Industrial Visit Aavin Dairy Farm

October 4, 2017 | Author: vasanthvadivel | Category: Polyvinyl Chloride, Polymerization, Chemistry, Materials, Chemical Substances
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A Industrial Visit Report About Aavin Dairy Farm and PVC pipes Manufacturing Industry, which Will Gives you a Idea about...



AAVIN DAIRY FARM : Introduction: The ‘Indian dairy industry has made rapid progress since independence .a large number of modern milk and milk produts factories have been established. These organized dairies have been successfully engaged in the routine commercial production of pasteurized milk and milk products. India is the world’s largest milk producer that is certified by the ‘international dairy industry ‘. This is the reason for the recognition of India as dairy giant by united nation’s food & agriculture organization (FAO)’.Milk is an important &essential commodity to human life. The significance of milk is human life can be traced from Vedic period. Cow is considered as the “living god” & milk as “Amrutha” in Vedic version. Milk is having immeasurable value in use, which has been explained in many slokas Vedas. Upanishads & puranas According to “charaka”, who is considered as the father of Ayurveda system of medicine holds the important of milk as “milk has ten properties viz, sweetness, coldness, softness, unctuousness, density, smoothness, heaviness, slowness and charity”

Industrial background of the study A. Origin of the industry Dairying is the production and marketing of milk, usually cow’s milk product. It includes the case of cow of cow’s breeding, feeding, management product. The milk must be collected, processed into dairy products and markets. All these operations have been improved by physiological, genetic, nutritional, chemical, microbiological, technological, economical and marketing research and development. B.Growth and Development of the Industry Early man found that the goat and sheep produced enough milk for his family. As the need of milk increased, the cow becomes established as a producer of milk in large scale. By 18th century, the practice of selective breeding was established. It has been said that cow is machine that converts raw materials (plant) into food in a surprisingly deficient manner. The method by which cattle are managed in order to produce milk can be accomplished in many ways.Milk may be defined as the whole fresh, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals (cow, buffalos). Milk is the only food, which is designed by nature solely as a food. It serves as the foundation of an adequate diet.

Objectives of the Dairy Development Department (1) Assure a remunerative price for the milk produced by the member of the Milk Producers' Cooperative Societies through a stable, steady and well organized market support. (2) Distribution of quality milk and milk products to the consumers at reasonable price.

Keeping these objectives in mind, a number of activities are undertaken by the Dairy Development Department, viz., Provision of free veterinary health cover to all animals owned by the members of milk cooperatives, implementation of Artificial Insemination Programme, supply of balanced cattle feed and inculcation of farmers with the modern animal husbandry methods and practices.

Infrastructure development Bulk milk coolers (BMC): At DCS level to chill the milk, BMC’s are to be installed.BMC is a stainless steel tank attached to the chilling unit supported by Generator. The Raw milk received at DCS level is chilled to 4 c in BMC. Automatic Milk Collection Unit (AMCU): AMCU includes Electronic Weighing scale, Electronic Milk-o-Tester and a computer system with printer. Milk can be weighed, tested for quality, quantity, and accurate value without touching by hand. The producer can be provided the details in printed form immediately with the help of computer system. This activity will avoid the manual mearsument and handling of each liter of milk at the time of collection at DCS. Thus the bacererial contamination is decreased and best quality of milk is sustained for long time. Electronic Weighing Scale (EWS): Electronic weighing Scale is measuring/weighing instruments in which the milk will be measured/weighed in liters as in KG’s Milk producer directly pour the milk in it. A digital display will show the number of liters poured by the producer. Supply of stainless steel equipments to dcs: Milk union proposes to supply S.S Steel Milk cans and Equipments to the DCS under CMP.SUPPLY OF S.S Containers to milk Producers. Milk Union proposes to supply stainless vessels to all the (BPL families and others) milk producers.

