Interview for Airline

March 9, 2018 | Author: kerem | Category: Flight Control Surfaces, Takeoff, Lift (Force), Cloud, Stall (Fluid Mechanics)
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Best short Interview Questions...


Principles of Flight 1)

What is stall?

A stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases. This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded. The critical angle of attack is typically about 15 degrees, but it may vary.


What is Lift?

Lift is a resultant force of the pressure differences between upper and lower surfaces of a wing. The amount of lift is affected by;    


Air Density (Altitude) TAS Lift Coefficient (AoA and Shape of that specific Wing) Wing Area

How an aircraft flies?

Four forces keep an airplane in the sky. They are lift, weight, thrust and drag. Lift pushes the airplane up. The way air moves around the wings gives the airplane lift. The shape of the wings helps with lift, too. Weight is the force that pulls the airplane toward Earth. Airplanes are built so that their weight is spread from front to back. This keeps the airplane balanced. Thrust is the force that moves the airplane forward. Engines give thrust to airplanes. Drag slows the airplane. You can feel drag when you walk against a strong wind. Airplanes are designed to let air pass around them with less drag. Güner TÜRKEL – THK ISTANBUL 1


Aspect Ratio

In aerodynamics, the aspect ratio of a wing is essentially the ratio of its length to its breadth (chord). A high aspect ratio indicates long, narrow wings, whereas a low aspect ratio indicates short, stubby wings. For most wings the length of the chord is not a constant but varies along the wing, so the aspect ratio AR is defined as the square of the wingspan b divided by the area S of the wing.


Swept Wing

Advantages   

Efficient at high speed flight Increase Mcrit Increases Lateral and Directional Stability

Disadvantages   


Not efficient at low speeds Tip Stall occurs first SW Can cause wing drop and deep stall in T tail aircrafts.

Effect of CG Position to an Air Plane




Take-off requires more ELEVATOR, so later LIFT-OFF





Take-off requires less ELEVATOR, so shorter LIFT-OFF

More DRAG due to Trim

Less DRAG due to Trim

Increases STALL speed because needs more LIFT

Decreases STALL speed because needs less LIFT



Stability and Controllability

An airplane in flight is constantly subjected to forces that disturb it from its normal horizontal flight path. Rising columns of hot air, down drafts gusty winds, etc., make the air bumpy and the airplane is thrown off its course. Its nose or tail drops or one wing dips. Güner TÜRKEL – THK ISTANBUL 2

Stability is the tendency of an airplane in flight to remain in straight, level flight and to return to this attitude, if displaced, without corrective action by the pilot. Controllability is linked directly to stability and maneuverability is linked to the performance limitations of the aircraft. Controllability refers to how easily the aircraft is disrupted from its current state by pilot control inputs.

  


Longitudinal Stability is motion about Lateral Axis. Lateral Stability is motion about Longitudinal Axis. Directional Stability is motion about Normal Axis.

Dutch Roll

Dutch Roll is an oscillatory in stability associated with swept wing in Jet Aircraft. If Lateral stability bigger than directional stability and it is the combination of yawing and rolling motions. Main factor is outer wing is to travel faster and to become more straight on the relative airflow. The outer wing upward moving stalls and loses all lift and therefore the wing drops and the sequence starts in the opposite direction. This phenomenon happens in the longitudinal axis we know as Dutch roll. Prevent Dutch Roll: 1. Yaw Damper (Automatic Control System which detects yaw motion and gives the required rudder input) 2. Small aileron input (if yaw damper doesn’t work) by the pilot. The reason is the high intensity of rudder input is really hard in Dutch roll. So we should apply small aileron input in order to recover from Dutch Roll.


The functions of Flaps and Spoilers Flaps 1. 2. 3. 4.

Increases chamber of the wing Increases Cl – Lift Coefficient Take-off and Land at lower airspeeds Increase drag to help the aircraft decelerate

Spoilers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Decrease air speed of the aircraft while flying. (Speed Breaks) Decrease the lift of the aircraft while flying. Help to increase the rate of descent. Help ailerons to roll the aircraft. (Roll Spoilers) Help the breaking action when breaking on the ground. (Ground Spoilers)



Slip and Skid


Performance 1)


 TORA: (usable length of the runway) is declared length of runway which an airplane can commence the take-off and ending at the point where the runway is unable to bear the load of an aircraft.  TORR: is the measured run required to the unstick speed (Vr) + 1/3 of the airborne distance between the Vr and screen height (35ft).  ASDA: TORA + STOPWAY (if available)  EMDR/ASDR: Tam V1 da motor arızası yaşadığımızı ve pilotun o anda aborted takeoff uyguladığını varsayalım. Bu arada geçen mesafeye EMDR denir. Mesafeye reverse thrusts dâhil değildir ve %10 safety margin eklenir.  TODA: TORA + CLEARWAY (if available) max: TORA x 1.5 (Kalkışa başladığımız andan V2 süratiyle screen height (35ft) geçtiğimiz nokta)  TODR: is the measured distance required to accelerate to the rotation speed + screen height distance with a speed of not less than V2.  LDA: One Threshold to another Threshold.  BALANCED FIELD: ASDA = TODA

STOPWAY: is a term related to the dimension of some runways. The stopway is an area beyond the TORA which can be used for deceleration in the event of an aborted takeoff. It must be:


o o o


At least as wide as the runway Centered upon the runway extended centerline Capable of supporting the airplane during an aborted takeoff without causing structural damage to the aircraft o Designated by the airport authorities for use in decelerating the airplane during an aborted takeoff CLEARWAY: is the length of an obstacle free area at the end of the runway in the direction of the take-off, with a minimum width of 75 m either side of the extended runway center line that is under the control of authority. It is an area over which an aircraft may make a portion of its initial climb to a screen height, 35ft and the area could be water as well.






TAS= IAS + 3% / Thousands of Feet



TAS= CAS + 1.75% Thousands of Feet



TAS = EAS / √air density



TAS= IAS + (IAS/60 x ALT/1000)



Mach=TAS/Speed of Sound








Take – Off decision Speed.


Takeoff safety speed. The speed at which the aircraft may safely become airborne with one engine inoperative.[7][8][9]


Minimum takeoff safety speed.[7][8][9]


Flap retraction speed.[8][9]


Steady initial climb speed. The all engines operating take-off climb speed used to the point where acceleration to flap retraction speed is initiated. Should be attained by a gross height of 400 feet.[10]


Design maneuvering speed.This is the speed above which it is unwise to make full application of any single flight control (or "pull to the stops") as it may generate a force greater than the aircraft's structural limitations.


Indicated airspeed at threshold, which is equal to the stall speed VS0 multiplied by 1.3 or stall speed VS1g multiplied by 1.23 in the landing configuration at the maximum certificated landing mass. If both VS0 and VS1g are available, the higher resulting Vat shall be applied.[12] Also called "approach speed".


Turbulence penetration speed.


Design cruise speed, used to show compliance with gust intensity loading. [13]


Design diving speed.



Designed flap speed.


Maximum flap extended speed.


Maximum speed in level flight at maximum continuous power.


Maximum landing gear extended speed. This is the maximum speed at which it is safe to fly a retractable gear aircraft with the landing gear extended.


Maximum landing gear operating speed. This is the maximum speed at which it is safe to extend or retract the landing gear on a retractable gear aircraft.


