Il Latino Senza Sforzo- English

September 11, 2017 | Author: kosmonauta69 | Category: Grammatical Gender, Grammatical Conjugation, Latin, Style (Fiction), Semantics
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Il Latino Senza Sforzo- English...


NB1: This and all following translations are working documents. Although we have reason to trust they are reliable renderings of the original, and some amount of checking has been performed, students use them at their own risk. They are meant to be used in conjunction with the textbook, by students who have bought their own copy of the material as pledged. Those who pass them on to any third parties will be in breach of copyright. NB2: Guidelines about pronunciation have been omitted as they are intended for French native speakers only; also the rest has been omitted or adapted when necessary, having in mind he specific needs of English speakers Lectio prima (1ª) English: First lesson. 1.— Latine loqueris? English: [Do you speak Latin?] (in-latin you-speak?) The “you” is singular here. In Latin form for “you” is different when addressing one person and when addressing several people. 2.— Nondum Latine loquor: hæc mihi prima lectio est. [I still do not speak Latin] (not-yet in-latin I-speak): [this] (to-me) [is my] first lesson (is). The hyphen (-) joins several English words which serve as the translation of a single Latin word. 3.— Cito Latine loqueris. [You will speak Latin quickly] (quickly in-latin you[sg.]-will-speak). 4.— Lingua Latina difficilis est. [Latin] (language latin) is difficult. 5.— Minime! Lingua Latina difficilis non est. Not-at-all! Latin is not difficult. 6.— Recte dicis, sed Roma non uno die aedificata est. [You are right] (rightly you[sg.]-say), but Rome [was not built] (not) in-one day (having-been-built is).

7.— Loquor, loqueris, loquitur, loqui. I-speak, you[sg.]-speak, he-speaks, to-speak. 8.— Dicis, est, difficilis. You[sg.] say, it is, difficult. 9.— Latine, recte, lingua Latina. in-latin, rightly, Latin language. NOTES — Today let it suffice to notice that word order in Latin is not always the same as that in English. Thus the verb is often put back at the end of the sentence, but this is not an absolute rule. You will see that you will easily get used to this style of construction. Read this lesson noting carefully the pronunciation. Recite every sentence several times aloud, as we said in the introduction, and compare each sentence with its translation. Do not seek anything else for the moment, because it is much too early to try to analyze the construction of sentences. Trust us, we are taking you by the hand and we shall not drop you! For the moment, the important thing is to mark the accentuation well [this is of course a remark for native French speakers, who don't have a movable accent in their language], that is to say, to pronounce the letters in bold with greater emphasis. Thus you must have noticed that it was accentuation which enabled you to recognize the form loqueris (you speak) from the form loqueris (you will speak), i.e. to distinguish the present from the future tense. REMARK: These two forms differ, moreover, by the quantity of their syllables (see the introduction): present tense: loqueris, (e is short); future tense: loquéris, (é is long). If you have the audio recordings, listen several times to the lesson while repeating each sentence in your mind. Then recite it aloud, following the book, while imitating what you heard as well as you can. Finally, adjust your pronunciation, by again listening to the audio recording.

Lectio secunda (2ª) 1.— Who comes? 2.— [It is] I [who] come: [I am the postman] (postman I-am)! 3.— [You are coming home; you are giving me a letter.] (home you[sg.]-come; letter to-me you[sg.]-give). 4.— [Yes, Sir, I'm giving you a letter] (l. to-you[sg.] I-give). 5.— [Please give me] (Give, I-ask), [a little cup] (tumbler small) of-coffee! 6.— I give him a big glass of wine. 7.— He does not give a lot of coffee. 8.— I come, you[sg.] come, he comes, to come. 9.— I give, you[sg.] give, he gives, to give. 10.— I, you[sg.], he. 11.— To-me, to-you[sg.], to-him. NOTES: 1. Venio, I come. Ego venio, *I* come. As the form of the verb is different for each person, it is not necessary to specify it by a pronoun (I, you, etc.) to know who performs the action. Nonetheless, if this pronoun is used, it is quite simply because one wants to draw special attention to the identity of the one who performs the action: venio, I come (without further specification), ego venio, *I* come, and I specify that it is definitely me, and not another, who comes; in English: *I* come, or: it is I who comes. 2. Mihi, to me, just as in English one says: I give, give me, etc., in the same way, in Latin, the pronoun changes form according to whether it is a subject (performs the action), direct object (undergoes the action), indirect object (receives the effects of the action), etc. It is said that in the two languages, the pronoun is declined. We will see that in Latin it is not only the pronoun which is declined; little by little this concept of declension will become very natural to you. Do not forget to repeat each sentence aloud, initially while looking at the text, then without looking at it. Before closing the book, reread this lesson once or twice again and also reread the first lesson.

If you have the audio recordings, do as you did for the first lesson and end your studying session by listening to the audio recording from the beginning, and this will substitute for the method of review recommended above. And do not forget that no one prevents you from letting the recording run after your review is done! EXERCITATIO (Exercise).— Henceforth each lesson will be followed by an exercise, intended to better familiarize you with the words and twists of the current lesson and of the preceding lessons. Study them like the lessons, by reading each sentence several times aloud, and then by reciting them without looking at the book: 1.— I have much coffee. 2.— The postman comes home. 3.— I don't come home. 4.— Who speaks Latin? 5.— You[sg.] don't speak Latin? 6.— The postman is right (rightly says).

Lectio tertia (3ª) 1.— What do-you[sg.]-seek? 2.— I do not understand this letter (this l. not I-understand). 3.— I can help you (to-you[sg.] for-assistance to-be I-can). 4.— Can-you[sg.]? That gives me great pleasure (to-me for-great joy is). 5.— Give it [to me]!… it is in Italian (in-language Italian written is). 6.— Your[sg.] friend Fabrizio is inviting you to Rome. 7.— He can also receive your family (family too yours[sg.] to-accept he-can). 8.— My friend is generous. 9.— You[sg.] too, you[sg.] are a good man. 10.— I am, you[sg.] are, he is, to be. 11.— I can, you[sg.] can, he can, to be able. 12.— My friend, your[sg.] family. 13.— for-great joy, [the] Italian language. NOTES: 1. Quid and not quis, as in Quis venit of L 2, P 1 (lesson no. 2, phrase 1) because it is about a thing and not a person. 2. Possum, I can, is a verb composed with the verb sum, I am. We see that verbs do not all have the same ending: compare, for example, with loquor, I speak (L 1) venio, I come (L 2), do, I give (L 2). But do not be frightened, you will see with use that the forms of the Latin verb are actually simpler than those of the French verb. 3. Ne is particle placed at the end of a word to indicate a question: potes, you can; potesne, can you? 4. Magno gaudio: as in French, the adjective agrees with the noun to which it relates; this agreement is often marked by similar endings, as in the couple of words that you will find in sentences 12 and 13, but this is not a general rule. 5. You have already seen Roma (L 1, P 6). Here, saying Romam instead of Roma makes it possible to specify that Rome is the place where (whither) one goes. Also note that magno gaudio means something more than just great joy, which would actually be: magnum gaudium. Little by little, you will get used to these differences. For the time being, do not worry about them!

You should be content with learning words and phrases the way young children do. If you do make a mistake, it will be no more serious than when a young child says, "des chevals" instead of saying "des chevaux". It is necessary to go through that! EXERCITATIO: 1.— What is your[sg.] friend seeking? 2.— My friend [is looking for] (seeks) a letter. 3.— The postman can accept a lot of wine. 4.— The Italian language is not difficult. 5.— It gives him great pleasure (to-him for-great joy is) to speak Latin. 6.— Can you[sg.] come home? 7.— Yes, Sir, I can come. Starting from the next lesson, you will find the final form of our lessons: on the left page will be the Latin text, and opposite this on the right page, the French equivalent as well as explanatory notes to which the numerals in brackets refer.

Lectio quarta (4ª) Hello, Felix! 1.— Hello, Felix! How are you[sg.]? 2.— I-am-well! What do-you[sg.]-want? 3.— I want to see your brothers (brothers yours[sg.] to-see I-want). 4.— I do not know where they are. But my sister is at home (Sister on-the-otherhand at-home is-there). 5.— [My] father and [my] mother are also there (too are-there), but my brothers are not (are-not-there). 6.— I have (to-me is) a sister. 7.— You[sg.] have three sisters and one brother. 8.— He has no sisters (To-him none are sisters). 9.— We are three brothers. You[pl.] are two sisters. 10.— I am, you[sg.] are, he is, we are, you[pl.] are, they are, to be. 11.— I am absent, you[sg.] are absent, he is absent, we are absent, you[pl.] are absent, they are absent, to be absent. 12.— One man, one mother, one cup; two men, two mothers, three cups. NOTES 1. Nescio ubi sint: Just notice that we have sint and not sunt: you will know why later. 2. Domi. We have seen (L 2, P 3) domum venis, you are coming home. You are at home is actually domi ades: let's be content for now to notice that the form of the adverbial of place changes depending on whether it is about the place where one is or about the place where (whither) one goes; or if you prefer, in accordance with whether there is or there is not movement. To remember thismore easily, think of that M in domum as corresponding to the Movement. 3. Autem and sed have almost the same sense, but are not put in the same position in the sentence. You must have by now noticed that the position of the words is not always the same in Latin as in English. In particular, do not seek an absolute rule which will enable you to perfectly position the words of a sentence, because various combinations are possible, which usage will teach you gradually. Simply remember that the subject, verb, and complements, are not aways where you might expect them. If you have already done German, you are almost saved: the German construction follows the same principles a bit as the Latin construction. 4. Absum, I am not there; adsum, I am there; as well as possum, I can; are conjugated in the same way as sum. This conjugation differs significantly from that of loquor, I speak (L 1, P 7), which itself differs from the conjugation of do, I give (L 2, P 9). Reassure yourself: the other forms of conjugation which we shall see later will be increasingly easy to learn. 5. Unus, feminine una, neuter unum; duo, f. duae; n. duo; tres, f. tres, n. tria. In Latin, there are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. The first corresponds approximately to the men and to the male animals, the second to the women and to the female animals, and the third to those things for which it is

impossible to allocate a sex. That is why the majority of adjectives take three different forms to be able to agree with the nouns to which they relate. Homo, a man, homines, men. Similarly, soror, sorores; mater, matres; frater, fratres. This formation of the plural corresponds to the English plural in S (a brother; brothers). However it is not the only possible form; see for instance: unum poculum, a cup; duo pocula, two cups. Do not seek to memorize these various formations of the plural, and save all your energy to try and remember the forms of the full sentences. EXERCITATIO 1.— Three men are at home. 2.— (Only)-one man comes home. 3.— Do you[sg.] see my brothers? 4.— Your[sg.] sisters can speak Italian (in-Italian to-speak they-can). 5.— I do not understand what you say (what you[sg.]-say not I-understand). 6.— Can you[sg.] help me (to-me for-assistance to-be)? 7.— My sister can be of no help to you[sg.]. 1. Do not try to understand yet why we have here dicas and not dicis as in L 1, P 6.

Lectio quinta (5ª) We are going to the theatre 1.— Today we-are-going to the-theatre. 2.— [They say] the-troupe [is] excellent (to-be they-say). 3.— The theatre where you[pl.] go is-called the Odeon. 4.— They go-through the whole city but do not find the theatre. 5.— Where are you going ? — I'm going to the theatre, but I cannot find it. 6.— If you follow this way, you are making a mistake. 7.— If I follow the right way, I am not making a mistake. 8.— If he follows his brothers, he is not making a mistake. 9.— To-err is human. 10.— [What a lucky person you are] (person happy)! You come to Rome and you can see the Capitol. 11.— You are right (rightly you-speak), [my] friend! If I visit [a city] (any city), I do not fail to go to the cinema. 12.— I find, you find, he finds, they find, to find. I follow, you follow, he follows, they follow, to follow. NB: From this lesson onwards, we are only marking plural “you”; unmarked “you” is meant to be singular. NOTES 1. Gregem optimum esse dicunt. Dicunt, they say; gregem, the troupe; esse, to be; optimum, excellent (masculine because gregem is masculine). This construction, very frequent in Latin, is called the INFINITIVE CLAUSE. Gregem is the subject of the verb in the infinitive (esse); optimum is the predicative adjective of gregem; and the entire clause (gregem optimum esse) is the direct object of the main verb dicunt. We will see later that the subject of the i.c. agrees in the manner of a direct object. 2. Ubi (L 4, P 4) and quo are both translated in English by where. The former indicates the place where one is (no movement); the latter, the place where one goes (movement towards something). We have not yet seen all the ways to translate where, but you must already realize that Latin is often more precise than English (although in literary English whither was used where Latin uses quo). 3. Vocor, I am called; vocaris, vocatur, vocantur, you, he, they are called, infinitive vocari, is not conjugated completely in the same way as loquor or sequor are, just as in French aimer (to love) is not conjugated as finir (to finish). And yet all these verbs are regular! Let's conjugate now the verb of the little subordinate clause quo itis. We shall have: eo, is, it, imus, itis, eunt. The verb ire, to go, is an irregular verb, as is its French counterpart for that matter: je vais (I go), tu vas (you go), etc., nous allons (we go), etc. You should note that the forms of the French verb aller (to go) are actually even stranger than those of the Latin verb ire, yet they seem to French speakers to be completely natural. Do not try to learn this new conjugation by heart: you will often meet this verb and its many

compounds (as adeo, I go to…, adis, you go, etc., adire, to go) so that by using it it will become as familiar to you as the French verb aller (to go) is to the French. 4. Humanum: Here is a typical example of the use of the neuter gender: a verb, like errare, can be neither masculine nor feminine; it is therefore neuter, and humanum, which must agree with it, must also be of the neuter gender. Modifying a noun, the same adjective will give: in the masculine, for instance: spiritus humanus, the human spirit, and in the feminine: ratio humana, human reason; and still in the neuter: gaudium humanum, human joy. 5. Dicis: 2nd person singular of the present indicativ. Forget for the moment dicas of E 4, P 5. We will note in passing that the gender of nouns is not always obvious — the same as is true in French or in German by the way. Thus abstract nouns, such as those that we have just seen at this moment, note 4, may belong to any of the three genders. Equally the nouns for things are not all of the neuter gender. But you will eventually see that genders are easier to recognize in Latin, by anyone, than they are in French for a foreigner or in German for a Frenchman. If you are curious, you will be able to find sentences 10 and 11 in the German Assimil (L 52, P 5 and P 6). EXERCITATIO 1.— The good person follows the right way. 2.— Who is that person? 3.— [That person's name is Felix] (That person is-called Felix). 4.— [My name is] (I am called) Jules. 5.— It is good to see [one's] brothers and sisters. 6.— If you want me to-speak Latin, give me a cup of wine. 7.— I can find no letter. 8.— Can you help me?

Lectio sexta (6ª) Victor knows the multiplication table 1.— Victor! Do you know the multiplication table? 2.— Yes, sir (teacher), I know it. 3.— Say it by heart then (then say it by-memory). 4.— Here you are, sir! — Singing: — "Nanana…" 5.— What do I hear? Stupid child! You will not mock me with impunity. 6.— I am not mocking you at all, sir… I remember only the music (only of-music I-remember); but I have forgotten the words (of-words on-the-other-hand havingforgotten I-am)! 7.— I know, you know, he knows, to know. I say, you say, he says, to say. NOTES 1. Multiplicare (multiplico, multiplicas, etc.), to multiply (verb); multiplicatio, multiplication (noun); multiplicatorius (feminine multiplicatoria, neuter multiplicatorium), relating to multiplication (adjective). Latin often uses derived adjectives, in preference to possessive phrases (complement of the noun). We could have said tabula multiplicationis, by putting multiplicatio in the form of the complement of the noun, but this expression would have been less correct. Tabula, feminine noun, means plank, flat surface, and then by extension, a plank coated with wax where one writes with a stylus, or even a plaque on which an inscription is found (tables of the law), and finally it can mean the contents of the table, i.e. what is written there. We could also have used the word abacus, the original sense of which was: the table of Pythagoras, or, to avoid any possible confusion, abacus multiplicatorius. The title would then have been: "Victor abacum (multiplicatorium) novit". Note finally that the table on which one eats is not called tabula, but mensa, as we shall see again later. 2. Eam. We could have said illam. Do not seek to know why yet and just let yourself be guided by usage. 3. Novi, novisti: yet new verb forms of which we will speak again soon. Novisti can be shortened to nosti as in P 1. CANTILENA In the neighboring forest the cuckoo is heard, for from its oak tree to the owl it answers [by these] words: cuckoo, etc. (repeat) (Latin words borrowed from Palæstra Latina. Classical tune.)

The song replaces the exercise today. The completely classical tune should not be unknown to you. Try to sing it: even if you do not perfectly understand the words, it will be a very easy exercise of living pronunciation for you. The recordings include fragments of Latin popular songs. But of course there are Latin songs, some very old and others more recent, and which are not always adaptations as the one you have in front of your eyes. You will notice that the music helps to recall the words and especially the pronunciation. These words often leave the domain of our lessons, and so you should not let their meaning torment you. Even if you are not gifted in music, do not skip this exercise, which is at the same time both useful and entertaining. Do not forget that we have written for you, at the top of every page of the textbook, the corresponding Latin (cardinal) number. But Latin more frequently uses the ordinal numbers (first, second, umpteenth). You will find the ordinal number adjectives corresponding to the numbers of the lessons at the head of those lessons, and their abbreviated forms at the bottom of the right-hand side pages. Our names Victor and Felix were originally nicknames. These two words also happen to be adjectives: victor, winner; felix, happy. The tune and words of the tabula multiplicatoria are not completely the same in Latin as they are in English! Here are some examples: Bis singula sunt duo: 2 times 1 = 2; Bis bina sunt quattuor: 2 times 2 = 4; Quinquies trina sunt quindecim: 5 times 3 = 15. Do not yet linger over this issue and simply note in passing that there are adverbs, very easy to form, meaning by themselves: n times. We shall not always be able to indicate to you, for lack of time and space, everything Latin words mean and convey. If, as we think, you are able little by little to discover it by yourself, Latin will teach you volumes of things on the sense and origin of many words of our own language, that too often we employ without knowing them well. But especially do not forget that we have undertaken a practical task, and that for the moment this is a question of listening and speaking, of reading and writing, most naturally in the world, and not yet to deliver us to grammatical or etymological research. Omnia tempus habent: every thing in its own time (all-things time they-have).

Lectio septima (7ª) Revison and Notes 1. At the end of our first week of study, what have we learnt? First of all we realized that Latin was a language like the others, in which one could express everyday realities. Certainly, the endings of words change even more often than in French, certainly more than in English; but that should not frighten us. It is quite simply that Latin words are precise instruments: they have more possibilities of fine adjustment than would be the case with coarser instruments; they are a bit more difficult to know at first, but when one knows them well they allow more accurate work, and in the end they turn out to be more practical than instruments of too simplistic a design. But you are not yet there. For the moment, it is a question of familiarizing yourself with these new instruments. In the manner in which we introduce them to you, they pose no danger; do not hesitate to use them: listen, read, and speak! At the beginning, you will make all kinds of errors; this is completely normal because all young Romans did the same. It is only thanks to constant usage that you will learn to know your instruments and that you will become a competent craftsman. 2. If, when going through the previous lessons, you did not forget to respect the pronunciation and the accentuation, you already must have realized that Latin resembled in no way the series of monotonous sounds with the virtues of a sleeping pill that you had probably experienced before. But if you want to look at things more closely, you will notice not only that a correct pronunciation and accentuation give the language its life and its sense, but also that the pronunciation called restored, which we have adopted, is the simplest of European pronunciations. In effect, disregarding minimal exceptions: All letters are pronounced. For every letter there corresponds only a single sound. For every sound there corresponds only a single letter. What more can one ask for?

3. The conjugations.— We have already seen in Lesson 4, the complete conjugation of the present indicative of the verb esse, to be (phrase 10), as well as that of its compounds, adesse, to be present, and abesse, to be absent. If you know French already, or any other Romance language, you will have no difficulty in recalling this, because they resemble the conjugation of the corresponding verbs to be (French: être). Let us review it once again: (ego) sum [French: je suis]: I am (tu) es [French: tu es]: you are (ille) est [French: il est]: he/she/it is (nos) sumus [French: nous sommes]: we are (vos) estis [French: vous êtes; Old French estes]: you[pl.] are (illi) sunt [French: ils sont]: they are N.B.— We put the Latin pronouns in brackets above, because they are only used when we want to stress the identity of the subject: *I* am, etc… (cf. L 2, N 1). From this verb, try to recall the endings: m (or o) for the 1st person singular s 2nd t 3rd mus 1st plural tis 2nd nt 3rd Now take the Latin verb venire, to come, which we saw in Lesson 2 under the forms venio, I come, and venit, he comes. You will obtain without difficulty its conjugation by using the preceding endings: Singular: veniO, veniS, veniT: I come, you come, he/she/it comes. Plural: veniMUS, veniTIS, veniUNT: we come, you[pl.] come, they come. In the same way for the verb dare, to give, as we saw in the same lesson: Singular: dO, daS, daT: I give, you…, etc. Plural: daMUS, daTIS, daNT: we give, you[pl.]…, etc. N.B.— We shall see the verbs in or, ris, etc., in the upcoming review lesson. 4. To finish this revision, practice pronouncing correctly the captions imbedded in the illustrations for these first seven lessons. All of these captions are sentences taken from the preceding lessons and exercises. You will not have any difficulty in finding their meaning, if by chance you had forgotten it.

