Inspection and Maintenance of Drillpipe E-Book

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INSPECTION DRILL PIPE...

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe A general guideline to maintaining drill strings

www.odfjellwellservices.com

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Contents 3. Introduction

25. Why use thread compounds?

4.

26. Pipe storage

Description of a common inspection

6. Measurements

27. Preservation

7.

Magnetic particle inspection

28. Recommendations

8.

Ultrasonic testing

29. Thread compounds

9.

Electromagnetic inspection (EMI)

31. Inspection standards

11. What to look for when inspecting

33. Inspection companies

14. Drill pipe repair

34. A general view on the necessary certifications

21. Repair companies



22. Documentation & traceability

37. Approval certification

24. Presentation & storage

38. Documentation / Reporting

for a thread inspector

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Introduction This gives an introduction to the processes involved in inspecting and repairing of used drill pipe. We will list the most common inspection specifications, describe the differences between the standards and describe the process of being certified to the various standards. We will also describe the various repair scenarios on drill pipe and the certification process involved for companies that perform repairs.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Description of a common inspection When the drill pipe is received for inspection, all joints should be properly cleaned both internally and externally.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

The following steps are mandatory:

Visual thread inspection (VTI) VTI is a non-destructive inspection method that is based on the inspector using his eyes and hands. Any reduced eyesight might cause the inspector to miss vital flaws.

Example of check with a profile gauge

Tools required • Flashlight • Profile gauges • Magnifying mirror

Example of use of finger tips on a VTI inspection

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Measurements On a VTI it is normal to make all vital measurements on the connections. The results need to match the standards given in the inspection specification.

Example of OD gauge of tube

Tools required • Various calipers (slide caliper etc.) • Thread gauges

Example of a check with a slide caliper

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) Magnetic particle method is a non-destructive testing method revealing material defects in the surface, and just below the surface, in ferromagnetic (magnetic) materials. A magnetic field is applied to an object. The magnetic field will penetrate the surface of the object. Any errors in the surface will alter the power of the magnetic field lines. These power lines outside and around the damage forms(delete s) a leakage field. This leakage field can be detected by adding iron particles (in powder

Example of applying fluorescent magnet powder

form) on the surface. These particles clump together in and around the leakage field.

Magnet field

Leakage field Depth errors Magnet field

Shallow imperfection

Example of connection checked with UV light

Tools required An object can be magnetized with several methods: • Coil • AC Yoke • Direct current flow

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Ultrasonic testing Ultrasonic testing is a nondestructive testing method that uses radio frequencies to determine a materials entirety. Impulse-echo method is the most used method in industry. An array of transducer one sound waves are sent into the material, penetrating it at a constant speed (the speed of sound of the material). The sound waves are reflected from the back wall of the object back to the probes. Any imperfections in the material will appear as peaks between the initial and the reflecting echo.

Transmission pulse/Start echo Back wall echo

Defect

Reflector Object/Workpiece

0

2

Ultrasonic screen

4

6

8

10

Ultrasonic measurement determining wall thickness.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Electromagnetic inspection (EMI) Primarily the eddy-current and flux-leakage methods are used to detect imperfections. NOTE: Electromagnetic “Inspection Systems” made for use in the field sometimes include equipment for performing additional inspections or services. Source: API RP 5A5, Field Inspection of New Casing, Tubing, and Plain-end Drill Pipe, Reaffirmed August 2010. Global

Examples of EMI unit

Examples of EMI unit

Example of EMI probes

Example of EMI control screen

10

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Every inspection is to be finalized with a documentation of the service/inspection; the inspection report. Any damage that cannot be repaired in the field, has to go to a workshop.

Menus Main Tubular DP Related Menu Menu Detail W.O.

Drillpipe Summary Report ID

Date

Customer Ref.

Customer

P.O. No

Rig

Location

Work Order Spec.

SPECIFICATIONS

Well No. NS-2

VTI Only Spec. EQUIPMENT

SURFACE CONDITION

DS 1 Cat. 4

Show all records

HDLS

Black/White Fluorescent

EMI Scope No.

End Area Tool No.

Yoke No.

Thick. Gauge No.

UV Light No.

Coil No.

Hardbanding: Present Plastic Coated:

CLEANING

Cat. 5

Receipt Insp. Spec.

