Intro to Polyrithms - Ari Hoenig & Johannes Weidenmueller-1

July 23, 2017 | Author: Sara Paola Gomez Pinedo | Category: Jazz, Performing Arts, Poetics, Notation, Musical Notation
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conlenls Introduction

"

3

Explanation of Terrns

4

Practice Tips

5

Eighth-Note Triplets

8

Eighth Notes

10

Quarter-Note Triplets in 4/4

14

Dotted Quarter Notes in 3/4

19

Dotted Quarter Notes in 4/4

.23

Core Grooves

········

25

Displacing the Harrnonic Rhythm

27

Chord Progressions

.32

Suggested Listening

.35

About the Authors

.36

2

inlroduClion Welcome to Volume I of our Intro to Polyrhythms: Contracting and Expanding Time within Form So you are curious about polyrhythms, about the language and vocabulary of metric modulation and superimposition? Maybe you only have a vague idea what these concepts mean and would like to know more. Or you've always wanted to incorporate more rhythmic freedom into your playing but are not quite sure how to develop this skill. Maybe you recently found yourself in a musical situation in which you felt rhythmically unprepared. Whatever your reasons are, you've come to the right place. We will attempt to demystify the subject and present you with a codified approach to learning the vocabulary and language of metric modulation and superimposition. This language is nothing new. Polyrhythms such as three against two and four against three have been part of the African music tradition for many centuries, and polyrhythms have always been an integral part of the jazz tradition. The Miles Davis Quintet of the 1960's was one of the first jazz ensemble s to explore and develop a language based on this vocabulary. The result was an amazing freedom within form. In the last decade or two, the use of metric modulation in jazz has increased exponentially: Polyrhythmic vocabulary has beco me very sophisticated, and it is rare to hear a jazz ensemble perform original music that does not employ it in one way or another. It has become so cornmon that the ability to understand and apply time shifts and modulations has in fact become a fundamental skill, a skill that in our opinion every serious jazz musician should acquire to sorne degree. We have found that there are very few educational material s available that address the subject as a whole, and those who do are almost exc1usively geared towards drurnmers. The material on this DVD addresses all instrumentalists and presents a comprehensive approach to understanding and applying the language of polyrhythms, metric modulation and superimposition within a jazz context. The text and notational examples should be referred to if necessary only after listening to and trying to absorb the musical examples by ear. The idea is that these musical examples should be learned primarily aurally, in an organic way. This process will aid you in making musical decisions that are dictated by emotion and not by mathematics.

Ari and Johannes

3

lerms Here is a quick explanation of sorne of the terms we are using:

Metric Modulation

In technical terms, metric modulation signifies changing the tempo of a piece so that the new tempo has son kind of mathematical relation to the original tempo. This is achieved by making a note value from the first temf equivalent to a note value in the second. For example if you take a half note in your original tempo and ma that half note equal to the quarter note in the new tempo you end up with a modulation to halftime.

Superimposed Metric ModuIation

On this DVD we are applying all the modulations over a form, in which the original harrnonic structure an time feel stay intact. Therefore we are actually superimposing one time feel or pulse over another. Polyrhythm are a good example of this. The superimposed or layered pulse or what we call core rhythm and core groov create the illusion of the tempo momentarily shifting when in fact it is noto So, technically speaking, most of tb examples on this DVD are superimposed metric modulations, but for the sake of simplicity we will stick wi the term "metric modulation".

Core Rhythms

Subdivisions such as eighth notes, triplets and sixteenth notes can be grouped to form what we call a cor rhythm. For instance, a dotted quarter note is a core rhythm; it is based on the subdivision of eighth notes i: groupings of three. There are three basic core rhythms that we explore in Volume 1: dotted quarter-notes, eighth note triplets and quarter-note triplets. Core rhythms are the basic building blocks for what we call core groove~

Core Grooves

Core grooves are a more musical application of core rhythms. To create a core groove, first we take a corl rhythm and play it in groupings oftwo, three, four or five etc ... Examples of core grooves inelude a basic swing samba or bossa that is superimposed over a different time feel.

Forms

There are a few reasons why we think it is more beneficial to apply these exercises over a form rather tha just over a particular pulse. First of all, one of the purposes of superimposing one groove or time feel over anotb er is to create tension. Rhythmic superimposition creates two sets of pulses competing for your attention anc therefore two sets of competing musical expectations. A form - any cyelical set of bars, with or without harmonÍ movement - provides an opportunity to raise the intensity of your expectations for resolution. Without a fonn over which to apply the new groove, you won't achieve the same amount of tension nor the effect of any subse quent release. Second of all, in order for musicians to cornmunicate with one another, we must have some kind of a framework or road map as a basis of cornmunication. A form can be that framework. Finally, your musica facility is already based on the ability to navigate chord progressions and forms, and the ultimate purpose oftbe exercises in this book is for you to be able to use in a musical way. The forms that we are playing over are a twelve-bar blues in 4/4, a twelve-bar blues in 3/4, rhythm changes and a 32-bar AABA form.