Lift-off speed.[7][9]


Minimum control speed. Mostly used as the minimum control speed for the takeoff configuration (takeoff flaps). Several VMC's exist for different flight phases and airplane configurations: VMCG, VMCA, VMCA1, VMCA2, VMCL, VMCL1, VMCL2. Refer to the minimum control speed article for a thorough explanation.[7]


Minimum control speed in the air (or airborne). The minimum speed at which steady straight flight can be maintained when an engine fails or is inoperative and with the corresponding opposite engine set to provide maximum thrust, provided a small (3° - 5°) bank angle is being maintained away from the inoperative engine and the rudder is used up to maximum to maintain straight flight. VMCA is also presented as VMC in many manuals.


Minimum control speed on the ground is the lowest speed at which the takeoff may be safely continued following an engine failure during the takeoff run. Below V MCG, the throttles need to be closed at once when an engine fails, to avoid veering off the runway. [16]


Minimum control speed in the landing configuration with one engine inoperative.[9][16]


Maximum operating limit speed.[7][8][9]


Minimum unstick speed. Lowest speed that aircraft can lift of maximum geometrical pitch angle.



Never exceed speed.[7][8][9][17]


Maximum structural cruising speed or maximum speed for normal operations. [7][8][9]


Maximum operating maneuvering speed.[18]



Rotation speed. The speed at which the aircraft's nosewheel leaves the ground.[7][8][9] Also see note on Vref below.

Landing reference speed or threshold crossing speed. 1.3 times the stalling speed in the stated landing configuration and at the prevailing aircraft weight. This is the speed required as the landing runway threshold is crossed at 50 feet height if calculated aircraft performance is to be achieved.


Stall speed or minimum steady flight speed for which the aircraft is still controllable. [7][8][9]


Stall speed or minimum flight speed in landing configuration. [7][8][9]


Stall speed or minimum steady flight speed for which the aircraft is still controllable in a specific configuration.[7][8]


Reference stall speed.[7]


Reference stall speed in landing configuration.[7]


Reference stall speed in a specific configuration.[7]


Speed that will allow for best angle of climb. Most Altitude gain / Unit of Horizontal Distance


Speed that will allow for the best rate of climb. Most altitude gain / Unit of Time. (scarify)

Other V-Speeds Some of these V-speeds are specific to particular types of aircraft and are not defined by regulations.

V-speed designator




Minimum V1 is equals to Vmcg and Maximum V1 is equal to Vr.

Best range speed – the speed that gives the greatest range for fuel consumed – often identical to



Threshold speed[23]



Best angle of climb speed with a single operating engine in a light, twin-engine aircraft – the speed that provides the most altitude gain per unit of horizontal distance following an engine failure, while maintaining a small bank angle that should be presented with the engine-out climb performance data.[27]


Best rate of climb speed with a single operating engine in a light, twin-engine aircraft – the speed that provides the most altitude gain per unit of time following an engine failure, while maintaining a small bank angle that should be presented with the engine-out climb performance data.[15][27]

V1 Definitions V1 is the critical engine failure recognition speed or takeoff decision speed. It is the decision speed nominated by the pilot which satisfies all safety rules, and above which the takeoff will continue even if an engine fails.[9] The speed will vary among aircraft types and varies according to factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used and runway surface contamination.


V Speeds Sequence and relations

Vmcg – V1 – Vmca – Vr – Vlof – V2 Where; Vr > Vmca(1.05) Vr >= V1 Vr > Vmu(1.1) V1 > VMBE V1 > Vmcg V2 > Vmca(1.1) Vs (1.2) Vr


Meteorology 1)

METAR-TAF-SPECI-SIGMET-VOLMET 1) METAR: is abbreviated by Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Report and METAR is a format for reporting weather information. Reports are generated two times in an hour. 2) TAF: Terminal Area Forecast is the best source of weather for the specific aerodrome. It is issued 4 times a day and each one is valid for 24 hours. 3) SPECI: is issued between routine METAR reports and generated whenever a critical meteorological condition exists such as Windshear, Thunderstorms or Microbursts. 4) SIGMET: Significant Meteorological Information is in flight advisory concerning convective weather that is potentially hazardous to all aircraft. Reports may be about severe icing, extreme turbulence, CAT, dust and sand storms or volcanic ash. SIGMET is generally broadcasting by ATIS, ATC stations or VOLMET stations and valid up to 4 hours. 5) VOLMET: Meteorological Information for Aircraft in Flight, is a worldwide network of radio stations that broadcast TAF, SIGMET and METAR reports on shortwave frequencies, and in some countries on VHF too. Reports are sent in upper sideband mode, using automated voice transmissions.



CAVOK – VMC – IMC 11. CAVOK – Ceiling and Visibility OK a. No clouds below 5000 ft. above aerodrome level (AAL) or MSA whichever is higher. b. Visibility is at least 10 km or more. c. No cumulonimbus or Towering Cumulus in the vicinity. d. No Precipitation, Thunderstorms, Shallow Fog or Drifting Snow. 12. Visual Meteorological Conditions e. 5 km visibility or more, f. 1500 m horizontally away from cloud, g. 1000 m vertically from cloud, h. Ground inside.


Why Moist Air is less dense than Dry Air? Because at the same temperature, volume and pressure there always same number of molecules according to Avogadro’s Law. So if we add some water molecules in dry air some N2 and O2 should be replaced by H2O and the weight of H2O is lighter than both N2 and O2. Actually, the weight of N2 = 28 unit

O2 = 32 unit

H2O = 18 unit

Therefore if Mass decreases Density also decrease.


Difference between CB clouds over the equator and the poles? The main difference is the height of tropopause which is 30.000 ft. at the poles and 56.000 ft. at the equator. In addition Poles are High Pressure area and have Dry Air therefore less probability of CB cloud formation; on the other hand at the Equator the risk of convection is higher and trade winds brings moist air over the oceans and moist air mass converges and forms huge CB clouds. So the formation of CB cloud is higher at the equator.



What is Lapse Rate?

Lapse Rate is defined as the rate at which temperature is decreasing with increasing altitude. We use Lapse Rate in order to understand whether the air stable or unstable at a certain area.   

Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR): 3C / 1000 ft. Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR): 2C / 1000 ft. (According to Standard Atmosphere Rules) Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR): 1.5C / 1000 ft.

In addition if there is increasing Temperature with increasing Altitude, we called the phenomena as Temperature INVERSION which brings us very stable air and smoggy or foggy weather conditions.


Cloud Ceiling Calculation?

Temperature in Antalya = 14C; Dew Point = 7C at which height do we expect clouds (Rough Estimation)? 1st Way: (14C – 7C) x 400 = 2800 ft.

2nd Way: (14C-7C) / DALR (3C) x 1000 = 2300ft

17. How does the altimeter read when you are flying hot area to cold area with maintaining 3000 ft.? Flying hot air to cold air with maintaining same altitude altimeter over reads and this could be hazardous.

18.   

ICAO Standard Atmosphere Conditions

Pressure is 1013.25 millibars (29.92 inhg) and pressure is falling 30 ft. per 1 millibar. Temperature +15C and Lapse Rate 2C/1000 ft. until 36000 ft. -56,5C Density 1,225 g/m3


Tilt of the earth’s axis? And what is the reason for climates?

The seasons result from the Earth's axis of rotation being tilted with respect to its orbital plane by an angle of approximately 23.5degrees.



