improving speaking through simulation technique
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INTRODUCTION 1. Background of the Study For many year English has been being considered as a global language. English is dominant in all six continents. It is the main language of books, newspapers, airports and air traffic controls, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, medicine, diplomacy, sports, international competitions, music, and advertising. It is also called International language which is used as a language of international communication. As an international language, almost all countries have adapted English used as a compulsory subject at schools. The national education has decided that English as a foreign language taught in Indonesian schools. It is learned started from primary schools up to university. People realize that teaching English at these levels are very essential and need much concern. As an English teacher, he or she has to always keep on figuring out effective techniques, method, and approaches in teaching English. There are four skills in teaching and learning a language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, but out of the four skills, speaking is considered as the most essential skill to be mastered. Speaking is an essential tool for communicating, thinking and learning. Oral language is a powerful learning tool which shapes, modifies, extends and organizes thought. Oral language is a foundation of all languages development and, therefore, the foundation of all learning. It is the base for the other language strands. Through speaking, students learn concepts, develop vocabulary and perceive the structure of the English language which is the essential components of learning. Students who have a strong oral language base will have an
academic advantage because school achievement depends on students' ability to display knowledge in a clear and acceptable form in speaking as well as writing (Hayriye: http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek). Additionally, speaking is a vehicle to link individuals to society. Exchanges students have with their peers and teachers can help them come to know the world in more personal and socially responsible ways. When students talk about their ideas, they clarify their thinking. They can figure out what they believe and where they stand on issues (Hayriye: http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek). Consequently, speaking skills in learning English is a priority for many second-language or foreign-language learners. English learners often evaluate their success in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the basis of how much they feel they have improved in their spoken language proficiency (Richards, 1990: 21). Considering how important speaking skill in learning English, Renandya, (1999:230) in this case reminds English teachers by saying: Speaking is one of the central elements of communication. In EFL (English Foreigner language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction. In order to provide effective attention, it is necessary for a teacher of EFL to carefully examine the factors, condition and components that underlie speaking effectiveness. Effective instruction derived from the careful analysis of this area, together with sufficient language input and speech-promotion activities will gradually help learners improve their English speaking ability. In addition, Richard (1990: 122) explains the typical learners’ problems in speaking like speaking slowly, taking too long to compose utterances, incapable to participate actively in conversation, spoken English doesn’t sound natural, poor grammar and poor pronunciation.
Also Richard (1990: 233) says that there are many reasons causing English learners poor in speaking skills. They are as lack of curriculum emphasis on speaking skills, teachers’ limited English proficiency, class conditions do not favor oral activities, limited opportunities outside of class to practice, and examination system does not emphasize oral skills. So based on the explanation above the researcher has found some problems which nearly similar to those five typical problems explained by Richard above in at the first year students of SMP N 5 Bireuen whereas the students in the school are speechless and when they speak English, they take so much time thinking what they are going to say. These problems are presented based on the researcher’s observation during practicing teaching at the school. So based on those problems, the researcher, as one of English Department students of Almuslim University who nearly completes her study at the University, would like to do a collaborative action research in the school to help both the teachers and students in the school find a proper way in teaching speaking which can improve the students speaking ability. Anyway, there are many kinds of language methods in teaching English as second or foreign language but only three methods; grammar translation method, audio-lingual method and communicative method have dominated language teaching in the United States in the past 60 years. The three of them have their respective advantageous and disadvantageous but out of the three, communicative method is considered the most effective one to be used in language teaching especially to teach speaking since it provides more opportunity for English learners to act or speak than to the teachers during teaching - learning process (Kathleen:18). Moreover, there is a
research (Ellis: 1990) which says that People do not learn the pieces of the language and then put them together to make conversations. Instead, they learn the components of language through interaction with other people, so learners should interact during lessons. As a result, communicative language teaching arose and rapidly developed. Again, David Nunan, (1999:241) suggests that in speaking classroom, learners should be given the maximum number of opportunities possible to practice the target language in meaningful contexts and situation. However, opportunities to use the language appear to facilitate acquisition for all learners. When taking part in tasks that require the creative and relatively unpredictable use of language, learners are bound to make mistakes. These should be seen as a natural part of the learning process. However, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance. In order to teach second language learners how to speak in the best way possible, there are many activities which can promote speaking are provided in communicative method like role play, simulations, information gap, storytelling, interviews, story completion, reporting and playing cards (Hayriye: http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek). In this opportunity, the researcher is interested in choosing simulation activity as the teaching technique that will be applied in this action research because Simulations are entertaining, they motivate the students and increase the selfconfidence of hesitant students. Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what
makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more complex. In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, she brings a microphone to sing and so on. Having presented the background of the research of this proposal, finally the researcher hopes that this research proposal would be agreeably agreed and approved so that this research would be carried out soon and the identified problems attached in this proposal would hopefully be solved soon. Finally, the researcher concludes that speaking is a very important part of second and foreign language learning. The ability to communicate in English clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of the learner in school and success later in every phase of his life. Therefore, it is essential that language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired. With this aim, various speaking activities such as playing card, simulation, story completion, reporting, brainstorming, interviews, role play, information gap and storytelling can contribute a great deal to students in developing basic interactive skills which are necessary for their lives. These activities make students more active in the learning process and at the same time make their learning more meaningful and fun for them. 2. Problem of the Research Having explained the problems of this research in the previous section generally, in this section, the researcher formulates the problems of the research into two simple questions as the following:
1. Can simulations activity improve the students’ speaking ability? 2. Can simulations activity motivate the students to speak during the class?