Rhythmic Displacements

A rhythmic displacement is any rhythm or musical phrase that begins on a different part of the beat than its original starting point. This DVD covers rhythmic displacement extensively as well as polyrhythms and metri modulation.

4

Draclice lips General Practice Tips

Before you start playing any of these exercises on your instrument you should be able to elap, speak or sing them [ust. This helps you isolate the exercises and elirninates factors that could interfere, such as note choices or other technical aspects of your instrument etc. There are many different ways to practice these exercises. Keep in mind that no matter what core rhythm or groove you are displacing or superimposing, the original time (eighth note, quarter note or half note) has to stay your reference point. At the begining you might find it necessary to maintain an extemal reference point for the original time such as a metronome, a recording that you play along with or a fellow musician who is willing to keep time for you. As you get more cornfortable, your dependance on an extemal time keeper will diminish and you will be able to rely more and more on your intemal metronome. Here are sorne suggestions for practicing the exercises away from your instrument: 1. CIap the core rhythm while keeping the metronome on all four beats of every bar. 2. Clap the core rhythm while keeping the metronome on beats two and four of every bar. 3. CIap the core rhythm while keeping the metronome on beat one of every bar. 4. Replace the metronome with tapping your foot and repeat the aboye exercises. 5. Sing or speak the core rhythm while elapping all four beats of every bar. 6. Sing or speak the core rhythm while elapping on beats two and four of every bar. 7. Sing or speak the core rhythm while elapping on beat one of every bar. 8. When you're walking, think of your steps as half notes or quarter notes. While doing this, elap your hands or sing the core rhythm. For 3/4 time adjust the aboye exercises accordingly.

5

practice tips lor drummers While learning the examples in this book, it is helpful to keep the quarter-note pulse with either the hi-hat or bass drum. This is good for coordination as well as rhythmic understanding. Be creative. Improvise within the core rhythm. Try playing the quarter-note pulse with two limbs while playing the core rhythm with the other two limbs. Try altemating these pattems between each pair of limbs. Then try playing the quarter note with one limb while the other three limbs play the core rhythm. Drum Key cymbal

hi-hat

hi-hat with foot

bass drum

snare

practice tips lor bass plavers We found that there is a tendency to play shorter notes when they are anticipated or delayed, particularly when it comes to the core rhythm of waIking bass. In order to create the illusion of the time shifting temporarily, it is important that you play the full note values. As a bass player, you must not only superimpose a core rhythm over a form - which is challenging enoughbut at the same time you must displace the harrnonic rhythm. Expressing the harrnonic structure of a piece when the bass notes don't fall on beats one or three is not easy. If you find that you are having trouble with this seeif the following suggestions help: First, play the core rhythm or groove against a metronomic pulse making sure that you are completely secure with that. Then add the form but stay on one pitch and don't worry about expressing the harrnony yet. Check to make sure you are hearing the form in your head. Finally add the harrnonies. If you are unsure about where the chords fall in the new harrnonic rhythm, write out a few choruses and consult the examples later in the book.

6

practice tips lor pianists All of the exercises and ideas presented in this book can be applied to comping as well as to soloing. Many pianists have limited independence of the right and left hand, and it is not uncornmon that the left hand will follow the right hand or vice versa. Rere are sorne suggestions on how to develop more independence while working with the core rhythms in this book.

Preliminary exercises Pick a chord and voicing that are you are cornfortable with (either left hand or two-handed voicing) and stick with it. 1. Play the core rhythm while keeping the metronome on all four beats of every bar. 2. Play the core rhythm while keeping the metronome on beats two and four of every bar. 3. Play the core rhythm while keeping the metronome on beat one of every bar. 4. Replace the metronome by tapping your foot and repeat the aboye exercises. If you are cornfortable with this, repeat the exercises while playing them over a form. Adding the element of form can get pretty challenging, particularly if the core rhythm goes over the bar-line and therefore changes the harmonic rhythm. Choose a chord progression that you are really cornfortable and familiar with. The less you have to worry about finding the right notes or chords the better. You can find sorne suggestions on how to approach the subject in the chapter about harrnonic rhythm.