Thunderstorm Occurrence and Avoidance

TS's are one of the most dangerous weather hazards that pilots should avoid. Thunderstorms are associated with cumulonimbus clouds, and there may be several thunderstorm cells within a single cloud. It occurs in these conditions; 1. Unstable lapse rate (instability) 2. Some type of lifting action 3. High moisture content Embedded TS is one which is obscured by massive cloud layers and cannot be seen. There are three steps of TS which are cumulus stage, mature stage, dissipating stage. Wind shear areas can be found on all sides TS and directly under it. There are several hazards of thunderstorms which are wind shear, gusty winds, hail, icing conditions, lightening, turbulence, reduced visibility and radio/com interference. Pilots should avoid TS at least 20-25 NM. In order to avoid the possible dangers of TS, a pilot should pass around the CB cloud according to the movement direction of the cloud. In this picture wind direction is on the Left, so cloud is moving Left to Right. In this case pilot should turn left in order to avoid TS cloud.


Mountain Waves


Formation of Mountain Waves   

Stable waves +20 knots of surface wind increasing with altitude Perpendicular to the ridge of mountain within ± 30 degrees

Characteristics   

The wind direction at the lower side of the rotor clouds is opposite to the prevailing wind direction. Rotor axis is horizontal and parallel to the mountains. Mountain Waves are efficient up to 20 NM.

Threats   

Rotor clouds are very dangerous especially when flying from leeward side with headwind. AC Lenticular brings severe turbulence. CAP clouds are appear to be harmless but 5000 ft./min down droughts at the leeward side.


Types of Turbulence

Picture shows the different types of turbulence that can affect an aircraft. In the first segment the aircraft is experiencing Thermal turbulence. When the aircraft flies over the mountain it is then experiencing Mechanical turbulence. As it flies through the thunderstorm cloud it experiences Shear turbulence as it passes through the different flows of air within the thunderstorm. In addition of those types turbulence there are,  

CAT is formed in the colder side of a Jet Stream. Wake Turbulence is form when an aircraft generates lift.



 


QNH is barometric pressure adjusted to sea level. QNE is barometric pressure used for standard altimeter (1013). When QNE is selected, the altimeter will display pressure altitude, which is actual altitude corrected for non-standard pressure. (i.e. if pressure is lower than standard, pressure altitude is higher) QFE is the barometric altimeter setting that causes an altimeter to read zero when at the reference datum of a particular airfield.


Power Plant 1)

Jet Engine

N1 is the percentage of rotational speed and connected to Fan – Low Pressure Compressor and Low Pressure Turbine. N2 is the percentage of rotational speed and connected to High Pressure Compressor and High Pressure Turbine.


Navigation 1)

Holding Entry Calculation


Fix – To – Fix


VOR – ILS Needle Deflection  

Full scale of CDI needle deflection 10 degrees either sides of the track. Full scale of CDI (Localizer) deflection 2,5 degrees either sides of the track.

A pilot should not exceed half-deflection due to regulatory rules, which is equal to 5 degrees in VOR approaches and 1,25 degrees in ILS or Localizer approaches.



Reversal Tracks


Cone of Silence

Cone of Silence (NM) = Altitude / 3000



Base Turn

b. Procedure Turn

c. Race Track




Q Codes


MAGNETIC bearing FROM the station

Magnetic Radial


MAGNETIC bearing TO the station

Magnetic Course


TRUE bearing FROM the station

True Radial


TRUE bearing TO the station

True Course

MAA – MCA – MEA – MHA – MRA – MSA - MVA - MOCA – MORA 1) MAA – Max. Authorized Altitude Published altitude which representing the maximum usable altitude or flight level for an airspace structure or route segment. 2) MCA – Max. Crossing Altitude The lowest altitude at certain fixes at which an aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher MEA.


3) MEA – Min. Enroute Altitude The lowest published altitude between radio-fixes that meets obstacle clearance requirements between those fixes and in many countries assures acceptable navigational signal coverage. 4) MHA – Min. Holding Altitude The lowest altitude prescribed for a holding pattern which assures navigation signal coverage, communications, and meets obstacle clearance requirements. 5) MRA – Min. Reception Altitude The lowest altitude at which an intersection can be determined. 6) MSA – Min. SAFE Altitude Altitude depicted on an Instrument Approach Chart and identified as the minimum altitude which provides a 1000 ft. obstacle clearance within a 25 NM radius from the navigational facility upon which the MSA is predicated. If the radius limit is other than 25 NM, it is stated. This altitude is for EMERGENCY USE only and does not necessarily guarantee NAVAID reception. When the MSA is divided into sectors, with each sector a different altitude, the altitudes in these sectors are deferred to as "Minimum Sector Altitudes". An obstacle clearance criterion is Obstacles are cleared by 1000 ft. even for terrain or structures higher than 5000 ft. 7) MVA – Min. Vectoring Altitude An IFR altitude lower than the minimum en route altitude (MEA) that provides terrain and obstacle clearance. 8) MOCA – Min. Obstruction Clearance Altitude The lowest published altitude in effect between Radio Fixes on VOR airways, off-airway routes, or route segments which meet obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment and in the USA assure acceptable navigational signal coverage only within 22 NM of a VOR. 9) MORA – Min. Off-Route Altitude The MORA provides reference point clearance within 10 NM of the route centerline (regardless of the route width) and end fixes. The GRID MORA provides reference point clearance within the section outlined by latitude and longitude lines. An obstacle clearance criterion is Standard Jeppesen1.


Standard JEPPESEN Obstacle Clearance Criteria Obstacles with reference point at or below 6000 ft. MSL are cleared by 1000 ft. Obstacles with reference point above 6000 ft. MSL are cleared by 2000 ft.



Bir IFR Route yada Air Spacede NavAidleri sağlıklı alabileceğimiz max. İrtifadır.


Düşük bir MEA dan daha yüksek bir MEA ya giderken tırmanmaya başlarız. Tırmanma sebebimiz altımızdaki yükselen maniadır. Altımızdaki maniaya gelmeden 2000 ft clear olacak şekilde bir fix atanır. Bu fixi geçmemiz gereken min irtifa MCA dır.


IFR EnRoute Chartlarda kullanılan irtifadır. Tam route üzerinde Terrein Clearance ve NavAid garantisi verir. (NavAid bazen gidebilir.) Cross Radiallerde herhangi bir garantisi yoktur.


Bekleme yapılabilecek en düşük irtifa.


IFR EnRoute Chartlarda Intersection noktalarını identify etmek istediğimizde ve MEA dan daha yüksek olduklarında belirtilir. Ör: MEA 5000 ft. Ancak gerekli sinyali 5600 ft. Den alabiliyorsak belirtilir.


Alet yaklaşma kartlarında 25nm içinde HEP 1000 ft obstacle clearance verir. 25nm başka bi yarıçaptaysa mutlaka belirtilir. NavAid garantisi yoktur. Eğer sectorlere bölünmüş ise ismi Minimum Sector ALT olarak değişir.


10-1 chartlardaki minimum radar irtifaları. ATC tarafından vektörlenirken verilebilir. ATC geldiğimiz istikametteki 10-1 chartında basılmış MVA irtifasından düşük bir irtifa verirse kabul edilmez.


