IMPROVING the STUDENTS Speaking Ablility ( Ari Proposal)

July 15, 2017 | Author: Hasan Basrin Harahap | Category: Language Education, Reading Comprehension, Learning, Second Language, Language Acquisition
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by: Akhmad Amri 0613042017




Background of the problem Basically, there are four skills required in English teaching learning program. They are reading, speaking, listening and writing. Base on those skill, speaking is one of the most important skill in language learning. By speaking, we can convey information and ideas, and maintain social relationship by communicating with others. In addition, a large percentage of the world’s language learners study English in order to be able to communicate fluently. It is stated by British Council’s report (1998) that more than two billion people use English to communicate ( British council report in Syakir 2006). Some people often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning. They assumed that speaking is a crucial part of language learning process. Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. That is why the main purpose of language learning is to develop proficiency in speaking and communicative efficiency. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire and asses their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication. Speaking ability also becomes the main objective of language learning especially in senior high school in Indonesia. Students of senior high school are required to master speaking after graduating from their school in order to be able to communicate in English. According to KTSP (School Based Curriculum) of English for SMA, speaking must be taught to the students because it is one of language skill besides reading, listening and writing. Moreover students are expected to be able to communicate English well ( Depdiknas 2006: 305) On the contrary, according to the writer’s experience when he was in senior high school, speaking is the most difficult part for the students when they learn English

language. The writer finds out many students of senior high school still have difficulty in speaking English although they are supposed to master it after graduating from their schools in order to be able to communicate. Although students have learned English

for years, many of them are still incapable to use English orally. These may be caused by the limitation of opportunity to practice, lack of vocabulary, psychological factors which more concern to the fear of making mistakes when speaking English and also inappropriate method for the characteristic of the students. In order to be able to speak English well, students have to feel comfortable and confident in practicing their English. By feeling comfortable and confident, students will not fear of making mistakes when speaking English. But on the other hand, many students always feel uncomfortable, unconfident, and fear of making mistakes when speaking English. This fear and uncomfortable feeling can be caused by the inappropriate method that used by the teacher. In fact, there are many teacher use inappropriate method in teaching speaking skill. They use teaching method that makes their students fell unsecure, under pressure, and fear of making mistakes. Therefore, English teacher should be able to encourage and motivate the students to learn the target language by using the appropriate method. They should use an appropriate method that makes their students fell comfortable, independent, autonomous, and responsible. The use of appropriate method can influence the students’ achievement in learning language, especially speaking skill in English. Anthony said that method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradict, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural (Anthony, 1963). It can be said that method is implementation of approach. Method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skill to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the content will be presented.


Method can be one reason for the failure of teaching-learning process. Mackey (1975:14) stated that method equip the student with the knowledge and skill required for effective communication in foreign language. According to Setiadi 2006, there are many methods that can be applied in language teaching. Such as Grammar Translation Method (GTM), Direct Method , Community Language Learning Method (CLL), Audio Lingual Method, Silent Way Method ,Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), Total Physical Response, Suggestopedia, and Natural Approach. In this research, the writer is interested to use silent way method in teaching speaking skill at the second year students of SMA N X Bandar Lampung. He choose that method because he assumes that silent way method is a method that can encourage, and motivate students to use their English without fell of fear in making mistake. In Silent Way method, teaching learning is facilitated if the students learn based on the self-correction. Therefore, this will make students independent, autonomous, and responsible. In this method, teachers have to make the students rely on themselves. The students can produce any sound and the teacher will never ask anybody else to do it for them. So, the students are hoped to be responsible for the words or utterances they are saying. Furthermore, in Silent Way the teacher functions as a guide, an organizer, a resource and as an evaluator ( Setiadi 2006: 76) Base on the explanation above, the writer would like to find out whether the silent way method in teaching speaking skill at the second year students of SMA N X Bandar Lampung can improve their speaking ability. Research Question Based on the backgrounds discussed above, the writer underlines the problem as

follow: Can Silent Way method significantly improve the students’ speaking ability at the second year students of SMA N X Bandar Lampung when it is implemented?. 1.3 Objective of the Research Based on the research question above, there are two objectives of this research. To find out whether or not Silent Way method can significantly increase students’ speaking ability. To find out whether the students’ speaking ability achievement can be improve when the Silent Way method is implemented.

1.4 Significance of the Research This research is formulated as an effort of finding some uses. The uses of this research are: Theoretically, the result of the research can contribute useful information for the future classroom action research with the similar problem of speaking ability improvement. Practically, the result of this research can be as information to the English teachers especially at SMA N X Bandar Lampung that Silent Way method can be applied in improving the students’ speaking ability and also improve their performance in teaching.