Left and right-hand independence using the core rhythms. Pick a chord and a left-hand voicing that you are cornfortable with, and a scale in the right hand that fits with that chord. 1. With your left hand, comp on all four beats of the bar and play the core rhythm with your right hand using notes of the scale. 2. With your left hand, comp on beats two and four of the bar and play the core rhythm with your right hand using notes of the scale. 3. With' your left hand, comp on beats one and three of the bar and play the core rhythm with your right hand usingnotes of the scale. 4. With your left hand, pick a standard comping rhythm and play the core rhythm with your right hand. Reverse the exercises. 1. With your left hand, comp using the core rhythm and with your right hand play half notes using notes of the scale. 2. With your left hand, comp using the core rhythm and with your right hand play quarter notes using notes ofthe scale. 3. With your left hand, comp using the core rhythm and with your right hand play eighth notes using notes of the scale. Next repeat the exercises but play them over a form. Again, choose something that you are really cornfortableand familiar with. The more advanced you get the more you can experiment with making up your own exercises.Try to play the melody of a tune in your right hand while comping core rhythms in your left. You could combinetwo core rhythms, for example: solo using the core rhythm of quarter-note triplets in your right hand, and comp on every second triplet in your left. The possibilities are endless. 1

eighlh-nole IriplelS This chapter deals with the core rhythm of eighth-note triplets.1t is essential in all triplet-based music, such as swing, that you are able to feel equally cornfortable on all three parts of the triplet. If you don't have this foundation set, all subsequent metric modulations based on triplets are going to be shaky and insecure, so make sure you really have these exercises down before you move on. The form we are using for the exercises in this chapter is a 12-bar blues in the key of F. Watch Chapter 1 on the DVD to see how eighth-note triplet modulations can be applied in a musical way. DVD Chapter 3: First Triplet Core Rhythm

, ' , t' , t' , t' , r--- 3-----,

r--- 3-----,

r--- 3-----,

r--- 3-----,

I

etc

A quick note: the first triplet is obviously the downbeat of every quarter-note, and while this might seem deceptively simple, it is not. Just playing quarter notes while keeping good time and swinging hard is more difficult then you think, and should be the foundation for any more complicated and advanced pattems. Core Groove A: 4/4 Swing

'>(

'>(

'>(

'>(

Basic Walking Core Groove F7

19: e J

B~7

J

J

J

[ij

3----,

r--- 3--,

r

DVD Chapter 4: Third Triplet Core Rhythm ,---

3----,

r--- 3-----,

,---

q , .b r ' .b r '

.b

r'

.b

8

I

etc

¡'F . q~

etc.

DVD Chapter 5: Starting on the third triplet Core Groove A: Swing

.----

3 --,

.---

3 ----,

.---

3 ----,

,---

3 -----,

.---

3 ----,

DVD Chapter 6: Second triplet Core Rhythm ,---

3 -----,

tKf

,---

3 -----,

r

J),

J) ,

r

,---

3 -----,

r~

J) ,

etc

DVD Chapter 7: Starting on the second triplet Core Groove A: Swing

.~:p '~? : p ,: ? ::~ ro-- 3 ----,

.----

3 ----,

L--

3 -----'

.---

3 ----,

~ r-

.----

3 ----,

'--

3 ------'

B~

3 ---,

3 ---.

r-

3 ---,

r--- 3 ---,

.-- 3 ---,

.-- 3 --,

~"--:e---'-'í--"'-_?5 _ ~__ ~

--

,

etc. .....-3---'

L--3----1

DVD Chapter 8: Aaron demonstrates on the piano how to solo using second and third triplets.

9

eighlh nOles

This chapter deals with the core rhythm of an eighth note. Again, you want to feel equally cornfortable on all eighth notes in a bar. This is the prerequisite to more complicated metric modulations. The form we are using in this chapter is rhythm changes in the key of B flat.

Watch Chapter 9 on the DVD and see the trio apply the material in this chapter over "Rhythm Changes'

Core Rbytbms First eighth note on One and Three.

DVD Chapter 11: Second eighth note on the and of One and Three.

DVD Chapter 13: Third eighth note on Two and Four

DVD Chapter 15: Fourth eighth note on the and of Two and Four.

10

You can also think of these exercises as a grouping of four eighth notes that is being displaced by an eighth note.

Core Groove B: Half- Time Swing Feel 3

I

1

~:~

J

~

p

I~

J J



P

r

?lI

F7

C-7

G7

fr

j

~

J

D-7

F7

I

~

~

J



C-7

G-7

m6

J

~

3

I

I

r

~

I etc.