MEA'ya eşit yada az olmalıdır. Sadece az olduğunda basılır. Route boyu NavAid garantisi vermez sadece 22NM mesafedeyken NavAid garantisi verir. Bu yüzden 22nm içerisindeysek ve MEA altına inmek istersek MOCA'ya kadar inebiliriz. "T" ile gösterilir.


Route 'un 10nm etrafında (Cross Radiallerde) obstacle clearance verir.


Instrument Approach Segment 1) Arrival segment: The segment from where the aircraft leaves an en-route airway to the initial approach fix (IAF). 2) Initial approach: The segment from the initial approach fix2 (IAF) to either the intermediate fix (IF) or the point where the aircraft is established on the intermediate or final approach course. 3) Intermediate approach: The segment from the IF or point, to the final approach fix (FAF). 4) Final approach: The segment from the FAF or point, to the runway, airport, or missed approach point (MAP). 5) Missed approach: The segment from the MAP to the missed approach fix at the prescribed altitude.


Dry Lease vs Wet Lease

A dry lease means just the physical airplane without crew, maintenance or even fuel. A wet lease would generally include all the above.


Fix: Described by a NAVAID and Precise Point: Non-Precise Ex: Sağlık Point


10) Take-off Segments

11) Precision Approach A precision approach is an instrument approach and landing using precision lateral and vertical guidance with minima as determined by the category of operation.[1] Note. Lateral and vertical guidance refers to the guidance provided either by: a) A ground-based navigation aid; or b) Computer generated navigation data displayed to the pilot of an aircraft. c) A controller interpreting the display on radar screen (Precision Approach Radar (PAR)). Categories of precision approach and landing (including ILS and Auto land) operations are defined according to the applicable DA/H and RVR or visibility as shown in the following table. Güner TÜRKEL – THK ISTANBUL 24

Category of Operation

Decision Height (DH) (2)


Visibility not less than


≥ 200 ft.

550 meters



≥ 100 ft.

350 meters


100 ft. – 50 ft. or no DH

200 meters


lower than 50 ft. or no DH

200m – 50m




Notes: (1) Appendix 1 to JAR-OPS 1.430, Table 6, permits the use of an RVR of 300m for Category D aircraft conducting an auto land. (2) Vertical minima: 

CAT I Because the aircraft is unlikely to be flying over level ground at the same elevation as the touchdown zone when passing the Missed Approach Point, the vertical minima used in a CAT I approach is measured by reference to a barometric altimeter. In practice, this means that when flying a CAT I approach either a DA or DH may be used.

CAT II/III Because greater precision is required when flying a CAT II or CAT III approach, special attention is given to the terrain in the runway undershoot to enable a radio altimeter to be used. CAT II and CAT III approaches are therefore always flown to a DH with reference to a radio altimeter.

CAT II and CAT III instrument approach and landing operations are not permitted unless RVR information is provided.

12) Non – Precision Approach A non-precision approach is an instrument approach and landing which utilizes lateral guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance. (ICAO Annex 6) Non-precision approaches which are pilot-interpreted make use of ground beacons and aircraft equipment such as VOR, NDB and the LLZ element of an ILS system, often in combination with DME for range. Lateral guidance is provided by a display of either bearing to/from a radio beacon on the approach track or at the airfield or, in the case of an LLZ only approach, by display of the relative position of the LLZ track on the aircraft ILS instruments and vertical guidance is based on the range from the airfield as indicated by a DME at the airfield or on track or by timing based upon passage overhead radio beacons on the track described by the designated procedure.


Non-precision approaches are often conducted with less use of automated systems than precision approaches. However, on many modern aircraft, automatic systems may be left engaged until reaching the MDA/H, or beyond. For pilots of older aircraft, in which use of automated systems to assist in flying the approach is limited, a high degree of piloting skill is required to fly such approaches accurately and the frequent practice which many pilots need to achieve this can be difficult to come by if precision approaches are the normal method used. A high proportion of CFIT accidents have been shown to occur during non-precision approaches. This is in part a result of loss of situational awareness, e.g. resulting in descent before the initial approach fix; and in part a consequence of the lack of precise vertical guidance, which may involve leveling off at intermediate points between the initial approach fix and MDA/H (a step-down approach).

13) Climb & Descent Gradient

14) Marker Beacon


Mass and Balance 1)

Design Weight Limits (Structural Design Weights)

The aircraft gross weight is limited by several weight restrictions in order to avoid overloading the structure or to avoid unacceptable performance or handling qualities during operation. Aircraft gross weight limits are established during aircraft design and certification and are laid down in the aircraft type certificate and manufacturer specification documents. The absolute maximum weight capabilities for a given aircraft are referred to as the structural weight limits. The structural weight limits are based on aircraft maximum structural capability and define the envelope for the CG charts(both maximum weight and CG limits). Aircraft structural weight capability is typically a function of when the aircraft was manufactured, and in some cases, old aircraft can have their structural weight capability increased by structural modifications. a. Maximum design taxi weight (MDTW) The maximum design taxi weight (also known as the maximum design ramp weight (MDRW)) is the maximum weight certificated for aircraft maneuvering on the ground (taxiing or towing) as limited by aircraft strength and airworthiness requirements. It includes the weight of taxi and run-up fuel. b. Maximum design takeoff weight (MDTOW) Is the maximum certificated design weight when the brakes are released for takeoff and is the greatest weight for which compliance with the relevant structural and engineering requirements has been demonstrated by the manufacturer. c. Maximum design landing weight (MDLW) The maximum certificated design weight at which the aircraft meets the appropriate landing certification requirements. It generally depends on the landing gear strength or the landing impact loads on certain parts of the wing structure. The MDLW must not exceed the MDTOW. The maximum landing weight is typically designed for 10 feet per second (600 feet per minute) sink rate at touch down with no structural damage. d. Maximum design zero-fuel weight (MDZFW)[edit] The maximum certificated design weight of the aircraft less all usable fuel and other specified usable agents (engine injection fluid, and other consumable propulsion agents). It is the maximum weight permitted before usable fuel and other specified usable fluids are loaded in specified sections of the airplane. The MDZFW is limited by strength and airworthiness requirements. At this weight, the subsequent addition of fuel will not result in the aircraft design strength being exceeded. The weight difference between the MDTOW and the MDZFW may be utilised only for the addition of fuel.