1.5 Scope of the Research This research will conduct at SMA N X Bandar Lampung. The population of this research is the second year students of SMA N X Bandar Lampung. Since the research is a class room action research, the subject of this research is the second year students of SMA N X Bandar Lampung, and it will be focused on the implementation of silent way method in improving the students’ speaking ability. In this research, the writer does not intent to all aspects of speaking skill, but it is limited to the pronunciation, vocabulary, structure, and fluency. The material that will be taught by the writer in this research is limited to the pronoun “ this” and ”that”, comparative degree, superlative degree, preposition ( under, in , on), and positive comparison.


2.1 Concept of English Speaking Ability According to Webster Dictionary (1984:256) speaking is to utter words, to express thought by words, to utter speech, discourse, or argue, to talk, to make mention, to tell by writing , to communicate ideas in any matter. Horn (1980:76) in Andriany (2004:7) implies speaking also means to use a language in ordinary, not in singing. Above theories emphasize that speaking is an effort to use language freely, being able to speak which puts more emphasis on interaction, communication and understanding each other. If it related to particular language, such as English, according to Ratih in Syakir (2002), speaking is the form of oral language that is inevitably used to communicate ideas and feelings, no matter what the language is. Based on definition above, speaking includes some components which should be mastered:







comprehension for oral communication in the classroom context. The speaking component in a language class should encourage acquisition of communication in and out the classroom. Those components will be used as measurements description in order to check the correctness in terms of non-using the score. The writer conclude that speaking is the ability to use the language in ordinary way by speech. It is not only matter of transferring some messages to other person but is also communication, which needs more that one person to communicate with. Meanwhile, Webster Dictionary (1986:2) defines ‘ability’ as a genetic word represents the term capacity, capability, intelligence, competence, mind power and others. It also relates to skill, knowledge to do something, proficiency, aptitude, 7

faculty, expertise, talent, facility, qualification, and strength. Based on the definition above the writer define English speaking ability as an ability or skill that the learners have to communicate, to convey meaning, and to have a meaningful conversation in English. In learning English, the main goal is to able to speak well so they can use it in communication. Speaking skill believed as important aspect to be success in English speaking. The success of learning English can be seen and measured from their performance in speaking and how well they present their English in communication. English as the target language should be mastered well, either its language skill or language area. In acquiring second language, learners should be involved into a meaningful interaction of the target language that only found in natural communication. Learners learn to speak and concerned to the message that they are conveying and understanding. Ratih in Syakir 2002 explained that when people speak, they construct ideas in words, express their perception, their feelings and their intentions, so that interlocutors grasp meaning of what the speakers mean. If the learner does not have speaking skill, does not understand the English words that saying by the speaker, does not acknowledge the language, they cannot grasp meaning of the speaker’s mean. In that condition, they cannot be said success in learning English, because they did not have a meaningful interaction of English conversation. So, for people who want to speak English well, besides learning the knowledge of the language, they need to practice it. Because it is impossible to be able speak English without practice it. Speaking skill requires two aspects, namely linguistic and non-linguistic aspect. 1. Linguistic aspect is the main requirement that the English learner should possess in order to speak it well. It involves comprehension, pronunciation, grammar and word order, vocabulary, and general speed of speech, sentence

length and etc. 2. Non-linguistic aspect is an aspect to support learners to achieve a success in acquiring speaking skill. This aspect involves personality dimensions, such as self esteem and extroversion. To be success in English speaking, learners should master the linguistic aspect and posses the non-linguistic aspect. They both correlate each other. So, English speaking ability here not only focuses on the knowledge of language that the learners have, but also focuses on the personality dimension that will affect them in presenting their knowledge of English and they know how and when to present it. 2.1.1. Pronunciation The way of speaking the language is called pronunciation. Hornby (1984:670) explains that, “pronunciation is a way in which a language is spoken, person’s way of speaking a language or words of a language”. Whereas, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001:1130) states “pronunciation as the way in which a particular language is pronounced, a particular person’s way of pronouncing a language, the way in which a word is usually pronounced”. The writer concluded that pronunciation refers to the way of person in speaking a word that is pronounced. 2.1.2. Vocabulary In Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (Hornby, 1984:461) “vocabulary is defined as the total number of words in a language, the words known to a person and a list of words with their meanings, especially at the back of a book used for teaching a foreign language”. Vocabulary in this study covers the selection and the use of varied words that used