Lectio Octava (8) We are going to Rome 1.— Where are you[pl.] and where (whither) are you[pl.] going? 2.— We are in the car, we are going to Rome. 3.— Are you[pl.] going directly to Italy? 4.— Not at all! It is the holidays (holidays they-are)! We will remain for some days in Marseille… 5.— and for a whole week in Genoa. 6.— In Marseille we will spend the nights in a hotel (in h. nights we-will-pass), 7.— In Genoa, granddad will receive us at [his] home. 8.— Genoa and Rome are in Italy. My grandfather is Italian. 9.— I am going to Rome, you are going to Marseille; he is going home; we are going into the hotel. 10.— I am in Rome, you are in Marseille, he is at home; we are in the hotel. 11.— Grandmother is going to Lyon by-bicycle. In Lyon, she sees the Rhone. 12.— I go, you go, he goes, we go, you[pl.] go, they go, to go. I act, you act, he acts, we act, you[pl.] act, they act, to act. NOTES 1. Romam and not Roma, further down, Italiam and not Italia. For a large number of nouns (masc. and fem.) this addition of the m corresponds both to movement towards something and to the form of the direct object. Visito Italiam, I am visiting Italy. 2. Rectá, in a straight line; …ne, interrogative particle (see L 3, N 3). Note the displacement of the accent: rectane. 3. In Italiam, further down (P 8), in Italiá. Whether it is the answer to the ubi? question or to the quo? question one puts the preposition in before the names of countries or things, but not in front of the names of cities, nor in front of domum or domi (home). We shall return to this point later. 4. Genuae, another form of Genua, Genoa. We already saw Romae, in Rome. In the same way, Massilia, Marseille; Lugdunum, Lyon; but Massiliae, in Marseille; Lugduni, in Lyon; domi, at home. 5. Agimus, we do; agemus, we will do (will pass [time], will act, etc.). The verb agere is, like faire (to do) in French or to get in English, a verb passkey. Of course, the different senses of these three verbs are far from tallying exactly. To better locate agere, be aware that its first sense is to drive before oneself: Pastor agit gregem, the shepherd leads (drives) the flock. 6. Birota, just as Italia in in Italiá is spelled as though it was the subject, but is pronounced differently: the final á is long (a line ¯ on the vowel is generally used, which is, nevertheless, properly, a sign created to mark long syllables in metrics, not specifically long vowels by nature, which creates a great amount of confusion in many dictionaries and other reference works). This difference in pronunciation indicates that it acts as an adverbial phrase. EXERCITATIO

1.— They are going to the theatre by car. 2.— [My] sisters are in the theatre with grandmother. 3.— In Genoa I speak Italian. 4.— In Lyon you speak French (in-Gaulish). 5.— The stupid boy mocks granddad who is going to Marseille by bicycle. 6.— What are you[pl.] doing today? We aren't doing anything (we are doing nothing). 7.— We want to pass the evening at the cinema. 8.— You[pl.] are not serious people. 1. Qui (pronounced kwi), relative pronoun, who/which/that. 2. Gravis, pl., graves, adj., heavy, grave, serious. The notes that we give you on each lesson are there to help you, or to draw your attention to certain points which will be explained to you more precisely in due time. They should not make you waste time nor complicate your task. Above all they should not be learnt by heart. If certain notes seem obscure to you, do not linger there: you will understand them better during your future revisions. Above all do not forget to recite aloud the text of the lessons and the exercises!

Lectio Nona (9) We load the luggage 1.— Today we are leaving on a trip. 2.— It is hard [to load] the luggage in the car (to-place). 3.— Indeed [my] wife fills many chests with her clothing (wife indeed many trunks by-clothes hers she-fills-in). 4.— She only leaves me one small suitcase (to-me only bag one small she-leaves). 5.— The large chests and small suitcase are finally loaded in the car (finally having-been-placed are). 6.— We depart. Two horses are pulling the fast cart (horses two cart swift theyhaul). 7.— Among [the] carts and [the] chariots, I control my horses with a firm hand (horses mine by-firm hand I-rule). 8.— The small horse is pulling a large waggon and is proceeding slowly (waggon large it-hauls, and slowly advances). 9.— I easily pass the horse and the waggon (horse waggon-and easily I-pass). 10.— The large waggon is pulled slowly and is easily passed by me. 11.— The swift vehicle passes the slow vehicles. 12.— I look at the chest, the horse, the vehicle. 13.— (Is-looked-at) The chest, the horse, the vehicle is looked at. 14.— We look at the chests, the horses, the vehicles. 15.— (Are-looked-at) The chests, the horses, the vehicles are looked at. NOTES 1. Collocare is a composite verb: cum (with) + locare (place), the m of cum being transformed into an l and the u into an o so that its pronunciation is easier. Present tense: colloco, collocas, etc. 2. Exire, to leave, is composed of ex (out of …) and of ire (to go); present tense exeo, exis, etc., an irregular verb like ire, which we already saw in lesson 5. Similarly abire = ab (away from) + ire, in P 6. Latin uses composite words a lot. We shall point out to you later some techniques for better comprehending this process of construction. 3. Arca, arcae, a trunk, trunks, if it acts as the subject; arcam, arcas, a trunk, trunks, if it acts as the direct object. This variation a, ae, am, as is common to a large number of feminine nouns; similarly: equus, equi, a horse, horses (subject); equum, equos, a horse, horses (dir. obj.). These last forms correspond in general to masculine nouns. The neuter nouns are much nicer, since they have the same form in both functions: vehiculum, vehicula, a vehicle, vehicles (subject or dir. obj.). Do not worry for the moment about the currus in P 7 nor the velox in P 11: we will see later why these words vary in a different manner. 4. Plaustrumque = et plaustrum: note the displacement of the accent. 5. Antecedo, antecedor, I pass, I am passed; similarly colloco, collocor, I place, I am placed.

Active verbs in o, as (or is), etc., become passive (it is the subject which undergoes the action) when their ending is transformed into or, ris, tur, etc. This transformation is very practical. Unfortunately, for some time you will have some difficulties with the spoilsports such as loquor, I speak; progredior, I advance; which have exactly the form of the passive verbs, but an active sense (generally intransitive). Be assured that all of this will be clarified before long. EXERCITATIO 1.— Where is the horse? 2.— The horse is in the cart. 3.— Where are the four horses going? 4.— They are going to the theatre. 5.— The quick chariot passes the slow cart. 6.— What do you seek? I seek a fast chariot. 7.— I want to go to Lyon. 8.— [My] wife does not put her suitcases in the car. In the exercises you will meet more and more new forms and new words. Do not try to analyze them, and content yourself with getting used to them, helping yourself with the translation.

Lectio Decima (10) At the hotel 1.— Hello, Keeper! Can you take us? 2.— Hello, Sir! I will take you[pl.] all with pleasure. Space is not wanting. 3.— There is need of a room with one bed, and of another room with two beds. 4.— Here-you-are: room 14 (tenth fourth) on the first floor and room 26 (twentieth sixth) on the second floor. 5.— Joseph! Bring the luggage and show the rooms! 6.— Here’s the room! Through the window you can see the port. 7.— How blue the sea is! [What a lot of] (How-many) ships I see! 8.— The large freighter (ship of-burden) directing its course out to sea (which course in-the-deep it-directs) is headed for Greece (Greece it-seeks). 9.— The room pleases me (to-me). How much is it (Of-how-much it-costs)? 10.— This room costs eight francs; the other twelve. 11.— The room, in the room; the rooms, in the rooms. NOTES 1. Caupo, the landlord, the innkeeper; caupona, the inn; deversorium, the hotel. 1. Potes, you can. You know by now that, when one addresses only a single person, Latin does not use the plural form of "you" as in French for courtesy, but respects the logical construction (singular): this is a nice simplification. However, if one wants to mark a certain deference with regards to one's interlocutor, one employs an appropriate title, as Domine, Lord, Master, or its abbreviation: Domne, Sir, Mister, which you will find in the following sentence. 1. Nos omnes, all of us; vos omnes, all of you; nobis omnibus, for all of us; vobis omnibus, for all of you. We have already seen: ego, I; mihi, to me and tu, you; tibi, to you. 1. Desum, dees, deest, deesse (I lack, you lack, he lacks, to lack) is yet another compound of the verb sum. 1. Lectus, the bed (subject); video lectum, I see the bed; cum lecto, with the bed; cum lectis, with the beds. As Latin does not have an article, one can equally translate as a bed and as the bed, when the remainder of the sentence is not known. We will see later that the article is translated into Latin only if it has real usefulness, and that for that there are suitable words. 1. Cubiculum decimum quartum (or quartum decimum): In many languages, of which one is Latin, one uses the ordinal numeral adjective where others use the cardinal adjective. Word by word: room tenth fourth (14th). Similarly, Henricus octavus (Henry 8th), in French: Henri VIII, but in English: Henry the eighth. 1. Tabulato altero: one could have said tabulato secundo. 1. Navis oneraria: navis is feminine. Think of the gender, also feminine, associated with ships in English! In Italian: la nave, is also feminine. EXERCITATIO

1.— I want [a] large room with two beds. 2.— They want small rooms with single beds [one-each beds]. 3.— In that hotel there [are not] (are-lacking) rooms with two beds. 4.— He places the chests in the large room. 5.— I will receive you[pl.] all in my room. 6.— How much does this room with three beds cost? 7.— It costs 15 francs. 8.— I like this hotel (this hotel to-me pleases). 1. Singuli, bini, terni, quaterni, etc., are numeral adjectives which make it possible to say in ones, in twos, in threes. Here again Latin is more precise than English.

Lectio Undecima (11) What time is it? 1.— What time is it (how-many-eth hour is)? 2.— It is the half hour (half hour is)… 3.— I do not understand! Of what hour [is it the half] (half is)? 4.— I don’t know! I only know [it is the half hour] (half to-be): the small hand is missing from my watch (needle smaller to-clock mine is-lacking). 5.— When did you leave Paris? 6.— I left Paris yesterday at six thirty (yesterday at-the-sixth hour and at-the-half Paris I-left). 7.— I leave Lyon today at three o’clock p.m. (Lyon today at-third hour afternoonian I-leave). 8.— I arrived in this city at ten fifteen (To this city I-arrived at-tenth hour and atfifth tenth minute), i.e. (that is) at a quarter past ten (at-tenth hour and at-quarter). 9.— You are staying in Lyon four hours and forty-five minutes. 10.— We have time (to-us is leisure): do you want to lunch with me? Here-is (behold) a restaurant! 11.— Excellent! I’m really hungry (strongly I-am-hungry). Let’s go to the restaurant. 12.— I leave, you leave, etc., they leave, to leave. I (have) left, you (have)…, etc., they (have) left, to have left. NOTES 1. Quota is an adjective which agrees with hora. 2. Sexta hora and not sex horae, because it is the sixth hour (see note number 6 in the previous lesson). But further down (P 9) quattuor horas because this time it is four hours forming together a certain interval of time. 3. Reliqui is a perfect (tense corresponding to the English simple past, I left, and also the English present perfect tense, I have left). Simply note, in phrase 12, the differences between the present and the perfect tense. 4. Postmeridianá, just as dimidiá, is an adjective: it agrees therefore with horá, hence the long quantity of the á which indicates here the form of the adverbial phrase. 5. Quadrante; if this word were the subject, we would have quadrans. It means: a quarter of an as, the as being a currency; and hence quarter of a circle (Eng.: quadrant), whence quarter of an hour. 6. Visne = vis + ne, interrogative particle which should know well by now. The verb volo, I want, is irregular: we will see it again soon. 7. Mecum = cum me, with me; we also have tecum, with you; nobiscum, with us; vobiscum, with you(pl.). 8. Adeamus, let us go! adimus, we go. The former is a subjunctive, a mood very often used in Latin, but of which we will only see the conjugation later on. The latter is the present indicative, which is conjugated as follows: adeo, adis, adit, adimus, aditis, adeunt.

This verb is irregular (cf. L 5, N 3), just as is the verb eo from which it is compounded by the addition of the preposition ad, towards. Regular verbs ending in -eo in the first person remain in e in all the others. Thus video, I see, gives: vides, videt, videmus, videtis, vident. N.B. In phrase 4 one could have said index instead of acus. EXERCITATIO 1.— The freighter left port at four fifty (16:50). 2.— If you are hungry, we can go to a restaurant. 3.— I’m at leisure: I want to see Paris. 4.— When did you leave the restaurant? 5.— I left it at ten pm (22:00). 6.— You drank many glasses of wine. 7.— Not at all, I only drank coffee.

Lectio Duodecima (12) It is easier to put the glass on it 1.— A famous musician, but quite (enough) prone to drink, is interviewed by a journalist (by journalist is-questioned). 2.— Where did your expertise come from, maestro (from-where [whence] hasarisen, master, expertise yours[sg.])? 3.— From my grandfather, without any doubt, for he played the violin most expertly (by-violin very-expertly he-sang). 4.— Yourself though, why did you rather choose the piano (you truly, why piano rather you-chose)? 5.— Because it is easier to put the glass on it than on the violin (more-easily on it than on violin is-put beaker)! From Vita Latina (september 1961, A. RODOT) 6.— A piano is a musical instrument whose strings are struck by hammers. 7.— The boozy musician rests (puts) his glass easily on the piano. 8.— The glass is put on the violin with difficulty by the boozy musician. 9.— The sun rises in the East. Julius Caesar was born from a noble family (having-arisen he-is). 10.— I choose, you choose, to choose — I chose/have chosen, you chose/have chosen, he chose/has chosen, they chose/have chosen, to have chosen. 11.— I place, you place, to place — I (have) put, you (have) put, to have put. 12.— I am placed, you are placed, to be placed — I have been placed. NOTES 1. Potare, to drink (poto, potas, etc.); potio, the drink (subject); which, if it is a direct object, becomes: potionem. Poculum, the cup, the beaker, forms also part of the same family. 2. Interrogatur: passive voice; in the active voice, we would have: interrogat, he questions; similarly ponitur, he is placed and ponit, he places. You will compare phrase 2 of the exercise with phrase 1 of the lesson. 3. A diurnario, ab avo meo, sine ullo dubio: all these forms in o correspond to adverbial phrases. Note that the preposition a becomes ab in front of a vowel, similarly e, which indicates extraction, becomes ex in front of a vowel. 4. Cano, I sing, or I play an instrument; infinitive: canere; present indicative: cano, canis, canit, canimus, canitis, canunt. Canebat is an imperfect tense. 5. Chordae malleis percutiuntur (passive). By changing the verb to the active voice, the sentence transforms into: mallei chordas percutiunt, the hammers strike the strings. If we put all the words into the singular, we shall have: chorda malleo percutitur and malleus chordam percutit. Do not seek to memorize all of these variations yet: just know that they exist. 6. The passive verbs and those which are conjugated in the passive form, form their perfect tense by means of the perfect participle and of the verb sum, I am. It is very easy, but you will not have to forget after that that the participle

agrees in the same way as an adjective. A woman will say therefore: posita sum, I was placed. The excerpts from magazines and from books which we shall give you from time to time sometimes depart from the original text. You will find further references on the works cited in the BIBLIOGRAPHY which is found at the end of the volume. EXERCITATIO 1.— The musician is not hungry, but wants to drink [something] (a-drink). 2.— The journalist interviews (questions) the boozy musician. 3.— The musician puts the violin(s) in the car. 4.— The violin(s) [is] (are) [placed] (put) in the car. 5.— The violin(s) [has] (have) been/[was] (were) placed in the car. 6.— The suitcase has been / was put in the car. 7.— [It has been / was difficult to put] the piano in the small room (withdifficulty has been / was put). 8.— How much does (do) the violin(s) cost? [It] (they) costs (cost) a thousand francs. 9.— Why did you choose room 23? Because from the window I can see the port. Have you noticed that phrases 5, 6 and 7 of the exercise are examples of what is pointed out in note 6? You can at the same time deduce from that that fidiculae is feminine (plural), bulga, feminine, and clavichordium, neuter.

Lectio Tertia Decima (13) Why difficult? 1.— What’s wrong (what to-you), Lucy? You seem sad (sad you-are-seen). Surely you are not ill, are you (by-any-chance ill)? 2.— Everything is going badly (all-things badly themselves they-have). I am wasting my time (effort). [It] is difficult to learn the lessons. 3.— Why [is it] difficult? Surely you aren’t trying to learn everything by heart, are you (by-any-chance all-things to word you-learn)? 4.— Not at all, but I can’t remember the meaning and form of the words (but ofwords meaning and form in memory to-keep not I-am-able). 5.— No wonder! You have to forget each word seven times before you can remember it well. (it-is-required of-word each seven-times to-forget before of-it thebest you-remember). 6.— Is that a [Russian] proverb (among the Russians)? For I read something like that in a Russian textbook (such indeed I-read in a-method Russian). 7.— Bravo! If you’ve already learned Russian with ease (if already language Russian without pain you-learned), you’ll learn the Latin language all the more easily (how-much more-easily language Latin you-will-learn). Aren’t you beginning to understand the sentences? 8.— I am actually beginning to read the sentences swiftly and gradually to understand them (I-begin certainly sentences swiftly to-read and gradually tounderstand). 9.— Well-done! You are on the right road (good road you-follow). It is necessary to repeat again and again (again and again to-repeat it-is-required). 10.— The Latin language is not absolutely easy, but by no means impossible to learn. (by-no manner to-be-learned not it-is-able). 11.— I learn the lessons; you learn Russian (language Russian). I forget the lessons (of-the-lessons I-forget); you remember the multiplication table (of-table multiplicatory you-remember). 12.— I learn, you learn, he learns, they learn, to learn; it is learned, they are learned, to be learned. 13.— I learned, you learned, he learned, they learned, to have learned; I will learn, you will learn, he will learn, they will learn. NOTES 1. Video, I see (active voice); videor, I am seen (passive voice) and, with a predicative (here tristis), I seem, I appear… 2. Num; we have already seen the use of the particle …ne, ? (valesne, are you well?), to indicate the question. But in other cases the question can be made more precise. Thus, if it is thought that the answer will be NO, one employs num, by-any-chance. If, on the contrary, it is thought that the answer will be YES, one employs nonne, don’t …?, as further down in phrase 7. 3. Verba, words (neuter plural); verborum, of words; in the singular: verbum, a word; verbi, of a word. 4. Nil: short form of nihil, nothing, in colloquial speech.

5. Ejus, is the form of the possessive phrase (the same in the three genders) of the adjective pronoun called relative: is (masculine), ea (feminine), id (neuter), which is used to designate the person or the object about which one has just spoken. Memini is a rather particular verb (like novi, I know, that we saw in lesson 6) since it takes the form of the perfect tense; it means: I recorded in memory (I remember). It is conjugated just like reliqui (L 11, P 12). Memineris is the corresponding subjunctive, but nothing presses you to remember this! Notice finally that Latin says: "to remember of something" and also "to forget (oblivisci) of something" whence verbi and not verbum. 6. Sarmata is, in spite of the a, a masculine noun; methodus, in spite of the us, is a feminine noun. Be assured that there are only few exceptions of this kind; they are, in general, easy to remember and affect only nouns, never adjectives. The corresponding adjective is sarmaticus, feminine: sarmatica, neuter: sarmaticum. 7. Disco, I learn, requires a direct object, whereas memini is constructed with an indirect object, just as its opposite obliviscor (see note 5 above). Do not seek to remember all these aspects accurately: try simply to think in Latin, which will bring you to understand that the turns which English uses cannot always be transposed literally into other languages. CARMEN By the moonlight While the moon in the sky shines, [I] need a stylus for writing. Who can give [me one]? The lamp is out, Oh most poor me! With the door wide open (the-door having-been-opened-up), help [me] (give assistance). (Taken from Carmina Latina, songs collected by Sydney MORRIS. Editor: Centaur Books, Slough (England).) In our translations, we prefer to follow as closely as possible the Latin text. The two languages having a rather different structure, the English text can seem to you sometimes strange. It is because it is there only to help you understand: as soon as you understood, try to forget the English and to remember only the Latin construction. Do you know the Russian Assimil, and did you notice that we made this lesson correspond very closely to its Russian counterpart? For both languages, because of these famous declensions of which it will soon be necessary that we begin speaking to you, the beginning is relatively more difficult. If, in spite of its declensions and its quite peculiar alphabet, you managed to learn Russian with ease, don't you think it must be the same with Latin, which poses no

delicate problems of reading or pronunciation, and which especially is much closer to our language? Perhaps you will reproach Latin for its remarkable wealth of forms, in which you fear getting lost. Do not complain about this abundance: you will see little by little the usefulness of each thing, usefulness which you can't grab all at once. For the time being, content yourself with following the guide, by opening your eyes well, but without trying too hard to deepen your understanding. All that will be cleared up later. You certainly know the carmen which ends our lesson today. It is an old French song, whose words were put in Latin by and Englishman, Sydney MORRIS, author of the collection Carmina Latina (Centaur Books, editor). Do not forget that France is not the only country where Latin is spoken!

Lectio Quarta Decima (14) Revision and Notes 1. Before methodically tackling grammar, it is essential to know what it applies to. Also, our goal is to teach you first the greatest possible number of expressions, in order then to be able to show you in a more living manner the reason of their construction. That is why, during many lessons, you meet the same words in various forms, which can sometimes surprise you: do not be astonished if we do not give you each time the reason behind these changes. Even less was explained to young Romans, which did not prevent them from making use of their language. Therefore, imitate them! Do not be afraid from now to try to speak and to compose sentences of your own making, initially very close to the examples from this book, and then increasingly more original. Of course, and even for a long time, you will make mistakes which attract to you the worst wrath of the purists. In response to these criticisms, you will be able to answer: Errando discitur: It is by making mistakes that one learns (making-mistakes it-islearned); and also Fabricando fit faber: It is by forging that one becomes a blacksmith (forging is-made blacksmith). In summary, notice with curiosity the variations of nouns and adjectives, try to remember some whole sentences, without trying still to analyze them; and, if you want to, also try to use the words which you already know to construct new sentences. But especially, recite and recite again lessons and exercises: we are just only at the stage of passive assimilation. 2. The conjugations (continued).— Although it is still premature systematically to examine the variations of the nouns and adjectives, we will see that it is possible as of now to put a little order in our knowledge of the verbs. Even if it must appear a little unpleasant to you at the beginning, you will eventually see that the Latin conjugation is easier to learn than the French conjugation. Let us revise initially the present indicative, but this time with a verb in are: invitare, to invite: invit O,

I invite;

invit AS, invit AT,

you invite; he invites;

invit AMUS, invit ATIS, invit ANT,

we invite; you[pl.] invite; they invite.