Authorized Weight Limits

Aircraft authorized gross weight limits (also referred to as certified weight limits) are laid down in the aircraft flight manuals (AFM) and/or associated certificate of airworthiness (C of A). The authorized or permitted limits may be equal to or lower than the structural design weight limits. The authorized weight limits that can legally be used by an operator or airline are those listed in the AFM and the weight and balance manual. The authorized (or certified) weight limits are chosen by the customer/airline and they are referred to as the "purchased weights". An operator may purchase a certified weight below the maximum design weights because many of the airports operating fees are based on the aircraft AFM maximum allowable weight values. An aircraft purchase price is, typically, a function of the certified weight purchased. Maximum weights established, for each aircraft, by design and certification must not be exceeded during aircraft operation (ramp or taxying, takeoff, en-route flight, approach, and landing) and during aircraft loading (zero fuel conditions, center of gravity position, and weight distribution). In addition, the authorized maximum weight limits may be less as limited by center of gravity, fuel density, and fuel loading limits. a. Maximum taxi weight (MTW)[edit] The maximum taxi weight (MTW) (also known as the maximum ramp weight (MRW) is the maximum weight authorized for maneuvering (taxiing or towing) an aircraft on the ground as limited by aircraft strength and airworthiness requirements. It includes the weight of taxi and run-up fuel for the engines and the APU. It is greater than the maximum takeoff weight due to the fuel that will be burned during the taxi and run-up operations. The difference between the maximum taxi/ramp weight and the maximum take-off weight (maximum taxi fuel allowance) depends on the size of the aircraft, the number of engines, APU operation, and engines/APU fuel consumption, and is typically assumed for 10 to 15 minutes allowance of taxi and run-up operations. b. Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)[edit] The maximum takeoff weight (also known as the maximum brake-release weight) is the maximum weight authorized at brake release for takeoff, or at the start of the takeoff roll. The maximum takeoff weight is always less than the maximum taxi/ramp weight to allow for fuel burned during taxi by the engines and the APU. In operation, the maximum weight for takeoff may be limited to values less than the maximum takeoff weight due to aircraft performance, environmental conditions, airfield characteristics (takeoff field length, altitude), maximum tire speed and brake energy, obstacle clearances, and/or en route and landing weight requirements. c. Maximum landing weight (MLW)[edit] The maximum weight authorized for normal landing of an aircraft. The MLW must not exceed the MTOW. The operation landing weight may be limited to a weight lower than the Maximum Landing Weight by the most restrictive of the following requirements:


Aircraft performance requirements for a given altitude and temperature: Landing field length requirements, Approach and landing climb requirements

Noise requirements

If the flight has been of short duration, fuel may have to be jettisoned to reduce the landing weight. Overweight landings require a structural inspection or evaluation of the touch-down loads before the next aircraft operation. d. Maximum zero-fuel weight (MZFW)[edit] The maximum permissible weight of the aircraft less all usable fuel and other specified usable agents (engine injection fluid, and other consumable propulsion agents). It is the maximum weight permitted before usable fuel and other specified usable fluids are loaded in specified sections of the airplane. The MZFW is limited by strength and airworthiness requirements. At this weight, the subsequent addition of fuel will not result in the aircraft design strength being exceeded. The weight difference between the MTOW and the MZFW may be utilized only for the addition of fuel.


Weight Calculation



Fuel - Flight Planning Definitions


Additional Fuel

Additional fuel is fuel which is added to comply with a specific regulatory or company requirement. Examples include ETOPS fuel, fuel required for a remote or island destination where no alternate is available and fuel required to satisfy an MEL or CDL performance penalty. b.

Alternate Fuel

Alternate fuel is the amount of fuel required from the missed approach point at the destination aerodrome until landing at the alternate aerodrome. It takes into account the required fuel for:    

Missed approach at the destination airport Climb to en-route altitude, cruise and descent at alternate aerodrome Approach at alternate Landing at the alternate aerodrome

When two alternates are required by the Authority, alternate fuel must be sufficient to proceed to the alternate which requires the greater amount of fuel. c.

Ballast Fuel

Ballast fuel is sometimes carried to maintain the aircraft center of gravity within limits. In certain airplanes, a zero fuel weight above a defined threshold requires that a minimum amount of fuel be carried in the wings through all phases of flight to prevent excessive wing bending. In both cases, this fuel is considered ballast and, under anything other than emergency circumstances, is not to be burned during the flight. d.

Block Fuel / Ramp Fuel / Total Fuel On Board

Block fuel is the total fuel required for the flight and is the sum of the Taxi fuel, the Trip fuel, the Contingency fuel, the Alternate fuel, the Final Reserve fuel, the Additional fuel and any Extra fuel carried. e.

Contingency Fuel / Route Reserve

Contingency fuel is carried to account for additional en-route fuel consumption caused by wind, routing changes or ATM restrictions. In general terms, the minimum contingency fuel is the greatest of 5% of the trip fuel or 5 minutes holding consumption at 1500' above destination airfield elevation computed based on calculated arrival weight. However, some regulators, with special approval, allow reduction to 3% of trip fuel with use of en-route alternates or to specific time increments depending upon demonstrated performance criteria from the Operator. At least one authority allows, under very specific circumstances, for contingency fuel to be reduced to 0. f.

Extra Fuel

Fuel added at the discretion of the Captain g.

Final Reserve Fuel / Fixed Reserve Fuel / Holding Fuel

Final reserve fuel is the minimum fuel required to fly for 30 minutes at 1,500 feet above the alternate aerodrome or, if an alternate is not required, at the destination aerodrome at holding speed in ISA conditions. Some Regulating Authorities require sufficient fuel to hold for 45 minutes.



Minimum Brake Release Fuel

Minimum brake release fuel is that quantity of fuel which, at the commencement of the takeoff roll, complies with all regulatory requirements for the flight in question. This is the minimum legal fuel required for departure. i.

Reserve Fuel / Minimum Diversion Fuel

Reserve fuel is the sum of Alternate fuel plus Final Reserve fuel. j.

Taxi Fuel

Taxi fuel is the fuel used prior to takeoff and will normally include pre-start APU consumption, engine start and taxi fuel. Taxi fuel is usually a fixed quantity for average taxi duration. However, local conditions at the departure aerodrome such as average taxi time, normal ground delays and any anticipated deicing delays should be taken into consideration and the taxi fuel adjusted accordingly. k.

Trip Fuel / Burn / Fuel to Destination

The Trip fuel is the required fuel quantity from brake release on takeoff at the departure aerodrome to the landing touchdown at the destination aerodrome. This quantity includes the fuel required for:      

Takeoff Climb to cruise level Flight in level cruise including any planned step climb or step descent Flight from the beginning of descent to the beginning of approach, Approach Landing at the destination

Trip fuel must be adjusted to account for any additional fuel that would be required for known ATS restrictions that would result in delayed climb to or early descent from planned cruising altitude.


Air Law 1)

RVSM – Reduced Vertical Separation Minima

Reduced Vertical Separation Minima is the reduction of the standard vertical separation required between FL290 and FL410 inclusive, from 2000 ft. to 1000 ft. Therefore increases the number of aircraft by 6 levels that can safely fly in a particular volume of airspace. Historically, standard vertical separation was 1000 ft. from the surface to FL290, 2000 ft. to FL290 and 4000 ft. above. This was because the accuracy of the pressure altimeter decreases with height. Over time, air data computers (ADCs) combined with altimeters have become more accurate and autopilots more adept at maintaining a set level, therefore it became apparent that for many modern aircraft, the 2,000 feet separation was too cautious. It was therefore proposed by ICAO that this be reduced to 1000 ft.


ETOPS – Extended Twin Engine Operations

ETOPS is an acronym for Extended range Twin Operations as re-defined by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 2007. This rule allows Twin - Engined airliners (such as the Airbus A300, A310, A320, A330 andA350, the Boeing 737, 757, 767, 777, 787, the Embraer E-Jets, and the ATR 72) to fly long-distance routes that were previously off-limits to Twin - Engined aircraft. There are different levels of ETOPS certification, each allowing aircraft to fly on routes that are a certain amount of single-engine flying time away from the nearest suitable airport. For example, if an aircraft is certified for 180 minutes, it is permitted to fly any route not more than 180 minutes single-engine flying time to the nearest suitable airport.