by students. In short, the writer concluded that vocabulary is a total number of words which has meaning in a particular language which is necessary for students to use in speaking and writing. 2.1.3. Structure The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001:1437) defines “grammar as (the study and practice of) the rules by which words change their forms and combined into sentences”. According to Pooley in Olfah (2004), grammar describes the way of language work. English grammar tells how English works in communicating ideas. Ideas are generally expressed in sentences. Sentences are made by grouping and arranging words. Therefore, grammar is also the study of words in sentences. Structure in this study covers the appropriateness of using words correctly in sentences orally. The writer concluded that grammar is the way of language works through words in speaking or writing so a language will be understood clearly. 2.1.4. Fluency Longman Dictionary (2001:541) defines fluency as “mode expressing thought in a language, whether oral or written, especially such use of a language in the expression of thought as exhibits the spirit and faculty of an artist, choice or arrangement of words in discourse, rhetorical expression”. Further, according to Bryne in Syakir (2004) the main goal in teaching the productive skill of speaking will be oral fluency. Fluency as a part of speaking indicates how well or how smooth a speaker expresses ideas in terms of sentences. Fluency in speaking is the quality of being fluent and it needs the intensity or practices, talent, habit and proper speech. Perfect fluency will be identified by limited pause of utterance. Speaker with

imperfect fluency will stop and start to talk in uttering the sentences. Refers to the typical speaking, the more pauses subject performs a speech the more indicates that he has poor fluency in uttering sentences in terms of explaining the information within. In this regard, when student performs speech, he might think for a while to find the other words to continue the whole explanation to get the information clear. The writer concluded that fluency in speaking is the ability of speaker in expressing or uttering ideas in terms of sentences with limited pause of utterance. 2.1.5. Comprehension Comprehension is the power of understanding an exercised aimed at improving or testing ones understanding of a language in written or spoken (Hornby, 1984). Moreover, it defines as the ability to understand completely and be aware of understanding whatever said by speaker or toward the topics that are discussed during having conversation. Comprehension is one of many components that should be paid attention to increase students’ speaking ability in order to speak better. There are pronunciation, structure, vocabulary and fluency. Yet, speaking means making up a language in ordinary way that involving those components. Basically, there is a number of different ways of getting students to speak, ranging from asking students a set of questions to request them to give a detailed presentation. This way aims to get the students to speak in order to improve his or her comprehension. From the explanation above, the writer concluded that comprehension is the students’ ability to understand a task given by a teacher. Comprehension is how the students respond correctly and appropriately toward the task given. 2.2

Concept of Method 11

A. S. Hornby (1984:533) said that method is a way of doing something. Based on the definition above it means that Method is a way of teacher’s effort to make the teaching learning process to be effectively. While Anthony (1986:16) said that a method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradict, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. The definition above are supported by Theodore S. Rogers (1986:16) who says that a method is theoretically related to approach which is organizationally determined by a design and is practically realized in procedure. The two definitions above mean that the approach and method are treated at the level of design, that level contains objectives, syllabus and content are determined on the role of teacher, learners and instructional material are specified, so design itself consists of steps and procedures of the teacher who should carry out in teaching in order to achieve the goal. 2.3 Concept of Silent Way A method of language teaching that seems to reflect the influence of cognitivecode theory of learning is the system developed by Caleb Cattegno (1972) called “Silent Way”. The name is somewhat misleading, because the students do oral statement and responses in the language they are learning. Also they are motivated to “think and say” the appropriate sentences to accompany actions performed under the guidance of the teacher. The teacher functions as a guide, an organizer, a resource, and evaluator. In the role of guide, language teacher guides learners to learn the language units under consideration; hence, the teacher offers the learning materials to the learners and helps them to acquire the target language. In the role of organizer, language

teacher organize classroom activities; the teacher predicts what will happen in the class so that he/ she can arrange activities which promote the learning processes the learners need. In the role of resource, the teacher function as a source of information about the subject; he/she is the one in the classroom whom the learners consult whenever they cannot solve their problem among themselves. In the role of evaluator, language teacher judges whether the learners’ contributions to the learning process are valid, relevant and correct. In error correction, the evaluator judges whether the learners will be bale to figure out and produce the forms expected or not and how he/she will provide them with necessary help. The result of the judgment will serve as feedback for the teacher as a guide, resource, and organizer ( Setiadi 2006 :76). In Silent Way learning is continuing and living process. It occurs on a continuum and leads towards mastery (Bambang Setiyadi, 1988:11). The idea is that the students know what they are doing, that they are not only saying something without being aware of what they are saying. In order for them to be aware, the new material has to have relationship with the previous one so that students can easily make associations since the association process in a necessary part of learning. Thus, the teacher should build upon the learning process by adding one new segment of language to the previous one. In Silent Way, it is also believed that learning takes place more effectively under certain conditions. Based on the conditions of the language learning, Silent Way has some assumptions: The first assumption is that learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned. (Richards and Rogers, 1986:99). The statement means that the principle of Silent Way is that learning process takes place if the students find their own correction and so to be able to create and


