Industrial Security Management Reviewer
Industrial Security Management Reviewer Active Security Measures 1. Physical Barriers 2. Security lighting 3. Vaults 4. Locks Passive Security Measures 1.Those that will deter man from committing such act for fear of being caught charged in court or get dismissed 2.Security education programs, investigation, fire prevention seminars, personal security checks. Company Guard Force – (CGF) a security force maintained and operated by any private company/corporation utilizing any of its employees to watch, secure or guard its business establishment premises, compound or properties. Duty Detail Order - is a written order/schedule issued by a superior officer usually the private security agency/branch manager or operations officer assigning the performance of private security/detective services duties. Factors that Bring About Unsecured Conditions 1. Threats - an activity that could lead to a loss. 2. Hazards - a condition that could lead to a loss. 3. Vulnerability - a weakness that can be used to gain access to an asset.
4. Risk - a potential loss or damage to an asset. Government Guard Unit – (GGU) a security unit maintained and operated by any government entity other than military or police, which is established and maintained for the purpose of securing the office or compound and/or extension of such government entity. Government Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which include government security guards, detectives, security consultants and security officers except those of the AFP, PNP, or BJMP rendering or performing security and/or detective services as employed by government entities. License to Exercise Profession – shall mean any document issued by the Chief, PNP or his duly authorized representative recognizing a person to be qualified to perform his duties as private security or training personnel. License to Operate – (LTO) is a License Certificate document, issued by the Chief, Philippine National Police or his duly authorized representative, authorizing a person to engage in employing security guard or detective, or a juridical person to establish, engage, direct, manage or operate an individual or a private detective agency or private security agency/company security force after payment of the prescribed dues or fees. Note:New applicants for license to operate shall be required to obtain a minimum capitalization of one million pesos (P1,000,000.00) with a minimum bank deposit of five hundred thousand (P500, 000.00) pesos in order to start its business operation.
No regular license shall be granted to any private security agency unless it has a minimum of two hundred (200) licensed private security personnel under its employ. No regular license shall be granted to any company guard force or private detective agency unless it has a minimum of thirty (30) licensed private security personnel under its employ. The maximum number of private security personnel that a PSA/CGF/PDA may employ shall be one thousand (1000). PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators. Is an association of all licensed security agencies and company security forces in the Philippines. Person - shall include not only natural persons but also juridical persons such as corporation, partnership, company or association duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Physical Barrier - any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal access to an installation. PNP - Philippine National Police, under the DILG, organized pursuant to the provision of RA 6975 otherwise known as the National Police Act of 1991. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operators of all security agencies and guards. Powers and Duties of a Security Guard 1. To watch and secure the property of the client. Service shall not extend beyond the property or compound of client. Exception:
1. Escort duties 2. Hot pursuit of criminal offenders 2. Security Guard and Private Detective have no police authority. Private Detective - is any person who does detective work for hire, reward or commission, other than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, municipal or city jail guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of any other law enforcement agency of the government. Qualifications of a Private Detective 1. Must be a Filipino citizen 2. Must be a high school graduate 3. Must be physically and mentally fit 4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age 5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height 6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff: disqualifications a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP b. Mental incompetent c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs d. Habitual drunkard 7. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude Private Detective Agency - is any person, who, for hire or reward or on commission, conducts or carries on or holds himself or itself out as conducting or carrying on a detective agency, or detective service. Notes: 1. All person used in a private detective work must be licensed 2. All person employed solely for clerical or manual work need no private detective license.
3. License (LTO) shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in the agency office or headquarters of the agency and shall be exhibited at the request of any person whose jurisdiction is in relation with the business of the agency or the employees thereof, or of the Chief of the PNP or his duly authorized representative or any peace officer. 4. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all private detective and privated detective agency. The rules above applies to a Private Security Agency. Private Security Guard - (watchman) shall include any person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either a residence, business establishment, or buildings, compounds, areas, or property, inspects/monitors bodily checks/searches individuals and/or baggage and other forms of security inspection, physically/ manually or scientifically electronic, including but not limited to, logging concessions and agricultural, mining or pasture lands, transportation, for hire or compensation , or as an employee thereof, including any employee of the national or local governments or agencies or instrumentality’s thereof and or government owned or controlled firm or corporations who is employed to watch or secure government buildings, compounds, premises and other properties, other than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Jail management and Penology, Municipal or City jail guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of any other law enforcement agency of the Government. Qualifications of a Security Guard 1. Must be a Filipino citizen 2. Must be a high school graduate 3. Must be physically and mentally fit
4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age 5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height (RA 5487) 6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff: disqualifications a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP b. Mental incompetent c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs d. Habitual drunkard 7. Must have undergone a pre-licensing training course 8. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude Moral Turpitude - A phrase used in Criminal Law to describe conduct that is considered contrary to community standards of justice, honesty, or good morals. Crimes involving moral turpitude have an inherent quality of baseness, vileness, or depravity with respect to a person's duty to another or to society in general. Examples of Crime Involving Moral Turpitude 1. Rape 2. Forgery 3. Robbery 4. Prostitution Private Security Guard Agency - any person, association, partnership, or corporation, who recruits, trains, muster, furnishes, solicits individuals or business firms, private or government-owned or controlled corporations to engage his service or those of its watchmen. Who May Organize a Security Agency 1. Any Filipino citizen
2. Corporation 3. Partnership 4. Association Limitations/Disqualification/Prohibitions In Organizing A Security Agency 1. Security Agency must be 100% Filipino owned 2. No person shall organize or have an interest in, more than security agency 3. No agency shall offer, render or accept services in gambling dens or other illegal business establishments or enterprises. 4. Must not be an elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on account of the functions of their respective offices in the implementation and enforcement of the Private Security Agency Law and any person related to such government employees by affinity or consanguinity in the third civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly or indirectly in any security guard or watchman agency. 5. The extent of the security guard service being furnished by the security agency shall not go beyond the compound and/or property of the person or establishment contracting the security service except when the security guards is escorting big amount of money or valuables. 6. Main Office - All agencies shall maintain a main office in their registered addresses. Branch offices - may be established and maintained in other provinces/ cities where the security agency has deployed security guards. 7. Rules - Authority to operate outside principal offices. 1. No new or moribund but previously licensed private
security agency shall be granted license to operate unless its business viability is supported by evidence of assured clientele, adequate capitalization and the like. Moribund - (dying)(stagnant)(obsolescent) in terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigour. 2. Private Security Agency operating at regions outside its main office shall be required to register with the nearest Police Provincial Office and shall submit an authenticated machine copy of the following documents: a) License to Operate b) License of the FA’s to be issued c) List of the officers and security guards d) Appointment Order of Branch/Detachment Manager (if any) 8. All applicants for license to operate shall be required to attend a private security agency/company guard force operators and management seminar/workshop. 9. Prohibition on “KABIT SYSTEM” operators 1. No licensed security agency shall operate, promote and enter into an agreement of “merger“ (kabit system) with any person or a group of persons for the purpose of organizing a branch unit or subsidiary under separate control and ownership. Merger of security and detective agencies shall not be recognized without prior approval from the SEC with respect to their Articles of Incorporation and the DTI, with regards their business name. 2. Any of the following circumstances or a combination
thereof shall be considered prima-facie evidence of the existence of “Kabit System”. a) Maintaining a separate branch, unit or subsidiary office aside from the main office of the agency situated within the same locality b) Receiving direct payments from the agency’s clientele and issuing officials receipt of their own distinct from that issued by the agency concerned c) Remitting directly Social Security System premiums, Medicare contributions and other premium for other policy insurance benefits d) Existence of an agreement between the licensee and a branch manager thereof, whereby the latter obligates himself to pay a certain percentage of his income to the former on the condition that the control and supervision of the guards posted by said branch shall course on the manager thereof and that the licensee shall be exempt from liabilities/ obligations attendant to the operation of said branch. e) Keeping/maintaining separate payrolls for the branch employees signed and/or approved by the branch manager only f) Absence of record of monthly income remittances to the main office when said branch is authorized to make collections from the clients of the licensee g) All other similar acts tending to show separate and distinct relationship/personality/ ownership/ management.