DVD Chapter 12: Core Groove B displaced by one eighth starting on the second eighth note. Eighth notes are

swung. 3

3

~: ¡ & ¡ t ~ J m6

G-7

~

I

D-7

F7

C-7

& t

~

; , J

F7

C-7

G7

t :~

DVD Chapter 14: Core Groove B displaced by a quarter note starting on the third eighth note. ,3----,

,3----,

~:

' J

J

i

I' J

-

r

J

i

r

:~

Asa harmonic instrument you have the option of either anticipating or delaying the harrnonic rhythm. Both work: justbe aware that anticipating the harrnonic rhythm will create a sense of forward motion.

11

For bass, delaying the harrnonic rhythm looks like the following example: m6

G-7

C-7

zga===µ

19: e l d

D-7

F7

G7

~

~

"-"

C-7

------

F7

j

@t

I

etc.

Whereas anticipating looks like the following example: m6

19: e

-

l

~~

G-7

C-7

F7

~

D-7

G7

C-7

F7

~Ja

~

~

etc.

DVD Chapter 16: Core Groove B displaced by three eighths starting on the fourth eighth note.

[;Ji 3

~I:S

[;Ji , 3

, -

' ~I ¡

~

:~ etc.

m6

I:)=e

G-7

C-7

F7

,lijij. ~. '--'"

'--'"

D-7

.

.

G7

~

~.

C-7



~r

F7

~$

DVD Chapters 17,18 and 19: Aaron demonstrates on the piano how to apply the second, third and fourth eighth note displacement to soloing over "Rhythm Changes".

DVD Chapters 20, 21 and 22: Rere the trio demonstrates the musical application of the second, third and fourth eighth note displacement over "Rhythm Changes".

12

Below is an example of a simple funk groove displaced in the same manner. Core Groove C: Funk

r f r

~

~

f r

f

:~

F7

[9:c~

1

r

1

:~

~

Displaced by one eighth note starting on the second eighth note.

F7

Displaced by a quarter note starting on the third eighth note.

~'r!'fg'rrf:~ F7

~

S sS

'ª=W

Displaced by three eighth notes starting on the fourth eighth note.

13

:~

guarler-nOle Iriplels in 4/4 This chapter deals with the core rhythm of a quarter-note triplet. If you are not completely cornfortable with playing quarter-note triplets, go back to eighth-note triplets and make sure you are cornfortable with those first. Eighth-note triplets are the building blocks for quarter-note triplets. The form we are using for this chapter is a 4/4 blues in F. Watch Chapter 23 on the DVD and see the trio apply the material in this chapter over a blues.

Core Rhythm 3

msf r

r

~

~

3

I

I

r

~

r

r

~

~

µ

etc.

Take a basic eighth-note triplet pattem and accent every other note. The pattem repeats after six eighth-note triplets or two quarter notes. DVD Chapter 25: Quarter-note triplet starting on beat One. In 4/4 time, the pattem repeats after one bar.

Core Rhythm .-3-----,

~

3

3

3

3

Bb7

F7

etc.

DVD Chapter 26: Quarter-note triplet starting on the second eighth-note triplet (you can also think of it as starting on beat Two or beat Four).

Core Rhythm I

3

I

3

I

I

~

:11 3

3

3

3

14

As a bass player you have the choice to either anticipate or delay the harrnonic rhythm. Anticipating chords - in this case playing the chord change on the and of beat Four as opposed to on the second eighth-note triplet of beat One - gives the bass line a nice forward motion. F7

,..--3~

-

/9: e

etc.

'"-'

3 -----'

L-----

~

3 ----.,t-- 3 .-J

3---.J

DVD Chapter 27: Quarter-note triplets grouped in twos. Core Rhythm 3

¡

¡

3

3

¡

3

I

3

3

Core Groove A: Swing 3

¡

i j' J i fJ~ I

3

~: ;

3

I

3

~-, J 3

I

'-----

¡

I

3

3 ------'

F7 3

ro

3

L

DVD Chapter 28: Quarter-note triplets grouped in threes. CoreRhythm

3

I

I

3

I

I

~ 3

~

3

3

3

15

Core Groove D: 3/4 Swing

I

3

'

J

W Il '~

3

3

3

3

~

,

3

~

'

3

1

~

J

etc.

DVD Chapter 29: Quarter-note triplets grouped in fours. Core Rhythm I

3

I

I

3

I

I

3

I

I

3

I

Core Groove F: Bossa

F7

,3,

r-3---,

r-3-¡ 'f

'f

~

DVD Chapter 30: Rere the trio demonstrates musical applications of quarter-note triplets over a blues. DVD Chapter 31: Displaced quarter-note triplets in groupings of two.

CoreRhythm ....-.

I

3

I

I

3~

:~ 3

3

3

3

16

etc.

Core Groove C: Funk

F7

F7

m7 ,3-,

IfJ

,--3--,

* * ~ª*

'í ~ L3-.J

DVD Chapter

'í 'í ~

*

L-3--.:..J

* #=1*

~

,3---,

'í 'í ~

*

"---'

32: Displaced quarter-note triplets in groupings of three.