This form in o, as, at, etc., is that of the 1st CONJUGATION.

We also saw other forms, which we can now group as follows: 2nd CONJUGATION: vid EO, I see, vid EMUS,

vid ES, vid ETIS,

vid ET, vid ENT.

3rd CONJUGATION: dic O, I say, dic IMUS,

dic IS, dic ITIS,

dic IT, dic UNT.

4th CONJUGATION: aud IO, I hear, aud IS, aud IMUS, aud ITIS,

aud IT, aud IUNT.

In the infinitive, these verbs are respectively: invit ARE, vid ERE, dic ERE, and aud IRE, and it will be noticed that, except for dic ERE, the accent is placed on the penultimate syllable: this is very important. For these four active conjugations, the endings are always o, s, t, mus, tis, nt, as we told you during the previous revision. N.B.— There is yet another conjugation which takes its forms sometimes from the 3rd and sometimes from the 4th; e.g.: facio, I make, whose infinitive is facere, to make. It is called the 3rd mixed conjugation. 3. The present passive.— If now you want to put these verbs in the passive, it is enough to replace the endings above by: or, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur. Thus we will have: invit OR, I am invited; invit ARIS, you are invited; invit ATUR, he is invited;

invit AMUR, we …; invit AMINI, you[pl.] …; invit ANTUR, they …

Similarly, we also have: videor, I am seen, videris, etc…, videntur; dicor, I am said, diceris (note this irregular e in the 2nd person singular), dicitur, dicimur, dicimini, dicuntur. audior, I am heard, audiris, etc…, audiuntur.

4. The perfect active.— After the present tense, we can see the perfect: it is even simpler to conjugate, since once having known the form of the first person, the others are obtained in the same way for the four conjugations. Thus: invit AV-I, I invited invit AV-ISTI invit AV-IT

invit AV-IMUS invit AV-ISTIS invit AV-ERUNT (sometimes invitavere)

Similarly, we will have: vidi, vidisti, etc…, viderunt, I saw, you saw, etc…, they saw; dixi, dixisti, etc…, dixerunt, I said, you said, etc…, they said; audivi, audivisti, etc…, audiverunt, I heard, you heard, etc…, they heard. In all the cases, the endings are always: i, isti, it, imus, istis, erunt. Do not try to find right now a general rule for the choice of the intermediate letters (av after invit, etc.) and simply consider each verb as a particular case. 4. The perfect passive.— It is even simpler: it is enough to know the perfect participle (passive) and to add the verb sum after it, without forgetting that this participle must agree in gender and number with the subject, as any adjective would: invit ATUS SUM, I was invited (and I am a man), literally: I am having-beeninvited; invit ATA ES, you were invited (and you are a woman); invit ATUM EST, it was invited (and it is a thing, insofar as a thing could have been invited! You should not forget that there is a neuter gender); invit ATAE SUMUS, we were invited (and we are women); invit ATI ESTIS, you[pl.] were invited (and you are men); invit ATA SUNT, they were invited (and they are things); Similarly we will find with other verbs: visus (visa, visum) dictus dictum) auditus auditum)




visi (visae, visa) dicti (dictae, dicta)


AM, I am ARE, you are IS. he (she, it) is ARE, we are ARE, you[pl.] are

seen {

having been


told heard


having been


seen told

auditi audita)


ARE. they are


5. How does one recognize that a verb belongs to this or that conjugation? — You must guess it partly. But for the time being, it is not necessary to know it. Simply know how to recognise the present from the perfect. Also know that one passes from the active to the passive by very simple changes of ending. For the rest, let us carry you by the conveyor belt! We will warn you as soon as it is necessary to pass to a stage of more active comprehension. This review is rather long. We ask you to excuse us. Even if it means repeating ourselves, we remind you that in all these forms, you need to learn nothing by heart. Do not even try to assimilate at once all that we have just pointed out to you. Instead, return here each time you feel the need to clarify your ideas: in this way, the result will be much better this way.

Lectio Quinta Decima (15) A letter to Fabrizio 1.— I must respond to Fabrizio. Do you have [some] paper? 2.— Here-is [some] paper. Do you want ink and a quill? 3.— Thanks: I have a pen. Let us begin. 4.— Marc Dupont heartily salutes Fabrizio Martini (Marc Dupont to-Fabrizio Martini salute many-a he-is-saying). 5.— If you are well (you-are-healthy), it is well; I am well (myself I-am-healthy). 6.— I received and read your letter with great pleasure (most-gladly letter yours having-been-received I-read). 7.— I thank you heartily for your kindness (to-you thanks many I-do on-account-of kindness yours). 8.— We will arrive in Genoa on the 25th of July (day 25th of-month Julian) around 9 in the morning. 9.— [It's] with pleasure [that] we will see you again and [that] we will spend several days with you. 10.— Good-bye, excellent Fabrizio, be well (be-healthy) you and all of yours (yours-and all). 11.— [Written] (I was writing) in [Paris] (Lutetia of the Parisians) on the 19th of July 1963 (day 19th of-month Julian year one-thousandth nine-hundredth sixtieth third). 12.— I introduce the letter in an envelope. I write the address. I paste on the stamp and make for the [post] (postal) office. NOTES 1. Habesne: it would be more classical to say estne tibi? Habeo (habes, habet, etc.) is used in general in senses rather different from those of our verb to have. It means more exactly to hold. For instance habere aliquem bonum, to hold somebody for good; or in lesson 13 (P 2): omnia male se habent. 2. Papyrum: formerly paper was made with the pulp of a reed called papyrus, hence its name. One can also say charta. 3. Atramentum, that which makes black. Ater (f. atra, n. atrum), means dark, matte black. Bright, shiny black is niger (nigra, nigrum). 4. Calamus, the reed or the quill. Perhaps you know (pink pages of the Larousse) the phrase lapsus calami, word-by-word: slip of the quill, i.e. a careless mistake. 5. Stilographium: the formation of this word is not very logical: stilus as well as graphium, both indicate the point to write on tablets (coated with wax). One could say, as do the English and Canadians: calamus fontanus, fountain pen. 6. Incipio, incipis, incipit, I begin, you…, etc. (present indicative). Incipiam, incipias, incipiat, incipiamus, incipiatis, incipiant, that I begin, that you…, etc., is the present subjunctive, used here instead of the imperative, which does not exist in the 1st person. 7. Marcus Dupont: the majority of first names have a well-defined Latin form, whereas last names are not always very easy to transpose. As a general rule one Latinizes only the first name. They do the same in French with foreign names:

Marie (Mary) Stuart; Jules César, although in this last example Julius is not a first name. The person to whom we refer was actually called: Gaius (praenomen, first name) Julius (nomen gentilicium, name) Caesar (cognomen familiare, nickname: the curly). 8. The polite formula (P 5) is written in abbreviation: SVBEEV. Did you notice (thanks to plurimam) that salutem was feminine? 9. Perlibenter or libentissime are forms known as superlatives of the adverb libenter, gladly. These forms make it possible to show that the adjective or adverb is carried to its highest degree (very, the most, etc.). 10. Legi is the perfect of legere; present: lego, legis, etc. 11. Read the Latin figures well, but do not try to memorize them yet. Also think of reading those in the page and lesson numbers; when they will have become familiar to you, you will then be able to search for the missing ones, in the grammatical appendix. 12. Julius, is an adjective. Here it refers to mensis, the month, and because of this it becomes julii, because these two words form the possessive phrase from dié. Latin thinks: “in this 19th day of the month Julian”. 13. We have already seen (L 11, P 6) sextá horá (with a long á), at 6 o’clock. With the preposition ad, we use the form of the direct object, hence m’s of the endings that both these words take. 14. Optime is another superlative. As Latin does not use the polite form of you (fr. vous), it uses other means to mark a certain deference with regard to the person to whom one addresses oneself, and in particular the judiciously chosen superlative address. For instance if you write to a professor you can call him doctissime vir, very erudite man. For other professions, other terms could be more suitable: illustrissime, very famous; peritissime, very skillful, always followed by vir, man. In the feminine, replace the e with an a, and the vir with femina (doctissima femina, etc.). Why in the masculine is there an e and not an us? You will know soon. EXERCITATIO 1.— It is not difficult to write a (Latin) letter [in Latin]. 2.— By the address we indicate to-what person the letter must (debeat, subj.) be-taken and in what place his domicile is. 3.— My address is Charles Durand, 12 Lyon Street (street Lyonian), Paris, France (Gaul). 4.— Where is the post office? It is on this road. 5.— Fabrizio received the letter written by Charles. 6.— I received your letter and read it with joy. 7.— When will you[pl.] arrive? We will arrive on the 7th of of June. 8.— We will gladly receive you[pl.].

Lectio Sexta Decima (16) Come have dinner 1.— Walking in the city of Marseille, not far from the harbour, we find Marius. 2.— Hello Mark! he exclaims. What are you doing in our city? 3.— Hello to you too Marius! We are going to Rome, but we are staying for some days in Marseille. 4.— Come have dinner at my place (by me)! We will have time to talk at home while having dinner (eating to-us at-home leisure of-talking there-will-be). 5.— Where is your house? 6.— You will find [it] easily: get out of the city through the Aix Gate. 7.— Continue straight up to the third street on the left… 8.— Go along this street for thirty meters (make a-journey through this street threehundred meters)… 9.— There, to the right, you will see a house with a red door which won't be fully closed. 10.— You will push the door with [your] foot and you will enter. 11.— Why with [my] foot? 12.— Because [your] hands will be full… 13.— …of the presents that without any doubt you will bring us. NOTES 1. In urbe Massiliá, and not Massiliae, since, due to the fact that Massilia is linked by it agreement to urbe, one cannot use anymore the shorter construction Massiliae (that the grammarians call locative) which allowes one to say in just one word: in Marseille. 2. Ambulans (plural ambulantes), present participle of ambulo, (ambul)as, (ambul)are, I am walking. From now on, we shall offer you the verbs in shortened form in the order: 1st person present indicative (not shortened); ending of the 2nd person (here as); ending of the present infinitive (here are). 3. Marce, Mari, and in the preceding lesson optime Fabrici, are vocatives (from voco, as, are, to call) which one employs when one addresses someone. This form is not different from the form of the subject except for the words ending in us (or in ius, and in this case the us disappears instead of being transformed into an e), as well as for some names of Greek origin: Andreas, Andrew; voc. Andrea! 4. Cenatum, is a particular mood of the verb ceno (as, are), I have dinner, which is used, after verbs of motion, instead of the infinitive. Cenans is the present participle of this same verb; plural cenantes; nobis cenantibus, to us dining, is the form of the indirect object. 5. Loquor, eris, i, I speak; loquens, speaking; venite locutum, come to speak; voluptas loquendi, the pleasure of speaking. Do not try yet to remember all of these forms, but just note that in addition to the infinitive (loqui) and the participle, which are moods which we already know, Latin, a precise language, has other verbal forms more specialized than ours. Some of these forms are declinable (agreeing in gender, number and case), which should not surprise us.

6. Porta designates the entrance (gate) of a city, janua that of a house. Portá and viá, with a long á, indicate, without the need for a preposition, the place through which one passes. With the other words one employs the preposition per, by, through; per urbem, across the city; and (P 8), per vicum. 7. Aquae Sextiae (word-by-word, the waters of Sextius), Aix-en-Provence. Equally Aquae Gratianae, the waters of Gratian (emperor who gave his name to Gatianopolis, Grenoble) became Aix-les-Bains (Savoy) and Aquae Grani, Aix-laChapelle (Aachen). These Aquae (singular aqua, water) were Roman thermal cities (cities built over hot springs), the second word serving to differentiate them from each other. Oddly enough in general it is the first word which has remained (Aix, Ax, Dax, Aachen). 8. Vicus, the village, also indicates the street bordered by houses our of which villages grew. 9. Sinistrorsum (going) towards the left; sinistra, the left hand; sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left (adjective). In the past, superstitious people considered the passage of birds as a sinister omen if it were made to their left (except if their left coincided with the East, which didn't simplify things). From this comes the second sense (current sense) of this adjective. Similarly dextra, right hand, dexter, tra, trum (adj.), right and dextrorsum (adv.), (going) towards the right. 10. Omnino, at all; adverb derived from the pronoun: m. and f.: omnis, every (everyone); neuter: omne, everything; pl.: omnes, every (all); neuter: omnia, all things; omnibus, for all, for all things is the form of the indirect object: an omnibus (now shortened to bus) is the name that was given to vehicle for everyone. But all in the sense of the whole is expressed by the adjective: totus, tota, totum. EXERCITATIO 1.— You are going to (are making for) Rome through Genoa. 2.— I’m making for the port where there-are many ships. 3.— I am going to Rome on the Via Aurelia. 4.— I am getting out of Rome by the Aurelian Gate. 5.— We leave the city of Marseille (we-go-away from city Marseille) by (through) a small street. 6.— In Marseille there are many streets. 7.— In the city of Paris (in city Paris) there-are many houses. Attention: P.5 should say 'ab urbe Massiliá abímus'. 1. Attention! domus is here a feminine plural, we shall see why later.

Lectio Septima Decima (17) I want lobster 1.— Where can we have lunch? 2.— Guests have lunch in the dining room. How many are you? 3.— We are four. 4.— Sit down at this table. 5.— Maria! Bring everything (all-things) necessary for lunch for (of) four guests (table-companions). The guests (table-companions) are in the dining room. 6.— Maria is the name of the servant. The servant brings four plates… 7.— Next to each plate, she places one glass, knife, spoon, and fork. 8.— What do you wish to eat? Here is the menu (list of-foods). 9.— Little Victor takes the menu and answers: 10.— I want (wish-for) lobster à la armoricaine (in Armorican sauce), then roasted hare or rabbit chasseur (in hunting manner), [and] finally apple pie (pastry with apples). 11.— The angered mother slaps Victor (leads a slap to Victor), saying: 12.— You want too many things. Bread, eggs, [and] cheese will be enough for us. NOTES 1. Assidite: imperative, 2nd pers. pl. of assido (is, ere), to sit down. Mensa, the table on which one eats; do you recall the tabula multiplicatoria (L 6, N 1). 2. Affer, imperative, 2nd pers. sg. of affero, composed of ad, towards, and fero (fers, ferre), to carry; and conjugated as the latter. Fero and its compounds have their place in the series of irregular verbs. Do not forget that in all languages, by virtue of the law of maximum inconvenience, it is precisely the irregular verbs that are the most often used (if they were not used much, they would be replaced sooner or later by regular verbs). Moreover, you should not be afraid to use them, even if you get muddled in their conjugation. Little by little, they will become familiar to you, and as these verbs are very useful, your efforts will be rewarded. 3. Omnia necessaria is a neuter plural: all things necessary. You will see later that this form is easily recognizable from the form in a of the feminine singular, thanks to the other words of the sentence, and even here thanks to omnia which can only be the neuter plural of the pronoun omnis that we saw in the previous lesson. 4. Fuscinulamque = et fuscinulam. Note that the adjective unam agrees in gender and number with the last term of the enumeration. This is not the only possible construction: we will return to this later. Also notice that the accent migrates to the syllable which precedes the particle que! 5. Locusta means at the same time lobster (notice the resemblance of both words) and locust. 6. Leporem, hare, direct object; if it were a subject, it would be lepus; whereas portus, subject, makes portum, object: all words do not vary in the same way. Have patience! What seems disturbing now will soon seem natural to you.

7. Crustulum, cake, (diminutive of crusta, the crust) is neuter. 8. Nimia, literally too many things, is a neuter adjective: vide supra notam tertiam (see note 3 above). Vid. sup., see above, is a frequent abbreviation. 9. Ova. Still a neuter plural (n. pl.). The singular is ovum. If you know Italian, think that the plural of uovo, the egg, is irregular: uova; but it comes directly from a regular Latin form. For Caseum, think of the German Käse or the English cheese. Whereas the French word (fromage) and its Italian counterpart (formaggio) come from another Latin root: forma, form, mould. You can definitely see that we do not leave the European family! EXERCITATIO 1.— Mother puts a pastry on the plate. 2.— The servant brings the hare into the dining room. 3.— The servants bring the hares into the dining rooms. 4.— The hare costs six francs. 5.— The hares don’t wish to have lunch in the dining room. 6.— How much does the lobster cost? — Ten francs! 7.— It costs too much. 8.— What is this dish (food)? 9.— I can’t find the dish I want (wish) on the menu.

Lectio Duodevicesima (18) What is the difference between…? 1 Paul.— Do you know [what the difference is between] (what is in between): a bicycle, a squirrel [and] a family. 2 Peter.— I have no idea (I don’t know it at all). I can’t find [it] out. 3 Paul.— [But it is easy] (this however is easily found out): put a squirrel and a bicycle under a tree and wait [to see] what [happens] (is about to be). 4 Peter.— I don’t understand! What do you [mean] (want to say)? 5 Paul.— The one that climbs the tree first is the squirrel (which first ascends onto the tree, it is the squirrel). 6 Peter.— Good (Well)! You are clever. But you only said what [was the difference between] (was between) a squirrel and a bicycle. But what (what on-theother-hand) about the family? 7 Paul.— They are fine! Thank you! 8.— The squirrel climbs up the tree (the squirrel ascends onto the tree). 9.— The ape climbs down from the tree (the ape descends from the tree). 10.— The squirrels climb up the trees. 11.— The apes descend from the trees. NOTES 1. Scisne, from scio (is, ire), to know. For the part. -ne, cf. L 3, N 3. 2. Quid: the interrogative adjective-pronoun has the following forms in the singular: masculine feminine neuter subject quis quae quid : who/what? direct object quem quam quid : whom/what? possessive phrase cujus cujus cujus : whose? indirect object cui cui cui : to whom/what? adverbial phrase quo quá quo : by whom/what? It resembles oddly enough the relative adjective-pronoun which differs from it only by the forms qui and quod instead of quis and quid. As their names indicate, these words can be either pronouns as the relative pronoun qui in phrase 5, or adjectives: quae res?, what thing? (subject) quam rem?, what thing? (object) quá ré?, by what thing? (why, how) (adverbial phrase) 3. Nescio = non scio, I do not know; scio, I know. 4. Invenio (is, ire), to find (active voice); invenior (iris, iri), be found (passive voice). 5. Sim, sis, sit: that I be, that you be, that it be (subj. of esse). Futurus (a, um), which will be, is the FUTURE participle of this same verb. 6. Is… qui, that which (when that replaces a masculine noun); ea… quae, that which (when that refers to a feminine noun); id… quod, that which (when that

refers to a neuter noun). These words almost always come in pairs, but their order is often reversed; e.g.: is est sciurus, qui ascendit in arborem. 7. Interesset: another subjunctive! Interesse is a compound of the verb esse, a verb which we must begin knowing: Pres. ind.: sum, es, etc.; pres. subj.: sim (vid. sup. N 5); impf. subj.: essem, esses, esset, etc. Intersit, of P 1, is therefore the 3rd pers. sg. of the pres. subj. of interesse. Let us not yet search for the rules of use of the subjunctive, but content ourselves with gradually gaining familiarity with its forms. Let you start to see the differences between the prepositions: a (ab in front of a vowel) which indicates distance, difference, or introduces the agent of a passive verb, if it represents a person (the one who actually performs the action); e (ex in front of a vowel) which indicates the exit; de, which indicates the source, the descent and means also: about. E.g.: «De bello Gallico», about the Gallic War, is the title of «The War of the Gauls», by Julius Caesar. EXERCITATIO 1.— How’s Victor doing (What about Victor)? — Victor is well. 2.— What about the horses? — They are well. 3.— Victor’s grandmother climbs onto trees. 4.— Who is coming down from the second floor? 5.— No one is descending from the third floor. 6.— In the neighbouring wood, a squirrel is not found easily. 7.— I don’t understand what you are answering (What you be answering, that I do not understand). 8.— Man descends from the ape (Man leads his origin from the ape). 9.— Who wrote this stupidity (stupid thing)? 10.— The journalist writes easily. N.B. — For the 2nd wave: do not translate descends in P 8 by descendit, which would not be very correct for this figurative sense. To end this lesson, let us see the different forms which the words pater bonus (the good father) can take depending on their role in the sentence: #1 subject #2 direct object #3 possessive phrase #4 indirect object #5 adverbial phrase

Singular pater bonus patrem bonum patris boni patri bono patre bono

Plural patres boni patres bonos patrum bonorum patribus bonis patribus bonis

Do not try to learn the table above by heart: simply know that the different words do not follow the same rules of change according to case, and that we have not yet seen all the tables of possible variations. Very fortunately, although there are several, as a whole

they all have a quite remarkable family resemblance. Patience, all that will be cleared up!

