racketeering activities and when appropriate in engaging intricate financial manipulation TYPES OF ORGANIZED CRIMINALS
1 POLITICAL - social organized crime 2 MERCENARY ORGANIZED CRIME - crimes committed by group for direct personal profit, but which profit upon unsmiling victims, such as juvenile and adults gang involve in robbery – akyat bahay, bukas kotse, mafia 3 IN-GROUP ORIENTED ORGANIZED CRIME - this group such a motorcycle gangs and some adolescent gangs goals are psychological gratification rather that financial profitHell‘s Angels 4 SYNDICATE CRIME - a continuing group or organization that participate in activity in any society by use of force, intimidation or threats- Yakuza, Chinese triad 5 PUBLIC ORDER CRIME - sometimes referred to as ― crimes without crimes or‖ ‗ victimless crimes‖ or legist rated morality refers to a number of activities that is illegal due to the fact of they offered public morality- prostitution , illegal gambling, drug abuse, drunkenness
SEXUAL RELATED DISORDER 1 PROSTITUTION - the practice of having sexual relations for certain consideration. 2 FORNICATION - refers to a sexual intercourse between unmarried person 3 SODOMY - may cover anal intercourse, mouth-genital contact, exchange of husband and wife for sexual intercourse and even mutual masturbation 4 EXHIBITIONISM usually involves that purposive and unsolicited indecent exposure of sex organs usually to male an unsuspecting female. 5 VOYEURISM - involves the person invading the privacy of another by viewing him/her when in an unclad state or sexual condition. 6 FETISHISM - involves the obtaining of erotic excitement trough the perception and of collection objects associated with the opposite sex. 7 PEDOPHILIA OR CHILD MOLESTING - sexual relation between and adult a child, the later usually as one under 12 years of age or one who has not yet reached the age of puberty 8 PORNOGRAPHY refers to erotic or sexual stimulating literature or materials 9 BESTIALITY - having sex with animals
10 NECROPHILIA - sex with dead bodies
TYPOLOGY OF VIOLENT OFFENDERS 1 CULTURALLY VIOLENT OFFENDERS - are individuals who live in subculture in which violence is an acceptable problems-solving mechanism 2 SUBCULTURE OF VIOLENCE - use as means of explaining the greater prevalence of violent crime among low income from slum environment. 3 CRIMINALITY VIOLENT OFFENDERS - use violence as a means of accomplishing criminal act, such as in robbery 4 PATHOLOGICALLY VIOLENT OFFENDERS – mentally ill or brain damage 5 SITUATIONAL VIOLENT OFFENDERS - commit acts of violence on rare occasion, often under provocation such as in domestic disputes which gets out hand. Often described as ―crimes of passion‖
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINALS ACCORDING TO ETIOLOGY
ACUTE CRIMINAL - person, who violates criminal law because of the impulse of the moment, fit of passion or anger or spell of extreme jealousy.
CHRONIC CRIMINALS - person deliberate thinking such as;
a neurotic criminals - person whose action arises from intra-physics conflict between the social and antisocial components of his personality, example is a kleptomaniac b normal criminal - person whose psychic organization resembles that of the normal individual except that that he identify himself with criminal prototype c Criminality process.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINALS BASE ON BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM;
ORDINARY CRIMINALS- the lowest form of criminal career. They engage only the conventional crimes which required limited skills. They lack organization to avoid arrest and conviction ORGANIZED CRIMINALS- this criminal have a high degree of degree to enable them to commit crimes being detected and committed to specialized activities which can be operated in large scale business. Force, violence, intimidation and bribery to use gain and maintain control over economic activities.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINALS BASED ON ACTIVITIES 1 PROFESSIONAL CRIMINALS - those person who earn their living trough criminal activities 2 ACCIDENTAL CRIMINALS - those who commit criminal acts as a result of unanticipated circumstances. 3 HABITUAL CRIMINALS - those who commit criminal acts for such diverse reason due to deficiency of intelligence and lack of self control 4 HABITUAL SITUATIONAL CRIMINALS - those who are actually not criminals but constantly in trouble with legal authorities because they commit robberies, and embezzlement which are intermixed with economic activities
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINALS BASED ON MENTAL ATTITUDES 1 ACTIVE AGGRESSIVE CRIMINALS - those who commit crimes in an impulsive manner usually due to the aggressive behavior of the offender, such attitudes is clearly shown in crimes of passion, revenge or resentment. 2 PASSIVE INADEQUATE CRIMINALS - those who commit crimes because they are pushed to it by inducement, reward or promise without considering its consequences 3 SOCIAL DELINQUENT – those who are normal in their behavior but merely defective in their socialized process, this group belong to the educated respectable members of society who may turn criminal on involved.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINALS (OTHER TYPES OF CRIMES) 1 CRIMES OF THE UPPER WORLD - those who commit by people of the upper strata of society 2 CRIME OF THE UNDERWORLD - those who commit by the members of the lower under privilege class of society. 3 CRIMES BY PASSION - those committed by the fit of passion, anger, anger, jealousy hatred 4 CRIMES IMITATION - those committed and the pattern of which is merely a duplication of what was done by others 5 SERVICE CRIMES - those committed by rendering some service or satisfying the desire of someone 6 CRIMINAL WORLD - it is the social organization of habitual and professional criminals. 7 ORGANIZED CRIME - it characteristics: a control in all crimes in given geographical area or at least at all crimes of certain types by a small group similar to the board of directors of a legitimate business organization b Standard method of conducting crimes and rules of criminal conduct which are eternally enforce among members of organization. Secrecy discipline in a crime commission. c inclusion with the organization of personnel who performs services not essential to the commission of the crime, but contribute to the protection, such as lawyers, doctors and others such as keepers of hide outs d Careful planning of its crime to achieve maximum success.