Qualifications of the Operator/Manager of a Security Agency 1. Must be at least 25 years of age 2. Must be a College Graduate and/or No.3 below. 3. Must be a commissioned officer in the inactive service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines 4. Must be of good moral character 5. Must have no previous record of any conviction of any crime or offense involving moral turpitude 6. Must not be suffering from any of the following disqualifications: a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP b. Mental incompetent c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs d. Habitual drunkard 7. Must have taken a course/seminar on industrial Security Management and/or must have adequate training or experience in security business (IRR) Note: One can not be a Commissioned officer in the inactive service of the AFP unless college graduate. The law used the word and/or. RA 5487 is a law. In case of conflict between the law and its implementing rules and regulations promulgated by the chief PNP, The law shall prevail. Private Security Industry – shall cover those in the legitimate business of providing private security and detective services. Private Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which include private security guards, private detectives, security consultants, and security officers rendering/performing security and/or detective
services as employed by private security agencies and/or private firms. Protective Security System - are those measures taken by an installation or unit to protect itself against sabotage, espionage or subversion. RA 5487 - known as "The Private Security Agency Law." Restricted Area - is any area in which personnel or vehicles are controlled for reasons of security. Restricted area is established to provide security for installation or facilities and to promote efficiency of security operations and economy in the use of security personnel. SAGSD - Security Agency and Guard Supervision Division. SAGSD is under the PNP Civil Security Group. Security - is the state or quality of being secured, freedom from fear or danger;assurance; certainty. To secure is to make safe or be protected. From the Greek word SECUROS which means safe, safety or secured. Security Guard - (watchman) Any person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either residential or business establishment, or both, or any building, compound, or area including but not limited to logging concessions, agricultural, mining or pasture lands for hire or compensation, or as an employee thereof. Security Hazards - is an act or condition which results in a situation like a breach of the protection system and the subsequent loss or compromise of defense information, company secret or damage to personnel, property or facilities.
Three Major Areas of Security 1. Physical Security - this concern with the physical measures adopted to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material and document and to safeguard them against espionage, damage, loss and theft 2. Personnel Security - this is as important as physical security. Personnel security starts even before the hiring of an employee and remains to be maintained for as long as the person is employed. Its purpose is to insure that a firm hires those best suited to assist the firm in achieving its goals and objectives and once hired assist in providing necessary security to the work force while carrying out their functions 3. Document and Information Security - this involves the protection of documents as classified papers from loss, access by unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through disclosure Two Instances When the Chief PNP may deputize any security guard to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties. 1. In case of emergency 2. In times of disaster or calamities Types of Security 1. Industrial Security - a type of security applied to business groups engaged in industries like manufacturing, assembling, research and development, processing, warehousing and even agriculture. It may also mean the business of providing security. 2. Hotel Security- a type of security applied to hotels where its properties are protected from pilferage, loss damage and the function in the hotel restaurants are not disturbed and troubled by outsiders or the guest themselves. This type of security employs house detectives, uniforms guard and supervisor and
insures that hotel guests and their personal effects are safeguarded. 3. Bank Security- this type of security is concern with the bank operations. 4. VIP Security- a type of security applied for the protection of top-ranking officials of the government or private entity, visiting persons of illustrious standing and foreign dignitaries. 5. School Security- a type of security that is concern with the protection of the students, faculty members, and school properties. 6. Supermarket or Mall Security- a type of security which is concern with the protection of the stores, warehouses, storage, its immediate premises and properties as well as the supermarket personnel and customers. Security personnel are trained to detect shoplifter, robbery, and bomb detection and customer relation. 7. Other Types- this includes all other security matters not covered in the above enumeration.
Police Patrol Reviewer By criminologists - Sunday, November 16, 2014 - No Comments
Police Patrol Reviewer
1842 - the London Metropolitan Police established the first detective branch. Bobbies - British police. Boston Police - first public police force established in 1631. Bow Street Patrols - a small body of police in London who had been organized in the mid-18th century by the novelist and magistrate
Henry Fielding and his half brother, Sir John Fielding. Compurgation - also called Wager Of Law, in early English law, method of settling issues of fact by appeal to a type of character witness. Egypt - the first policing organization was created in about 3000 BC. Emperor Augustus - organized one of the earliest form of organized policing in Rome in 7 BC. He divided the city of Rome into 14 regiones (wards), each consisting of vici (precincts) overseen by vicomagistri, who were responsible for fire protection and other administrative and religious duties. New Scotland Yard - the headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police. New York Police - The first police department in the United States, it was established in 1844 and it was officially organized in 1845. Patrol - keep watch over (an area) by regularly walking or travelling around it. Patrol Functions (Categories) 1. Crime prevention - pro-active deterrence 2. Law Enforcement - reactive deterrence 3. Order Maintenance - security 4. Social Services - community welfare Patrol As A Function 1. Constant Movement 2. Prevent/deter crime 3. Eliminate opportunity for crime
Patrol Activities and Purposes 1. Crime Detection and Prevention 2. Apprehension of Criminals & Wanted Suspects 3. Data & Information Collection 4. Report Writing & Documentation 5. Public Assistance 6. Peace Keeping and Order Maintenance 7. Conflict Resolution 8. Traffic Control and Enforcement 9. Parking Enforcement 10.Law Enforcement Reduce Citizens’ Fear of Crime 11.Detect and Enforce Code and Safety Violations 12.Rapid Responses to Emergencies 13.Public Relations 14.Police Visibility 15.Property Protection Patrol Method 1. Foot Patrol 2. Motorcycle Patrol 3. Motorized Patrol 4. Bike Patrol 5. Horse Patrol 6. Aircraft Patrol 7. Watercraft Patrol Patrol Officer - is the backbone of the police department. Patrol Supervision 1. Hands on - supervisor involved in day to day activities. 2. Command - supervisor shows up at incident sites and gives orders
3. Counsel - supervisor available and when requested shows up at incident sites. Patrol Techniques 1. Routine Patrol 2. Directed Patrol 3. D-Runs 4. Saturation Patrol 5. Split Force 6. Suspect-Oriented Patrol Police Traffic Enforcement Activities 1. Issue Traffic Citations 2. Issue Parking Citations 3. Investigate Traffic Accidents 4. Arrest Drunk Drivers 5. Enforce Seat belt Laws 6. Direct Traffic Police Traffic Enforcement Purposes 1. Insure Safety of Public 2. Reduce Accidents and Injuries 3. Collect Information 4. Make Criminal Arrests 5. Enforce Laws 6. Facilitate Traffic Flow Peel's 9 (Nine) Principle Principle 1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. Principle 2 - The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.