3. Purpose of the Research Based on the problems above, the researcher draws the purpose of the research as follows: 1. To know if simulations activity can improve the students’ speaking ability 2. To find out if simulations activity can motivate the students to speak during
the class. 4. Significance of the Research It is hoped that this research will be beneficial in many ways
theorically, the findings of the research can be useful for the readers and also is will provide additional information to the existing studies about improving students’ speaking ability., Second, practically, the English teachers in the school will use the findings of the research as efforts to improve the students’ speaking ability.
5. Scope of the Research The research is focused on the effect of applying simulations activity using in teaching speaking to the first year students of SMP n 5 Bireuen in order to find a proper technique in teaching speaking that can improve the students speaking ability. 6. Definition of Key Terms.
In this thesis, the researcher gives some explanation of some key terms that predominantly appear in this proposal. These key terms explanation’s function is to make the readers understand exactly about the words or phrases. 1. Speaking is process of transferring knowledge of converse and how to express
one ideas, thought, desires and willingness into good pattern and ordinary speech used to talk or recognize another (Mories 1966:454) 2. Simulation is Acting out or mimicking an actual or probable real life condition
Classroom Action Research is research methodologies in which teachers pursue action and athe same time investigate their own teaching or other activity related to their work. They are thus directly involved in the actions that are being researched, as well as more likely to make useful changes in those actions (http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?action+research).
7. The Review of the Related Literature In this part of the thesis proposal, the researcher explains the variables of the research in detail. 7.1 The Definition of speaking Speaking is an essential tool for communicating, thinking, and learning. Oral language is a powerful learning tool. It shapes, modifies, extends, and organizes thought. Oral language is a foundation of all language development and, therefore, the foundation of all learning. It is the base for the other language strands. Through speaking and listening, students learn concepts, develop vocabulary, and perceive the
structure of the English language which is essential components of learning. Students who have a strong oral language base have an academic advantage. School achievement depends on students' ability to display knowledge in a clear and acceptable
http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek). Additionally, speaking is a vehicle to link individuals to society. Exchanges students have with their peers and teachers can help them come to know the world in more personal and socially responsible ways. When students talk about their ideas, they clarify their thinking. They can figure out what they believe and where they stand on issues (Hayriye: http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek). According to Hybel (2001:45), “speaking is any process in which people share information, ideas and feeling, it involves all of body language mannerism and style-anything that adds meaning to a message”. 7.2 Teaching Speaking Nunan (2003: 23) in this case formulates what is meant by teaching speaking: 1. Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns 2. Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language. 3. Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter. 4. Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. 5. Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
6. Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. In addition, Hayriye (http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek) provides some Suggestions for English teachers in teaching speaking. As you see in the following: 1. Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work, authentic materials and tasks, and shared knowledge. 2. Try to involve each student in every speaking activity; for this aim, practice different ways of student participation. 3. Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking time. Step back and observe students. 4. Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response. 5. Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you reach that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more. 6. Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great. It was a
good job. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the materials and efficient use of your voice…" 7. Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are
speaking. Correction should not distract student from his or her
8. Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class; contact parents and other people who can help. 9. Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs.
10. Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities.
11. Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken language. 7. 3 Activities Promote Speaking In Teaching Speaking Anyway there are many activities which offer students much time to practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and helps them becoming socialized, and makes students more active in teaching and learning process and at the same time makes their learning more meaningful and fun for them that quoted from (Hayriye: http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek), they are as the following: a.
b. Simulations c. Information Gap d. Brainstorming e. Storytelling f. Interviews g. Story Completion h. Reporting 7.4 The Learners’ Typical Problem and Its Reasons in Learning English In this case, Richard (1990: 222) explains the typical learner problems in speaking as follows: 1. Speaks slowly and takes too long to compose utterances 2. Cannot participate actively in conversation
7.5 Simulation Simulation is an extremely valuable method for second language learning. It encourages thinking and creativity, lets students develop and practice new language and behavioral skills in a relatively nonthreatening setting, and can create the motivation and involvement necessary for learning to occur. This paper will examine this technique in detail. There is little consensus on the terms used in the role playing and simulation literature. Just a few of the terms which are used, often interchangeably, are "simulation," "game," "role-play," "simulation-game," "roleplay simulation," and "role-playing game"
There does seem to be some agreement,
however, that simulation is a broader concept than role playing. for example, views simulations as complex, lengthy and relatively inflexible, but role playing as quite simple, brief and flexible. Simulations simulate real life situations, while in role playing the participant is representing and experiencing some character type known in everyday life. Simulations always include an element of role play. Simulation clearly promotes effective interpersonal relations and social transactions among participants. In order for a simulation to occur the participants must accept the duties and responsibilities of their roles and functions, and do the best they can in the situation in which they find themselves (Jones, 1982 :113). To fulfill their role responsibilities, students must relate to others in the simulation, utilizing effective social skills (from (Hayriye: http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek)).