Aavin dairy processing unit: Amidst the Nanjikottai - Vilar Bypass surrounded by modest greens, is located the AAVIN dairy processing unit. Spread over some acres of land, the unit is most sophisticated processing plant. Milk vans collect milk from even the remote villages and Samples from each can are tested

separately at room temperature and at 4°C and the results are aggregated. For the preliminary processing, Water from a cold water storage tank is circulated around the milk cylinders. Exchange of heat takes place by which water gains heat and the milk chills out. On an average, milk can possess SNF (Solid Non- Fat) content between 4.1% and 8.2%. AAVIN offers 3 different types of milk with varying SNF content. The milk packets are colour coded for easy identification. BLUE: Toned milk with 3.0% cream and 8.5% SNF GREEN: Standardised milk with 4.5% cream and 8.5% SNF

ORANGE: Full cream milk with 6% cream and 9% SNF

To attain the above ratio, each type of milk is separated in a cream filter. At the end of the filtering process, all the cream is taken away and the milk sent out has only SNF. The milk is mixed with skimmed milk powder in suitable ratio to raise the quality. On an average 1kg of milk powder is mixed with 10 litres of water to increase SNF. The skimmed milk powder is processed in ERODE. The exclusive spray drying unit supplies for about 7 districts. The unit processes an average of 1.5 lakh litres of milk per day of which 50,000 litres is contributed by Coimbatore. SAILO is the milk storage tank named after the material. SAILO is an insulated silver alloy packed on both sides of a cylindrical thermocole to maintain temperature. In this vessel Pasteurization is carried out. Pasteurization is the process of bacterial saturation. Steam from a boiler is sent over the tank, heating the milk to 87°C and immediately cooled.

Other Than this Milk, Aavin Dairy Organisation are providing number of other Useful products as follows

Although milk production has grown at a fast pace during the last three decades milk yield per animal is very low. The main reasons for the low yield are   

Lack of use of scientific practices in milching. Inadequate availability of fodder in all seasons. Unavailability of veterinary health services.

Milk Yield comparison: Country

Milk Yield (Kgs per year)







New Zealand






World (Average)


There are 17 District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Unions functioning in Tamil Nadu, covering 30 Districts. They are




Introduction: From modest beginning in 1999 unit of the manufacturing of PVC Pipes was set up Muthu Pipes Pvt. Ltd. has grown from strength to strength over the years. We have been expanding and diversifying rapidly and today we have been recognized as one of the leading and fast expanding company in PVC Pipe manufacturing under the Brand name of MUTHU PIPES. We consistently produce the highest quality plastic pipe in the industry and are committed to ensuring ongoing product excellence. Our Product Range consist of IS-4985, IS-12818, IS-15232, ASTM standard as well as of specific customer specification. We are manu- facturing pipes from 20 mm to 315 mm.

Quality Assurance: Quality of our product is as defined as it is perceived by our customers. The major factor behind our success in a short span of time is our market driven approach and uncompromising attitude with respect to quality. We have well defined and stringent quality assurance systems where in all employees from top to bottom are responsible for quality &services. We lay great emphasis on research, improvement, innovation and whatever we have achieved till today is not the end of the road as we have to cover miles & miles & our next targets are PPR Pipes & HDPE Pipes Poly(vinyl chloride) commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe, and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles and other non-food packaging, and cards It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, inflatable products and many applications where it replaces rubber. Pure poly(vinyl chloride) is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol, but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.

Production : Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride. About 80% of production involves suspension polymerization. Emulsion polymerization accounts for about 12% and bulk polymerization accounts for 8%. Suspension polymerizations affords particles with average diameters of 100–180 μm, whereas emulsion polymerization gives much smaller particles of average size around 0.2 μm. VCM and water are introduced into the reactor and a polymerization initiator, along with other additives. The reaction vessel is pressure tight to contain