remember what have been learned in target language. The statement above also suggests that in Silent Way, the students must be active to find the new solutions for themselves. The second assumption is that learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects, the rod and the color-code pronunciation charts (called Fidel Charts) provide physical object for the students learning and also to facilitate students to recall what they have learned. So, the quality mediator is a powerful effect on memory. The final assumption is that learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned. (Richards and Rogers, 1986:99). It means that in teaching learning process, the learners should develop independent and responsibility. At the same time, learners in classroom must cooperate with each other in the process of solving language problem. Principle of Silent Way The following are some principle of the Silent Way regarding to foreign language learning (in Setiadi ,2006:79-80). 1.

The work requires language learners to relate the linguistic signs to truth that they perceive with their sense ( Stevic, 1980:47)


Language is not learned by repeating after a model Language learners need to develop their own “ inner criteria” for correctness ( Larsen-Freeman, 1986:58).


Meaning is made clear by focusing learners’ perceptions, not through translation ( Larsen- Freeman, 1986:59).


Reading is worked on from the beginning but follows from what language learners already know ( Larsen-Freeman, 1986: 56 and 2000).

2.3.2 Basic Assumptions About Language With regard to the nature of language, the Silent Way has a different point of view from other contemporary methods ( in Setiadi,2006:81-82). 1.

Language is seen as group of sound arbitrarily associated with specific meanings and organized into sentences or strings of meaningful units by grammar rules ( Richard and Rodgers, 1986:101)


The skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing reinforce one another.


Language is a substitute for experience. So, in this method experience gives meaning to the target language ( Richards and Rodgers, 1986:101 and 2001).

2.3.3 Basic Assumption About Language Learning Besides the assumptions about language, it is believed that learning take place more effectively under certain condition. Therefore, the Silent Way also has some assumption about language learning. The following are the assumption about language learning (in Setiadi, 2006:82-83). 1.

The grammar of the target language is learned through largely inductive processes( Richard and Rodgers,1986:101 and 2001)


Language is learned logically, expanding upon what language learners already know.


Learning is facilitated if language learners discover or create rather than remember and repeat what is to be learned (Richard and Rodgers, 1986:99 and 2001).


Learning is a continuing and living process.


2.3.4 The Advantages Based on the principle of Silent Way, the writer finds some of the advantages of teaching speaking ability through Silent Way: The students are more active in the teaching learning activity. The students will be able to express their thought, ideas, and able to find the correct themselves. Students will have opportunities to produce the language which connects to an experience. The students help each other to figure out and produce right forms because they work as a team.

2.3.5 The Implementation of Silent Way Method The procedures of teaching speaking skill through Silent Way ( Cattegno in Setiadi 2006:86). 1.

Teacher prepares some symbols, rods, pictures or others.


Teacher models the appropriate sound after pointing to a symbol, rod, picture etc on the chart or on the board.


Teacher silently points to the individual symbols, rods, pictures or others and combinations of them, and monitor students’ utterances.


Teacher says a word and has a student to guess what sequence (of symbols, pictures, rods etc) comprised the words.


The students repeat the words.


If there are some students saying the words incorrectly, the teacher points another student that can pronounce the word correctly, and points another student who cannot pronounce the word correctly.


If there are some students saying the word incorrectly, this activity can be done like step 6.

This activity can be used for other material, along the teaching learning process. Teacher should keep silent. When needed, the teacher can give gestures by using eyes contact, etc to keep the students to improve their pronunciation in speaking skill. 2.4 Silent Way Method in Teaching Speaking Skill In this method, the role of language teachers is relatively less silent so that students are encouraged to be more active in producing as much language as possible. It means that students will have a great chance to practice their English language orally as much as possible in order to improve their speaking ability. Then, a language teacher should encourage students to take a role in learning activities. The time of learning teaching interaction should be given to students, not to the teacher. In teaching speaking skill with silent way method, at the beginning of the stage teacher will model the appropriate sound after pointing to a symbol on a chart. Later, the teacher will silently point to individual symbols and combinations of symbols, and monitor students utterances. The teacher may say a word and have a student to guess what sequence of symbols comprised the word. The pointer is used to indicate stress, phrasing, and intonation. Stress can be shown by touching certain symbols more forcibly than others when pointing out a word. Intonation and phrasing can be demonstrated by tapping on the chart to the rhythm of the utterances (Richard and Rodgers, 1986:109-110 and 2001). After language learners able to produce the sounds of he target language, language teacher continues teaching the language by using rods and word charts. Or, language teacher may use other physical objects to conduct the teaching learning process, whose purpose is to make meaning perceptible through concrete objects or by representation of experience.