Lectio undevicesima (19) Go to bed 1.— Julius, go (go away) to bed (to lie down)! 2.— Mummy, please (I pray)! I don’t want to go to bed. I’m not sleepy (sleep isn’t urging me). 3.— [His] mother drags Julius up (through) the stairs to (as far as) the bedroom. 4.— If you are (will be) a good boy, tomorrow I’ll give you a pastry. 5.— Julius is a good boy. He takes off (puts down) his clothes (garment) and goes to (makes for the) bed. He disappears under the sheet and the blankets, and falls asleep (into sleep). 6.— John, when he goes to bed, is-accustomed vigorously to throw his shoes onto the floor. 7.— One day (on a certain day), a neighbour says to him: “Friend, please (I pray)! Don’t throw [your] shoes so vigorously at night: the noise is heard in my bedroom, and so I wake up (I am awaken out of [my] sleep)”. 8.— I’m sorry (give pardon), responds John, I will no longer throw [my] shoes. 9.— The following night, John goes to bed, takes off his clothes, throws the first shoe onto the floor, and then, oh horror, he suddenly remembers [his] neighbour (of neighbour). 10.— But what is he to do? He gently and cautiously puts the second shoe on the floor, … and slips into sleep. 11.— On the day after, he sees the neighbour and says to him: “Did you sleep better last (this) night”? 12.— Then the neighbour replies: “I slept still very badly: I heard one shoe falling… and I waited for the other for the whole night!” NOTES 1. Nolo, non vis, non vult, nolumus, non vultis, nolunt: I do not want, you do not want, etc.; infinitive: nolle, not to want. Volo, vis, vult, volumus, vultis, volunt: I want, you want, etc.; infinitive: velle, to want. Velle is an irregular verb, as you can see, and its compound nolle is even more so, since its non is sometimes joined and altered, and sometimes separated. You will see these verbs often enough to be able to remember them without effort thanks to usage. 2. Dare, to give. Present tense: do, das, etc.; future tense: dabo, dabis, dabit, dabimus, dabitis, dabunt. 3. Labor, laberis, labitur, labimur, labimini, labuntur, I slip, you, etc.; infinitive: labi, to slip, is an active verb (intransitive) which is conjugated in the passive form, like loquor or sequor, which we have already seen. Such verbs are called deponents, because they put down (depose) their active form to take the passive form. In contrast mergor, mergeris, etc.; infinitive, mergi is the passive voice of mergo (is, ere) which is to immerse [something], sink [something] down; that passive form means therefore: to be immersed, or also to sink (i.e. to be sinking) if we are talking about a ship. You may know the motto of the city of Paris: Fluctuat nec mergitur, it floats and does not sink (nec, and not).

4. Solere, to be in the habit of; present tense: soleo, soles, solet, etc. 5. Noli projicere, do not throw (literally do not want to throw). The imperative alone is never used with negation: it is replaced with the imperative of nolo and the infinitive. 6. Projiciam is a future tense; 2nd pers., projicies; 3rd, projiciet; etc., projicient; whereas the present tense is projicio, projicis, etc., projiciunt. 7. Faciat, 3rd pers. sg. of the pres. subj. of facere. EXERCITATIO 1.— I want you to go (go away) to bed (to lie down). 2.— He doesn’t want me to throw [my] shoes onto the floor. 3.— Do you want Julius to sleep in [his] bed? 4.— Marius wants us to nudge (urge) the door with [our] foot. 5.— Where (whither) is the shoe thrown? — The shoe is thrown onto the floor. 6.— Where is Julius? — Julius is in bed. 7.— The shoes are thrown from the forty-fifth floor.

Lectio vicesima (20) I have (take) breakfast 1.— In the morning I-get-up from bed at seven o’clock. 2.— I shave [my] beard; I wash ([my] body); I put on my clothes (dress myself with clothing). 3.— I ring (drive) the bell. The maid-servant brings breakfast. 4.— On the tray there is a cup [of white coffee] (of coffe and of milk), and toasted bread with butter. 5.— The coffee is not hot! Can you reheat it? 6.— After ten minutes the maid-servant has not yet returned with the hot coffee. 7.— I open [the] door; I examine my shoes, which [my] valet (boy) did not want to polish. 8.— At length the maid-servant returns; I have (take) [my] breakfast straightaway. 9.— Ouch (woe)! My throat is burning (throat is burned to me)! Now [the/my] coffee is boiling! 10.— All this (all these things) has made me late (made delay to-me)! To catch the train on its way (towards the-train that-is-to-be-caught-up-with), I have to run (itbehooves that-I-run). Proverbs 11.— We must do our selves what (that which) we want to see to more properly (more-rightly)! 12.— We have as many enemies as we have servants (how many servants, so many enemies). NOTES 1. Sumere (sumo, sumis, etc.), to take, seize, assume, swallow (to eat or drink). Its derivative consumere, to consume, destroy gave the French language both the verb consumer (to consume, destroy) and its popular doublet consommer (to consume, use up). A thousand and one vicissitudes of this sort came to Latin words in the course of their passage into the vernaculars. 2. Corpus is a neuter noun. Both in the singular and in the plural the neuter nouns have the same form when they are subjects and when they are direct objects; plural corpora. In our sentence, there is no need to say lavo corpus meum, because it is obvious that it is my own body which I wash and not that of others! 3. Panisque = et panis, and bread. Do you know the inscription S.P.Q.R. which appears on Roman monuments and corresponds in a way to the French R.F. (République Française, French Republic)? It is the abbreviation for Senatus PopulusQue Romanus (the Senate and the People of Rome). Ac lactis: ac, as well as et and as que (the latter after a word) have the same sense: and. Usage will guide us on their employment. In lance, the tray is lanx; of the tray, lancis; plural: lances, the trays, and also the

scales (bi-lanx). 4. Puer, child, but also servant, slave. It corresponds roughly to the French garçon (garçon de café, of course) or to the English boy. 5. Polire, to polish, to make shiny; present tense: polio, polis, polit, polimus, politis, poliunt. 6. Assequor (eris, inf., assequi), to pursue; assequendus (f. assequenda, n. assequendum), that which is to be persued, to pursue, is a VERBAL ADJECTIVE. 7. Curram (curras, etc.), that I run, is a SUBJUNCTIVE. 8. Oportet (impersonal verb), it is important, it is required. 9. Agere, to do, drive, compel, etc., which we have already seen, has: present tense: ago, agis, agit, agimus, agitis, agunt; future tense: agam, ages, aget, agemus, agetis, agent; perfect tense: egi, egisti, egit, egimus, egistis, egerunt. CANTILENA I am poor! I have nothing! And I will give nothing! This song, which you may know already, in not very tiring …It is normally sung in a canon with three voices.

Lectio vicesima prima (21) Revision and Notes 1. At the end of this third week of study, you now know that the majority of Latin words (nouns, adjectives, pronouns) change form, not only according to their GENDER (masculine, feminine or neuter), and according to their NUMBER (singular or plural), but also according to their function in the sentence (subject, direct object, possessive phrase, etc.), i.e., as grammarians say, according to their case. We say that these words are declined. Declension is a sort of adjustment, which makes it possible to adapt the instrument which is the word to its function in the sentence. Also, you are now like the carpenter's apprentice who tries to learn how to handle the carpenter's plane by watching the master work, but who has not yet been told how to adjust the blade. You should therefore not be surprised that the wood shavings of the apprentice are not as regular as those of the master. Admittedly, one could have explained the theory of the carpenter's plane mathematically and have prohibited the apprentice to touch the slightest piece of wood as long as he does not know this theory by heart. It would be the surest means to bring about in him an aversion to carpentry, simply because such a method is not natural. Now, a natural method is, for instance, the one which everyone uses to learn their mother tongue, without even realizing it. When you were a baby, you did not wait to know your grammar by heart before beginning to speak…, but when you became older, you were taught grammar so that you would be more quickly able to express yourself correctly. With Latin, it is much the same: a lot of listening, speaking, reading and writing is necessary first. It is only when one has at one’s disposal a reasonable stock of words that it is wise to devote oneself to a grammatical reorganization. 2. The Cases.— How shall we organize all the so different forms we have met, both for the pronouns and for the nouns and adjectives? Simply by sticking to them some labels called cases. In Latin, there are five important cases (one less than in Russian) which you must absolutely know, and two others which are used less frequently. The nominative is the case of subject. In the singular, it can take very different forms. For example, here are some nouns which we already know: RAEDa, CIBus, PUer, VEHICULum, VESTis, LEPus, URBs, NOMen, MANus, DIes (car, food, boy, vehicle, garment, hare, city, name, hand, day). NOTE: The first part of the word will not change in the course of declension: only the letters in bold will change. So as not further to complicate reading, the tonic accent

will not be indicated in this revision. In the nominative plural, the possible forms are already less numerous: RAEDae, CIBi, PUERi, VEHICULa, VESTes, LEPores, URBes, NOMina, MANus, DIes. NOTE: The letters in bold italic (6th and 8th words) are stable in cases other than the nominative singular (and the neuter accusative sg.). Examples of the use of the nominative: RAEDa NIGRa EST, the car is black, PLURes LEPores ABEUNT, several hares leave. II) The accusative is the case of the direct object, the subject of the infinitive clause, and of some other complements which will be learned through usage, such as the adverbial phrase of place when there is movement (towards that place). In the singular, it always ends in an m for both masculine and feminine, but the neuters keep the form of the nominative: RAEDam, CIBum, PUERum, VEHICULum, VESTem, LEPorem, URBem, NOMen, MANum, DIem. In the plural, it ends in s (os, as, es, us) for masculines and feminines; for the neuters it is always in a (or ia): RAEDas, CIBos, PUERos, VEHICULa, VESTes, LEPores, URBes, NOMina, MANus, DIes. Examples: INVENIO LEPorem, I find the hare; VIDES RAEDam, you see the car. III) The genitive is the case of the possessive phrase. In the singular, there are five characteristic endings: #1 ae – #2 i – #3 is – #4 us – #5 ei: #1 RAEDae – #2 CIBi, PUERi, VEHICULi – #3 VESTis, LEPoris, URBis, NOMinis – #4 MANus – #5 DIei. In the plural, these endings become respectively: #1 arum – #2 orum – #3 um (or ium) – #4 uum – #5 erum: #1 RAEDarum – #2 CIBorum, PUERorum, VEHICULorum – #3 VESTium, LEPorum, URBium, NOMinum – #4 MANuum – #5 DIerum. Examples: ROTA RAEDae, the wheel of the car; CURSUS LEPoris, the running of the hare. IV) The dative is the case of the indirect object and of the complement of certain verbs which will be learned through use: RAEDae, CIBo, PUERo, VEHICULo, VESTi, LEPori, URBi, NOMini, MANui, DIei.

In the plural, it is always in is or in bus (ibus, ebus, and sometimes abus, obus, or ubus): RAEDis, CIBis, PUERis, VEHICULis, VESTibus, LEPoribus, URBibus, NOMinibus, MANibus, DIebus. Examples: CURRUS RAEDae DISSIMILIS EST, a racecar (chariot) is different from a private car (from a car); DAS HERBAM LEPoribus, you give grass to hares. V) The ablative is the case of a great many adverbial phrases, whether preceded or not by prepositions: adverbial phrase of place (without movement), of origin, of agent, etc. In the singular, it ends in a vowel, generally long: RAEDa, CIBo, PUERo, VEHICULo, VESTe, LEPore, URBe, NOMine, MANu, DIe. In the plural, it is identical to the dative: RAEDis, CIBis, PUERis, VEHICULis, VESTibus, LEPoribus, URBibus, NOMinibus, MANibus, DIebus. Example: EPISTULA A PUERo SCRIPTA EST, the letter was written by the boy. 3. Here finally are two less important cases: The vocative, which differs from the nominative only for the nouns whose nominative ends in us and the genitive is in i (as well as for some nouns of Greek origin). It is used to call (vocare) someone. E.g.: MARCe, Mark! MARi, Marius! ANDREa, Andrew! The locative makes it possible to indicate the place where one is. But this case exists only for some particular nouns: MASSILIAE, in Marseilles; LUGDUNI, in Lyons; DOMI, at home. This review was intended to give you a first overview on the five declensions. Do not try yet to learn them in detail. A more detailed examination of these will be the main purpose of the lessons of the next two weeks.

Lectio vicesima altera (22) The coat suits you 1.— What! You dare (don’t hesitate) to leave home (to go out from home) without a coat! 2.— I neglected to put [my] coat in the luggage. I thought (was thinking) the southern regions were (to be) always warm. 3.— You were wrong (erred)! The North wind often brings us cold air. Becauseof this wind, the temperature is cold today. 4.— Where can I buy a coat? 5.— There are many (Not there-is-shortage-of) shops on this street. Come with me! Here’s Oliva’s shop. That shopkeeper (merchant) sells elegant clothes to me and my friends at a moderate price. 6.— Hello Oliva! — Hello gentlemen! What [can I do] for you? 7.— Let us see (make we-may-see) [some] coats! — Here-are the coats! — What-agreat abundance of coats! 8.— What do you think (is your judgment) about those grey coats? What about that darkish one over there? 9.— The colour of this coat does not displease me. Let’s try it! 10.— That coat suits you wonderfully (in-a-wonderful manner). 11.— And with the coat, do want [some] other clothing? A *shirt, a *jacket, trousers, a cloak? What about this hat? 12.— This coat satisfies me. Can I pay for it with a postal check? 13. He fills out the check and hands (extends) it to Oliva. NOTES 1. Paenula: (gen. paenulae), the (traveling) overcoat. 2. Neglexi: perfect of negligo, -is, -ere. 3. Aër (gen. aëris), the air. Think of “aerial”. 4. Mecum = cum me, with me; similarly tecum, with you; secum, with him/herself/themselves; nobiscum, with us; vobiscum, with you[pl.]. 5. Videam, videas etc.: subjunctive of video, -es, -ere, to see. Fac: imperative (irregular) of facio, -is, -ere, to make. [There are two other similar imperatives: duc, from ducere = to lead; dic, from dicere = to say.] 6. Quantus, -a, -um, is an adjective meaning how big, how large, how great; it agrees therefore with copia, abundance, and becomes quanta. 7. Probemus: subjunctive of probo, -as, -are. The verbs whose infinitive is in are make the present subjuntive in -em, -es, -et, etc. (probem, probes, etc.). We shall discuss this again. 8. Mastruca, f., (gen. mastrucae) the (sheepskin) jacket. Bracae, f. pl. (gen. bracarum), the trousers: plural noun (does not have a singular). Pallium, n., (gen. pallii), the cloak (a city cloak or a cloak of a Greek cut). 9. Perscriptio cursualis, payment by postal check. EXERCITATIO

1.— Olive brings the coats without delay. 2.— What [do you think] (is your judgement) about those red trousers. 3.— Red trousers are not suitable for a serious person. 4.— A shirt is put on (worn) under a jacket. 5.— He puts on (covers himself with) the shirt over the jacket. 6.— [I like] the colours of those coats (please me). 7.— This garment is called a jacket, that on-the-other-hand [is called] a cloak. 8.— The Greeks wore (were covered with) the “pallium”, the Romans on-theother-hand [wore] the “toga”. 9.— The later (these) [were called] the “toga-clad (toga-ed) people”, the former (those) on-the-other-hand were called the “pallium-clad [pallium-ed] people”. This lesson provides us with a complete outline of the forms of the first declension. The 1st declension includes mainly feminine nouns and also some masculine nouns such as nauta, the sailor; agricola, the farmer; communista, the communist. Singular: Plural: Nominative PAENULa (P 10), subject PAENULae (P 7) Accusative PAENULam (P 4), direct object PAENULas (P 7) Genitive PAENULae (P 9), possessive PAENULárum (P 7) Dative PAENULae, indirect object PAENULis Ablative: PAENULá (P 1), adverbial phrase PAENULis (P 8) Note the long á which makes it possible to recognize the ablative singular from the nominative singular. In the 1st declension, the dative and the genitive have the same form in the singular. Olivae, in phrase 13, is a dative. In the plural, the dative and the ablative are the same as each other in all declensions; they are always in -is for the first two declensions. We haven’t mentioned the vocative of this declension: its form is like that of the nominative. Finally, the locative has, in the singular, the same form as the genitive (ROMae, MASSiLIae, etc.). In the plural, the locative does not exist: in its place, one uses the ablative: ATHeNis, in Athens; this noun being plural and having ATHeNae as the nominative. Dictionaries indicate the genitive of nouns: it is enough today for you to remember that if it is in -ae, the word belongs to the 1st declension. Henceforth, when we introduce nouns to you, we will adopt the usual dictionary presentation. Examples: Paenula, ae, f.: feminine noun; Agricola, ae, m., masculine noun. There are no neuters (n.) in the first declension. If you do not understand the sense of the abbreviations, refer to the table on page XVI (French version; XVII in the Italian one).

Lectio vicesima tertia (23) I wish you good eyesight 1. A certain worker was doing his job (work) in a carpenter’s (wood-related) workshop. 2. He was so clumsy (lacking in expertise) that one day (on a certain day) he foolishily cut off his nose with a mechanical saw. 3. Having been cured by the doctor, he still (however) didn’t want [to leave his house] (to go out from house): without a nose, he thought [he looked] (himself to look) ridiculous. 4. A good friend came to his house at night and said to him: 5.— Come with me! We shall take a stroll (we-shall-walk) together. You need to breathe (it-is-required you to-breathe) fresh (pure) air. At night no one will be able to see your deformity. 6. After the walk, the friend said to his friend: 7.— I wish you good night, good health, and good sight. 8. The other replied: — I thank you on account of the ‘good night’and the ‘good health’. But I don’t understand why you wish (should wish) me (to me) good sight. 9. Then the friend [said]: — If you should loose your good eyesight and, for example, become short-sighted, upon what would you then rest your spectacles? 10. I cut, you cut, he/she/it cuts, they cut, to cut. 11. I cut (past), you cut, he/she/it cut, they cut, to have cut; may I have cut (subj.), may you have cut, having been cut (masc. sing.), having been cut (fem. sing.), having been cut (neut. sing.). NOTES 1. Lignarius, a, um, adj., relating to wood; wood itself is lignum, -i, n. 2. Inscitus, -a, -um, ignorant, skilless. Derived from scio, -is, -ire, to know. 3. Serrá mechanicá: ablative, complement of means; note that there is no preposition. 4. Stupidé is an adverb, formed from stupidus, -a, -um. Secuerit is a perfect subjunctive (of secare, to cut), required by the conjunction ut; we shall come back to this later. 5. A medico: it is an ablative, complement of agent (vid. sup. N 3). But this time we are dealing a person and no longer with a thing: in this case we put in the prepopition a (by). 6. Domo: unde exis, from where do you come out? Exeo domo, I come out of the house. Redeo Massiliá, I return from Marseilles. The answer to the question unde?, from where?, is put in the ablative without a preposition when we are dealing with a city or with the word domus. 7. Se ridiculum videri, infinitive clause: subject, se (himself), in the accusative; verb, videri, passive infinitive of video, -es, -ere; predicative attribute, ridiculum, also in the accusative since it agrees with the subject se; and the whole is governed in parallel by the main verb arbitrabatur (imperfect of

arbitrari, to think). One can say that the subordinate clause is the direct object of this verb (arbitrari), hence the accusative. 8. Ambulabo, ambulabis, ambulabit, ambulabimus, ambulabitis, ambulabunt, future of ambulare (ambulo, -as, -are, to walk); uná ablative of una (one), means together. 9. Post, after (is constructed with the accusative). 10. Dixi, dixisti, dixit: perfect of dicere (dico, -is, -ere), to say. 11. Optare (opto, -as, -are), to wish. 12. Propter (+acc.), alongside, because of. 13. Optem, optes, etc., optent is the present subjunctive of optare (ind.: opto, optas, etc., optant; cf. N 11). In a direct question we normally use the indicative: cur optas?, why do you wish? But in the indirect question, we always use the subjunctive. This is the reason for non intellego cur optes of P 8. 14. Imponas, as much as perdas and fias are subjunctives having the role of the conditional. This is not a departure from the preceding rule, because the sense requires the subjunctive in this direct question. EXERCITATIO 1.— Julius was (was being) good, and so his mother gave him a pastry. 2.— Julius was so good that his mother gave him a pastry. 3.— The worker was running (was leading) the mechanical saw ineptly (in an unskilled manner), and so his nose was cut off. 4.— The mechanical saw cut off that one’s nose (the nose of that one). 5.— Marius invited us to his house, but neglected to write the address. 6.— Where are you coming from (“whence comest thou”)? — I am coming from Paris, from the Latin quarter. 7.— Where are you going to (“whither goest thou”)? — I already told you that in the eighth lesson: I am going to Rome. 8.— Why shouldn’t you come with us?