TBA*

Yes

Internal Qty

No

Pin

Box

External Qty

1400 bar 2000 bar Special

Hard Pollution

Hard Pollution

Weight

Lbs/Ft

Tube OD

Threads

Nom Wall

Nom TJ OD

10.04.2015 Modification Date 10.04.2015

Wear Report Wear Report - Overview

Range

Grade Tube

Nom TJ ID

Min TJ OD

Repair - Hardbanding

Send to Trio

Repair - Machining

Send to NOS

INSPECTION RESULTS CLASS

TUBE TOOL JOINT

Premium

RECUT

SHOP REFACE

FIELD REFACE

PLASTIC COATING

HARDBANDING SER. NO. BENT PIN BOX RESTAMP

Joints

Joints

Total

Ok

OK

x1

Class2

Pin

Pin

Pin

Damaged

XT300 Rep.

x2

Scrap

Box

Box

Box

No Coat.

OTW12 Rep.

Number of Joints Inspected Number of Joints Require Shop Repair

(

Re-Cut with HB Damage)

Number of Hardbanding Repair

(Not Included In Recut Joints)

Number of Class2 & Scrap Number of Joints Ready For Use

Scrap per W.O. Wall Thickness Wear Preinvoice

Field Repair

Hours

Grinding Tongmarks and Slipcuts

Hours

Protectors Supplied By Euroincon

Qty.

Make Preinvoice

Misc.

Relookup

Number of Premium After Repair

Change Work Order

Comments

TAM Import

TAM - Make Field Copy NDT Level II Inspector

*TBA - To be applied

CERT. NO. NAME :

Odfjell Tag No List

Reports

MATERIAL Lot No.

admin Modifier Name admin

New Record - Detail

ID Condition

2000 bar Special

Creator Date

New Record - Detail

Dope Applied

1400 bar

Creator Name

We hereby confirm that the above material has been inspected in accordance with specified insp. proc., P.O. and Euroincon W.O.

Example of an inspection report

Field Copy

Print - Field Copy

Serial No TAM

Serial No TIM

Pages TAM Pages made

1

(Set to 1 if delete detail)

Restore

11

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

What to look for when inspecting Here are some examples of damage typical to connections. This is everyday damage that cannot be repaired on site.

Crack indications in thread

Crack indication in box connection

Crack indication in outside upset

Galled thread

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

What to look for when inspecting

Pulled thread

Overtorqued threads

Galled seal

Stabbing damage to shoulder

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

What to look for when inspecting

Pitting/corrosion in pin SRG

Washout in connection

Washout in connection

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Drill pipe repair Whether you need to take the pipe to a repair shop or it can fixed in the field, is dependent on the degree of damage to the joints.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Field repair Grinding Double shouldered connections or severe shoulder damage, require a shop reface.

Grinding Pin threads

Grinding Box threads

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Field reface Reface of a damaged connection shoulder is done with a special shoulder dressing tool. There are several types available on the market, but the same principle applies to all of them. A refaced shoulder should be flat and at right angles to the threads.

Refacing tool

Damaged shoulder

Refacing of shoulder

Refaced shoulder

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Shop reface Double shouldered connections or severe shoulder damage, require shop reface.

Before shop reface

After shop reface

Recut of pin

Recut of Box

Shop recut A full repair (recut) of a connection has to be done in a proper and authorized workshop.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Benchmark Both pin & box connections are marked after a recut. This is to determine the space left for (future) reface. The most common way to mark this is either with a stamp, or a machined groove.

Stamped mark

Machined groove

Cold working

LOAD

After recut, the

ROLLER

thread root

AFTER ROLLING, THESE FIBERS REMAIN IN COMPRESSION

is cold rolled to compress the fibers. This will restrict any evolvement of fatigue.

Cold Working tool

Principle sketch

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Copper sulfating A copper sulfated

Both copper sulfating

shoulder will last

and phosphatization

longer. This is done

is done to prevent

after the reface/shop

galling and provide

reface to reduce the

corrosion resistance.

risk of galling and corrosion.

Copper sulfated shoulder

Phosphatization Phosphatization of connections is done in a chemical bath after a recut. This process increases the durability of the connections.

Chemical bath

Straightening of bent drill pipe

Due to several reasons, drill pipe can be bent during drilling operations. A bent pipe is straightened without the use of preheating. A hydraulic press is to be used.

Hydraulic press

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Hardbanding Worn out hardbanding needs to be grinded down before a new one is welded on. Some materials will not blend properly, and the hardbanding has to be removed completely before a new one is welded on.

Worn out hardbanding

Recoat Internal Plastic Coating (IPC) is designed to enhance the performance of tubulars by reducing wear and corrosion, and improving hydraulic efficiency. Coating

Rewelded

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Repair companies A proper workshop for repair and rework on the drill pipe should have a quality, well managed system.

Here’s a sample of a certified quality system.

For fabrication or repair of a connection, the machine shop needs to be licensed for that particular type of connection. Here’s a sample of such a type of certificate.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Documentation and traceability All repairs must be traceable. It starts with the

The Repair report states the individual (unique) equipment number for a

inspection and must follow the whole process

repair, and also what needs to be repaired (highlighted on report).

until the finalized repair. Sample of Inspection Report for drill pipe;

Menus Main Tubular DP Related Menu Menu Detail W.O.