Principle 3 - Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. Principle 4 - The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force. Principle 5 - Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to the public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. Principle 6 - Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient. Principle 7 - Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.” Principle 8 - Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. Principle 9 - The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. Peeler - a police officer, especially in the United Kingdom and Australia. Derived from the name of Sir Robert Peel who developed the Metropolitan Police Act in 1928 which proved to be the foundation for the modern police force in Britain. Police Functional Units
1. Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department. It comprises of numbers of divisions. 2. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau. 3. Section -functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization. 4. Unit -functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within an organization. Police Operations 1. Patrol - 50 % Of Force - 80 % Of Budget 2. Criminal Investigation (Detectives) - Solve 20 % Of Cases Solved In Depth case screening 3. Traffic 4. Support/Special Services Police Territorial Units 1. Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as a designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty.It is a spot location for general guard duty. 2. Route -a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. It is also called Line Beat. 3. Beat - an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot or motorized. 4. Sector - an area containing two or more beats, routes, or post. 5. District-a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its own station. 6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated districts. Polis - greek word which means city.
Purposes of Criminal Investigation 1. Determine whether or not a crime has been committed. 2. Decide if the crime was committed within the investigator’s jurisdiction. 3. Discover all facts pertaining to the complaint. 4. Gather and preserve physical evidence. 5. Identify the perpetrator. 6. Develop and follow up all clues. 7. Locate and apprehend the perpetrator. 8. Aid in the prosecution of the offender by providing evidence of guilt that is admissible in court. 9. Testify effectively as a witness in court. 10.Recover stolen property. Robert Peel - established the Metropolitan Police Force for London based at Scotland Yard in 1929. Father of modern policing system. Specialized Units and Operations 1. Special Weapons & Tactics 2. Vice & Drugs 3. K-9 4. Organized Crime 5. Community Services 6. Crime analysis 7. Domestic Violence 8. Sex Crimes 9. Internal Affairs 10.Crime Prevention 11.Juvenile & School Service 12.Intelligence
Police Intelligence Reviewer By criminologists - Thursday, September 18, 2014 - No Comments
Police Intelligence Reviewer
Accuracy of Information 1 - Confirmed By Other Sources 2 - Probably True 3 - Possibly True 4 - Doubtfully True 5 - Improbable 6 - Truth Can Not Be Judged
Alexander The Great - A Greek Conqueror, was able to identify those who are disloyal to him by ordering the opening of communication
letter of his men and was successful in uplifting the esprit de corps and morale of his men. ASIS - Australian Secret Intelligence Service - Primary responsibility is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific interest using agents stationed in wide variety of areas. Its main purpose like other most agencies is to protect the country's political and economic interest and ensure the safety of its citizens against national threats. Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND, Federal Intelligence Service, is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, the BND act as the early warning system to alert the German government against threats to its interest coming from abroad. Categories of Intelligence 1. National Intelligence - integrated product of intelligence developed by all government departments concerning the broad aspect of national policy and national security. 2. Departmental Intelligence - the intelligence required by the department or agencies of the government to execute iys mission and discharge its responsibilities. 3. Military Intelligence - refers to the knowledge by the military institution essential in the preparation and execution of military plans, policies and programs. CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, is the civilian intelligence agency of the USA. It is the largest intelligence agency in the world. Classifications of Documents 1. Top Secret - calls for the utmost degree of protection, Unauthorized revelation of this materials and information will cause extremely
severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or militarily. 2. Secret - unauthorized disclosure of this documents or things may put at risk the national security, cause serious injury to the reputation of the nation. 3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be injurious to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or will cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury. 4. Restricted - this are information which should not be published or communicated to anyone except for official purposes. These records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or destroyed will not affect operation or administration. Classification of Sources of Information 1. Open Sources - 99% of the information collected are coming from open sources or obtained from overt operation. 2. Close Sources - only 1% of information are obtained from covert operation. Elements of Clandestine Operation 1. Sponsor - directs the organization conducting the clandestine activity. 2. Target - person, place or things against which the clandestine activity is to be conducted. 3. Agent - refers to a person who conducts the clandestine operations, includes principal agents, action agents, and support agents. Principal Agent - leader or management agent in clandestine operation usually undertaken by the case officer. Action Agent - one who conducts the clandestine operation
that includes: a. Espionage Agent - agent who clandestinely procure or collect information. b. Propagandist - agents who molds the attitudes, opinions and actions of an individual group or nation. Support Agent - agent who is engaged in activities which supports the clandestine operations that includes the ff: a. Surveillant - agent who observes persons and places of operation of interest. b. Investigator - agent who undertakes to procure information or things of clandestine operation. Procurer of Funds - agent who obtains money when needed for operational use. Safe House Keeper - agents who manages and maintains a safe house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe heavens, training, briefing and debriefing. Communication Agent - agent who is detailed to secure clandestine communications. Coding - the changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible form, also known as encrypting. Decoding - transforming of coded message into plain text, also known as decrypting. Counter Intelligence - phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities
and the protection of information against espionage, subversion and sabotage. Types of Counter Intelligence 1. Passive CI Measures - protection of classified and sensitive information against unauthorized access through secrecy, communication security and other safeguards. 2. Active CI Measures - are those measures which seek actively to block enemies effort to gain information or engage in espionage, subversion and sabotage. Categories of Counter Intelligence Operations 1. Military Security - it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion, or surprise. 2. Port Boundary and Travel Security - application of both military and civil security measures for counter-intelligence control at point of entry and departure, international borders and boundaries. 3. Civil Security - active and passive counter-intelligence measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction. 4. Special Operations - counter subversion, sabotage and espionage. Objectives of Counter-Intelligence 1. It denies information to the enemy 2. It reduces the risk of a command 3. Aid in achieving surprises 4. Increases the security of the command 5. Decrease the ability of the enemy to create information about he forces.
Functions/Activities of Counter-Intelligence 1. Protection of Information against espionage 2. Protection of personnel against subversion 3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage Cryptography - arts and science of codes and ciphers. Crypto Analyst - refers to those persons who break intercepted codes. Cryptographer - refers to a person who is highly skilled in converting message from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and ciphers. Delilah - a biblical personality, she was able to gain information by using her beauty and charm, she was responsible for the fall of Samson, a known Israelite leader and enemy of the Philistines. Frederick The Great - Father of organized military espionage. FSD - Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, is the main domestic security agency of the Russian Federation, and the main successor of the Cheka, NKVD and the KGB. General Directorate For External Security - France external intelligence agency, operating under the direction of the french Ministry of Defense. Informants - any person who hand over information to the agents which is relevant to the subject. Type of Informants 1. Anonymous - unidentified or unknown informants.