CoreRhythm

3

3

3

3

DVD Chapter 33: Displaced quarter-note triplets in groupings of three.

Core Groove D: 3/4 Swing

3

!

, ___

,

3

3

3

F7

,3-,

1=J:e'1

~

j

etc.

also:Displaced quarter-note triplets in groupings of three. Core Groove E: Slow Blues in 3/4 ')(

1"

'"

'"

')(

')(

1"

1"

'" D

')(

x

1"-

1"

11

'>(

1"

1"-

1"

D

..

I etc.

,3,

19: e

't

J

r

3

1

J

~

l

J

1

..

3-----, ,3--,

1

§

I

3

1 I

~

etc.

L-3~

DVD Chapter 34: Displaced quarter-note triplets in groupings of four. Core Rhythm

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Core Groove A: Swing

L..--

3 ------l

í

f

:~

DVD Chapter 35: Rere the trio demonstrates musical applications of displaced quarter-note triplets over a blues.

18

dORedqUarler nOles in 3/4 This chapter deals with the core rhythm of dotted quarter notes in 3/4. Dotted quarter notes are eighth notes grouped in threes. The form we are using for this chapter is a 24-bar C minor blues in 3/4. Watch Chapter 36 on the DVD and see the trio apply the material in this chapter over the tune "Pawprints". DVD Chapter 38: Dotted quarter notes starting on beat One.

CoreRhythm

r r

~o

~o

L r ':0

r

L

~o

r r

:~

DVD Chapter 40: Dotted quarter notes starting on the 'and' of beat One.

CoreRhythm

L

r

DVD Chapter 42: Dotted quarter notes starting on beat Two.

CoreRhythm

Mf

r

~o

r

L

P#

DVD Chapter 39: Dotted quarter notes grouped in twos.

Core Groove A: Swing

C-7

19:!~·

F-7

§t. ~

19

r

~o

r r

t~~

DVD Chapter 41: Dotted quarter notes grouped in twos starting on the 'and' of One. Core Groove A: Swing

Note: The harrnonic rhythm can either be delayed by an eighth note; F-7

C-7 tfJ:I'~-~

_

F=t- ~-

t

1

etc.

or can be anticipated by a quarter note. C-7

F-7

19:1 ~.

etc.

DVD Chapter 43: Dotted quarter notes grouped in twos starting on beat Two. Core Groove A: Swing

Again the harrnonic rhythm can either be delayed by a quarter note

C-7

F-7

or it can be anticipated by and eighth note.

20

C-7

F-7

DVD Chapter 44: Dotted quarter notes grouped in threes. Core Rhythm

Note: Accent every third dotted quarter note.

DVD Chapter 45: Dotted quarter notes grouped in threes. Core Groove D: 3/4 Swing

~

l.II t'

;..

I ~.

9'.

~ ~'.

F-7

m:1 c·,J.

r-

¡'~

~..

C-7 ~'

P If'.

~'.

~r ~

r

f.

C-7

Jc=j

J.

r-

~.

21

etc.

C-7



~.

etc,

~.

DVD Chapter 46: Dotted quarter notes grouped in threes starting on the 'and' of One. CoreRhythm ,

DVD Chapter 47: Dotted quarter notes grouped in threes starting on the 'and' of One. Core Groove D: 3/4 Swing

etc.

F-7

C-7

&

t7: i ' J.

F

?

J

~.

>.

~~WJ r

J

>-

f#=a.

r

I~r

~

F=

Ifd'

DVD Chapter 48: The trio demonstrates dotted quarters starting on One.

DVD Chapter 49: The trio demonstrates dotted quarters starting on the 'and' of One.

22

.

r=

C-7

C-7

C-7

~.

~.

etc.

F

doned quarler-noles in 4/4 This chapter deals with the core rhythm of dotted quarter notes in 4/4. There are two dotted q~arter notes for everythree quarter notes and in 4/4 the pattem repeats after three bars. The form we are using for this chapter is a typical 32 bar AABA form. Watch Chapter 50 on the DVD and see the trio apply the material in this chapter overthe tune "Take the G Train" .

DVD Chapter 52: Dotted quarter notes in 4/4 CoreRhythm

.

DVD Chapter 53: Dotted quarter notes grouped in twos. Core Groove A: Swing etc.

Cmaj7

[:1: e J



--

~.

D7 etc.

D7hl

J.

~.

r-

DVD Chapter 54: Dotted quarter notes grouped in threes. CoreRhythm

Note:Accent every third dotted quarter-note. This rhythm repeats after nine bars.

23

~.