Noise Abatement Procedures

Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 1

This procedure involves a power reduction at or above the prescribed minimum altitude and delaying flap/slat retraction until the prescribed maximum altitude is attained. At the prescribed maximum altitude, accelerate and retract flaps/slats on schedule while maintaining a positive rate of climb and complete the transition to normal en-route climb speed. The noise abatement procedure is not to be initiated at less than 800 feet AGL. The initial climbing speed to the noise abatement initiation point shall not be less than V2 + 10 knots. On reaching an altitude at or above 800 feet AGL, adjust and maintain engine thrust in accordance with the noise abatement thrust schedule provided in the aircraft operating manual. Maintain a climb speed of V2 + 10 to 20 knots with flaps and slats in the take-off configuration. At no more than an altitude equivalent to 3000 feet AGL, while maintaining a positive rate of climb, accelerate and retract flaps/slats on schedule. At 3000 feet AGL, accelerate to normal en-route climb speed.


Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 2

This procedure involves initiation of flap/slat retraction on reaching the minimum prescribed altitude. The flaps/slats are to be retracted on schedule while maintaining a positive rate of climb. The thrust reduction is to be performed with the initiation of the first flap/slat retraction or when the zero flap/slat configuration is attained. At the prescribed altitude, complete the transition to normal en-route climb procedures. The noise abatement procedure is not to be initiated at less than 800 feet AGL. The initial climbing speed to the noise abatement initiation point is V2 + 10 to 20 knots. On reaching an altitude equivalent to at least 800 feet AGL, decrease aircraft body angle whilst maintaining a positive rate of climb, accelerate towards Flaps Up speed and reduce thrust with the initiation of the first flaps/slats retraction or reduce thrust after flaps/slats retraction. Maintain a positive rate of climb and accelerate to and maintain a climb speed equal to Flaps Up speed + 10 to 20 knots till 3000 feet AGL. At 3000 feet AGL, accelerate to normal en-route climb speed.


Go – Around

Initiation of a go – around procedure may be either ordered by ATC (normally Tower) or decided by the pilot. At a towered field, the local controller may instruct the pilot to go around if there is an unsafe condition such as an aircraft, vehicle, or object on the runway. The pilot in command may decide to go around at any time, for example, if the aircraft is not lined up or configured properly for a safe landing; an aircraft, vehicle or other object has not cleared the runway; no landing clearance was received (at a towered field); the landing gear is not properly extended; a dangerous meteorological condition is experienced on final approach (e.g., poor visibility, excessive cross-winds, windshear, etc.); excessive energy (too high or too fast); or any other unsafe condition is detected.


Contaminated Runway

Contaminated runway: A runway is contaminated when more than 25 per cent of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the required length and width being used is covered by:   

Water, or slush more than 3 mm (0.125 in) deep; Loose snow more than 20 mm (0.75 in) deep; or Compacted snow or ice, including wet ice.



Aircraft Lights & Beacons

 Navigation lights: All aircraft are equipped with a steady light near the leading edge of each wingtip. When facing forward from the perspective of the pilot, the light on the right wingtip is green while that on the left wing is red. The different colors make it possible for an outside observer, such as the pilot of another aircraft, to determine which direction the plane is flying. These navigation lights are most useful at night when it is more difficult to tell the direction the plane is going without them.  Navigation or Position lights: In addition to the red and green lights, most planes are also fitted with other steady white navigation lights in various locations. Large airliners, in particular, will often have such lighting on the trailing edge of each wingtip. These lights are also sometimes placed along the trailing edges of the horizontal tail. Another popular location is at the very aft end of the fuselage or at the top of the vertical tail. One of these latter lights placed along the aircraft centerline is especially common on smaller airliners and commuter planes. Whatever the location, the purpose of these steady white lights is to improve the plane's visibility from behind the aircraft.  Anti-Collision Beacon lights: Two beacon lights are fitted to aircraft near the center of the fuselage. One is located on top of the fuselage and the other on the bottom. These lights are colored reddish orange and rotate to produce a flashing effect. The beacons are turned on just before the engines are started and they remain active until the last engine is shut down. The beacons help to serve as a safety warning to ground personnel that the engines are operational.  Strobe lights: High-intensity strobe lights that flash a white-colored light are located on each wingtip. Smaller planes are only equipped with one of these strobes near the leading edge just behind the red or green navigation light. Larger airliners may be equipped with an additional strobe at the trailing edge as well. These flashing lights are very bright and intended to attract attention during flight. They are sometimes also used on the runway and during taxi to make the plane more conspicuous.


Liberal Education 1)

World Map


North of Turkey Black Sea – Ukraine – Belarus – Russian Federation – Barents Sea – Artic Ocean South of Turkey Cyprus - Mediterranean Sea – Egypt – Sudan – Congo – Uganda – Tanzania – Zambia – Zimbabwe – Mozambique – Atlantic and Indian Ocean – Antarctica West of Turkey Aegean Sea – Greece – Adriatic Sea – Italy – Spain – Portugal – Azores Islands – Atlantic Ocean – NY – Washington East of Turkey Azerbaijan – Caspian Sea – Turkmenistan – Uzbekistan – Kyrgyzstan – Chine – North Korea – Sea of Japan Coordinates of Turkey



4. 5.



Principles of Air – Conditioning

 

Liquids absorb heat when changed from liquid to gas Gases give off heat when changed from gas to liquid.

For an air conditioning system to operate with economy, the refrigerant must be used repeatedly. For this reason, all air conditioners use the same cycle of compression, condensation, expansion, and evaporation in a closed circuit. The same refrigerant is used to move the heat from one area, to cool this area, and to expel this heat in another area.

1. The refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low-pressure gas, it is compressed and then moves out of the compressor as a high-pressure gas. 2. The gas then flows to the condenser. Here the gas condenses to a liquid, and gives off its heat to the outside air. 3. The liquid then moves to the expansion valve under high pressure. This valve restricts the flow of the fluid, and lowers its pressure as it leaves the expansion valve. 4. The low-pressure liquid then moves to the evaporator, where heat from the inside air is absorbed and changes it from a liquid to a gas. 5. As a hot low-pressure gas, the refrigerant moves to the compressor where the entire cycle is repeated. Note that the four-part cycle is divided at the center into a high side and a low side this refers to the pressures of the refrigerant in each side of the system


Jet Streams Jet Streams are a high-velocity narrow stream of winds, usually found near the upper limit of the troposphere, which flows generally from west to east. The jet streams on Earth — other planets have jet streams as well, notably Jupiter and Saturn — typically run from west to east, and their width is relatively narrow compared to their length. Jet streams are typically active at 20,000 feet (6,100 meters) to 50,000 feet (9,144 meters), or about 7 miles (11 kilometers) above the surface and travel in what is known as the troposphere of Earth’s multi-layered

atmosphere. Temperature also influences the velocity of the jet stream. The greater the difference in air temperature, the faster the jet stream, which can reach speeds of up to 250 mph (402 km/h) or greater, but average about 110 mph (177 km/h). Güner TÜRKEL – THK ISTANBUL 36