Drillpipe Summary Report ID

Date

Customer Ref.

Customer

P.O. No

Rig

Location

Work Order Spec.

SPECIFICATIONS

Well No. NS-2

VTI Only Spec. EQUIPMENT

SURFACE CONDITION

DS 1 Cat. 4

Show all records

HDLS

Black/White

Receipt Insp. Spec.

Fluorescent

EMI Scope No.

End Area Tool No.

Yoke No.

Thick. Gauge No.

UV Light No.

Coil No.

Hardbanding: Present Plastic Coated:

CLEANING

Cat. 5

TBA*

Yes

Internal Qty

No

Pin

Box

Weight

Lbs/Ft

Tube OD

Threads

Nom Wall

Nom TJ OD

admin

10.04.2015

Modifier Name admin

Modification Date 10.04.2015

New Record - Detail

1400 bar ID Condition 2000 bar Special Hard Pollution

Wear Report Wear Report - Overview

Range

Grade Tube

Nom TJ ID

Min TJ OD

Repair - Hardbanding

Send to Trio

Repair - Machining

Send to NOS

INSPECTION RESULTS CLASS

TUBE TOOL JOINT

Premium

RECUT

SHOP REFACE

FIELD REFACE

PLASTIC COATING

HARDBANDING SER. NO. BENT PIN BOX RESTAMP

Joints

Joints

Total

Ok

OK

x1

Class2

Pin

Pin

Pin

Damaged

XT300 Rep.

x2

Scrap

Box

Box

Box

No Coat.

OTW12 Rep.

Number of Joints Inspected Number of Joints Require Shop Repair

(

Re-Cut with HB Damage)

Number of Hardbanding Repair

(Not Included In Recut Joints)

Number of Class2 & Scrap Number of Joints Ready For Use

Scrap per W.O. Wall Thickness Wear Preinvoice

Field Repair

Hours

Grinding Tongmarks and Slipcuts

Hours

Protectors Supplied By Euroincon

Qty.

Make Preinvoice

Relookup repair Required

Misc.

Number of Premium After Repair

Change Work Order

Comments

TAM Import

TAM - Make Field Copy NDT Level II Inspector

*TBA - To be applied

CERT. NO. NAME :

Odfjell Tag No List

Reports

MATERIAL Lot No.

Creator Date

New Record - Detail

Dope Applied

1400 bar External Qty 2000 bar Special Hard Pollution

Creator Name

We hereby confirm that the above material has been inspected in accordance with specified insp. proc., P.O. and Euroincon W.O.

Summary Report (Front page)

Field Copy

Print - Field Copy

Serial No TAM

Serial No TIM

Pages TAM Pages made

1

(Set to 1 if delete detail)

Restore

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

The repair shop will issue their report after a repair. In this case a thread certificate (machining report) with the same reference to the unique equipment number, the standard used (Spec.), etc. for traceability.

Thread certificate

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Preservation & Storage

Preservation & storage

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Why use thread compounds? The drawing is a portion of a thread detail with API buttress threads, showing the compressible lubricant/pipe sealant in the gaps of the threaded connection.

PIN BOX G2 C G1 C

Thread compounds suitable for use in vertical and horizontal oil & gas wells using «API» oil country tubular goods tubing (OCTG), casing, and line pipe are designed to: • Provide lubricate • Plug the thread clearance • Prevent contamination of the natural environment • Prevent galling or scratches • Provide a coefficient of friction consistent with the connection requirements.

Used as an example, also valid for drill pipe threads

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Pipe storage Recommendations for pipe storage: • Do not put the pipe directly on the ground. The first layer of pipe should be no less than 0.3m above the ground. • The height of the pipe stack on a rack shall not exceed 2.5 m, and the pipe shall be secured with post to prevent rolling out. • When the pipe is laid in several rows, place 3 wooden blocks between each row so that the tool-joint elements do not touch each other. • Pipe shall be laid with boxes in the same directions • Rejected pipe or pipe going to be repaired, shall be laid on a separate rack and clearly identified

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Preservation The use of protective compounds to protect equipment during storage and use.

Example of shoulder damage due to insufficient protector installation.

Picture shows dope where water has penetrated - gray color. May indicate that the protector has not tightened, or that temperature fluctuations may have caused the loosening.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

The following are recommendations for the application and use of our thread compound on connections Upon opening the container, the product should

Contaminant residues, when mixed with

be stirred with either a dope brush or other

the thread compound during connections

suitable device to re-blend any oil separation or

engagement can substantially change the

settling of the component solids that may have

friction factor and galling resistance of the thread

occurred during shipment and storage.

compound. A small amount of moisture in most cases is unavoidable and will not affect compound

Never add any material such as diesel fuel,

performance.

kerosene, motor oil, etc. to improve the ease of application.