2. False Informant - reveals information of no consequences or value. 3. Frightened Informants - weakest link in criminal chain, motivated by anxiety. 4. Self-Aggrandizing - moves around the the center of criminals delight in surprising the police about bits of information. 5. Mercenary - information for sale, needed something for exchange of information. 6. Double Crosser - wants to get more information from the police more than what he gives. 7. Women Informant - most dangerous type of informant. 8. Legitimate - operators of business. Motives of Informants 1. Vanity - conceited act/character of the criminal resulting to self betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable attention and importance by the police. 2. Civic-Mindedness - sense of duty and obligation to assist the police. 3. Fear - a person under an illusion of oppression by enemies or of other impending danger. 4. Repentance - one who has a change of heart and wishes to report a crime that is preying on his conscience. 5. Gratitude or Gain - an expression of appreciation to obtain a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family during his detention. 6. Revenge - to settle a grudge due to settle a previous injury. 7. Jealousy - envious of the accomplishments or possessions of another and wishes to humiliate him. 8. Remuneration - a person who informs solely for the pecuniary or other material gain he is to receive.
Informers - refers to any person who provides information to the agents in a regular basis regarding a subject, they are paid either on a regular or case to case basis. Intelligence - the organized effort to collect information, to assist it Little by little, and piece it together until it forms larger and clear pattern. (intelligence as an activity) - the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information which may have immediate or potential significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and programs of the user.(intelligence as a product) - an institution composed of person who prepares a plan or formulating policies.(intelligence as an institution) Intelligence Cycle 1. Planning 2. Collection 3. Processing 4. Dissemination Planning - the intelligence officer must have a thorough knowledge of the available sources of information, the collecting agencies and type of information the latter can provide. Collection - the intelligence officer must have thorough knowledge of the available sources of information and collecting agencies and the type of information they can provide and consider the following: a. Determine collecting agency b. Send orders or request
c. Supervise collection efforts d. Use tools or techniques in collection e. Ensure timely collection Factors in Choosing Collection Agents a. Capability - agents placement or access to target b. Multiplicity - more agents c. Balance Processing - Five Steps 1. Recording - is the reduction of information in writing or other form of graphical representation and arranging the information into groups of related items. 2. Evaluation - is the determination of the pertinence of the information to the operation, reliability of the source or agency and the accuracy of the information. Pertinence - does it holds some value to current operation. Reliability - judging the source of information or agency Credibility - truth of information 3. Analysis - is the stage in which the collected information is subjected to review in order to satisfy significant facts and derive conclusions there from. 4. Integration - the combination of the elements isolated analysis with other known information related to the operation. 5. Interpretation - process of determining the significance of new information and its meaning. Dissemination - processed information or intelligence data are disseminated to end users, common methods of disseminating intel
data are conferences, briefing and person to person exchanges. In this process, consider the factors of timeliness, correctness and security.
ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier intelligence agency. It was established in 1948. Its office is located in Islamabad. Julius Caesar - in his time, the staff of each legion includes ten speculators who served as an information collecting agency. The Speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear in a military organization. Military success of the Romans was aided by the communication system. Made use of pigeons as carrier which made intelligence transmittal very fast. Karl Schulmeister - known as Napoleon's Eye, he was credited for establishing counter-intelligence against spies. He is a master of deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information to identify the enemy's of Napoleon. Kinds of Covert Operation 1. Surveillance - is the covert, discreet observation of people and places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning the identities or activities of subjects. Surveillant - is the plainclothes investigator assigned to make the observation. Subject - can be a person, place, property and vehicle, group of people, organization, or object. Safe house - refers to place where agents meet each other
for purposes of debriefing and reporting. Live Drop - refers to a place where agents or informants leave their messages to the other agents. Decoy - a person or object used by the subject in an attempt to elude the surveillant. Convoy - an associate of the subject who follows him to detect surveillance. Log - chronological records of activities that took place in the establishment under surveillance. Methods of Surveillance 1. Stationary Surveillance - also referred to as Fixed or Stakeout Surveillance - is used when you know or suspect that a person is at or will come to a known location, when you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped or when informants have told you that a crime is going to be committed. 2. Moving Surveillance/Shadowing/Tailing - simply the act of following a person. Forms of Shadowing/Tailing 1. Loose Tail - employed where a general impression of the subject's habits and associates is required. 2. Rough Shadowing - employed without special precautions, subject maybe aware of the surveillance, employed also when the subject is a material
witness and must be protected from harm or other undesirable influences. 3. Close Tail - extreme precautions are taken against losing the subject is employed where constant surveillance is necessary. 2. Casing - it is the careful inspection of a place to determine its suitability for a particular operational purpose. 3. Elicitation - the process of extracting information from a person believe to be in possession of vital information without his knowledge or suspicion. 4. Employment of Technical Means Bugging - the use of an equipment or tool to listen and record discreetly conversation of other people. Wiretapping - a method of collecting information through interception of telephone conversation. 5. Tactical Interrogation - it is the process or method of obtaining information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to divulge information. 6. Observation and Description - it is a method of collecting information by just merely using the different senses. Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information Information - all evaluated materials of every description
including those derived from observation, reports, rumors, imagery and other sources from which intelligence is produced. Types of Agents Used in Collecting Information 1. Agent of Influence - agent who uses authority to gain information. 2. Agent in Place - agent who has been recruited within a highly sensitive target 3. Penetration Agent - agent who have reached the enemy, gather information and able to get back without being caught. 4. Expendable Agent - agent who leaks false information to the enemy. 5. Double Agent - an enemy agent who has been taken into custody turned around and sent back where he came from as an agent of his captors. MI6 - Secret Intelligence Service, supplies the British government of foreign intelligence. MSS - Ministry of State Security, is the security agency of the Peoples Republic of China. Mole - also known as sleeper agent. Tasked with monitoring an organization or individual. A mole can spend years in the same place only responding to missions when assigned. They are trained to be visible but to keep their motives unknown. Mossad - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is responsible for the intelligence collection and covert operation of the Israel government, Its Director reports directly to the Israel Prime Minister. It is one of the entities of the Israeli intelligence community along with AMAN (Military Intelligence) and
SHIN BET (Internal Security) Moses - sent 12 scouts to the land of Canaan to survey the land, the people, their location and the nature of their cities. NICA - National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the primary intelligence gathering arm of the Philippines. Its motto is Knowledge is Safety. It is headed by a Director General and is assisted by a Deputy Director General. The Director General reports directly to the President of the Philippines. EO 492 issued on February 1, 2006, ordered the NICA to activate the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance Center or NMARSC. The NMARSC shall serve as the primary intel provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under the supervision and oversight of the National Security Adviser, the NICA-NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or UAV's to cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various government agencies. Police Intelligence - the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals and other law violators for the purpose of effecting their arrest, obtaining evidence and prevent plan to commit crimes. Categories of Police Intelligence 1. Strategic Intelligence - knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation which is required by the national planners for the formulation of an adequate national defense. Intelligence is for long range.