Lectio vicesima quarta (24) Mind the sparks! 1.— What is your father’s profession (what craft practices your father)? 2.— My father is a smith. 3. In the (iron) forge we can see the smith straightening the axle of a waggon (who of-waggon axle straightens). 4. The axle is-heated with fire. When it has been heated enough, the smith puts it on the anvil. 5. With a hammer he beats the iron: [a thousand] flashes (600) shine-forth. 6.— Come in, boys, but don't come close (do-not-wish to-approach)! Mind the sparks! 7.— Who do you work for like-that, Sir? — The smith answers to the boy: 8.— Lucas the farmer fell into a ditch with [his] waggon: its wheel is broken and the axle twisted. 9. The axle is to-be-straightened and the wheel (to-be-)repaired. 10. Lucas cannot straighten the axle himself: 11. He needs a smith (to-him with-a-smith work is). 12. We cannot do everthing ourselves. 13. The iron is to-be-struck while it glows-white in the fire (= the iron must be struck while it is hot). NOTES 1. Faber, -bri: m., the craftsman and more specifically the smith. For greater precision one can say faber ferrarius, the iron craftsman (i.e. the blacksmith). Likewise faber carpentarius, the carriage craftsman, i.e., the cartwrite, carpenter. The same is true for its derivative fabrica (cf. L. 23, P. 1), forge, workshop, factory. 2. Corrigo, -is, -ere, to set right; perfect correxi, I have set right, past participle (passive) correctus, -a, -um. 3. Igne (abl. de ignis), fire, likewise incudem (acc. of incus, gen. incudis), anvil; these two words belong to the 3rd declension which we will look at in detail later. 4. Tundere, to beat (with a hammer or a blunt [French contondant] object). 5. Sescenti, m., sescentae, f., sescenta, n., 600. In Latin this figure is often used to indicate a large number of objects or people (that cannot be counted). 6. Emicare (ex + micare), to glitter forth. 7. Favilla, -ae f., designates ashes and other particles derived from combustion while they are still hot. Cold ashes are called cinis, -eris, m. (3rd decl.) 8. Reficere (re + facere), remake, repair; reficiendus, -a, -um, gerundive, which is to be repaired. Likewise corrigendus, -a, -um, gerundive from corrigere which we have seen above (N. 2). 9. Ipse, m., ipsa, f., ipsum, n., demonstrative adjective-pronoun indicating that one performs (or that one undergoes) the action oneself. 10. Opus est, there is need of… + dat. to indicate the person who has the need and abl. to indicate that which is needed. Opus est mihi otio, I need rest. 11. Cudere (cudo, cudis, etc.), to strike (iron), to forge. Cudendus, -a, -um:

corresponding gerundive. 12. Dum, while. We will come back to this very important conjunction. 13. Candere, to be white; here, to be white-hot; candidus, -a, -um, bright white; candidatus, having had one's clothing whitened with chalk so as to look good on exam day —or election day— whence the candidate! EXERCITATIO 1.— The blacksmith (smith of-iron) repairs the boy's bicycle. 2.— The boy gave the bicycle to be repaired to the smith. 3.— The bicycle has been repaired by the smith; its wheel had been bent by the boy. 4.— The bicycles have been repaired by the smiths: their wheels had been bent by the boys. 5.— Do you see the boy? Do you[pl.] see the boys? 6.— The boys enter (into) the bedrooms. 7.— The boys' clothes remain in the bedrooms. 8.— Give[pl.] cakes to the boys. In this exercise, try to distinguish the neuter plurals in –a from the nominative singulars of the 1st declension. ANSWER: Nom. pl.: cubicula, crustula; nom. sg.: birota, rota, distorta. Are you starting to get used to the Latin word order? Phrase 2 of the exercise is an example of normal word order 1st SUBJECT (puer) 2nd INDIRECT OBJECT (fabro) 3rd DIRECT OBJECT (birotam with its attribute reficiendam) 4th and in the end the VERB (dedit) Today let's content ourselves with improving our knowledge of the words of the 2nd declension (gen. in -i) Have you recognized: — masculines in -us: malleus (nom.), distortus (past participle passive), corrigendus (gerundive), etc.? — masculines in -er: faber (gen. fabri), puer (pueri)? But pater (gen. patris) belongs to the 3rd declension. — neuters in -um: plaustrum, ferrum etc.? If you still have a few more minutes, you can use them better to recognize 1st declension words: fabrica, ferraria, scintilla, etc. Note also Lucas (Greek 1st declension, see previous Revision, §3) whose nominative singular alone has a particular form (-as and not -a).

Lectio vicesima quinta (25) Crazy stories 1. A-(certain) madman, looking at a basset hound (see note), suddenly exclaimed: “Dogs are [flying low] (flying-along the-ground): soon it will rain!”. 2. It is said [that], when swallows fly low, [it's about to rain] (rain imminent tobe). 3. One swallow does not make a summer (spring). 4. Another madman believed himself to be a grain of wheat: whenever he had seen a hen, he fled [in terror] (thoroughly-frightened), for he feared [being eaten by the hen] (lest by hen he-might-be-eaten). 5. A psychiatrist (doctor of-the-insane) cured him with great perseverance. The madman at-last understood [that he was not a grain of wheat] (himself grain ofwheat not to-be)... 6. The following day the doctor, who wished to verify the cure, was speaking [to] (with) him. 7. But suddenly a (certain) hen was seen by the madman, who immediately [took to his heels] (himself to feet he-threw). 8.— Why are you running away? says the doctor. I thought you had been cured. Why do you still fear hens? 9.— I have no doubt [that] (but that) you have cured me: I'm sure [I'm not] (me not to-be) a grain of wheat. But the hen may not know this yet (this-thing hen maybe not-yet knows)! NOTES 1. Quidam, a certain (see L. 23, P. 1). We said that Latin has no article, but that it replaces it when necessary with appropriate words: here is an example of that! 2. Brevibus cruribus: ablative (pl. 3rd declension) which is shows that short legs are a specific quality of the dog (canem): it is the ablative of quality. 3. Aspiciens: present participle of aspicio, -is, -ere, to behold. 4. Volo, -as, -are, to fly; praeter, along (with a second sense of except). Hence terram praetervolare, to fly low (to hedgehop). We can also say demissé volare (P. 2). 5. Pluet: future of pluit (it is raining), an impersonal verb. Rain is pluvia, -ae, f., for rain in general, but imber, -bris, m., downpour, falling or impending rain. This latter word is masculine (m.) and belongs to the 3rd declension. 6. Voro, -as, -are, to devour; voror, -aris, -ari, to be devoured; vorarer, vorareris, voraretur, etc., is the imperfect subjunctive passive. A galliná, ablative of agent (long á), because the hen is a living being, like the medicus of lession 23 (P. 3). Gallina, -ae, hen, whence gallinaceous. Gallus, -i, cockerel or Gaul: you now see where the famous cockerel symbol of France (and of Portugal) comes from! 7. Curo, -as, -are (to take care of) and sano, -as, -are, to cure, like most verbs in -a, have their perfect in -avi. But do, -as, -are, to give, for example, becomes dedi in the perfect.

8. Colloquebatur, imperfect of colloquor = cum + loquor (to speak with). 9. Non dubito quin + subjunctive: for the time being think of these words as an idiomatic expression: I have no doubt that. But you have already seen dubitare, to be uncertain, to hesitate (L. 22, P. 1). EXERCITATIO 1.— Madmen are not always cured by [their] doctors. 2.— Bread is made out of wheat. 3.— People make bread out of wheat. 4.— The hen eats grains of wheat. 5.— Do madmen eat hens? — Hens are not good for madmen. 6.— The doctor is eating a roast hen. 7.— Tell me the truth! Can the doctor cure him? 8.— What do you[pl.] think of crazy stories? 9.— Not all crazy stories are funny (laughable). NB.— Fio, fis (infinitive fieri), to be made, to become, is used as the passive of facio, -is, -ere, to make (P. 2). We reviewed the 1st declension in lesson 22. Today we are going to bring some order to our knowledge of the second. This declension includes nouns in -us, which are masculine with some rare exceptions (such as methodus from lesson 13, which is feminine), nouns in -er, equally masculine, and nouns in -um, which are all neuter. It also comprises adjectives in -us or -er in the masculine and -um in the neuter (and whose feminine is in -a). The genitive of this declension is in -i. 1 st Let's look at masculine nouns in -er and in -us to start with (the generous smith): nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.



Notice that the only question to ask about nouns in er is whether their genitive is in eri (e.g.: PUER, PUERi), or whether on the other hand the e of the nom. disappears in the other cases (e.g.: AGeR, AGRi). 2nd Neuter nouns in -um differ from the preceding only by their nominative singular in -um (the same as the accusative for all neuter words) and by their nominative and accusative plural in -a:

GRANum: acc., GRANum; gen., GRANi; dat. and abl. GRANo. Plural: nominative and acc., GRANa; gen., GRANorum; dat. and abl. GRANis. Adjectives of the first class are declined: In the masculine, like the nouns in -us or in -er of the 2nd declension; in the feminine, like the nouns of the 1st declension (see L. 22); in the neuter, like the nouns in -um of the 2nd declension. Examples: BONus, m. NIGeR TENeR


BONum, n. NIGRum TENERum

good shiny black tender

In the dictionary, you will find just: bonus, -a, -um; niger, -gra, -grum; tener, era, -erum; which is enough to know the complete declension of all three genders. For a few days the notes are going to be a bit longer. It will be enough for us to make a little supplementary effort in order happily to get through this passage of the declensions. You will soon see that this monster is rather less terrible than they would have liked to have us believe.

Lectio vicesima sexta (26) Crazy stories [end] (are concluded) 1. A-(certain) madman was watching a gardener cultivating strawberries. 2.— What do you sprinkle on them? says he. 3.— I cover them with manure, responded the cultivator of the garden. 4. Then the madman (says): — Then I am crazy without any doubt, for I eat them sprinkled with sugar! 5. The director of a [mental] hospital (of-insane-people) is showing his [facilities] (houses) to [some] visitors: 6.— Here everything has been set up (all-things having-been-set-up are) according to the most modern practice (according-to latest fashion/manner). 7. Our patients (sick people) don't lead a sad life in any way, as [happened] (wasdone) in the old homes, but [instead] enjoy the greatest liberty and leisure. 8. For example, we built a swimming pool with several diving boards, the highest of which is ten meters high (raises itself ten meters). 9.— My goodness (by Hercules)! To build a pool for the insane seems (of) an unheard-of audacity. Tell me, please, how many madmen have used the highest board? 10.— Very few… perhaps three or four… 11. But many more will dive after we bring (we-shall-have-brought) into the pool… the water. NOTES 1. Hortulanus, -i, m., gardener (derivative of hortus, -i, m., garden). 2. Inquit, quoth he (says he); pl. inquiunt, they say. This verb is not used in all persons. 3. Spargo, -is, -ere (perfect sparsi), to spread; sparsus, -a, -um, having been spread; derivative: conspergo, -is, -ere (perfect conspersi); p.p. conspersus, -a, -um (P. 4). 4. Stercus, -oris, n., manure; abl. stercore (3rd declension). 5. Nosocomium, -ii, n., hospital. 6. Aedes, -is, f., house, edifice. This word is mainly used in the plural (aedes, gen. aedium). In the singular it means rather temple. 7. Mos, moris, m., tradition; pl. mores, morum, the mores, morals. Recentissimus, -a, -um: superlative of recens, -entis, adj., new. 8. Fruor, -eris, frui, (perfect fructus sum) + abl.: to benefit from..., has given us: fruit, fructose… 9. Decem, 10, is indeclinable (always remains in the form decem). The complement of measure is here in the accusative, hence metra, plural of metrum, -i, n., measure, meter. 10. Utor, -eris, -i (perfect usus sum), is a quite important verb, meaning to use, and also to associate (with someone); it governs the ablative. 11. Multo, much, this adverb is used in front of the comparative (here plures, more numerous).

12. Urinor, -aris, -ari, to plunge; future: urinabor. 13. Piscina, which comes from piscis, -is, m., fish, means first of all fishpond. 14. Adduxerimus: future perfect of adducere. EXERCITATIO 1.— A gardener is the cultivator of a garden: he grows (cultivates) strawberries, apples and various vegetables in the garden 2.— The job of a gardener (cultivator of a garden) can be-called horticulture (cultivation of the garden). 3.— Similarly, cultivators of the field, or farmers, grow (cultivate) grain in the fields. 4.— Give wine to the cultivator of the field (farmer). 5.— Give beer to the gardeners. 6.— Where is the house of the happy farmers? 7.— [Farmers say that] one swallow (is said by farmers) doesn’t make (not to make) a summer (spring). And now let us try to clear up the mysteries of the 3rd declension. It is very important, because it is the one that corresponds to the most general and most varied forms. Let us take for instance cultor felix, the happy gardener: nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.



The difficulties of the third declension are: 1st The change of form, sometimes important, which takes place between the nominative and the other cases. The nominative is often a shortened from, and sometimes even very shortened. E.g.: iter, itineris, the way, the route. Of course, in the “dictionary” presentation, it is the genitive which indicates to us the form of the other cases. 2nd The fact that the ablative singular is sometimes in -i instead of -e and the genitive plural in -ium instead of -um. We shall return to this point. The 3rd declension consists of masculine nouns like cultor, feminine nouns like soror, -oris; mater, -tris (vid. L 4), or aedes, -is, that we have just seen (P. 5 and N. 6).

It also includes neuters, which differ from the preceding by an accusative which is the same as the nominative, both cases being in -a or -ia in the plural. E.g.: stercus (N. 4), acc. stercus (and not stercorem!), nom. and acc. pl. stercora. We have already seen corpus (L. 20, P. 2); its genitive singular is corporis; nominative and acc. pl. corpora. It will be noted that the majority of these words have at least a syllable less in the nominative than in the other cases. They are called imparisyllabic (impar, imparis, unequal, odd). On the contrary, the words like aedes, aedis, which keep the same number of syllables in all cases (other than the gen., dat., and abl. pl.), are said to be parisyllabic (par, paris, means equal or even). The declension of the parisyllabics introduces little peculiarities which we shall discuss again later.

Lectio vicesima septima (27) Do you want a drum? 1.— Excuse me, sir, where are toys (rattles) sold? 2.— You[pl.] will find toys of all kinds (of whatever kind you like) on the third floor. 3.— Don't come (cross) through here (by this [way]), Ladies! Use the escalator instead (rather go up through the mechanical stairs). 4.— Here's the toy department (behold the place of rattles). We are looking for a moderately priced present (gift of moderate price). 5.— Will the present be given to a boy or girl? 6.— I want to present my son with it (it to my son). 7.— How old is he (how many years has he been born)? 8.— He is nine (he is of nine years). 9.— Do you want a wooden construction set (wooden constructive toy)? a copper trumpet? a drum? 10.— He will not like that toy (that plaything will not please him). The trumpet and the drum, on the other hand, I do not like (displease me). 11.— He will be delighted by this electric train or-if-you-prefer by that sailing ship (ship with sails). 12.— How much do they cost? 13.— The price of the train, 17 dollars (sesterces); of the ship, 9. 14.— These gifts are nice (beautiful) but expensive. I will buy my son (to my son) marbles. 15.— And I will get a doll for my daughter. 16.— We also have marbles here. The dolls section (place of dolls) is not far away. NOTES 1. Veneo, -is, -ire, to be sold; an irregular verb conjugated like ire, to go. 2. Crepundia, -orum, n., toys [really rattle]; this 2nd declension neuter noun is used only in the plural. 3. Hác, through here (place through which one passes) Do not forget the long á! 4. Munus, -eris, n., gift (has other senses which we shall see later). Another (neuter) noun in -us of the 3rd declension. 5. Dabitur: pass. future of dare, to give (general sense); donare, to make a gift, a present. 6. Constructivus, -a, -um, adj., derived from construere, to build. 7. Æreus, -a, -um, of copper (brass) or more precisely of bronze, an alloy containing copper (and tin). 8. Tympanum, -i, n., drum or tympanum (in all senses of these words, that is to say a round membrane or body of scant thickness). 9. Tramen, -inis, n., the train, a word of recent creation coming (as the English word “train”) from trahere, to drag (Fr., traîner). 10. Navis, -is, f., gen. pl. navium, is one of those parisyllabics of which we will talk again next week. 11. Sestertius, -ii, m., sesterce (Roman currency). Its symbol HS seems to have

that of the American dollar ($), hence the daring translation we have allowed ourselves! This currency having been devalued, the “heavy sesterce” (sestertium, -ii) was also used, which is worth a thousand “light sesterces”! 12. Emam: future of emere, to buy. Globulus, -i, m., the marble, diminutive of globus, -i, m., the sphere, the globe. 13. Pupa. Do we still need to tell you that this word belongs to the 1st declension?: pupa, -ae, f., the doll. 14. Comparare, to get hold of, to buy (cum + parare) gave rise to the Italian comprare (and also comperare), to buy. 15. Procul, adv., far. Haud is a negative adverb, but which negates only the following word, whereas non negates the entire clause. CARMEN The rooster perished, oh, sorrow! (twice) Never will it sing thus: cock-a-doodle-doo, cock-a-doodle-doo (kee-ree-kee, keeree-kee), Nor will [its] voice sound: cock-a-doodle-doo, cock-a-doodle-doo (ko-ko-ree koko-ko). Nor will [its] voice sound: cock-a-doodle-doo, cock-a-doodle-doo (ko-ko-ree koko)! From Palæstra Latina, nº 169. Let us take advantage of the fact that the lesson is short to put our knowledge about adjectives in order. The declension of adjectives.— Adjectives are divided into two classes: 1. The 1st class borrows its forms from the 1st and 2nd declension: — masculine in -us or -er — feminine in -a — neuter in -um Ex.:

gen. in -i gen. in -ae gen. in -i

(2nd decl.) (1st decl.) (2nd decl.)

bonus medicus, the good doctor; bona raeda, the good car; bonum remedium, the good remedy (medicine).

2. The second class borrows all its forms from the third declension: therefore, these vary greatly in the nominative, but, of course, the genitive is always in -is. a) PARISYLLABICS: nom.

gravis homo the serious person

gravis femina the serious woman

grave onus the heavy burden (neuter)

gen. gravis hominis gravis feminae abl. gravi homine gravi feminá gen. pl. gravium hominum gravium feminarum

gravis oneris gravi onere gravium onerum


ingens equus ingens locusta the huge horse the huge lobster gen. ingentis equi ingentis locustae abl. ingenti equo ingenti locustá gen. pl. ingentium equorum ingentium locustarum

ingens plaustrum the huge wagon (neuter) ingentis plaustri ingenti plaustro ingentium plaustrorum

The declension of the adjectives of the 2nd class is even simpler than that of the nouns of the third declension: the ablative is almost always in -i, instead of -e, and the genitive plural in -ium. But there are some exceptions, such as vetus (old), gen. veteris, abl. vetere and gen. pl. veterum. For the moment do not be surprised if you find one or the other form and wait until all that clears up through use.

Lectio duodetricesima (28) Revision and Notes 1. In the course of the previous week, we saw the essentials of the first three declensions, which are by far the most important. Also, after this effort, we are going to pause a moment to conduct a brief reconnoissance and see in which way our knowledge can serve us. The declensions are all the more important in Latin as this language consists of a large variety of declinable words. What are the different sorts of declinable words? You will cite without diffulty the noun and the adjective, but one should forget neither the different sorts of pronouns and adjectival pronouns, nor the declinable forms of the verb. Very fortunately, although these last two types have some peculiarities, the declensions of these different words are alike enough that we should not have major difficulties to recognize them. 2. The prounous: a) THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.— You must already know the most commonly used cases thereof. Let us supplement this today with a table: nom. acc. gen.

SINGULAR ego, me, I me mei

tu, you te tui

dat. abl.

mihi me

tibi te

PLURAL nos, us, we nos nostri (or nostrum) nobis nobis

vos, you [pl.] vos vestri (or vestrum) vobis vobis

N.B.— There is no personal pronoun of the 3rd person. It is replaced either with the anaphoric adjectival pronoun is, ea, id, or by the demonstrative adjectival pronoun ille, illa, illud, or even by the reflexive pronoun (acc. se, gen. sui, dat. sibi, abl. se). b) RELATIVE quid?:


qui, quae, quod, and


quis?, quae?,

We saw them in L 18, N 2. If you fear you forgot them, refer either to this lesson or the grammatical appendix. There are other relative pronouns, but we will learn them through use. c) DEMONSTRATIVE AND INDEFINITE ADJECTIVAL PRONOUNS.— As those preceding, they have for the most part a gen. in ius (or jus). The other cases are borrowed

from the first three declensions. Here is the declension of the anaphoric adjectival pronoun: SINGULAR is ea id this, that, the one eum eam id ejus ejus ejus ei ei ei eo ea eo

nom. acc. gen dat. abl.

PLURAL ei (ii)



eos eorum eis (iis) eis (iis)

eas earum eis (iis) eis (iis)

ea eorum eis (iis) eis (iis)

We shall speak to you later about other adjectival pronouns, but you can from now on use those that you will meet in the course of the lessons. 3. Declinable forms of the verb.— The declension allows for a remarkable flexibility and precision in the use of the words. Thus one should not be surprised to see that it is very present in the most important of all words, the verb (1). A. The action in a pure state.— To represent it, English knows only of the infinitive (to swim) and the gerund (swimming). Latin, on the contrary, is much richer. We will take as an example the verb piscari (to fish), (piscor, piscaris, etc., deponent vb., 1st conjugation), a verb which we will otherwise find in a forthcoming lesson. 1st IF

(nominative), we use the INFINITIVE as in English (although English can also use the gerund in this sense): Dulce est piscari: it is pleasant to fish (to fish is pleasant, fishing is pleasant). THE ACTION IS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE

2nd The same goes if it takes the place of a nolo: I do not want to fish.


(accusative): Piscari

N.B.– The present infinitive does not decline. For the moment, let us leave aside the future and past infinitives. 3rd If the action is the COMPLEMENT OF A NOUN or OF AN ADJECTIVE or it is an ADVERBIAL PHRASE, we use the GERUND or the SUPINE, which are DECLINABLE: a) Gerund: Acc.: piscandum; e.g.: Aptus ad piscandum, capable of fishing, suited to fishing. It is used after the preposition ad which always governs the accusative. Gen.: piscandi; e.g.: cupiditas piscandi, the desire to fish (of fishing). Here the gerund is the possessive phrase, hence the genitive.

Dat.: piscando; e.g.: tempus idoneum piscando, a favorable moment for fishing. It is used with the adjectives or verbs governing the dative. Abl.: piscando (same form as above); e.g.: operam perdit piscando, he passes his time (work) fishing. Adverbial phrase in the ablative. b) Supine.— Used only in some particular cases: Acc.: piscatum; e.g.: eo piscatum, I am going fishing. It is used after verbs of movement, hence the accusative. Abl.: piscatu; e.g.: tructa difficilis est piscatu, sed suavis esu, the trout is difficult to fish for but pleasant to eat (esum, esu, supine of edere). It is used after certain adjectives which will be learned through use. N.B.— The ablative of the supine is quite rarely used. B. The person or thing taking part in the action: 1st PARTICIPLE.— a) Present participle: it declines as an adjective of the 2nd class (cf. L 27, notes); e.g.: piscans, gen. piscantis, that which is fishing (the same form in all three genders). N.B.— The present participle is in ans, antis for the 1st conjugation; in ens, entis for the 2nd and 3rd conjugations; and in iens, ientis for the mixed 3rd and the 4th. b) Perfect participle: it declines as an adjective of the 1st class; e.g.: piscatus, a, um, having fished. c) Future participle: it declines as an adjective of the 1st class; e.g.: piscaturus, a, um, that which is to fish. 2nd GERUNDIVE (decl. according to the 1st class); e.g.: piscandus, a, um, that which is to be fished. Remark.— The present and future participles always have an active sense. Therefore the passive conjugation does not have them. The gerundive always has a passive sense. The perfect participle does not exist in the active conjugation; it has an active sense in the deponent conjugation (passive form, but active sense), and a passive sense in the passive conjugation, e.g.: sanatus, having been cured. Only the deponent conjugation has all the declinable forms, and this is why we took a deponent verb for our example.