J.

~

DVD Chapter 55: Dotted quarter notes grouped in threes. Core Groove D: Swing in 3/4

etc.

Note: Pattem repeats after 9 bars. CMaj7

19:e

J

D7Ul



~

J

~.

J.

~

D-7

G7

CMaj7

r m r r·

~.

~. D-7

~

~.



~.

r?Tijgf·

J.

~

G7

etc.

~r·



The following are sorne more examples of core grooves of dotted quarter notes grouped in fours. Core Groove C: Funk etc.

etc.

Dotted quarter notes grouped in fours starting on the 'and' of One. etc.

~

etc. ~

DVD Chapter 56: Trio demonstrates dotted quarter notes in 4/4 time. 24

eore grooves Here is a listing of the core grooves we are using on the DVD

Core Groove A: 4/4 Swing

~ ~'F ~~~ 3

3

Core Groove B: Ralftime Swing

1

~

3

1,

f

1 3

Core Groove C: 4/4 Funk

Core Groove D: 3/4 Swing

~

~'F-f 3

:~

F7

or

25

F7

Core Groove E: 3/4 Slow Blues

F7

Core Groove F: Bossa

F7

26

displacing Ihe harmonic rhVlhm Sorne of the previous exercises involve displacing the harrnonic rhythm. When you apply é}. core rhythm such as a dotted quarter note to a harrnonic structure, the harrnonic rhythm will be displaced and chords will no longer fall only on beat One or beats One and Three. Sometimes there will not be enough beats in the new time to express all the chords, and sometimes there will be too many beats and you will have to repeat chords. You have to try to fit the new rhythm over the existing harrnonic structure/form and make it sound musical. Often times you are faced with having to either anticipate or delay the harrnony; both work. Anticipating the harrnony will givethe tune a feeling of forward motion, whereas delaying it will give it a feeling of stretching the time. Here is an example of a dotted quarter harrnonic rhythm over an F blues in 4/4. The chord changes that do not faH on beat One or Three are anticipated.

F7

~.

B~ J.

F7

~.

r

(

(

(

~

(



(



(

(

~.

~

D7

~.

(

D7

r

(

A-7

A-7

(

B~



(

F7/C

C7

$

(

~

BO

~.

F7

(

G7

~

C7

~.

(

G-7

(

:~

This is what a bass line for the aboye example could look like.

F7

~.

B~7

J.

F7

W=r'

J.

~~. BO

~'

r

r

~. be-

~.

F7/C

C7

r r

F7

tIr

tAo

A-7

be-

F- ~.

21

B~7

A-7

~l D7

b --

r

~.

§

D7

-r·

~.

G7

-m r·

G-7

~

C7

J.

C7



:~

Rere is another way of playing the harrnonic rhythm. Sorne of the chords are now delayed.

B~

F7

~.

F7

~.

(

~.

(

~.



(

(

A-7

C7

(

~



(

( t1$=(.

(

G-7

D7

(ttij4.

(

F=

( A-7

F7/C

µ(

(



(

r

~

BO

B~

F7

(

~

C7

D7

G7

(

pr

(

(

:~

This is what a bass line could look like for the aboye example.

B~

F7

J.

~.

~.

~.



BO

B~

fi·



,.

F7

~



~j.

re·

§t

j.



~.

r

~. A-7



~~.



Notice that the basic rhythmic pattem repeats after three bars.

28

D7

G-7

-----

~. D7

J§j

J. A-7

F7/C

C7

""'

F7



G7

-

~.

~

C7

J

:~

Here is a dotted quarter core rhythm over the chord changes to "Take the G Train", a typical 32 bar, AABA

formo

Take the G Traio

o ~.

~.

(

~.

(

Cmaj7

G7

~.

~.

(

~. D-7

ij:f. ~. 025

~.

Fd?

(

(

~.

(

F· Fmaj7

(21

(

D7

~.

(

~

G7

rt7l#=r Cmaj7

G7

29

(

G7

(

~

Fmap



(

29

M

(

D7hl

(1?J#=?

(



(

(



(

Cmaj7

Cmap

~.



(

M

(

Fmap

D7

2/

Cmaj7

(

Cmaj7

M

r

~.

(

~.

(

~

D7

Fmaj7

~/7

G7

Cmaj7

J.

(

D-7

rt7l#=r

(

J1?ijE{. r

(

A-7

D-7



(

D7

G7

/3





(



(

Cmap

09

D7~1l

D7~1l

Cmap

Cmap

f

J.

A-7

(

r=.

(

D7~1l

(



D-7

(

(21

D-7

~.

(

FJ

Rere is a bass line for the same dotted quarter core rhythm.