the VCM. The contents of the reaction vessel are continually mixed to maintain the suspension and ensure a uniform particle size of the PVC resin. The polymerization of VCM is started by compounds called initiators that are mixed into the droplets. These compounds break down to start the radical chain reaction. Typical initiators include dioctanoyl peroxide and dicetyl peroxydicarbonate, both of which have fragile O-O bonds. Some initiators start the reaction rapidly but decay quickly and other initiators have the opposite effect. A combination of two different initiators is often used to give a uniform rate of polymerization. After the polymer has grown by about 10x, the short polymer precipitates inside the droplet of VCM, and polymerization continues with the precipitated, solvent-swollen particles. The weight average molecular weights of commercial polymers range from 100,000 to 200,000 and the number average molecular weights range from 45,000 to 64,000. Once the reaction has run its course, the resulting PVC slurry is degassed and stripped to remove excess VCM, which is recycled. The polymer is then passed through a centrifuge to remove water. The slurry is further dried in a hot air bed, and the resulting powder sieved before storage or pelletization. Normally, the resulting PVC has a VCM content of less than 1 part per million. Other production processes, such as micro-suspension polymerization and emulsion polymerization, produce PVC with smaller particle sizes (10 μm vs. 120–150 μm for suspension PVC) with slightly different properties and with somewhat different sets of applications.

Rigid PVC applications In Europe there has been a commitment to eliminate the use of cadmium (previously used as a part component of heat stabilizers in window profiles) and phase out lead based heat stabilizers (as used in pipe and profile areas) by 2015. According to the final report of Vinyl 2010 cadmium was eliminated across Europe by 2007. The progressive substitution of lead-based stabilizers is also confirmed in the same document showing a reduction of 75% since 2000 and ongoing. This is confirmed by the corresponding growth in calcium-based stabilizers, used as an alternative to leadbased stabilizers, more and more, also outside Europe. Tin based stabilizers are mainly used in Europe for rigid, transparent applications due to the high temperature processing conditions used. The situation in North America is different where tin systems are used for almost all rigid PVC applications. Tin stabilizers can be divided into two main groups, the first group containing those with tin-oxygen bonds and the second group with tinsulphur bonds. According to the European Stabiliser producers[10] most organotin stabilisers have already been successfully REACH registered. More chemical and use information is also available on this site.

Flexible PVC applications Flexible PVC coated wire and cable for electrical use has traditionally been stabilised with lead but these are being replaced, as in the rigid area, with calcium based systems.Liquid mixed metal stabilisers are used in several PVC flexible applications such as calendered films, extruded profiles, injection moulded soles and footwear, extruded hoses and plastisols where PVC paste is spread on to a backing (flooring, wall covering, artificial leather). Liquid mixed metal stabiliser systems are

primarily based on barium, zinc and calcium carboxylates. In general liquid mixed metals like BaZn, CaZn require the addition of co-stabilisers, antioxidants and organo-phosphites to provide optimum performance. BaZn stabilisers have successfully replaced cadmium-based stabilisers in Europe in many PVC semi-rigid and flexible applications according to the European producers.[11]

Physical properties: PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs.

Products :  Water Line Pipes Is 4985 : 2000 20 Mm To 315 Mm In Class 2,3,4 And 5  Radome 163 Mm, 275 Mm, 343 Mm  Casing Pipes Is 12818 : 1992 125, 150, Cs, Cm, Rs, 200 Cs, Cm, Rs  Column Pipes Range From 1" To 4"  Hdpe Pipes  Plumbing Pipes Range From 20 Mm To 140 Mm  Sewerage Pipes Is 13592 : 1992 Dn 40 To 160 Mm For Type A & B

Application:  Radome In Mobile Towers  Borewell construction

Clients : Twad Board  Horticulture  Tansi, Chennai

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Southern Railway District Collectorates Eureka Forbes, Chennai Indian Hume Pipe, Mumbai Larsen & Toubro Ltd, Chennai Mahindra Construction Co. Ltd, Chennai Syrma Technology, Chennai (Export Zone) Subash Projects Limited (World Bank Scheme) Ivrcl Infrastructures & Project Ltd, Hyderabad

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