4. The principal parts.— Although we do not know the whole conjugation yet, we do know the significance of the principal parts, which are indicated in the dictionaries to make it possible to find the whole of the conjugation of each regular verb. From now on, when we give you information on a verb in a note, we will use the dictionary presentation (2). Here: 1st Active verbs: 1st conj.— E.g.: dono, as, are, avi, atum (cf. L 27, N 5) which breaks up into: Present indicative, 1st pers. sing., dono; 2nd pers., donas; Perfect indic., donavi; Present infinitive, donare; supine, donatum. 2nd conj.— E.g.: faveo, es, ere, i, fautum, to favour. As before, by adding to the stem fav- the indications es, ere, etc. (faves, favere, perfect favi); the supine is given in full (fautum) because one can only consider it (wrongly) as irregular if it is forgotten that v = u consonant. 3rd conj.— E.g.: quaero, is, ere, sivi, situm, to seek (quaerere, quaesivi, supine quaesitum). Mixed 3rd conj.— E.g.: facio, is, ere, feci, factum, to make. 4th conj.— E.g.: invenio, is, ire, veni, ventum, to find. N.B.— We differentiate the 4th from the mixed 3rd thanks to the infinitive (ere/íre). 2nd Passive verbs.— Are obtained from the active verbs, and do not appear in the dictionaries. It is the supine of the active form which gives the perfect participle, therefore the perfect (which is composed from the latter). Example: — the passive of quaero is quaeror, I am sought, quaereris, etc.; inf.: quaeri; perfect : quaesitus sum, I was sought. There is no supine. 3rd Deponent verbs.— The supine is not given as a principal part: it is obtained from the perfect . Examples: 1st conj.— Piscor, aris, ari, atus sum; 2nd conj.— Confiteor, eris, eri, fessus sum (confiteri, to admit; confessus sum, I admitted); 3rd conj.— Loquor, eris, i, locutus sum (loqui, to speak; locutus sum, I spoke); Mixed 3rd conj.— Progredior, eris, i, gressus sum (progredi, to advance);

4th conj.— Metior, iris, iri, mensus sum (to measure). N.B.— For the deponents we distinguish the mixed 3rd from the 4th, by means of the 2nd person singular of the present indicative (eris instead of iris). Moreover the infinitive is never in iri with the mixed 3rd. This revision is rather long, but it helps you take a great step ahead. Do not forget to return to it if necessary! NOTES (1) Verbum, i, n, means at the same time word and verb. (2) However we prefer to directly indicate the tonic accent to you, by means of the bold typeface (or in italics when the rest of the word is in bold), whereas, in the traditional dictionaries, this must be deduced from the quantity (cf. Introduction, p. XIV).

Lectio undetricesima (29) Don't you have a tongue? 1. In court: THE CHAIRMAN.— Why did you steal this automobile? 2. THE DEFENDANT.— Since it was (impf. subj.) at the gate of the cemetery, I thought the owner of the automobile was dead / had died (to be dead / to have died). 3. THE TEACHER.— What did Christopher Columbus do, when he arrived in America, after, descending from the ship, he put his foot on the ground? 4. THE PUPIL.— He put also his other foot. From Palæstra Latina, nº 169 5. THE FATHER.— Why did the teacher detained you in school today? 6. THE SON.— Because I didn't know where Syracuse was. 7. THE FATHER.— [You should pay attention] (don't be forgetful) where you have put [your] things. From Acta Diurna, nº 55 8. While [having] (he has) dinner, a boy reaches his arm over the table to grab [some] food (for food taking). 9. THE MOTHER.— Don't reach ([your] arm) over the table! Don't you have a tongue? 10. THE SON.— I do (have), but [my] arm is longer. From Acta Diurna, nº 54 Proverbs 11. The force of habit is strong (big) (Cicero used to say). 12. ‘Tis sweet and honorable to die for the fatherland (Horace). 13. Love conquers all (Virgil). NOTES 1. Tribunal, alis, n.; dat. and abl. sing. tribunali; nominative and acc. pl. tribunalia; gen. pl. tribunalium. Some nouns of the 3rd declension make the ablative in -i (as for the dative) and not in -e. 2. Furatus sum, furatus es, etc. (furata if the subject is a female), perfect of furor, -aris, -ari, to steal (deponent verb, cf. R. and N. 28). Autocinetum, -i, n., automobile vehicule (Greek origin). 3. Mortuus, -a, -um, perfect participle of morior, -eris, -i, to die; present inf. mori; perfect ind. mortuus (-a, -um) sum; perfect inf. mortuum (-am, -um) esse, to have died. 4. Descendens, -entis (for all three genders), present participle of descendo, -is, -ere, -i, sum (descensum), to go down. 5. Et, when it does not link two words or two sentences, means also. 6. Ludus, -i, m., means at the same time the game and the school! Ludi magister, the schoolmaster.

7. Syracusae, -arum, f. pl., Syracuse, formerly the greatest city of Sicily. 8. Essent, imperfect subj. of esse (essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent). Equally further down collocaverim, perfect subj. of collocare (collocaveris, collocaverit, etc.). We use the subjunctive in the indirect question and in some subordinate clauses. We shall discuss this again. 9. Immemor, -oris, opposite of memor, -oris, adj., who remembers. 10. Brachium, -ii, n., the arm. 11. Supra + acc., above, over. 12. Porrigo, -is, -ere, -rexi, -rectum, to stretch, tend, offer (perfect porrexi, porrexisti, porrexit, porreximus, porrexistis, porrexerunt; supine porrectum). 13. Longius, -ioris, longer: comparative of longus, -a, -um, long. 14. Consuetudo, -inis, f., the custom, the habit. EXERCITATIO 1.— Where is the owner of this house (these buildings)? — He is dead / He [has] died. 2.— He was prone to drinking: he was to die from drinking. 3.— “Hail Caesar! Those-who-are-about-to-die salute you”, the gladiators would say as they entered the arena (entering the circus). 4.— How much do you weigh? — 96 kg. 5.— You are too heavy; you drink too-much (of) beer. 6.— The ship is in great danger: it is sinking little-by-little. 7.— [As usual] (by my custom/habit) I caught the train on its way (already havingdeparted) by running. 8.— I ran to catch the train. 9.— I arrived in Aix-en-Provence by train. The only difficultlies of the 3rd declension are the ablative singular in -i instead of -e and the genitive plural in -ium instead of -um. Thus the parisyllabics such as aedes, gen. aedis, f., which means in the singular the temple and in the plural the house; navis, gen. navis, f., etc., make regularly their genitive plural in -ium: aedium, navium. However canis, gen. canis, m., and some others (cf. R. and N. 35) make it in -um: canum, of the dogs. We point out these features to you so that they do not surprise you. Do not try to remember them yet, but let yourself be guided by usage: don't we do the same to get used to the thousand and one features of our mother tongue?

Lectio tricesima (30) I have no time 1.— Louis! You must come with us (it-is-required you-should-come with-us)! 2.— What happens (of an incident)? What [business] (of-business) is pressing you so much? 3.— [This] (today) evening at uncle Gregory's we will be holding a surprise party (dance we-will-set-up). 4. Our cousins Claudia and Cecilia will be there. [We will have great fun] (much we-will-be-amused). 5.— I have no interest in dancing. I hate Claudia and Cecilia. They are real pests: they always [backbite about] (nibble) everyone and everything. 6.— You won't be forced to dance, nor to speak with them. 7. [There will be a great buffet with the most varied foods and drinks] (Exquisite tables will be served up and on them foods and drinks in the greatest variety): [caviar] (sturgeon's eggs), hams, and every kind of cakes (cf. L 19, P 4). 8.— You (will) tempt me in vain. I'm neither very given to drink nor gluttonous. 9.— [Do you enjoy music] (by-music are-you-pleased)? 10.— I enjoy music, but [I have no time to pay attention to it] (leisure to-me islacking to-it attention of-giving). 11.— Unless [you come] (you-will-have-come), the symphony will be out of tune. Marcel [plays] the trumpet (with-trumpet sings); myself, I can beat the drum; 12. but [except for you I can find] nobody (except you I-find) who can play the piano. 13.— Why didn't you say this first? I'll play the piano [for your sake] (by-grace of-you[pl.]). 14. It is most agreeable for me to be useful to [my] friends. NOTES 1. Oportet, an impersonal verb that we've already seen in the infinitive (oportere) in Lesson 13 (P. 9). It is construed with the conjunction ut and the subjunctive: oportet ut venias, it is required that you come. Ut can be omitted, as here in phrase 1, but the subjunctive is compulsory. 2. Quid negotii, word for word what of the business. We could have said quod negotium, but this latter expression would have been less appropriate. 3. Urgeo, -es, -ere, -ursi (2nd conjugation, no supine), to push forward, press (literally or figuratively); cf. English urgent. Tantopere, so much, adv., derived from an ablative tanto opere, literally by so much work. 4. Saltatio, -onis, f., dance, from saltare, to dance. To jump (French sauter, cf. English somersault) is salire, a 4th-conjugation verb that we'll see again. 5. Instituo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, to set up, to organize (future ind. instituam, institues, instituet, instituemus, instituetis, instituent). 6. Oblectare (active voice), to amuse. Oblectari (passive voice), to be amused, to amuse oneself. The verbs of the 1st conjugation (active inf. in -are and passive in ari) make the future in -bo, -bis, -bit, -bimus, -bitis, -bunt in the active; and in bor, -beris, -bitur, -bimur, -bimini, -buntur in the passive; we'll come back to

this. 7. Studeo, -es, -ere, -ui + dat., to have a taste for; to study is a secondary meaning: studet algebrae, he studies algebra. 8. Odi, I hate, I detest, just like memini, I remember, has a perfect form but a present meaning (I've taken a dislike to); you hate is thus odisti, he hates odit, they hate oderunt. 9. Germanus, -a, -um, comes from germen, -inis, n., sprout. Frater germanus, full brother, whence figuratively true, real. 10. Rodo, -is, -ere, rosi, rosum, to gnaw. Its derivatives erodere and corrodere have given us erode and erosion on the one hand, and corrode and corrosion on the other. 11. Acipenser, -eris, m., sturgeon, from whose eggs caviar is made (you can forget this word if you wish). 12. Genus, -eris, n., origin, race, sort: a word to retain! 13. Bibax, -acis, adj. is derived from bibere, just as edax comes from edere, to eat. Adjectives in -ax indicate a propensity, generally excessive. 14. Nisi = si non: if … not. 15. Nemo (acc. neminem, dat. nemini, not used in other cases), nobody (m. and f.). [Long note excised on the difference between nemo and French personne, which requires an added negative particle ne]. In Latin, as in algebra and standard English, two negatives to cancel, yielding a positive sense. This is true in a first approach, for, if we go bit deeper, the double negative is not always the exact equivalent of an affirmation… EXERCITATIO 1. — Who is coming to dance with me? 2. — No one wants to dance with you. 3. — Which one (female) dances so well? 4. — Who enjoys music? — No one does not enjoy music. 5. — Beware [of] the dog! — Where is the dog? 6. — I don't see the dog's master. 7. — Now he is bitten by a dog. Yesterday he was bitten by a dog. 8. — A dog bit him. 9. — [Don't give] ham to the dog (to-give do-not-want). 10. — Dogs who bark the most, rarely bite. 11. — The monkey stole the dogs' food. 12. — They (f.) were bitten by many dogs. Attention! Using the translation, check that you understand well phrases 6 and 11 of the exercise. If you immediately put the various nouns in their proper place (direct object, possessive phrase) it means you already have the Latin spirit. If you are not there yet, do not forget often to repeat this sort of exercise: what seems to you still to be artificial will become completely natural little by little. Think of: consuetudinis magna vis (L 29, P 11).

Lectio tricesima prima (31) I am going fishing 1.— Hello (hail) Maurice! What are you doing today? 2.— I'm going to the stadium. The match (contest) is of great importance. Turin (The Augustan Taurinians) against Grenoble (the Gratianopolitans). What do you think about this? 3.— Nothing! Moreover I didn't know such a match was going to take place (going-to-be to-be I-ignored). What game are we talking about (about what game isdiscussed)? 4.— It's unbelievable! Don't you know [that] the teams of both cities [excel in] (to excel by) [football] (round ball)? The outcome will be uncertain (two-headed). 5.— I knew nothing of these things. To watch a game [of football or of rugby] (of round or oval ball) does not displease me. But I can surmise nothing about the outcome of this contest. 6.— If you wish to see the contest and know the outcome immediately, come with me! 7.— Thanks! It's impossible. Today I must go fishing with Stephen. I can't let him down (be-missing/lacking to-him). 8.— You prefer quiet pastimes to athletics. Isn't it true? 9.— Not at all! You will be sitting during the whole afternoon. We on the other hand will trudge (run through) ten miles along the torrent in the mountains to catch trout, and… 10. perhaps we will return home without any fish. 11.— So that you are not told off by your wife, remember this: fish shops are not lacking in our city. NOTES 1. Magni momenti: these two words are a complement (possessive phrase) of the noun certamen, -inis, n., fight, competition, match. This complement is often in the the genitive, which otherwise matches the English constuction, but it can also be in the ablative (vid. L 25: canis brevibus cruribus). In certain cases, one can chose between the two cases, but not in others. Usage will guide you. By considering magni momenti as an idiomatic phrase, you avoid any risk of error. 2. Augusta Taurinorum: there are many cities named Augusta, in memory of emperor Augustus. To distinguish them from each other, an adjective was added, or, as here, a possessive phrase specifying the identity of its inhabitants (so gen. pl.). Similary, Augusta Vindelicorum, Augsburg (Germany) or Augusta Praetoria, Aosta (Italy). 3. Gratianopolis, Genoble (= city of Gratian). Gratianopolitanus, -a, -um, an inhabitant of Grenoble. The names of inhabitants of cities are formed in -ensis or in anus. 4. Arbitror, -aris, -ari, -atus sum, to estimate, to think. But, although it is used here in reference to a match, do not translate it as to arbitrate (to referee), which would rather be judico, -as, -are, -avi, -atum, to judge.

5. Futurus, -a, -um: future participle of the verb sum. If we add the infinitive esse to it, we obtain the future infinitive (active). See exercise phrase 8: capturum, -am, -um esse. 6) Factio, -onis, f., the action of making, doing (facere), political party (faction), team. Here in the accusative plural and the subject of an infinitive clause. 7. Urbium, gen. pl. of urbs, urbis, f., the city. 8. Exitus, -us, m., the way out, the outcome (4th declension) derived from exire. A great number of abstract nouns are equally formed from verbs; e.g.: cursus, -us, m., the race, from currere. 9. Noveram has the form of a pluperfect, and the sense of an imperfect, since the perfect novi (see L 6) has the sense of a present. 10. Folle, abl. of follis, -is, m., the bellows (of a forge) or the (inflatable) ball. We also use its diminutive folliculus, -i, m. 11. Auguror, -aris, -ari, -atus sum, to take the auspices, to prophesy. Note that this verb is deponent (active sense, passive form). 12. Gratias is in the accusative plural because tibi ago is implied (vid. L 23, P 8). Compare with the other sense of agere (P 1). 13. Mavis: the pres. indic. of malle = magis velle, to prefer (to want more), is conjugated as follows: malo, mavis, mavult, malumus, mavultis, malunt. We have already seen nolle = non velle (L 19, N 1). 14. Sedeo, -es, -ere, sedi, sessum, to be sitting down; future sedebo, -bis, etc. But the future of percurro, -is, -ere, -curri, -cursum, to run through, is: percurram, percurres, percurret, etc. Be reassured, there are only two forms of the future! EXERCITATIO 1.— Where (Whither) are you going? — I'm going fishing. 2.— What do you wish to fish? 3.— I wish to fish trouts. 4.— You fish in fresh (sweet) water(s). I wish to fish in the sea. 5.— Are you catching sardines? You are not fishing from a boat, are you? 6.— Sardines are caught by means of nets. To do that (for that doing) a boat is necessary. 7.— I don't have a boat. I cast a line from land. I catch the fish by hook. 8.— The wife buys fish(es) in a fish shop: clearly she knows [that] her husband will catch nothing (future infinitive). 9.— Trout is difficult to fish, but (the same nevertheless) most agreeable to eat. Some unknown items have slipped into our exercise: Sardina, -ae, f., the sardine; rete, -is, n., the net; linea, -ae, f., line (in the different senses of this word; e.g., linea recta, a straight line); hamus, -i, m., the hook; plané, adv., drawn from planus, -a, -um, united, tidy, obvious. The adjective dulcis, -e, sweet (to the taste) was seen (L 29, P 12) under its neuter form and the majority of the words of phrase 9 were given as examples in the last revision, but under a less Latin form.

ATTENTION! If the form PISCaTUM is not familiar to you, or if you have difficulties with phrases 6 and 9 of the exercise, it is because you need to revise again lesson 28. Do not forget that a small step backwards will often translate into a saving of time.

Lectio tricesima altera (32) My mother-in-law usually receives guests on Tuesdays 1.— Guy! Hurry, please! Put on [your good] (beautiful) clothes! 2.— Woe [is] (to) me! I'm coming back from the office exhausted. I've been forced to smother all day, constricted by [my] tie. 3. The boss is-in-the-habit-of tyrannizing his employees … and [my] new shoes [hurt my feet] (to-me feet burn). 4. At home, in sandals and without a tie, I was hoping to rest (fut. inf.). You are upsetting all my plans. 5.— Honey (mine), why do you speak so? Don't you know [that] my mother (today in-the-evening) [will be receiving her] daughters and sons-in-law [this evening] (to herself going-to-receive)? (future part.). 6.— I had forgotten (of) this bother. 7.— Remember! On Sunday she invited us [around] (for) the day after tomorrow, [and] you yourself [promised] (accepted). 8.— You spoke [truly] (true-things). What's more, yesterday I ran into her in the King's Road, [and she] (who) said to me: 9. “Dearest son-in-law, (for) what a great joy it will be to us to see you[pl.] again tomorrow”; and I did not demur. 10. Besides, [I should have known] (me to-flee not it-ought) [that my] mother-inlaw is [in the habit of receiving guests] on Tuesday[s] (to-greetings herself to-give to-be-accustomed). 11.— [You have a bad memory] (By dull memory you-are) … if [it has to do with] (concerning) bothering things (it-is-dealt [with]). 12. The days of the week are called: Monday (Moon's day), Tuesday (Mars' day, the Anglo-Saxon Tyr), Wednesday (Mercury's day, the Germanic Woden or Odin), Thursday (Jupiter's day, i.e. Thor), Friday (Venus' day, the goddess Frige or Freyja), Saturday (Saturn's day), [and] day of the Lord or Sunday (Sun’s day). 13. The first six days are dedicated to pagan gods, viz.: to the Moon, to Mars, to Mercury, to Juppiter, to Venus, [and] to Saturn. 14. The seventh day on the other hand was dedicated to the Lord by the Christians because “on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made, and he rested” (Book of Genesis II,2). NOTES 1. Guido, gen. Guidonis, Guy (a French name, Italian Guido). 2. Focale, -is, n., item worn around the throat (fauces, -ium, f. pl.). 3. Æstuare (1st conj. present ind.: aestuo, aestuas, etc.) to be hot, to smother, a verb which is good to know and which has a commonly used derivative which we will find tomorrow. 4. Cogi, passive of cogo, -is, -ere, coegi, coactum, to force to…, which we have seen in L. 30, P. 6. The perfect participle clearly shows the origin of the verb (cum + agere). 5. (Ad)minister, -tri, m. (f. (ad)ministra, -ae), servant, employee: ministers are, or

should be, the servants of the State, of rites, etc. 6. Urere, to burn, but also to make suffer, is a 3rd conjugation verb that we've seen L. 20, P. 9, and which we will see again. 7. Solea, -ae, f., light indoor footwear. Calceus, -i, m., footwear worn for going out and which is removed in the house. 8. Mel, mellis, n., honey. Compare mel meum to the way we also say in English honey or even sugar (because honey was formerly used to replace sugar) as a term of endearment! 9. Mater, -tris, f., (3rd declension), mother; but gener, -eri, m., (2nd decl.), son-inlaw, perhaps from the same family as genus (L. 30, N. 12). Likewise socer, -eri, father-in-law; its feminine socrus, -us (see below, P. 10), mother-in-law, belongs to the 4th declension, which we will review tomorrow. 10. Perendinus dies, the day after tomorrow, posterus dies, the following day; hesternus dies, the preceding day. The corresponding adverbs are: perendié, the day after tomorrow; cras, tomorrow; heri, yesterday.— Tute, or tute ipse, yourself, in person. 11. Offendo, -is, -ere, -i, -sum (perfect offendi, offendisti; supine offensum), to meet suddenly. 12. Hebdomas, -adis, f., or hebdomada, -ae, f., week. 13. Luna, -ae, f., the Moon; Mars, Martis, m., Mars; Mercurius, -ii, m., Mercury; Jupiter, Jovis, m., Jupiter (note the brevity of the cases other than the nominative); Venus, -eris, f., Venus; Saturnus, -i, m, Saturn. N.B.— We have followed here the contemporary civil usage, which calls for weeks to begin on Monday. However, according to its biblical origins, the week begins Sunday, and, further down, the seventh day mentioned in P. 14 is, in fact, the Sabbath day, i.e. Saturday. 14. Primus, -a, -um, the first, that which is number 1. Here not this adjective but its COMPARATIVE, prior, -oris (n. prius, -oris), should be used, since the first six days are COMPARED with the last. Diis, abl. pl. of deus, -i, god. 15. Dicatus, -a, -um: past participle of dico, -as, -áre, -avi, -atum, to dedicate (1st conjugation), which should not be confused with díco, -is, -ere, dixi, dictum (3rd), to say. They can be distinguished by the pronunciation (short i and long á in the infinitive for the first, and long í and short e in the infinitive for the second). Note also the tonic accent: dicare and dicere. If you've forgotten the relationship between “quantity” and the tonic accent, reread the preface (p. XIV). 16. Requiesco, -is, -ere, -quievi, -quietum (3rd conjugation), to rest, perfect requievi, -isti, etc.; future requiescam, requiesces, requiescet, etc.: present subj. requiescam, requiescas, requiescat, etc. You know perhaps the formula requiescat in pace, may he/she rest in peace, which can be read on some tombstones (pronunciation: Italian: pache; Latin: pahke; requiescant if more than one person is meant). The simple verb: quiescere (same conjugation), means to be at rest. EXERCITATIO 1.— On Monday we begin the week at work.