Take the G Train

o

Cmaj7

~.

r. ~.

~.

IJ~ ,

Cmaj7

G7

r o

. r·

D-7

tr·

~.

~~

r

OC·

I~r

r D7



~.

[

@

G7

Cmaj7

r-

r

~

~

~. Fmaj7

Cmaj7

Cmaj7

G7

D-7

D7~1l

D-7

A-7

D7

Cmaj7

~

,.

D7~1l

Cmaj7

D7

D7

~.

o

Cmaj7

G7

G7

r -~

Cmaj7

~.

30

J.

J.

~ G7

D-7

D7~11

D7~1l

Cmaj7

A-7

J.

D-7

~.

~.

J.

~

G7

[

49

Chapter 34 from the section on quarter-note triplets. The Core Rhythm is a displaced quarter-note triplet in groupingsof four and the form is a blues. F7

~

m7

-

L3-.J

F7

' ,iJ§ 3

J§=jl

,3,

r-

m7

I

Bdim

, , rgr

,3--,

§[email protected]

-

~I

F7/C

J§=jl

L3-.J

'1'~

A-nS

tR -

I

L-3.-:.J

--D7

~I

,

I

'1~

L-3.-:.J

' ,iJ§

A-7

3

~

J§=jl

,3--,

C7

G-7

-

~

,--3---,

r-

,3,

I

G-7

-

~

C7

, ,@:? 3

~I

r-

I

:11

I

:~

Below is the same example but with Core Groove C: Funk. F7

m7

9I

I

~

F7 ,-- 3---,

I ~

L3-.J

''1

I

~

Bdim

B7

I

~

L-3---.:...J

F7

~I

"~

A-7~S

,3,

'-"

D7

,3,

~I

, '1~

I

G7

~

C7

I L3-.J

I

al

I

~

L-3---.:...J

~I

F7

G-7

~

I

~

31

I

mI

3-.J

C7 ,--3---,

,--3---,

"

't'l~ L-3---.:...J

"~

,3,

chord progressions Bines in F

l'

BIr7

F7

,

,.-

,.-

I

, I

t

BIr7

BIr7

I t .-

t

.-

t

.-

t

It

I

t

I

.-

t

.-

e.-

1.-

.-

t

Z

I

,.-

I

t

1

.-

t

.-

.-

.-

t

It

, I

t

t

I

I

,.-

.-

t

,

I t .-

.-

t

.-

t

:;

t

,.-

I ,.-

,.-

.-

C7

G-7

.-

,.-

.-

t

D7

D-7

1/

.-

,

I ,.A-7

F7 tI

'

.-

F7

C7

F7

C7

G-7 t

,.-

1I

I! 1

1

F7

t

.-

,.-

t

.-

:~

Pawprints

1

1'2

t

.-

t

.-

I .t

I,F;1 1

,e;1

I,D;" fijC-~1 ,

t

I

t

,.-

t

1/

.-

1

I

I

t

.-

t

.-

I

:;

,

:;

1

1

t

:;

I~ t

,

:;

I ,:;

,

:;

,.-

I ,:;

t

:;

t

I

:;

,.-

I ,"

t2

t

:;

t

:;

1

1

.-

t

.-

,.-

I ," 32

t

.-

t

.-

1I

,.-

,.-

,2

,

:;

,2

:;

,

F-ll

, :;

, :;

I~,

:;

C-ll t

:;

, :;

I~ t

t

G7 ~9

t

:;

t

:;

D-7 ~5

,.-

I

1

G7~9

e-ll

,"

.-

C-ll

D-7~5 t

t

F-ll :;

C-ll

,.-

.-

C7b 9 t

1

1

F-ll

,

t

C-ll

C-ll

C-ll

F-ll

F-ll

C-ll

C-ll

1

1

t

:;

G7~9

,"

,"

I ,"

,"

,"

~

Take the G Train

0, e

1

Cmaj7

Cm,i' ~ ?

I

I ?

D-7

I

1

~ ?

,~ ,~

?

1

?

,

~

?~

~

?

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,~

; ?

; ?

~

~

?

1 Z~

;

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1

1

?

,

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1/

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; ?

;

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I 1

,

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?

~

1I

?

?

;

?

;

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1

1

~

~

?

,~ :~ I

; ?

; ?

I

í ?



,~

I

?

~

;

?

;

1

?

1

,

~

~

?

?

í

; ?

;

?

~

11

?

33

?~

1

?

1/

~

?

,.~

,~

~

?

~

~

~

?

?

; ?

; ?

,~

G7 ; ?

?

I

1

í

?

~

D7~1l I

?

,~

I ?

1

Cmaj7 ; ?

-~

Fmaj7

~

D7~1l ?