2. Counter-Intelligence - preparation and execution of plans and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities undesirable to the police organization. 3. Line or Tactical Intelligence - intelligence information directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific objectives and immediate in nature and necessary for more effective police planning and operation. Components of Strategic Intelligence 1. Political Intelligence - deals with domestic and foreign affairs and relations of government operations. 2. Economic Intelligence - deals with the extent and utilization of natural and human resources to the industrial potential of the nation. 3. Transportation and Telecommunication intelligence - concerned with the operations and facilities of the military and civilians. Functional Classification of Police Intelligence 1. Criminal Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest and prosecution of criminal offenders. 2. Internal Security Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order. 3. Public Safety Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties. Principles of Intelligence 1. Intelligence and Operation are interdependent 2. Intelligence is continuous 3. Intelligence must be useful 4. Intelligence operation requires imagination and foresight
5. intelligence must be available on time 6. Intelligence must be flexible 7. Intelligence requires continuous security measures RAW - Research and Analysis Wing is India's external intelligence agency. Its primary function is collection of external intelligence, counter-terrorism and covert operations. Reliability of Information A - Completely Reliable B - Usually Reliable C - Fairly Reliable D - Not Usually Reliable E - Unreliable F - Reliability Can Not Be Judge Security Clearance - is a certification by a responsible authority that the person described is clear to access and classify matters at appropriate levels. Interim Clearance - effective for 2 years. Final Clearance - effective for 5 years. Security Measures and Operations in Relation To Intelligence 1. Physical Security - the broadest type of security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials, documents and to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage, or theft. 2. Communication Security - the protection resulting from the application of various measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized person in gaining information through communication.
This includes transmission, cryptographic and physical security. 3. Documentary Security - protection of documents, classified matters and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through proper storage and procedure. 4. Personnel security - the sum total procedures followed, inquiries conducted and criteria applied to determine the work suitable to a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a particular employee. Personnel Security Investigation - is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals and loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person's suitability for appointment and access to classified matters. Types of PSI 1. Local Agency Check - refers to the investigation of the records and files of agency in the area of principal residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor, Police, Fiscal where the individual is a resident. 2. National Agency Check - it consist of LAC supplemented by investigation of the records and files of the following agencies: PNP. ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration and other agencies. 3. Background Investigation - a check made on an individual usually seeking employment through subject's records in the police files, educational institutions, place of residence and former employers. Complete Background Investigation - a type of BI which is more comprehensive, it consist of detailed information regarding the subject.
Partial Background Investigation - investigation of the background of an individual but limited only to some of the circumstances. Sun Tzu - author of the art of war. Undercover Operation - also called Roping - is disguising one's own identity or using an assumed identity for the purpose of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gain information or evidence. Cover - it refers to the changing, forging, or falsifying agent's real personality including but not limited to things, location, job and others that will be used in undercover assignments. Types of Cover 1. Artificial -altering the background that will correspond to theh operation. 2. Multiple - includes different cover 3. Natural - actual or true background Hazards of Undercover Operations 1. Reintegration back to normal duty 2. Maintenance of identity Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment 1. Residential Assignment - it is related to the neighborhood of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident without making any suspicion. His mission is to make friends within its neighborhood and gather information regarding the subject and possibly getting closer to the subject.
2. Social Assignment - the agent will gain access to the subject by going to the different hangout places of the subject and gather information like knowing how to drink socially without getting drunk. 3. Work Assignment - the agent will be employed where the subject work to acquire information. The agent must know his work and focus his mind set and habit to his work assignment 4. Subversive Organization - this is the most dangerous of all the undercover assignment, the agent will join the organization of the subject itself, he must know the ideologies of the group and the actions while inside should conform to the organization to avoid any suspicion.
Police Personnel and Records Management Reviewer By criminologists - Wednesday, October 29, 2014 - No Comments
Police Personnel and Records Management Definition of Terms
Attrition - refers to the retirement or separation from the police service of PNP uniformed personnel pursuant to any of the means mentioned in RA 8551. Means of Attrition 1. Attrition by attainment of maximum tenure in position a. Chief PNP - 4 years b. PNP Deputy Chief for Operation - 4 years
c. PNP Deputy chief for Administration - 4 years d. PNP Chief of the Directorial Staff - 4 years e. Regional Directors - 6 years f. Provincial directors - 9 years g. City Directors - 9 years h. Other positions higher than provincial director shall have the maximum tenure of 6 years. 2. Attrition by Relief A PNP member who has been relieved for cause and has not been given an assignment within 2 years from the effective date of such relief shall be retired or separated. 3. Attrition by Demotion in Position A PNP member who has been relieved and assigned to a position lower than what is established for his/her rank in the PNP staffing pattern and who shall not be assigned to a position commensurate to such rank despite the existence of a vacancy within 18 months after his/her demotion in position shall be retired or separated. 4. Attrition by Non-Promotion A PNP member who has not been promoted for a continuous period of 10 years shall be retired or separated. 5. Attrition by Other Means - a PNP member with at least 5 years of accumulated active service shall be separated based on any of the following grounds: a. Inefficiency based on poor performance during the last 2 successive annual rating periods. b. Inefficiency based on poor performance for 3 cumulative annual ratings. c. Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police functions and duties d. Failure to pass the required entrance examination twice and/or finish the required career courses except for
justifiable reasons. e. Refusal to take a periodic PNP Physical fitness test without justifiable reason. f. Failure to take PNP physical fitness test for 4 consecutive periodic tests due to health reasons. g. Failure to pass PNP physical fitness test for 2 consecutive periodic tests or 4 cumulative periodic tests. h. Non-Compliance with the minimum qualification standards for the permanency of original appointment. Attrition in Action - refers to the action containing the findings and evidence on a specific means of attrition filed by a particular screening committee before the concerned attrition board. Authority - Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised. Budgeting - with all that goes with budgeting in the form of planning, accounting and control. Centralization - Centralization refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making. Whether decision making is centralized (to management) or decentralized (to subordinates) is a question of proper proportion. The task is to find the optimum degree of centralization for each situation. Coordinating - that is the all important duty of interrelating the various parts of the work. Demotion in Position - refers to the designation of a personnel to a position lower than what is established for his/her rank or not
commensurate to his/her rank in the PNP table of organization. Directing - that is the continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise. Discipline - Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organisation. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership, a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organisation's rules, and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules. Discipline - the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behaviour, using punishment to correct disobedience. Division of labor - Authority and responsibility are clearly defined and officially sanctioned. Job descriptions are specified with responsibilities and line of authority. All employees have thus clearly defined rules in a system of authority and subordination. Division of Work - This principle is the same as Adam Smith's division of labour. Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. Equity - Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates. Esprit de corps - Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organisation. Field Training Program - refers to the training required to make the temporary appointment of a new PNP member permanent.