2.— On Tuesday the sons-in-law with [their] wives go to the home of [their] mother-in-law. They are received by [their] mother-in-law. 3.— On Wednesday they have forgotten the annoyances of the previous day's reception. 4.— On Thursday they begin to look forward to the end of the week. 5.— On Friday many bosses convene their employees. 6.— They ask what they have done (perf. subj.) on the [preceding] (past) days. They decide what is to be accomplished the next week. 7.— Saturday is also called the Sabbath. 8.— On Sundays we ought to be at rest. Nevertheless we can look ahead to the next week and review what we have learned on the preceding week.

Lectio tricesima tertia (33) The months and the seasons 1. Yesterday we recalled the names of the days of the week. Today let's examine (subj.) the names of the months and of the [seasons] (times of the year). 2. It will be necessary that we find the names of the months ourselves.— I myself will begin: 3. The first month of the year is called January. Indeed it opens the door of the [incoming] (beginning) year. 4.— [It's] not from door, but from the god Janus [that] it takes (leads) its name. 5.— There follow February, March, April, May, June, Quintile, Sextile… 6.— You are saying old stuff! Do you ignore [that] the last two months took (to have led) their names from our princes Julius Caesar and Augustus? 7. And that's why we are now meant to say July for Quintile and Augustus for Sextile. 8. The premiers of all nations change names more easily than customs. 9. The following months were not changed however: September, October, Novemeber, December. 10.— When does spring begin? 11.— When the end of the month of March approaches and when the trees bring forth buds. 12. Summer (aestas) takes (leads) its name from "aestus", which means "severe heat". 13. In the autumn leaves fall, even tax [bills] (leaves [of paper]) (which announce the tax to be paid). 14. In winter snow covers the mountains; the lakes are frozen with ice; it is the time of winter sports. NOTES 1. Mensis, -is, m., parisyllabic, so the genitive plural is in -ium. 2. Janus, -i, m., Janus, a very old Roman god, who was represented as having a secound face at the nape of the neck, which must have given him a remarkable field of vision! The words for the months are adjectives. Those which belong to the 3rd declension (Aprilis, October, -bris, etc.) from therefore their ablative in i (Aprili, Octobri). 3. Princeps, -ipis, is an adjective used here as a noun: the first (or premier of the State). 4. Pro + abl., preposition, instead of … 5. Facilius, adv., more easily, comparative of facile, easily (cf. L 12); the corresponding adjective is facilis, n. facile; comparative facilior, -ius, easier; superlative (irregular) facillimus, -a, -um, easiest. You can see that the nominative-accusative neuter of the adjective and comparative can be transformed into an adverb. The superlative of the adverb is obtained by replacing with an e the ending of the superlative of the adjective: facillime, most easily. 6. September, October, etc., come from septem, octo, etc., because there was a

time when the year began on the 1st of March, which similarly explains the old Quintilis and Sextilis (quintus, sextus). 7. Ver, veris, n., the spring (Sp. la primavera); aestas, -atis, f., the summer (Fr. l'été); autumnus, -i, m., the autumn (Fr. l'automne); hiems, hiemis, f., the winter (Fr. l'hiver). Note that the genders of most of these nouns differ from those of their Romance counterparts. 8. Aestus, -us, m., sultriness (cf. aestuare, L 32, N 2). Note that calor, -oris, is masculine, as calore is in Italian. 9. Folium, -ii, n., the leaf, sheet, in every sense of these words. 10. Vectigal, -alis, n., the tax, is a false imparisyllabic (contraction of vectigale, -is) so the singular ablative is in -i, the nominative-accusative plural in -ia and the genitive plural in -ium, like the parisyllabics. However, in phrase 13, vectigalia does not come from the noun, but from the corresponding adjective: vectigalis (n. vectigale), relating to tax, which has otherwise many forms in common with the noun. And to finish, let's see more closely the 4th declension, which includes: 1st On the one hand, words in -us, mostly masculines; but manus, the hand, socrus, -us, the mother-in-law, and some names of trees (e.g.: quercus, the oak) are feminine. nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.

Singular: exitus, the exit, the outcome. exitum exitús exitui exitu

Plural: exitús exitús exituum exitibus exitibus

2nd On the other hand, some neuter nouns, whose declension differs from the preceding in the nominative and accusative, which are in the singular in -u and in the plural in -ua. E.g.: cornu, gen. cornús., the horn (also the musical instrument), acc. sg. cornu, nominative and acc. pl. cornua. N.B.— Some nouns form their dative and ablative plural in -ubus instead of ibus. Such is the case with lacus which we will see in all its finery in the exercise. EXERCITATIO 1.— When do you take your holidays? — In the summer time. 2.— *We* prefer to take them in the autumn. 3.— The days surely become shorter, but the sun even then often shines. 4.— Lodging is more easily found in the hotels. 5.— You like (are delighted by) quiet holidays.

6.— We too love the quiet, but we can't always do what we want. 7.— We must [take off] (vacate) from work in the month of August. 8.— While the factory remains closed, all the workers and employees depart on holiday at the same time. 9.— In the country nevertheless we can lead a quiet life. 10.— We fish in the lakes. 11.— The fish [from] (of) these lakes are [tasty] (agreeable) to eat. 12.— The lakes of this region are teaming (full) with fish. 13.— Let's dive in the lake. 14.— Let you dive in the lakes. 15.— They come out of the lake. 16.— The water of the lake is fresh (sweet). 17.— This city is near (neighboring to) the lake.

Lectio tricesima quarta (34) Nothing new under the sun 1.— Up to what point, finally, will you abuse (by) our patience! 2.— [What's wrong with you] (what to-you), most excellent disciple of Cicero? 3.— You are not a serious person, [since you] (who) don't hesitate to talk trifles in Latin again and again. 4.— What [revolution] (new thing) is [this]? Talking trifles in Latin is not allowed! There's no reason why we should make that language tedious. 5.— You use (by) a dead language audaciously when you [speak about] (deal with) modern things. Indeed, you dare to speak in Latin about coffee, or about the games that are called “football” and “rubgy” among the English. The ancient Romans did not know [about] all these things. 6.— Ancient customs differ from ours less than you [think] (believe). 7. For example, the horses that draw our [cars] (carriages) are steam-powered, but people always [go] (are transported) by [cars] (carriages). 8. The ancients played (by) ball not entirely as we play today, but nevertheless they used balls … 9. What do you think of this sentence: “… he abandoned [horse-riding and fencing] (sports of horses and of arms) and went over to [playing ball] (ball and large-inflated-ball)?”. 10.— Suetonius wrote something similar concerning the Emperor Augustus. 11.— You see [that] the proverb “nothing new under the sun” [does not lie] (not to lie); and [that] Latin (language), which you use today, [is not] dead (not to be). NOTES 1. Abutor, -eris, -i, abusus sum, to abuse (ab + utor). Do you know that the 1st Catilinarian, a well-known speech by the orator Cicero directed against the conspirator Catilina, begins more or less like phrase 1? Cf. L. 86, P. 2. N.B.— The verbs uti and abuti are build with the ablative. 2. Gravis, heavy (literal sense), here, serious (figurative sense). The dictionary indicates no more than “gravis, -e”. You can nontheless deduce from it that it's a third declension adjective, parisyllabic, which has also gravis in the feminine, but grave in the neuter; nominative and acc. pl. m. and f. graves; n. gravia; gen. sg. gravis; gen. pl. gravium (cf. L. 27, Notes). 3. Nugor, -aris, -ari, to talk trifles; nuga, -ae, f., trifle, frivolity. 4. Rebus, ablative of res, whose declension we are going to see below. Think of the English word rebus, a series of drawings that represent words by means of things. 5. Nuncupo, -as, -are, -avi, -atum = nomen capio, to call (a thing by a name). It has a much more precise sense than voco, which means both to call something (or someone) by a certain name, and to call someone to come. 6. Exempli gratiá, for example. Written just e.g. This abbreviation is also used in English. 7. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, author of De Vita Caesarum (in English we call this book The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, that is to say of the first twelve Roman

emperors). This historian wrote his work in the first half of the second century of the Common Era. The quote in phrase 9 is drawn from: Divus Augustus, § LXXXIII. 8. Mentiri, to lie, cheat; present ind., mentior, mentiris, mentitur; perfect mentitus sum. CARMEN Laurel-crowned Horace Laurel-crowned Horace, How [truly] (true) you spoke! More swiftly than Eurus [flies] (flees) Time, the eater of [all] things. Where are, oh, the cups Sweeter than honey? The quarrels, peace and kisses Of a blushing girl? Lauriger Horatius is an international students' song from the Middle Ages by an unknown author. The Horace in question is the laurel-crowned poet (65-8 B.C.E.) and not the vanquisher of the Curiatii. The Eurus is the south-east wind. You can find the lyrics and the music of this song either in Carmina Latina — opus citatum, i.e. the cited work (L. 13) – or in Douze Chansons latines by M. LAVERENNE (Magnard, Paris). And here now is the 5th and last declension. It includes a small number of feminine nouns, the most important of which is res, and also the equally common dies, day, a word sometimes masculine, sometimes feminine. Its compound meridies, noon, is the other masculine exception to the 5th declension. nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.

Singular: res rem rei rei ré

Plural: res res rerum rébus rébus

This final declension is not really very difficult: it is enough to see that it is a sort of intermediary between the first and the third, in the same way that the fourth is intermediate between the second and the third. Tomorrow we are going to devote our revision to a restatement that will further clarify our ideas on these matters. And do not forget to reread from time to time one or another of the initial lessons, in

particular those that may have seemed heavy going. Isn't it true that they are now starting to seem easier to you? How much progress already made in five weeks!

Lectio tricesima quinta (35) Revision and Notes 1. In the preceding lessons you have just got to know more deeply the five declensions. These declensions can be summed up in the following table, which it would be useful for you to copy onto a piece of cardboard to use as a bookmark. If, knowing this table, you want to find out the declension of a word whose nominative you have been given, what else do you need? It is enough for you to know the genitive: 1º As this genitive has a different form in each declension, it is this that will allow you to know which declension the word belongs to. 2º If it is a word of the 3rd declension, whose nominative is often an abbreviated form, knowing the form of the genitive will allow you to find the form of the other cases. 1st declension singular nom. acc. gen. dat. abl. plural nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.

2nd declension

f -a -am -æ -æ -á

m -us, -er *

-æ -as -árum -is * -is *

-i -os

-um -i -o -o

-órum -is -is

3rd declension

n -um

-a -a

m&f -em *


4th declension n

same as nom.

-is -i -e (-i)

-es -a (-ia) -es -a (-ia) -um (-ium) * -ibus * -ibus *

m&f -us -um

-ús -ús

-ús -ui -u

-uum -ibus * -ibus *

5th declension n -u -u

f -es -em -ei -ei -e

-ua -ua

-es -es -érum -ébus -ébus

NOTA.— The vocative has been omitted, just as the locative, these questions being treated separately. 2. How can you now find out the case in which a word you come across in your reading has been put? The answer is not always obvious. Thus a word ending in -us can be a nominative singular of the 2nd declension; or else a nominative singular or an accusative singular neuter of the 3rd; or indeed a nominative singular, a genitive singular, a nominative plural or an accusative plural of the 4th. Likewise, a word ending in -is can be a dative or an ablative plural of the 1st or the 2nd declension, or a nominative or genitive singular of the 3rd.

If you know German, you will notice that the declension of the article (der, den, die) poses similar problems. In every case, there are two methods to find out, logical deduction, by a gradual elimination of the possibilities that are absurd in the context of the phrase (1) and the natural method, which consists in reading a lot and, by practising, thinking in Latin: this is the simplest, quickest and most effective for practising a living language. We choose as far as possible the natural method, which does not prevent you occasionally resorting to logical deductions. And soon you will notice that the declensions are not a hindrance, but on the contrary an extra help. 3. Special features of the declensions.— If you are curious, you will have noticed that the above table included several asterisks (*). These show you that the corresponding forms are not the only ones possible. 1º NOMINATIVE SINGULAR IN -ir (2) INSTEAD OF -er (2nd DECLENSION).— A single example, but rather important: vir, viri. m., man, warrior (virile). 2º ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR IN -im INSTEAD OF -em (3rd DECLENSION).— A few quite common nouns such as vis, force, acc. vim. abl. vi (not used in the other cases); or sitis, -is, f., thirst. 3º ABLATIVE SINGULAR IN -i INSTEAD OF -e (3rd DECLENSION, important).— This is the form of all the ADJECTIVES of the 3rd declension, with a few exceptions, which we omit for the moment. Also with ablative in -i are all the nouns which have their accusative in -im (vid.sup., 2º) as well as neuter parisyllabic nouns. 4º GENITIVE PLURAL IN -ium INSTEAD OF -um (3rd DECLENSION, important).— This concerns: — all parisyllabics, with a few exceptions, such as: canis, -is, m., dog (cf. L.29 and E.30); juvenis, -is, m., young man; senex, -is, m., old man; as well as pater and mater. — imparisyllabics whose root ends in two consonants, such as PRESENT PARTICIPLES; e.g.: currens, currentis, running, currentium; or urbs, urbis town, urbium; — a few words of one syllable, such as nix, nivis, f., snow, nivium; — neuters in -al and -ar, such as animal, animalis, n., animal, animalium, because these are former parisyllabics in -ale and -are; — most adjectives of the 3rd class; e.g.: felix, -icis, happy, felicium. 5º DATIVE AND ABLATIVE PLURAL IN -ábus INSTEAD OF -is (1st DECLENSION).— This allows us to recognise the feminine forms which, in the regular declension, could be confused with their corresponding masculine forms; e.g., venit cum filiis et filiabus, he came with his sons and his daughters.

6º DATIVE AND ABLATIVE PLURAL IN -obus OR -ubus INSTEAD OF -ibus (3rd & 4th DECLENSIONS).— This simply concerns a few specific nouns; e.g., bos, bovis, m., ox, dat. and abl. pl. bobus or bubus (3rd declension). We have already met lacus, -us, m. (4th declension); dat. and abl. pl. lacubus. The table further up and the six special features above sum up the essence of what you need to know about the declension of nouns and adjectives.You can now see that it was not such a big deal. We have simply omitted the declension of a few irregular nouns which it is useless to learn too early. All you will need to do is get to know them and familiarise yourself completely with a few special forms such as comparatives, superlatives, adjective-pronouns, etc., to be done with the question for good. Brick by brick, the house slowly but surely rises. (1) You will find an application of this L.37, N.6. (2) And also in -ur, e.g., satur, -ura, -urum, satiated.

Lectio tricesima sexta (36) On the train 1. Come on! Let’s hurry to the station! The train is due-to-leave in twenty minutes. 2. We are hurrying to the station. Where is the ticket seller [fem.]? 3. Give [me/us], please, three second-class tickets to Fréjus, [return] (of going and of returning). 4.— Here, sir! 15.60 (15 pieces and 60 cents). Don’t [pl.] hurry! Your train will have a half-hour delay and [will] not [leave] before noon (will-go-away). 5. Haste has [made me thirsty] (stirred up thirst). [There is time to drink a glass] (Leisure there-is of a glass due-to-be-drunk). Let us go into the station(‘s) canteen! 6. Hey there, [waiter] (boy)! — What [would you like] (do you want) to drink? — I don’t want to drink; [I’d rather] (I prefer to) eat something. Do you have sandwiches? 7. WAITER.— I do (have), sir. [You will need to wait] a few minutes (to-be-awaited is). Here is the truck and the [deliveryman] (porter) who brings me ice. 8. DELIVERYMAN.— Here [I have] for you five [blocks] (parts) of ice [as usual] (that every day I am accustomed to bring). 9. WAITER.— Forgive (to) me! There are only four here. 10. DELIVERYMAN.— This is strange. I’m sure there were five. I wonder where the fifth one disappeared (perfect subj.). 11. Suddenly we hear the whistle of the locomotive. We must leave behind the waiter and the deliveryman searching for the fifth block of ice. NOTES 1. Properemus (from propero, -as, -are, -avi, -atum) is a subjunctive (with imperative meaning). You will find this same verb again in the present indicative in phrase 2. 2. Statio, -onis, f., comes from sto, -as, -are, steti, statum, to stand still. 3. Abiturus, -a, -um, future participle of abeo, -is, -ire, -ii, -itum, to leave. 4. Classis, -is, f., class (school or category) or fleet (of ships). 5. Forum, -i, n., public square, market. Julii, gen. of Julius, the emperor who gave his name to the town of Fréjus. 6. Nummus, -i, m. piece of coinage, usual unit of currency (here, for the franc). Centesimus, -a, -um, hundredth (or cent). 7. Noli (pl. nolite) + infinitive = negative imperative (prohibition). 8. Neque, and not. 9. Meridies, -ei, (5th declension), midday, noon. 10. Abibit, future of abire (see above, N. 3). 11. Bibendus, -a, -um, gerundive of bibo, -is, -ere, bibi, bibitum. You may know the verse by the poet Horace: Nunc est bibendum! Now we must drink! This is, it seems, the origin of the use of Bibendum as the name of the Michelin man! 12. Fartus, -a, -um, past passive participle of farcio, -is, -ire, farsi, fartum, to fill

up, to stuff. Here in the neuter plural: the singular is then pastillum fartum. Pastillum, -i, n., roll. 13. Exspectandus, -a, -um, gerundive of exspecto, -as, -are, -avi, -atum. Here exspectandum is neuter, because this is an impersonal form. 14. Glacies, -ei, f., ice (5th declension). 15. Locomotrix, -icis, f., word of recent coinage (Vita Latina, No. 19, p. 56), whose feminine gender is perhaps open to argument. 16. Quaerens, -entis, present (active) participle of quaero, -is, -ere, quaesivi, quaesitum. EXERCITATIO 1.— What do you want to eat? — I want to eat a sandwich. 2.— *I* prefer to drink. A glass of beer, please! 3.— What whistling is this? — Nobody is whistling. 4.— Where (whither) does this train enter whistling? — It enters into the station. 5.— Where is the train? — It is in the station. 6.— Where does it pass through? — It passes through the station. 7.— Where does it leave from? — It leaves from the station. 8.— He says that he hears the locomotive whistling. They say they heard to train whistling. 9.— Steam locomotives are black; electric [ones], on the other hand, are of a brighter color. In this lesson, only two words are of recent coinage, tramen and locomotrix. Even though they are used by some very serious modern authors, they may not be accepted by certain purists: Concours Général candidates, take heed! All the other words are of good Latin pedigree, which there is no reason not to use in a modern context. Thus the word statio has been used in all periods for a stopping place (see N. 2). A Roman soldier hearing this word thought of a sentry post; but as the subject of conversation is the train, statio can only mean a railway station. Likewise Tessera, -ae, f., was a token for voting or admittance to a theatre. If the word were taken in isolation from the text of today’s lesson, it would be necessary to further specify: tessera viatoria (related to travel) to avoid any confusion. Minuta is the feminine of the past passive participle of minuo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, to lessen, which has given us not only minute, but above all menu. Finally vaporarium, -i, n., is the boiler and vaporarius, -a, -um, the corresponding adjective. Of course, the same thing happens in all languages. Thus today the word brake makes us think of the brake of a bicycle or a car; but our ancestors would have thought of the bit in a horse’s mouth: the objects differ, but the function remains the same.

Lectio tricesima septima (37) On the train (continued) 1.— At what platform does the train stop? 2.— At the second platform, track 3(rd). First class in the forward part of the train, second in the rear. 3.— Porter, bring my case and find me a first-class seat. 4.— Let passengers [for] (who make for) Toulon, Fréjus, Antibes, Nice, Ventimiglia, Genoa and Rome, board the train [now] (into the carriages let-themboard)! Close the doors [please] (I ask)! [Prepare for] (attend to) departure! 5.— Here-is an empty compartment. Let’s put our baggage in the rack (net). 6.— Don’t (want to) do that! This compartment does not [allow smoking] (admit tobacco). Let’s move (proceed) further on. 7. Are those seats free? Only two seats near the window are occupied, by a gentleman and a lady of (with) mature age. 8. The lady holds a tiny dog on her knees. She speaks to him as to a child. 9. The gentleman looks [askance] (with a slanting eye) at the dog. Perhaps he does not like tiny dogs. 10. Clattering and smoking, the train pursues (its) way at top speed… NOTES 1. Crepido, -inis, f., pedestal, foundation, platform (at the train station), quay (at the harbour). 2. Agmen, -inis, n., an army on marching arrangement (idea of moving together); here the train of carriages. 3. Bajule, vocative of bajulus, -i, m., porter. 4. Affer, imperative of afferre, to bring, which is conjugated like ferre (fero, fers, ferre, tuli, latum), to carry, a very irregular verb. 5. Inveni, imperative of invenire, to find. 6. Can you find the declension and the case of currus? Answer.— After in it can only be an ablative, or, if there is movement, an accusative. Currus can therefore not belong to the 2nd declension. In point of fact currus, -us, m., belongs to the 4th: it is therefore in the accusative plural. It means chariot and here the carriage of a train. 7. Profectio, -onis, f. (3rd), departure. 8. Rete, -is, n., for the ablative singular, rete and reti are equally correct: reti would be more normal, because the word is a parasyllabic neuter. There should be no surprise at finding a few anomalies, of secondary importance besides, in a language that has already completed more than twenty centuries of active service, and is still far from being ready for reform! 9. Progredior, -eris, -i, progressus sum, to advance (verb), progressus, -us, m., advance, progress (noun). 10. Sedes, -is, f., seat. 11. Aetas, aetatis, f., age. 12. Genu, -us, n., knee, is one of the rare neuters of the 4th declension.