About Sun Express History SunExpress was founded in Antalya in October 1989 as the joint venture of one of the world’s leading airlines, Turkish Airlines and Lufthansa. Operating its first flight in 1990, the company blends the knowhow of German and Turkish aviation leaders thanks to its solid shareholder structure. Operating touristic charter flights between Europe – specifically Germany – and Antalya for a long time, SunExpress became the first private airline company to offer international scheduled flights from Turkey with its first AntalyaFrankfurt flight in 2001. The timetable of scheduled services was expanded with the introduction of Izmir as second hub in 2005 with numerous flights to and from the third-largest city in Turkey. Increasing its scheduled flights from year-to-year, SunExpress opened its 2nd base in İzmir and started to operate domestic flights in 2006. With this launch, SunExpress became the first airline company to connect İzmir with Anatolian cities with direct flights in Turkey. The company announced a comprehensive re-branding and product enhancement project by the end of its 20th anniversary, which was celebrated at an event in Antalya on May 1st, 2010. At this event SunExpress welcomed its next 20 years with the delivery of the first of six newly purchased Boeing 737-800s and launched its new corporate identity including its new logo, aircraft livery, new corporate colors, uniforms and entire visual identity elements. SunExpress also revealed many brand new features to create extra quality and value for its customers. The launch of SunPoints – SunExpress’ frequent flyer programme – and direct flights between Anatolia and Germany for the first time in Turkey were other highlights of 2010 for SunExpress. SunExpress was given a further boost in 2011 with the foundation of SunExpress Deutschland GmbH. The company started business operations in June 2011. Besides the Turkish destinations on the South Coast, on the Aegean, on the Black Sea and in the East of the country it also serves – with German registration – attractive destinations on the Red Sea and on the Nile in Egypt, Canary Island(Spain) since November 2011. Last year Frankfurt – Hahn and Varna (Bulgaria), and this year Batman, Bremen, Enfidha (Tunisia), Lefkosa and Strasbourg were added to the destination portfolio. Furthermore, SunExpress also decided to invest in its building and SunExpress Plaza was built in June 2012. The new company building is “environmental friendly” and is located in a natural setting. The architectural theme of the building is transparency and naturalness, therefore each room has been designed so that it has access to natural light and fresh air. Antalya’s famous sun is also a source for clean energy inside the building. The solar panels on the roof generate enough electricity to supply power to all of the computers. SunExpress can therefore do work without harming the environment. On the exterior of the building special new “smart” glass panels have been used to allow sun rays to shine inside the building while blocking out unwanted heat to help reduce cooling costs. Antalya’s famous orange, bergamot and lemon trees have been planted in both the interior and exterior gardens.

The Company SunExpress was founded in October 1989 as a subsidiary of (two world class airlines) Turkish Airlines and Lufthansa. Today, SunExpress carries more than seven million passengers per year and is one of the leading airlines in terms of passenger numbers between Germany and Turkey. The home base of SunExpress is in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera the second most important base is the hub Izmir on the Aegean coast. The German branch office is located in Gateway Gardens near Frankfurt Airport, which is the base of the German side of the company. With more than 2500 employees in Turkey and Germany – and as the largest employer in Antalya - SunExpress matters as a successful medium-sized company with a strong track record of innovation and interculturalism. The airline essentially concentrates on three areas of business: international tourism, ethnic travel as well as domestic Turkish flights to the most important cities of Anatolia. Besides scheduled flights, SunExpress relies on charter business and a close cooperation with renowned as well as individual small tour operators. Serving 93 destinations, the destination portfolio of the holiday airline offers a wide variety of non-stop frequencies between Europe and Turkey, Germany and holiday destinations around the Mediterranean Sea and within Turkey. For more details about our destinations, please refer to our schedule.


Traffic Figures 2013 Passengers

6.7 millions

Flight hours




Seatload Factor



890 mio € (+18% PY)

Quality and Safety (Certificates) SunExpress is certified according to ISO 9001 (Quality Management), ISO 10002 (Customer Satisfaction and Complaints Handling) ISO 14001 (Environmental Management) and OHSAS 18001 (Health and Safety Assessment). In addition, SunExpress holds an IOSA registration with IATA (High Safety Standards), and its internal processes have been audited by an international system to assess airlines’ organizational processes and management systems. These process-oriented management systems are applied throughout the company and controlled by professional quality management.

Our fleet With 64 aircrafts one of the most modern fleets in Europe SunExpress has one of the most modern fleets in Europe, currently operating with a full-commonality fleet of 69 Boeing aircraft and a total capacity of 11.456 seats. 32 of the aircraft are operated directly by SunExpress all of the others are operated for THY and AnadoluJet. SunExpress are both expending their route portfolio and enlarging their fleet to 77 aircraft.

Boeing 737-800 Number of aircraft: Seats:

Boeing 737-700



165 /189


Working at SunExpress SunExpress employees benefit from working in the multicultural environment at our company, which provides important career enhancing advantages. Approximately 3100 employees from 25 different countries work at SunExpress. English, the language of aviation, is used actively throughout the company. Meetings and correspondence are done in English. Our open offices represent open communication and our company’s clear, transparent management style. As the Human Resources Department, we believe that the success of our company is in direct proportion to the quality of our employees. The level of education at our company is high and the primary aim of the Human Resources’ policies and strategies, based on employee satisfaction, is to gain personnel who are open to change and development, willing to adopt the company’s culture, thereby enabling SunExpress to attain its goals successfully. Our company, rich in both Turkish and German aviation knowledge and culture, offers a wide range of career opportunities to employees. Our career fields are gathered under four main groups:


• • • •

Cockpit Cabin Services Line Maintenance & Technical Ground Employment

Most of our ground employment positions are located at the company’s headquarters in Antalya, but employment opportunities also exist at our regional bases in Izmir, Istanbul and Ankara. Employment openings at these bases are announced at varying intervals. Please check our web site and our social media channels regularly for these announcements. Employment opportunities at all of our bases are available for flight personnel and line maintenance & technical personnel. We wish you much success in your career path. SunExpress Human Resources

Destinations Turkey: Dalaman • Van • Antalya • Gaziantep • Kars • Kayseri • Istanbul-Sabiha Gökçen • Ankara • Diyarbakir • Izmir • Trabzon • Konya • Bodrum • Samsun • Alanya-Gazipaşa • Erzurum • Adana • Elazig • Malatya • Tunisia: Enfidha Switzerland: Basel • Zurich Sweden: Stockholm Spain: Fuerteventura • Tenerife South • Norway: Oslo Netherlands: Amsterdam Greece: Rhodes • Heraklion Germany: Munich • Erfurt • Dortmund • Berlin-Tegel • Munster • Hanover • Bremen • Frankfurt-Hahn • Stuttgart • Friedrichshafen • Dusseldorf • Leipzig/Halle • Paderborn • Hamburg • Dresden • Cologne • Karlsruhe • Frankfurt • Nuremberg • Saarbruecken France: Paris-Charles De Gaulle • Strasbourg-Entzheim • Lyon • Nantes Finland: Helsinki • Egypt: Hurghada Denmark: Copenhagen • Austria: Vienna • Salzburg • Graz • Linz

Tarihçe SunExpress, her ikisi de dünyanın önemli havayolu şirketlerinden Türk Hava Yolları ve Lufthansa’nın eşit ortaklığında 1989 yılında Antalya’da kuruldu. İlk uçuşunu 1990’da yapan şirket, halen faaliyetlerini güçlü hissedar yapısından gelen Alman ve Türk sivil havacılığının zengin bilgi birikiminden faydalanarak sürdürüyor. Almanya başta olmak üzere, uzun süre Avrupa ile Antalya arasında turistik charter seferleri düzenleyen SunExpress, 2001 yılında başlattığı Antalya-Frankfurt uçuşlarıyla, Türkiye’nin yurtdışına tarifeli sefer düzenleyen ilk özel havayolu oldu. O günden bu yana tarifeli uçuşlarının sayısını hızla artıran SunExpress, 2006’nın Mart ayında 2. merkezini İzmir’de açtı ve buradan iç hat seferlerine başladı. SunExpress, iç hat seferleriyle birlikte İzmir’i Anadolu şehirlerine aktarmasız uçuşlarla bağlayan ilk havayolu oldu ve halen İzmir’den Türkiye’nin farklı bölgelerine en çok uçuş


gerçekleştiren havayolu şirketi olarak faaliyetlerine devam ediyor.