Formal hierarchical structure - An organization is organized into a hierarchy of authority and follows a clear chain of command. The hierarchical structure effectively delineates the lines of authority and the subordination of the lower levels to the upper levels of the hierarchical structure. Grievance - a wrong considered as grounds for complaint, or something believed to cause distress. Immediate Supervisor - refers to a person authorized to make the performance evaluation rating of a PNP member. Initiative - Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort. Just Cause - refers to the legal grounds that would warrant the relief or removal of a PNP member from his present position and designation in the PNP organization. Management by rules - A bureaucracy follows a consistent set of rules that control the functions of the organization. Management controls the lower levels of the organization's hierarchy by applying established rules in a consistent and predictable manner. Managers are salaried officials - A manager is a salaried official and does own the administered unit. All elements of a bureaucracy are defined with clearly defined roles and responsibilities and are managed by trained and experienced specialists. Mandatory Career Courses - refers to the required training for a PNP member to be eligible for promotion to the next higher rank.
Max Weber - As a German academic, Weber was primarily interested in the reasons behind the employees’ actions and in why people who work in an organization accept the authority of their superiors and comply with the rules of the organization. Maximum Tenure of Position - is the maximum cumulative period for a PNP member to hold a particular position level. Mental Incapacity - is a condition where a PNP member is unable to exercise his/her reasoning faculties or incapable of understanding and acting with discernment his/her duties and responsibilities as a result of illness or injury as may be determined by the PNP medical screening committee. Non-Promotion - refers to the non advancement to the next higher rank or position beyond the maximum prescribed period. Order - People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. Organic Personnel To A Unit - is a PNP member assigned to a particular unit covered with appropriate PNP assignment orders. Original Appointment - refers to the appointment for the initial entry of PNP member to the uniformed service who meets all the requirements of the position. Organizing - that is the establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and coordinated for the defined objective. Pendency of an Attrition Action - refers to the stage when the
endorsement of the PRO regional director or the NSU director of a PCO Attrition action has been officially received by the concerned NHQ PCO attrition board through the NHQ screening committee report of a PNCO attrition action has been officially received by the NHQ/ PRO/NSU attrition board. Personnel Action on Attrition - is an action filed before the screening committee based on a verified statement of an alleged means of attrition by an initiating person. Personnel Administration - Recruitment, induction, placement, transfer, promotion, salary administration of Police personnel. Personnel hired on grounds of technical competence - Appointment to a position within the organization is made on the grounds of technical competence. Work is assigned based on the experience and competence of the individual. Personnel Programs - refers to the activities programmed to implement the organization philosophy or creed and the personnel philosophy of central managers in relation to people so as to accomplish organizational objectives. Planning - that is working out in broad outline the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise. Police Appraisal or Performance Rating - is the evaluation of the traits, behavior and effectiveness of a police officer on the job as determined by work standards. Police Compensation - Financial compensation in the form of wages of
salaries constitutes the largest single expenditure for most organizations. In Metropolitan Manila and other urban centers, wages of salaries represent the sole source to meet the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. Police Personnel Management - (Human Resources Management) may be defined as that area of management concerned with human relations in the police organization. Police Personnel Planning – is a study of the labor supply of jobs, which are composed with the demands for employees in an organization to determine future personnel requirements, which either increase or decrease. Police Placement - is the process of making police officers adjusted and knowledgeable in a new job and or working environment. Police Recruitment - is the process of encouraging police applicant from outside an organization to seek employment in an organization. Recruitment - refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs within an organisation, either permanent or temporary. Police Selections (screening) - is the process of determining the most qualified police applicant for a given position in the police organization. Police Training and Development – refers to any method used to improve the attitude, knowledge, and skill or behavior pattern of an employee for adequate performance of a given job.
Promotion - is the advancement of an employee's rank or position in an organizational hierarchy system. Promotion - means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and salaries. Physical Fitness Test - the method of evaluating the physical condition of PNP members in terms of stamina, strength, speed and agility. Physical Incapacity - the inability of a PNP member to perform his/her duties and responsibilities due to physical defect as a result if disease or injury as may be determined by the PNP medical screening committee. Poor Performance - is the poor rating in the promulgated PNP performance evaluation rating system. Remuneration - Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. Reporting - that is keeping those to whom the executive is responsible informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research, and inspection. Respondent - refers to the PNP member subjected to attrition proceedings. Retirement - the termination of employment and official relations of a PNP member who rendered at least 20 years of active service in the government with payment of corresponding benefits. Scalar Chain - The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain. However, if following the chain creates delays,
cross-communications can be allowed if agreed to by all parties and superiors are kept informed. Second Level PCO Ranks - refers to police commissioned officers below the third level ranks in the PNP. Second Level PCNO Ranks - refers to all rank for police non commissioned officers. Separation - is the termination of employment and official relations of a PNP member who rendered less than 20 years of active service in the government with payment of corresponding benefits. Stability of tenure of personnel - High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. Staffing - that is the whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest - The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organisation as a whole. Third Level PCO Ranks - refers to police commissioned officers with the rank of Police Senior Superintendent and higher. Total Permanent Physical Disability - is any impairment of the body which renders PNP member indefinitely incapable of substantially performing the mandated duties and functions of his position. Transfer - refers to a change in job assignment.
Unity of Command - Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. Unity of Direction - Each group of organisational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan. Waiver Program - refers to the waiver of the minimum age, height, weight and educational requirements for the initial appointment to the PNP pursuant to existing laws and policies. Waiver - the act of choosing not to use or require something that you are allowed to have or that is usually required. Welfare - the health, happiness, and fortunes of a person or group. Written documents - All decisions, rules and actions taken by the organization are formulated and recorded in writing. Written documents ensure that there is continuity of the organization’s policies and procedures.