2.5 Theoretical Assumption Related to the frame of theories above, the writer assumes that teaching speaking skill through silent way method has positive effect in improving the students’ speaking ability. Because this method encourages the students to be more active in producing as much language as possible. It means that students will have a great chance to practice their English language orally as much as possible in order to improve their speaking ability. Then, a language teacher will encourage students to take a role in learning activities. The time of learning teaching interaction is given to students, not to the teacher. 2.6 Hypothesis Base on the theoretical assumption above, the writer formulates the hypothesis as follow: There will be a significant improvement of the students’ speaking ability who are taught through silent way method.


Research Design In conducting this classroom action research, the writer applies one group pre-test post-test design to find out whether there is significant improvement of students’ speaking ability by implementing the silent way method. The subject (students) receive pre-test and post test in the form of oral production test with material that has explained in the scope of the research. One group pre-test post-test design can be presented as follow : T1



Note : T1

: Pre-test


: Post-test


: Treatment

(Setiyadi,2006:131) Population of the Research The population of this research is the second year students of SMA N X Bandar Lampung. There are two classes but the writer will only take one class as the


sample. It is XI IPS 2 as the treatment class. Class XI IPS 2 as the treatment class consists of 30 students. The sample is taken randomly because participants have similar chance to be chosen. Variables This research consists of three variables as follow: The development or improvement of students’ speaking ability is dependent variable. Silent Way is independent variable.

3.4 Data Collecting Technique In collecting the data, the writer used the following technique: 1. Pre test Pre test is administered before treatment is given to know how far the students speaking ability especially for the material will be taught by the writer in this research: pronoun “this” and ”that”, comparative degree, superlative degree, preposition

( under, in , on), and positive comparison before the teaching

learning process. The test consists of oral test. The subjects are asked to give his/ her responses to the individual symbols and combination of symbols, and the writer will monitor the students’ utterances. The writer will say a word and have a student to guess what sequence of symbols comprised the word. But before that, at the beginning of the stage, the writer will model the appropriate sound after pointing a symbol on the chart.

In measuring the students speaking ability

(accuracy of pronunciation. grammar,

vocabulary, appropriacy, fluency and ease of speech) the writer will use the marking scheme by Heaton (1988:98). The criteria as follow:


Ability to communicate orally


Excellent: on a par with an educated native speaker. Completely at ease in his use of English on all topics discussed.


Very good: although he can not be mistaken for a native speaker, he expresses himself quite clearly. He experiences little difficulty in understanding English, and there is no strain at all in communicating with him.


Satisfactory verbal communication causing little difficulty for native speaker. He makes a limited numbers of errors of grammars, lexis and pronunciation but he is at ease in communication on everyday subjects. He mat has to correct himself and repattern his utterances on occasions. But there is a little difficulty in understanding him.


Although verbal communication is fairly satisfactory. The native speaker May occasionally experience difficulty in communicating with him. Repetition, re-phrasing and re-patterning are sometimes necessary ; ordinary native speaker might find it difficult to communicate.


Much difficulty experienced by native speaker unaccustomed to ‘foreign language’ his own understanding is severely limited, but communication in everyday topics is possible. Large number of errors of phonology, grammar, and lexis.


Extreme difficulty in communication on any subjects. Failure to understand adequately and make himself understood.


2. Post-test After giving the treatments, the writer will give the posttest to the subjects; the next type of the posttest is also in the form of oral production test. The test is administered to investigate whether the silent way method can improve the students’ speaking ability. 3.5 Research Instrument The instrument of this research is oral production test. The items of the test are 20 items. The writer will asked the student’s response to the individual symbols and combination of symbols that are directed by the writer, and the writer will monitor the students’ utterance. 3.6 Data Analysis The data from the oral test, will be arranged from the highest until the lowest one. The data from the pre-test and post-test will be analyzed to find out whether the result of the tests are similar or different. To compare the result of the data from pre-test and post-test with the same subject, the writer will use the Repeated Measures T-Test, and the data will be calculated using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 12.0 for Windows.

3.7 Research Procedures The procedures of this research are as follow: Determining the population. Preparing pre-test and conducting it. Arranging the material and presenting the using the methods eight times. Arranging and conducting post test. Analyzing the data and testing the hypothesis.




( unpublished S1 Script). University of Lampung, Lampung.


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