Note: These are general procedures not intended to replace the recommendations of the

All connections contact surfaces should be cleaned and free of storage or prior running compound, drilling fluids and any other contaminant residues prior to the applications of the compound.

connection manufactures.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Thread compounds

Pin

Example: Double Shouldered Connection

Primary Makeup Shoulder (for RSC’s)

Threads

Where are thread compounds used? Coat primary shoulder on interference designs Fill threads, only root to crest

Box

Too much compound interferes with connection make-up, too little may result in galling Secondary Seal

Coat secondary shoulder or seal area on applicable connection designs Ensure the connection is as free of drilling fluid as possible. Rinsing may be required

30

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

What quantity of threads compound is required on rotary shoulder connections?

Insufficient thread compound coverage for rotary

Proper Tread compound coverage for

shoulder connections

for rotary shoulder connections

Drill pipe protectors

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Preservation & Storage

Inspection standards

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

The most common inspection standards in use today, are:

API – American Petroleum Institute.

DS-1 – T.H. Hill Drill Stem Inspection.

NS-2 – Fearnley Procter North Sea Drill String Inspection Standard

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Preservation & Storage

Inspection companies

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

A general view on the necessary certifications for a thread inspector

Level 1 An individual certified to Level 1 has demonstrated competence to carry out NDT according to written instructions and under the supervision of Level 2 or Level 3 personnel.

Non Destructing Testing requires the inspectors to be certified in order to

Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 1 personnel

perform certifications according

may be authorized by the employer to perform the following in accordance with

to standards.

NDT instructions;

EN 473/ISO 9712 (European standards)



a)

Set up NDT equipment

separates NDT inspectors into 3 levels.



b)

Perform the tests



c)

Record and classify the results of the tests according to written criteria



d)

Report the results

Level 1 certified personnel shall neither be responsible for the choice of test method or technique to be used, nor for the interpretation of test results.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Level 2 An individual certified to Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to NDT procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, the employer to may authorize Level 2 personnel:

a) Select the correct NDT technique for the actual test.



b) Define the limitations of application of the testing method



c)



d) Set up and verify equipment settings



e) Perform and supervise tests

f)







Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications, and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions

Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures



g) Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below Level 2



h) Provide guidance for personnel at or below Level 2

i) Report the results of NDT.

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Level 3 An individual certified to Level 3 has demonstrated competence to perform and direct NDT operations for which he is certified. Level 3 personnel have demonstrated:

a) The competence to evaluate and interpret results in terms of existing





standards, codes, and specifications

b) Sufficient practical knowledge of applicable materials, fabrication,



process, and product technology to select NDT methods, establish NDT



techniques, and assist in establishing acceptance criteria where none or



are otherwise available



A general familiarity with other NDT methods

c)

Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 3 personnel may be authorized to:

a) Assume full responsibility for a test facility or examination center



and staff

b) Establish, review for editorial and technical correctness, and validate NDT



instructions and procedures



c)

Interpret standards, codes, specifications, and procedures



d) Designate the particular test methods, procedures, and NDT



instructions required



e) Carry out and supervise all tasks at all levels



f)

Provide guidance for NDT personnel at all levels

37

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Approval / Certification To be performed by an accredited certification business.

Requirements for practice and introduction to NDT method before courses / issuance of certificate: Method

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

MT

1 mnd.

3 mnd.

12 mnd.

PT

1 mnd.

3 mnd.

12 mnd.

UT

3 mnd.

9 mnd.

18 mnd.

RT

3 mnd.

9 mnd.

18 mnd.

ET

3 mnd.

9 mnd.

18 mnd.

VT

1 mnd.

3 mnd.

12 mnd.

Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Documentation Companies have a responsibility to keep and annually update their certificates to the inspectors. Each year the responsible level 3 perform a competency assessment of the individual inspector. Near- and color vision are verified, before the certificate are approved for another 12 months. After 5 years, an application must be submitted to the certification body, to renew the certificate for another five years. After 10 years you have to do a complete course with tests.

Reporting Responsible level 3 shall report annually to the certification body on the status of the enterprise for the year that has passed. • Are all certificates updated? • Is it registered complaints in the past 12 months? • Are there major changes in the organization over the last 12 months?

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Inspection & Maintenance of Drill Pipe

Odfjell Well Services Hammaren 19 P.O.Box 152 N0-4098 Tananger Norway Tlf: +47 51 64 84 00 Fax: +47 51 64 71 81 [email protected] www.odfjellwellservices.com

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