Comparative Police System Reviewer By criminologists - Friday, October 3, 2014 - No Comments
Comparative Police System
Comparative Police System Definition of Terms
Comparative Police System Reviewer 1998 - Asean Chiefs of Police (Aseanapol) was estabished. Members Aseanapol 1. Indonesia 2. Malaysia 3. Philippines
4. Singapore 5. Thailand 6. Brunei Darussalam 7. Vietnam 8. Laos PDR 9. Myanmar 10.Cambodia Abu Sayyaf - Abu means father and sayyaf means swordsmith, is a militant Islamist group based in and around Jolo and Basilan, Philippines. Al Qaeda - literally means the base, a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several other militants. Apostasy - is defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed. It includes the act of converting to another religion by a person who was born in a Muslim family or who had previously accepted Islam. Arvan Tavnii Tsagdaa - The National Police Agency of Mongolia. Created in 1965 and with its headquarters in the capital Ulaanbaatar. Asean Police - Comparison 1. Afghanistan - Name of Police Agency - ANP (Afghanistan National Police) Under What Department - Ministry of the Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Police General Lowest Ranking Officer - 2nd Patrolman 2. Armenia -
Name of Police Agency - Police of the Republic of Armenia
Under What Department - Ministry of Defense Highest Ranking Officer - Police Colonel General
Lowest Ranking Officer - Junior Sergeant 3. Azerbaijan - Name of Police Agency - National Police of the Republic of Azerbaijan Under What Department - Ministry of the Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer 4. Bahrain -
Name of Police Agency - Bahrain National Police
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer 5. Bangladesh - Name of Police Agency - Bangladesh Police Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 6. Bhutan -
Name of Police Agency - Royal Bhutan Police
Under What Department - Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Gagpeon (Chief of Police) Lowest Ranking Officer - Gagpa 7. Brunei -
Name of Police Agency - Royal Brunei Police Force
Under What Department - Home Affairs Ministry Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 8. Myanmar -
Name of Police Agency - Myanmar Police Force
Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Police Major General Lowest Ranking Officer - Private 9. Cambodia - Name of Police Agency - Cambodian Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Brigadier General Lowest Ranking Officer - Officer Cadet 10.Peoples Republic of China - Name of Police Agency - Peoples Armed Police Force
Under What Department - Ministry of Public Security Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 2nd Class 11.Cyprus -
Name of Police Agency - Cyprus Police Force
Under What Department - Ministry of Justice Highest Ranking Officer - Chief of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 12.East Timor - Name of Police Agency - National Police of East Timor Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer 13.Georgia -
Name of Police Agency - Georgian National Police
Under What Department - Department of Public Safety Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 14.Hongkong - Name of Police Agency - Hongkong Police Force Under What Department - Operations and Support Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 15.India -
Name of Police Agency - Indian Police Service Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner Lowest Ranking Officer -
16.Indonesia - Name of Police Agency - Indonesian National Police Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Police General Lowest Ranking Officer - 2nd Bhayangkar 17.Iran -
Name of Police Agency - Iranian National Police Under What Department - Ministry of Interior and Justice Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer -
Name of Police Agency - Iraqi Police Service
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Chief of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Patrolman 19.Israel -
Name of Police Agency - Israeli Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Security Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
Name of Police Agency - National Police Agency Under What Department - National Public Safety Commission Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer
Name of Police Agency - Public security Force
Under What Department - Public Security Directorate of the Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer 22.Kazakhstan - Name of Police Agency - National Police of Kazakhstan Under What Department - National Security Committee of Ministry of internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Procurator General Lowest Ranking Officer - Ryadovoy 23.North Korea - Name of Police Agency - National Police Agency Under What Department - Ministry of Public Security Highest Ranking Officer - Daewon (Grand Marshall) Lowest Ranking Officer - Chonsa (Private) 24.South Korea - Name of Police Agency - Korea National Police Agency (KNPA) Under What Department - Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer 25.Kuwait -
Name of Police Agency - Kuwait National Police
Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs
Highest Ranking Officer - Lieutenant General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 26.Kyrgyzstan - Name of Police Agency - Kyrgyzstan Police Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer 27.Laos -
Name of Police Agency - Laos National Police Under What Department - Ministry of Public Security Highest Ranking Officer - General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
Name of Police Agency - International Security Forces
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Director General Lowest Ranking Officer - Gendarme 29.Macau -
Name of Police Agency - Macau National Police Force
Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Superintendent Lowest Ranking Officer - Guard 30.Malaysia - Name of Police Agency - Royal Malaysian Police Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 31.Maldives - Name of Police Agency - Maldives Police Under What Department - National Security and Defense Branch Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Lance Constable 32.Mongolia - Name of Police Agency - Mongolia Public Security Force Under What Department - Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - General Lowest Ranking Officer - Private 33.Nepal -
Name of Police Agency - Nepal Police Force
Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs
Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 34.Oman -
Name of Police Agency - Royal Oman Police
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Lieutenant General Lowest Ranking Officer - Conscript 35.Pakistan - Name of Police Agency - Pakistan Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 36.Papua New Guinea - Name of Police Agency - Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary Under What Department Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Kiap (Patrol Officer) 37.Philippines - Name of Police Agency - Philippine National Police Under What Department - Department of Interior and Local Government Highest Ranking Officer - Director General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer 1 38.Qatar -
Name of Police Agency - Qatar National Police
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer - Shurti 39.Russia -
Name of Police Agency - Militsiya
Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Police Colonel Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Cadet 40.Saudi Arabia - Name of Police Agency - Departmemnt of Security Under What Department Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer -
41.Singapore - Name of Police Agency - Singapore Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Constable 42.Sri Lanka - Name of Police Agency - Sri Lanka Police Service Under What Department - Defense Ministry Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General of Police Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Constable Class 4 43.Syria -
Name of Police Agency - Syria Public Security Police Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Director General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Private
Name of Police Agency - National Police Agency
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Police Supervisor General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Rank 4 45.Thailand - Name of Police Agency - Royal Thai Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Police General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 46.Turkey -
Name of Police Agency - Turkish Police
Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Affairs Highest Ranking Officer - Director General Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer\ 47.Turkmenistan - Name of Police Agency - Turkmenistan National Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of State Security Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer 48.UAE Dubai - Name of Police Agency - National Police Forces Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - General Commander
Lowest Ranking Officer 49.Uzbekistan - Name of Police Agency - Uzbekistan Police Force Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer - Director General Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 50.Vietnam -
Name of Police Agency - Peoples Police of Vietnam
Under What Department - Ministry of Public Security Highest Ranking Officer - General Lowest Ranking Officer 51.Yemen -
Name of Police Agency - Yemen National Police Force
Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Highest Ranking Officer Lowest Ranking Officer -
Basic Functions of Criminal Justice System 1. Policing 2. Adjudication 3. Correction Centralized Police - A country with only one recognized police force which operates entire that country. It uses a centralized system of policing. Philippines is an example of centralized police because the Philippine National Police has one central office with many regional, provincial and local branches throughout the country. Decentralized police - refers to a system where police administrations and operations are independent from one state to another. It is more applicable to countries with federal government. Comparative Criminology - Theories (Scheider)
Alertness to crime theory - is that as a nation develops, people’s alertness to crime is heightened, so they report more crime to police and also demand the police become moreeffective at solving crime problems. Chowkidar - in India, means one who inhabits a "chowki", police station or guard house. Economic or migration theory - is that crime everywhere is the result of unrestrained migration and over population in urban areas such as ghettos and slums. Opportunity theory - is that along with higher standards of living, victims become more careless of their belongings, and opportunities for committing crime multiply. Demographic theory - is based on the event of when a greater number of children are being born, because as these baby booms grow up, delinquent subcultures develop out of the adolescent identity crisis. Deprivation theory holds that progress comes along with rising expectations, and people at the bottom develop unrealistic expectations while people at the top don’t see themselves rising fast enough. Modernization theory - sees the problem as society becoming too complex. Theory of anomie and synomie - (the latter being a term referring to social cohesion on values), suggests that progressive lifestyle and norms result in the disintegration of older norms that once held people together (anomie).