THE 4 TYPES OF ORGANIZED CRIMES
1 THE CRIMINAL GANG - is an intimate group bound by ties, friends and loyalty that tends to establish its own folkways and mores, in opposition to those of conventional society. The criminal gangs always resort to the physical force in perpetrating their crimes.
2 THE CRIMINAL SYNDICATES - Stable business organization whose violence directed in unwelcome confederation. The term syndicate is a combination of capitalism turn into for the purpose of prosecuting illegal schemes, requiring large source of capital and the subject is to obtain control market of the particular commodity. 3 RACKETEERS - a racket is an organized method of existing money from that engage e in illegitimate or legitimate enterprises by the illegal means often accompanied by threats of infliction of injury or destruction of property.
CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CRIME
ACQUISITIVE CRIMES - when the offender acquire something as a consequence of his criminal act
EXTINCTIVE CRIMES destruction
SEASONAL CRIMES period of the year
SITUATIONAL CRIMES – those committed situation conductive to its commission
INSTANT CRIMES - those committed on the short possible time
EPISODICAL CRIMES - those committed by a series of commission in lengthy space of time
STATIC CRIME - those committed only in one place
CONTINUING CRIME - those committed in several places
RATIONAL CRIMES - those who committed with intention offender is in full possession of his mental faculties
IRRATIONAL CRIMES - those who committed by a person who does not know the nature and quality of his act account of the disease of the mind
when the end results of criminal act is those who committed only in a certain only
WHITE COLLAR CRIME - those committed by a person in responsibility and upper socio economic class in the course of their occupational activities
BLUE COLLAR CRIMES - those committed by ordinary professional to maintain their livelihood Victimology, a branch of the study of criminology which deals with the victimization of crime which is considered by political society as any act or omission punishable by law.
CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CRIME 1 As a result of a crime: a ACQUISITIVE — offender acquires something as a result or consequence of a crime like theft. b EXTINCTIVE- end result is destructive like homicide. 2 Period of time committed: a Seasonal crime — committed only during a period of time like tax evasion b Situational crime — committed only when given a situation like theft robbery. 3 As to length of time committed a instant crime — committed in shortest possible time like snatching b Episodial — committed by series of acts in lengthy space of time like KIDNAPPING. 4 Continuing - crime committed in several places, like physical injuries resulting to homicide in an automobile. 5 As to mental faculties
Rational crime - with intention like robbery, homicide
Irrational crime - committed by one who does not know the nature or quality of his act on account of disease
of mind. 6 as to the type of offender: a White collar crime - committed by persons of responsibility in the course of their occupational activity, like plunder b Blue collar crime - committed by ordinary criminals to maintain their livelihood like robbery.
JUSTIFICATION OF PUNISHMENT
1 RETRIBUTION – this rest of the basic premise that justice must be done. Punishment of the offender was carried out in the form of personal vengeance. 2 EXPIATION OR ATONEMENT - this was in group vengeance where punishment is exacted publicly for the purpose of appeasing the public or social group. 3 DETERRENCE OR EXEMPLARITY - punishment gives lesson to the offender by showing tom others what would happen to them if they violate the law 4 PROTECTION OR INCAPACITATION - by placing offenders on prison, society is protected the further depredation of criminal acts 5 REFORMATION- society‘s interest can be better served by the extension of help to the prisoner to become a law abiding citizen and productive upon his return to the community by requiring him to undergo an intensive Program of rehabilitation in PRISON
TYPES OF NORMS
formal- have been written down and involve strict rules for punishment of violators
SOME IMPORTANT TERMS IN STUDYING OF CRIMINOLOGY 1 CRIMINOGENIC PROCESS - explain human behavior which helps in determining the nature of personality as a reacting mechanism. 2 CRIMINAL PSYCHODYNAMICS - study of the mental process of criminal in action; the study of genesis, development and the motivation of human behavior that conflicts with accepted norms and standard of society. 3 CULTURAL CONFLICT - a class between societies because of contrary beliefs or substantial variance in their respective custom, language, institution, habits learning, and tradition. 4 DEMENTIA PRAECOX - a collective term of mental disorder that begin at, or shortly after puberty and usually lead the general failure of the mental faculties 5 DELUSION - a false belief about self, caused by morbidity, present in paranoia and dementia praecox