8. The Methodology of the Research The methodology of this research will be done through the following explanation below.
8.1 The Design of the Research. The design of the study is Collaborative Classroom Action Research. As it explained by Asrory, (2008:45) that Collaborative Classroom Action Research is kind of a Classroom Action Research that involves some people like the principal, teacher, lectures, or etc simultaneously. It aims to improve teaching practical quality, contribute teaching theoretical development or educational and teacher career progression. This kind of research is usually designed by a team which consists of teacher, researcher from educational university and principal of school. The relationship between of researcher and the teacher are considered as coworkers. Through the cooperative working in doing the research, they can obtain the satisfied goal of the research. Action research is done through many repeated cycles and there are at least two cycles in action research. Each cycle consists of four steps; planning, action, observation and reflection (Asrory, 2008:90). The activities that will be done in each step of the cycles will be based on Stephen Kemmis dan Robin Mc Taggert guidance in (Arikunto, 2005:54). The activities are described in the following: 1. Planning In this step the team will prepare everything for the completion of the action in the class like designing a lesson plan, verifying the schedule, and etc. 2. Action In this step, the team will choose a proper teacher to do the action which has been prepared by the team the planning step. 3. Observation
In this step, the researcher will observe students’ motivation and behavior, the classroom atmosphere, the advantageous of applying simulation technique in teaching speaking and etc during the action process. 4. Reflection In this step, the researcher with the team will evaluate the effects of the above steps as a basis for further planning, subsequent action and so on, through a succession of cycles. 8.2 The Setting and the Subject of Research This research will be done at SMP N 5 Bireuen. The Subject of this research is the the first year students of SMP N 5 Bireuen. The first year students of SMP N 5 are chosen as the subject of the research based on the following problems: 1. The students have some problems in learning speaking. 2. Simulation technique has never been applied by English teacher in the school before. 8.3 The Technique of the Data Collecting In this research, before doing action the researcher will use pre-test to identify the problem as the basic knowledge to do the research. Next the researcher will administer posttest to measure the development of the students’ speaking skill after implementing the action. The Last, the researcher will use observation checklist forms to obtain information how the practitioner implements the prepared planning and procedures. It is also used to gather data about the students’ activity during the teaching learning process.
In gathering the data, the research will also use Interview Guide Forms and field note. Interview guide is used to draw comprehensive information from the teacher about the problems found when implementing simulation technique, whether it is applicable in teaching English at the School and field note is used a mean of recording facts which can’t be put in the observation forms. 8.4 The technique of the Data Analysis The collected data found in this research are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. It means that all the data gathered from the observations, field note and interview are analyzed descriptively. While the data obtained from tests (pre-test and post-test) are Analyzed quantitatively. 8.5 The Schedule of the Research. The research will be stated finish after two cycles are proven success and the research will be done immediately after this proposal approved by the supervisors or the authorized lecturers of Al Muslim University. To be more detail, the researcher also draws a simple table of the research schedule as follows: Simple Research Schedule Table October
Preparing doing first cycle √
Implementing the first cycle √
Implementing the second cycle √
Implementing the third cycle (if it is considered essential to be done
BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashore, Muhammad, Prof. Dr. M.Pd. 2008. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Bandung: CV.Wacana Prima Arikunto, Sularsimi, Prof. Dr.2005. Manajemen Penelitian. Jakarta: Penerbit Rineka Cipta. Bailey, M Kathleen. 2002 Issues in Teaching Speaking Skills to Adult ESOL Learners, Cambridge University Press. Hybel, Richard L. Weaver. 2001, Communicating Effectively, (New York; Mc Graw –Hill Hinger Education). Hayriye Kayi,’ Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language,’ The Internet TESLJournal, (Online), Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006,http://iteslj.org/Techniques/KayieachingSpeaking.html, accessed December 20. page. 1. Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya (Eds), Methodology in Language Teaching, (The United State of America, Cambridge University Press, 2002) Manser, M.H. 1995. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary New Addition. 5th Impression. Ibadah: Oxford University Press.
Nunan, D. (1991). Language teaching methodology: A textbook for teachers. New York: Prentice Hall. Oxford University Press. 2005. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, 3th edition. Richards, Jack C. (1990). Conversationally speaking: Approaches to the teaching of conversation. In Jack C. Richards, The Language Teaching Matrix. New York: Cambridge University Press. The Heritage Illustrated. 1979. Dictionary of English Language. New York. Incorporating literature in ESL instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: prenticeHall.
IMPROVING STUDENT’S SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH SIMULATIONS TECHNIQUE (Collaborative Classroom Action Research for the First Year Students of SMP N 5 Bireuen)
THESIS PROPOSAL Submitted to the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Almuslim University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
by LUHURIAH JANNAH NIM: 050202024
THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF ALMUSLIM MATANGGLUMPANG DUA, BIREUEN (2009)