Chusai-san - the rural police officer in Japan. Comparative Criminal Justice - it is as subfield of the study of criminal justice systems worldwide. It studies the similarities and differences in structure, goals, punishment and emphasis on rights as well as the history and political stature of different systems. Comparative Police System - it is the science and art of investigating and comparing the police system of nations. It covers the study of police organizations, trainings and methods of policing of various nations. Confucian thought - The belief that social order can be achieved through moral and political reform because man is by nature good or capable of goodness. Countries With Less Or No Crime 1. Switzerland 2. Japan 3. Ireland 4. Egypt - Siwa Oasis Cybercrimes - are generally defined as any type of illegal activity that makes use of the Internet, a private or public network, or an in-house computer system. Cyberstalking - a technologically based attack on person because of anger, revenge, or control. Computer Fraud - altering data or gaining unlawful use of computer or services. Identity Theft - using another's personal information to commit
fraud or other crimes. Computer Viruses - a program that copies itself and infects a computer. Denial of Service Attacks - making service unavailable to users. Malware - malicious software that interferes with the functioning of computers and sending data of user over the internet. Information warfare - attacks on information and computer systems. Different Police Global Organizations 1. ASEAN Chiefs of Police 2. Europol 3. IACP 4. Interpol 5. UN policing Drug Trafficking - Drug trafficking is the commercial exchange of drugs and drug paraphernalia. This include any equipment used to manufacture illegal drugs or use them. Elliniki Astynomia - is the national police service of Greece. EUROPOL - It means European Police Office or Europol. Europol is the European Union’s criminal intelligence agency. It became fully operational on July 1,1999. Europol only acts on request at present. EUROPOL's Mandate 1. llicit drug trafficking 2. Illicit immigration networks;
3. Terrorism; Forgery of money (counterfeiting of the euro) and other means of payment; 4. Trafficking in human beings (including child pornography); 5. Illicit vehicle trafficking; 6. Money laundering Gendarmerie Nationale - is the national rural police force of Algeria. National Gendarmerie - is a branch of the French Armed Forces, in charge of public safety, with police duties among the civilian population. Globalization - is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies,and government of different nations, as process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. Hezbollah - literally means "Party of God", is a Shi'a Islamist militant group and political party based in Lebanon. Hongkong Police Force - It is the world's second, and Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system. Human Trafficking - the illegal movement of people, typically for the purposes of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation. IACP - (International Association of Chiefs of Police) the world’s oldest and largest nonprofit membership organization of police executives, with over 20,000 members in over 80 different countries. IACP’s leadership consists of the operating chief executes of international, federal, state and local agencies of all sizes.
Illegal Drug Trade - the term being used in the international scene, it is a more comprehensive term than drug trafficking as it includes cultivation and manufacture. International Crime - Defined as crimes against the peace and security of mankind. International Crimes 1. Aggression (by one state against another) 2. Treat of aggression 3. Genocide (destroying a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group) 4. Terrorism 5. Drug trafficking International Criminal Justice - It involves the study and description of one country’s law, criminal procedure, or justice. Comparative criminal justice system attempts to build on the knowledge of criminal justice in one country by investigating and evaluating, in terms of another country,culture, or institution. Interpol - (International Criminal Police Organization) It began in 1923,and at the same time its name was International Criminal Police Commission. In 1956, its name became International Criminal Police Organization. Slowly, the name of this international organization became famous as Interpol. Now,Interpol is the second biggest international organization; the United Nations is the first. Jemaah Islamiyah - (Islamic Congregation) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamist terrorist organization dedicated to the establishment of a regional Islamic caliphate in Southeast Asia.
Jolly R. Bugarin - a Filipino former President of the Interpol, from 1980 to 1984. He is the only Filipino who had achieved that feat. Koban - is a small neighborhood police station found in Japan. Often translated to English as Police Box. Koban are staffed by a relatively small number of police officers (usually 3-5 officers). Chuzaisho - (residential police box) is usually staffed by a single officer. The Chuzaisho is typically located outside of urban districts in villages and is operated by one community officer, who resides with his family in this police facility. Hashutsusho - (police box) The Hashutsusho is typically placed in an urban district and is operated by a number of community police officers who work under a shift system. The community officers generally live in the jurisdiction served by the Hashutsusho. Model System - is used to described the countries being used as topics of discussion.These countries are chosen not because they are greater than others but because they are thefocus of comparison being studied. Money Laundering - the concealment of the origins of illegally obtained money, typically by means of transfers involving foreign banks or legitimate businesses. Mutawa - religious police in Saudi Arabia whose duty is to ensure strict adherence to established codes of conduct. National Public Safety Commission - is the policy making and oversight body of the national police forces in Japan and South Korea.
Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa - it literally means "the policeman", is the national police force of New Zealand. Policing in New Zealand started in 1840. Palermo Protocols - are three protocols that were adopted by the United Nations to supplement the 2000 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. They are: 1. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; and 2. The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air. 3. The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition POLRI - (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia) Indonesian National Police. The Chief of Police of Indonesia is called Kapolri. Police Box - is a British telephone kiosk or callbox located in a public place for the use of members of the police, or for members of the public to contact the police. Most are disused at present with the advent of two way radio and mobile phones. Polis Diraja - the Royal Malaysia police. RA 8792 - Electronic Commerce Act of 2000. RA 9208 - The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003. RA 9165 - Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002. RA 9372 - Human Security Act of 2007.
RA 9995 - Anti-Photo and Voyeurism Act of 2009. Schupo - (Schutzpolizei), the state level police of the German States. Taliban - means "students", is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. Terrorism - the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims. Transnational Crime - It is a term that has been used in comparative and international criminal justice study in recent years to reflect the complexity and enormity of global crime issues. It is defined by the United Nations (UN) offences whose inception, proportion and/or direct or indirect effects involve in more than one country. Examples of Transnational Crimes 1. Money laundering 2. Drug trafficking 3. Terrorism 4. Human trafficking 5. Cyber crime Transnational Organized Crime - involves the planning and execution of illicit business ventures by groups or networks of individuals working in more than one country. These criminal groups use systematic violence and corruption to achieve their goal. Crimes commonly include money laundering; human smuggling; cyber crime; and trafficking of humans, drugs, weapons,endangered species, body parts, or nuclear material.
Types of Court Systems of the World 1. Adversarial System - the accused is innocent until proven guilty. 2. Inquisitorial System - the accused is guilty until proven innocent. Vetting - is the process of performing a background check on someone to ensure that they are suitable for a job requiring secrecy, loyalty, or trustworthiness. Well Known Organized Crime Group 1. Russian Mafia - Around 200 Russian groups that operate in nearly 60 countries worldwide. They have been involved in racketeering, fraud, tax evasion, gambling, drug trafficking, ransom, robbery and murder. 2. La Cosa Nostra - Known as the Italian or Italian-American mafia. The most prominent organized crime group in the world from the 1920’s to the 1990’s. They have been involved in violence, arson, bombings, torture, sharking, gambling, drug trafficking, health insurance fraud, and political and judicial corruption. 3. Yakuza - Japanese criminal group. Often involved in multinational criminals activities,including human trafficking, gambling, prostitution, and undermining licit businesses. 4. FukChing - Chinese organized group in the United States. They have been involved in smuggling, street violence, and human trafficking. 5. Triads - Underground criminal societies based in Hong Kong. They control secret markets and bus routes and are often involved in money laundering and drug trafficking. 6. Heijin - Taiwanese gangsters who are often executives in large corporations. They are often involved in white collar crimes, such as illegal stock trading and bribery, and sometimes run for public office. 7. Jao Pho - Organized crime group in Thailand. They are often
involved in illegal political and business activity. 8. Red Wa - Gangsters from Thailand. They are involved in manufacturing and trafficking methamphetamine.