SunExpress 2010 yılında, Türkiye’de ilk kez Anadolu şehirlerinden Almanya’nın önemli merkezlerine tarifeli direkt uçuşlara başladı ve yolcu avantaj programı SunPoints’i müşterilerinin hizmetine sundu. SunExpress, 2011 yılına gelindiğinde ise Almanya’daki kardeş kuruluşu “SunExpress Almanya’yı kurdu ve Almanya ile Türkiye arasındaki uçuşlarının yanı sıra Almanya’da Mısır’ın Kızıl Deniz bölgesi ile İspanya’nın Kanarya Adaları’na da turistik uçuşlar düzenlemeye başladı. Geçtiğimiz yıl Frankfurt – Hahn ve Varna (Bulgaristan), bu yıl içerisinde ise Batman, Bremen, Enfidha (Tunus), Ercan (KKTC) ve Strazburg destinasyonlarını uçuş ağına dâhil etmiştir. SunExpress 2013 yaz tarifesinde Türkiye ve Almanya merkezli operasyonlarında, haftada 800’den fazla tarifeli ve charter uçuş gerçekleştiriyor. SunExpress’in, Türkiye ve Avrupa genelindeki birçok ülkeden 3100’ü aşkın çalışanı bulunuyor. SunExpress Havayolları, geçtiğimiz yıldan beri AnadoluJet ve Nisan2013’den itibaren ise Türk Hava Yolları için WetLease operasyonunu yürütmektedir. SunExpress’in pek çok departmanı, açılışı 8 Haziran 2012’de gerçekleştirilen “SunExpress Plaza” isimli binada görev yapıyor. Antalya’da toplam 8.019 metrekare alan üzerine kurulu ve 87 ofis alanı birçok toplantı, brifing, eğitim ve simülatör odası barındıran binada ayrıca 270 kişilik oturma kapasiteli 1 oditoryum bulunmaktadır. “Yeşil” bina, çatısındaki güneş panelleriyle kendi enerjisini üretebiliyor ve güneşin yararlı ışığını binaya dağıtırken, istenmeyen sıcaklığı dışarıda bırakan yepyeni teknolojiler kullanıyor.


Human Resources 1.

Pilot Self Presentation Questions 1. What are your expectations and hopes in connection with an acceptance by Sun Express? In other words: Why are you applying? As far as I know working environment is Multi-Cultural in Sun Express therefore I want to take the advantage of working in Multi-Cultural environment in order to enhance my pilot career. Sun Express has one of the best Crew Resource Management among all other companies in Turkey. In addition a pleasant, structured, stable and friendly working environment.

2. Where do you see your best qualities as a pilot and as a private person? In other words: Why should Sun Express accept your application? First of all I would like to say that I am sure I can give my best for the job that is offered to me. Although I don’t have any experience in airline flights I am willing to learn and make a great effort to become a qualified airline pilot. Secondly, I believe my best qualities as a pilot are a good researcher, a good observer, disciplined, tend to learn things in a very fast pace, team worker, thinking and making decisions in an analytic way, like to be on time, able to handle high – workload, no sleep disorder and loves flying. Finally, my best qualities as a person are responsible, positive attitude, loyal, industrious and strongminded.

3. How about your experience in aviation? Briefly describe conditions, highlights, disappointments, special events, accidents, incidents, problems etc. Unfortunately I am not that much experienced in aviation especially in airline flights. I have just finished flight school in TÜRK HAVA KURUMU and flown 249:45 hour up to now with C172s. The most considerable thing in my student life is that I was the people who were scheduling the flight program daily up to my graduation. My chief flight instructor ask me to schedule because of my success in my lessons and flight so it was a big honor. In addition scheduling is enhanced my vision. At that time our flight was searching a solution in order to follow daily flights and I was aware of that because of my good relationship with my flight instructors. I made a huge research and finally come up with the solution. I used FDR as an input and integrated to google earth flight mode and I was awarded with a plaquette. That moment was the highlight and special event in my flight career. Furthermore I have never had an accident or incident. My disappointment was that we had less aircraft than our flight school guaranteed at the beginning of education so we were always behind the schedule and able finish the training later than I were expected.


4. Who has influenced you in a positive way inside and/or outside aviation? In other words: Who are your role models and why? I don’t have a specific role model in my life but as I mention before I am good observer so I take the good attitudes of people and always try to improve myself in a good way. This is one of best way to improve my self-attitudes.


Crew Resource Management

CRM - Crew Resource Management - is the effective use of all available resources for flight crew personnel to assure a safe and efficient operation, reducing error, avoiding stress and increasing efficiency. CRM was developed as a response to new insights into the causes of aircraft accidents which followed from the introduction of flight data recorders (FDRs) and cockpit voice recorders (CVRs) into modern jet aircraft. Information gathered from these devices has suggested that many accidents do not result from a technical malfunction of the aircraft or its systems, nor from a failure of aircraft handling skills or a lack of technical knowledge on the part of the crew; it appears instead that they are caused by the inability of crews to respond appropriately to the situation in which they find themselves. For example, inadequate communications between crew members and other parties could lead to a loss of situational awareness, a breakdown in teamwork in the aircraft, and, ultimately, to a wrong decision or series of decisions which result in a serious incident or a fatal accident. The widespread introduction of the dynamic flight simulator as a training aid allowed various new theories about the causes of aircraft accidents to be studied under experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, and in an attempt to remedy the apparent deficiency in crew skills, additional training in flight deck management techniques has been introduced by most airlines. Following a period of experimentation and development, the techniques embraced by the new training became known collectively as CRM. The importance of the CRM concept and the utility of the training in promoting safer and more efficient aircraft operations have now been recognized worldwide. CRM encompasses a wide range of knowledge, skills and attitudes including communications, loss of situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork; together with all the attendant sub-disciplines which each of these areas entails. The elements which comprise CRM are not new but have been recognized in one form or another since aviation began, usually under more general headings such as ‘Airmanship’, ‘Captaincy’, ‘Crew Co-operation’, etc. In the past, however, these terms have not been defined, structured or articulated in a formal way, and CRM can be seen as an attempt to remedy this deficiency. CRM can therefore be defined as a management system which makes optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures and people to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of flight operations. CRM is concerned not so much with the technical knowledge and skills required to fly and operate an aircraft but rather with the cognitive and interpersonal skills needed to manage the flight within an organized aviation system. In this context, cognitive skills are defined as the mental processes used for gaining and maintaining situational awareness, for solving problems and for taking decisions. Interpersonal skills are regarded as communications and a range of behavioral activities associated with teamwork. In aviation, as in other walks of life, these skill areas often overlap with each other, and they also overlap with the required technical skills. Furthermore, they are not confined to multi-crew aircraft, but also relate to single pilot operations, which invariably need to interface with other aircraft and with various ground support agencies in order to complete their missions successfully.


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