,~

Cmaj7

D-7

G7 ;

II~maj7

G7 ?

I r~ -~ ,

I

?

Fmaj7

~

Cmaj7

~

D-7

It

?

D-7

~

,~

I

?

1

A7

~

D7~1l

I

?

D7

1

1 Z;

1/

~

~

?

Fmaj7

D7

I

~

?

11.E-7

[!]Fmaj7 ~ I

~

1I

G7

~

D7~1l



;

?

D-7 ; ?

; ?

í ?

1

, ;

;

?

1

G7

, ;

~

?

; ?

~

Rhythm Changes

l'

0

I

1

A!r¡

E~6

B!r¡

,~

,

~

,

,

;

;

, í

í

~

,~

, ;

,

;

,

í

, ;

,

;

;

,

;

,"

I

, ;

1 1

,

;

1 1

I

, ;

," ," ,~

1 1

,"

,~ ,"

F7

,~ ,~ ,"

:~I

IZ

, í

I

,

;

A!r¡

, ;

I

1 1

IZ

, ;

;

IZ

34

I

,~ , ,~ ;

1

~

,

;

,

;

11

,

í

,

I

,

,

Z

;

F7

,"

,

,

;

;

,

í

, ;

, ;

,

;

, ;

;

11

;

~

F7

,

;

,

I

,

,

,

;

B~6

F7

,"

1

C-7

G7

C-7

,

B~6

G7

D-7

F7

E~6

B!r¡

,

I 1

112c~

F7

F7

C-7

G-7

F-7

I ,;

IZ C7

,

,

I

1

G7

D7

0BP6 1

,~

,"

,"

IZ C-7

G7

1~-7

;

1

C7

IZ

,"

,"

, ," ," , ," , ," ,~ ," I~

[I]D7 ~~

,~

1 1

Il 2

F-7

I

,~ ,~

,"

F7

C-7

G7

D-7

F7

C-7

G-7

B~6

,

;

IZ

;

;

;

~

suggesled lislening Are you looking for musical examples of metric modulation? Virtually every recording of the second great Miles Davis quintet between 1963 and 1968 contains exampIes of metric modulation. Rere are just a few suggestions: Miles Davis:

Miles Srniles

Miles Davis:

My Funny Valentine

Miles Davis:

Nefertiti

Miles Davis:

Four and More

Miles Davis:

The Sorcerer

Since then, metric modulation has become an integral part ofthe jazz vocabulary. You can find it on a majority of the recordings released since 1990. Rere are sorne examples:

Wynton Marsalis:

Standard Time Vol. I

Wynton Marsalis:

Live at Blues Alley

Kenny Wemer:

Form and Fantasy

Kenny Wemer:

Peace

Kenny Wemer:

Beat Degeneration

Ari Roenig:

The Painter

Ari Roenig:

Inversations

John O'Gallagher:

Axiom

Jochen Rueckert:

Introducing Jochen Rueckert

Ari Roenig:

Bert's Playground

35

aboUI Ihe aUlhors Johannes Weidenmueller Bassist Johannes Weidenmueller has been a member of Ray Barretto's New World Spirit, the Carl Allen-Vincent Herring quintet, the John Abercrombie quartet, the Joe Lovano trio and the Kenny Wemer trio among others. Other associations include Benny Golson, James Moody, Gary Bartz, Clifford Jordan, Dewey Redman, Randy Brecker, Kenny Wheeler, Toots Thielemans, George Benson, Wynton Marsalis, Joshua Redman, Jonny Coles, Joe Chambers, Norah Jones, Madeleine Peyroux and many others. Johannes has appeared on over 60 recordings as a sideman. He has been on the faculty of the New School's jazz and contemporary music program in New York since 1997 where he teaches bass and ensemble. He is an in-demand clinician who gives lectures and workshops at universities and colleges around the world.

Ari Hoenig Drurnmer Ari Hoenig was bom in 1973 in Philadelphia, PA. He has worked extensively in bands led by Shirley Scott, Jean Michel Pilc, Kenny Wemer, Chris Potter, Pat Martino, Joshua Redman, Wayne Krantz, Richard Bona, Mike Stem, Kurt Rosenwinkel, Bojan Z, Jazz Mandolin Project and James Hurt. Since 2002, Ari has been leading his own group in New York City where they play regularly at "Smalls" jazz club on Monday nights. Ari is a Dreyfus recording artist who has recorded five CD's and a live DVD as a leader. He is also on more than 80 recordings as a sideman. As an educator, Ari teaches privately in Brooklyn and also for the New School for Social Research in Manhattan. He gives clinics and lectures at music schools and universities worldwide and writes a regular educational column for Modern Drummer magazine.

36

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