13. Iter, itineris, n. We have already seen this word several times: notice to what extent the nominative form is shortened. EXERCITATIO 1.— We are going to Augsburg by train. 2.— You cannot go to London by car. 3.— Why? — Because England is separated from France by the sea. 4.— This is not a sufficient reason: there are boats on which cars are [taken] (accepted). 5.— What’s more, trains also are transported by [ferries] (railway boats). 6.— What is the waiter doing in the café? — He is awaiting the deliveryman who brings the ice. 7.— Where is the block of ice that the deliveryman has forgotten? 8.— Perhaps it has slipped out of the truck. 9.— Whatever it is, it is not our business. We do not always give you an indication for every new word in the lesson. If their meaning, declension or conjugation don’t immediately leap out at you, don’t waste time trying to analyze them from the moment you encounter them. You have many chances to find them again later, in another lesson or else during a revision, and to grasp them better at that time: don’t waste your energy! Already you could use the dictionary for this research, but we don’t advise it yet. It is better to wait until you’ve seen a word several times before you begin to worry about its precise meaning: it is only once a word has begun to feel familiar that looking it up in the dictionary becomes truly fruitful… and leads sometimes to surprises, even with words in our native tongue. For the moment we are giving you fairly numerous notes, and sometimes even intentionally repeated, to spare you research that have still little chance of fascinating you. Finally, at the risk of repeating ourselves once more, we remind you that the primary task we ask of you is to read the Latin sentences out loud and to repeat them until they become perfectly familiar.

Lectio tricesima octava (38) On the train (conclusion) 1.— Do you want a cigarette, sir? 2.— Thank you! I have already filled [my] pipe. Do you have [a light] (fire)? 3.— Don’t[pl.] [smoke] (want to make smoke), says the lady with the tiny dog, [smoke disturbs me] (of-smoke me it-disgusts). 4.— I’m sorry, [dear] (excellent) lady, but this is a smoking compartment, therefore it is allowed for us to [smoke] (enjoy with-tobacco), responds the gentleman, tranquilly lighting [his] pipe. 5.— You are an impudent panderer! [With] (bringing forth) these words, the lady takes hold of the pipe and throws it out (through) the window. 6.— I prefer [not to say] (to be silent) what you are, dear lady! With these words, the gentleman takes hold of the tiny dog, and throws it out the window… 7. A sepulchral silence follows… finally the noise of the brakes is heard. The train comes to a stop at a station. 8. Then, wondrous thing, on the platform of the station appears the tiny dog, panting and holding [in] (with) its teeth … what indeed could it be holding? 9.— Hmmm… the pipe, I would answer! (perfect subj.) 10.— Not at all! You have made a mistake! In its teeth it holds … the block of ice which was missing [from] (in) the canteen of lesson thirty-six(th)! NOTES 1. Hispanicus, -a, -um, Spanish, whence hispanica, cigarette (the Spanish one). Tabacum, -i, n., tobacco; tabaceus, -a, -um, of tobacco. In the exercise: volumen, inis, n., a rolling, whence volumen tabaceum, cigar. 2. Fumariolum, -i, n., place from which smoke escapes, little furnace. 3. Impleo, -es, -ere, -evi, -etum, to fill. 4. Ignis, -is, m., fire. Think of igneous, ignite, ignition, etc. 5. Me taedet, me paenitet are impersonal verbs; literally, it disgusts me of…, it sorrows me of… The real subject (here me) is in the accusative while the object is in the genitive. Example paenitet Johannem culpae suae: John repents of his offense. 6. Fruor, -eris, -i, fructus sum + abl. = to profit from, to enjoy. 7. Accendens, present participle of accendo, -is, -ere, accendi, accensum, to set fire to, to light. 8. Leno, lenonis, m., slave-dealer, pimp, not a very commendable profession, one suspects. 9. Profero, -fers, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, irregular like fero, bring forth, advance, mention. 10. Projicio, -is, -ere, -jeci, -jectum = pro + jacio, throw out, throw away. Pro, in front of, or instead of. 11. Arripio, -is, -ere, arripui, arreptum = ad + rapio, -is, -ere, rapui, raptum, to take hold of. You will note that rapio, to carry off, does not have exactly the same principal parts as arripio. Often derived verbs depart somewhat from the

original, generally for reasons of ease of pronunciation. 12. Anhelare, to pant. 13. Dens, dentis, m., tooth; notice that this word is masculine (unlike its French equivalent la dent). Dens serrae, sawtooth (literally or as a geometric shape). EXERCITATIO 1.— Who wishes for cigars? I have a box of twenty-five cigars that my grandmother gave me as a gift on my birthday. 2.— I prefer cigarettes. I roll the tobacco in paper myself. 3.— Can I buy tobacco in the station(‘s) canteen? 4.— Yes, sir, but there is also a shop on the platform, where they sell tobacco, newspapers, and postcards. 5.— I like these cards: I’ll buy two. 6.— [I must write] (it is necessary I should write) to [my] mother, and to my brother. 7.— And [I must buy] a third (is to-be-bought). We should [inform] (make morecertain) our friend James about our arrival. 8. Problem.— A locomotive of the type (which is) called BB, because it has twice two axles, is makinf for the west. The wind blows from the north. In what direction does the smoke go? 9. Answer.—There is no smoke because BB locomotives are electric. N.B.— The purely accidental coincidence between Bis Bini, (-ae, -a) and the abbreviation BB is due to the fact that B is the 2nd letter of the Roman alphabet. Unknown words are going to slip more and more often into our exercises. Today they are particularly numerous: Capsa, box, whose diminutive capsula, little box, you can also note; natalicius, a, -um, relating to birth; volumen, see N. 1; acta diurna, literally things done (past participle of ago) during the day (daily); and hence the reporting of them, i.e., formerly chronicle and now newspapers. Chartula, -ae, little card. Septemtrio, -onis, m., the north; flare, to blow; quorsus? in what direction? But you have already seen cursualis in Lesson 22, as well as bis, adv., twice and bini, -ae, -a, in twos, in lesson 6.

Lectio undequadragesima (39) On the Parts of the Body 1. We have trifled enough! Now [we have to add] new words to our vocabulary (we-should-add it-is-required). [Everyone must know] the name of the chief parts of the body (each-one to-know ows). 2. The human body comprises the head, the chest, the abdomen or belly, the arms [and] the legs. In Latin, not only the arms and the legs, but also the chief parts of the body, are called “members”. 3. Let’s examine a human being from the head (all the way) to the [feet] (shoes). 4. On the head [we place] the hat or the cap (is placed), particularly if [we have no] hair (is lacking). Baldness so amplifies the forehead that a bald man [looks] wiser (be seen) than a hairy and shaggy man. 5. We see with the eyes, hear with the ears, smell with the nose, taste with the mouth. 6. There are five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch; [the] (which) last is accomplished by the entire skin. 7. The eyes close with the eyelashes and are decorated with the eyebrows. By means of binocular vision ([so called] (which we so call) because we see with two eyes), we perceive [objects in relief] (the solidity of bodies). 8. Yet the proverb says: blessed [are] the one-eyed in the land of the blind, or also: among the blind, the one-eyed [man is] king. 9. [Out of sight] (far from the eyes), [out of] (far from the) mind. The eye [is the mirror] (indicator) of the soul. To [throw] (pour) dust [in] (to) [one’s] eyes. 10. He [from] whom care has departed sleeps on either ear. NOTES 1. Addamus, present subjunctive of: addo, -is, -ere, addidi, additum, to add. 2. Caput, capitis, n., head (think of capital); pectus, -oris, n., chest; abdomen, inis, n., and venter, -tris, m.; all belong to the 3rd declension.— Crus, cruris, n., leg. Brachia, you should have guessed, is neuter plural; in the singular: brachium, -ii, arm; likewise membrum, -i, n.— Complector, -eris, -i, -exus sum means enclose in the arms, i.e., embrace and figuratively include, comprise. 3. Inspiciamus, present subjunctive of inspicio, -is, -ere, inspexi, inspectum, examine, inspect. 4. Usque ad, all the way up to, is construed with the accusative. 5. Calvities, -ei, f. (5th declension); frons, frontis, f., forehead; not to be confused with frons, frondis, f., foliage. 6. Ita… ut, to such extent… that + subjunctive (here videatur): you will notice that in Latin many words come in pairs; this allows a symmetrical, solid and clear construction. When you find one of these twin brothers, look in the neighborhood: the other is generally not far away. Nevertheless ita and ut are not necessarily inseparable. We have already seen the adverb ita all by itself. We will see that for its part the conjunction ut is very commonly used. 7. Callidus, -a, -um, wily (not to be confused with calidus, hot). Callidior, -ioris, is the comparative of this adjective: it means wilier; the form in -ior is used for

masculine and feminine; the neuter is in -ius (callidius, -ioris). The comparative is declined according to the 3rd declension (imparisyllabic), the genitive of the three genders being in -ioris (here callidioris) and the ablative in -e (callidiore). The comparative is generally followed by quam, than, and a complement in the same case as its antecedent. This is why homo capillatus is in the same case as homo calvus, i.e., in the nominative. 8. To which declensions do the nouns in phrase 5 belong? Answer: Oculus, -i, m. (2nd); auris, -is, f. (3rd); nasus, -i, m. (2nd); os, oris, n. (3rd). 9. The words designating the five senses all belong to the 4th declension (gen. in -us). They are derived from verbs, respectively: video, -es, -ere, vidi, visum; audio, -is, -ire, -ivi, -itum; olfacio, -is, -ere, -feci, -factum; gusto, -as, -are, -avi, atum; tango, -is, -ere, tetigi, tactum. 10. Cutis, -is, f., skin. Think of subcutaneous. 11. Cilium, -i, n., is also employed instead of palpebra, -ae, f., eyelid. 12. Visio, -onis, f., vision, derived from videre, has a sense less broad than that of visus, sight. Visio is the action of seeing; visus, the faculty of sight. 13. Soliditas, -atis, f., solidity, density, relief. Figura solida, depiction in relief (in three dimensions). 14. Monoculus, -i, m., person with one (from Greek monos) eye, is a noun, but luscus, -a, -um, one-eyed is an adjective. 15. Mens, mentis, f., mind, memory: think of mental. 16. Index, indicis, m., sign, token (cf. L. 17, P. 8). 17. Pulvis, pulveris, m., dust. EXERCITATIO 1.— Can you see the strawberry cake (pastry with strawberries)? Doesn’t it [make your mouth water] (set saliva in motion)? 2.— If you [are] (will be) a good boy, we will buy you this cake (pastry). 3.— The beard does not make the philosopher. 4.— What does this sentence mean? 5.— It means that men of mature age are not all wise. 6.— It is difficult to pluck a hair from a bald man: this is said about things that cannot be accomplished. You may find the dissection to which we submit most of today’s new words to be rather tedious. Nevertheless, if you can manage to interest yourself in it from now on, that would be a way for you to save time. Otherwise, you will need to read even more: by seeing the same words many times in their different forms, you will in the long run come to know them quite respectably. It is thanks to repetition that small children come to speak their native language quite correctly, without knowing in spite of that its grammatical rules. If grammar bores you, no one is preventing you from doing as they do. And if you have no one with whom to carry on a conversation, don’t forget to play and replay the recordings, even if you can listen to them only distractedly while doing something else entirely. This entirely passive method has the advantage of demanding no effort from you: even if its efficiency is very low, it also yields fruit in the long run!

If on the other hand you seek to make more rapid progress and to embellish your studies by striving to understand what you’re doing (for example by attentively reading the notes), do not fail to read and listen as much as possible either: your theoretical knowledge will then rest on a much more solid practical base.

Lectio quadragesima (40) On the Parts of the Body (continued) 1. Let’s finish [talking] about the head. The tongue [is the organ] of speech (the function performs). 2. We chew with [our] teeth. Sometimes they (themselves) hurt, and we must extract them: indeed the extraction of a tooth is not a pleasant thing. 3. An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, says the Scripture. 4. Ladies often paint [their] lips and cheeks with [rouge] (rosy or red pigment). The bright colors that a healthy nature provides are much more becoming not only [to] maidens, but also all women. 5. The beard [is] a manly distinction, locks a womanly [one]. 6. The head is supported by the (nape-of-the-)neck, otherwise-called neck; the neck, on the other hand, by the shoulders. 7. We breathe with [our] lungs. Coughing arises from an inflammation of the throat. 8. Love and coughing cannot be hidden. While I breathe, I hope (= where there is life there is hope). 9. The heart is a pump which moves the blood through the arteries and veins. The stomach digests food. 10. The liver is severely troubled if we overindulge in (pure) wine or alcoholic beverages. 11. Hunger is the best cook. Abundance begets nausea. NOTES 1. Loquela, -ae, f., speech, comes from loqui. 2. Ministerium, -i, n., service, office, function. 3. Fungor, -eris, -i, functus sum, to fulfill (a function), deponent verb governing the ablative (here ministerio) or the genitive. 4. Manducamus. Do we still need to point out that the verb is manducare? Here, as this verb is to all evidence in the present indicative, we see that it is a verb of the first conjugation (in -as, -are). Henceforth, when we give you no information about a new verb, it is because it is a regular verb of the first conjugation. Take, for example, sentence 8, celatur; you can see by the translation that this verb is in the passive. As we don’t say anything (and, into the bargain, you have noticed in it a very significant -a-), its active form is celo, -as, -are (-avi, -atum) and its passive form celor, -aris, -ari (atus sum). Finally, if we mention neither the perfect nor the supine (the forms in brackets above), it’s because they are in -avi and -atum, but this formation is not a general rule. It is amusing to note that manducare, which is derived from mando, -is, -ere, mandi, mansum, to chew, was formerly employed in the sense to eat only in vulgar speech. It is, however, this word that gave the French manger and the Italian mangiare. In the classical language to eat was edo, -is, ere, edi, esum (compare English “eat”, German “essen”). You should know that this verb has a

series of irregular forms matching those of the verb to be: es, you are or you eat; equally in the third person est, he is or he eats, and in the infinitive esse, to be or to eat, used alongside the regular forms edis, edit, edere. 5. Oculum and dentem are here in the accusative because they function as direct objects of an understood verb (to remove). In the same way, if you order beer, you would not say cervisia! but cervisiam! because it is the object that you order, and not the subject of any sort of action. 6. Color, -oris, m. Generally, words in -or are masculine, as their equivalents in Italian and Spanish, unlike in French and, almost always, in Catalan (although not with the word color in particular). What are the singulars of labra and genas? Answer: Labrum, -i, n., lip; gena, -ae, f., cheek. 7. Mulier, -ieris, f., woman, in general; virgo, -inis, young woman; matrona, -ae, f., married woman. 8. Cervix, -icis, f., neck. Rather the plural cervices, gen. cervicum, is used in the sense of the English singular. 9. Fauces, -ium, f., throat, corridor, narrow passage, is used only in the plural. Pulmo, -onis, m., lung. Tussis, -is, f., just as turris, tower; vis, force, febris, fever and securis, axe, have accusatives in -im instead of -em and ablatives in -i instead of -e. 10. Cor, cordis, n., heart; sanguis, -inis, m., blood; antlia, -ae, f., pump (also the name of a constellation of the southern hemisphere). 11. Jecur, -oris (or jecinoris), n., liver; potio, -onis, f., drink; merus, -a, -um, pure; merum, -i, n., pure wine (without water). EXERCITATIO 1.— This man’s liver is [as] large as a [rugby] ball (egg-shaped). 2.— How can that happen? — Because he has drunk too-much (of) wine. 3.— The belly does not have ears. 4.— Honey in the mouth, gall in the heart. So it is said about men and women who say sweet-things to those whom they hate in their heart (odisse, cf. L. 30, N. 8). 5.— Which is that lady? She is the mother of the maiden whom you saw yesterday. 6.— [She resembles her] (her face she returns): like (as) mother, like (such) daughter. 7.— As you enter the house by the corridor, so food enters (into) the stomach by the throat. 8.— Moreover, the entrance by which ships enter the port is also called «fauces». You should have noticed that the present lesson contained a respectable number of proverbs and proverbial expressions. It is not a bad thing to know such phrases: they have, in general, the interest of containing —sometimes in very concentrated form— useful and easy-to-remember expressions. We point to a treasure-house of these in the Bibliographical Index (p. 545, #2, ARTHABER).

Lectio quadragesima prima (41) On the Parts of the Body (conclusion) 1. The arms are connected to the shoulders, and bear the hands. 2. The ancient Romans, [while] lunching or dining, reclined on tricliniary couches, and rested on the left elbow. 3. Most people write with the right hand; left-handers, on the other hand, with the left. 4. The thumb is placed opposite to the other fingers in such a way that we may grasp things easily. 5. By [drawing together] the fingers (drawn-together) we make a fist and can fight. The fights of boxers are called boxing. 6. Many hands can lift a burden. If you sit with folded hands, (no work) you accomplish [nothing]. 7. The top part of the leg is called the thigh or femur, the middle one the knee, the bottom one the calf. The ankle is the hindmost part of the foot. 8. The tibia is a bone of the leg; it is also a musical instrument, which was called tibia (flute) by the Romans, because it [was made of] (consisted of) bone. 9. We clothe (our) feet and calves against the cold with socks. NOTES 1. Conecto, -is, -ere, -nexui, -nexum, to fasten together. If you are an electrician, think of connect and connexion. 2. Vetus, -eris, adjective of the 2nd class. We remind you that these adjectives follow the 3rd declension. Excepting only a few (acer, -cris, -cre, sharp), they have the same forms in the masculine and feminine for all cases, e.g., brevis, m. and f., breve, n., short; the neuter, in addition to its nominative and accusative plurals in -a or -ia, sometimes has a special form for these same cases in the singular. For vetus, the nominative form is common to the three genders. Those who have already studied some Latin should excuse us for occasionally beating a dead horse: these intentional repetitions are not useless for everyone! 3. Tricliniaris, -e, relating to the dining room or triclinium, which consisted of three couches around a table. This adjective is declined like virilis, -e. It is therefore parisyllabic and forms its nominative and accusative plural in -ia. 4. Cubitus, -i, m., elbow or cubit (45 cm), cubitus, -us, the act of reclining. 5. Nitor, -eris, -i, nisus sum, to lean upon, or to strive. Innitor = in + nitor, to rest on (used preferentially when referring to a specific support). 6. Dexter, -tra, -trum, right (as opposed to left: if you have forgotten sinister, refer to L. 16, N. 9). Scaeva, -ae, m., left-handed person. 7. Pollex, -icis, m., thumb; pollice verso, literally thumb down, means: “No mercy!” Digitus, -i, m., literally finger, was also used as a unit of measure, finger’s breadth, inch. 8. Pugnus, -i, m., fist; pugna, -ae, f., a fight. Pugil, -ilis, m., pugilist (boxer); pugilatus, -us, m., boxing. 9. Onus, -eris, n., burden. 10. Opus, operis, n, work, done or to do; labor, -oris, m., work, the activity and

the effort required. 11. Perficio, -is, -ere, -feci, perfectum = per + facio, to do thoroughly, complete: the perfect tense (perfectum) indicates that the action is completed. 12. Femen, -inis, n., thigh or femur, -oris, n., thighbone. 13. Frigus, -oris, n., [the] cold. Tibialis, -e, relating to the lower part of the leg, in other words stockings or socks. In the winter, the Romans wore fasciae tibiales, i.e. shin bands. Here we have used the adjective as a noun: in this case the neuter form is used because we are referring to a thing. CARMEN People drink beer. The other animals [from] springs. May the drinking of water be far from the human throat! Thus [they drink] (it is drunk), thus [they drink] (it is drunk) in the courts of the [great] (princes), etc. You will find this Carmen in Douze chansons latines (op. cit.). Cerevisia or Cervisia has given the Spanish word for beer, cerveza. Animal, -alis, n., nominative and accusative plural in -ia and genitive plural in ium: nouns in -al and -ar were formerly in -ale and -are: these “false imparisyllabics” follow therefore the parisyllabic declension. Fons, fontis, m., spring, well, genitive plural fontium. Guttur, -uris, n. throat (think of a guttural sound). Aula, -ae, f., court (that of the courtiers, the other is area, -ae, f., ground, precinct, but also surface). Princeps, -ipis, adj. meaning first, principal. If it is a politician, Princeps then refers to the premier of the State: Emperor, King, President of the Republic. The prince in the sense of son of the king is rather Regulus, i.e. little king, diminutive of rex, regis, m. Patience! We will meet one very soon!

Lectio quadragesima altera (42) Revision and Notes 1. If you have reached this point without dropping out of the pace of the course, you’re all set, because the hardest part is over. Although still far from having made them completely yours, you are now acquainted with the workings of the declensions. You have familiarized yourselves with the three voices (active, passive and deponent) of the conjugation and you know its most usual tenses: present, perfect and imperfect indicative. Finally, you have already encountered more than a thousand different words; we don’t ask that you retain all of them for that matter, above all those of the last three lessons, in which we doubled the daily dose of new words. (Be assured that we will return to the normal rhythm in the following lessons.) You should therefore be able from now on to construct short sentences by yourselves, without worrying too much about the few mistakes that you will inevitably make: this little exercise will help you to think more and more in Latin. If, on the other hand, you have the impression of not keeping up, don’t despair nonetheless! You simply need to slow down your progression and revise more often. And if you truly feel entirely lost, you will easily find the way again by starting the course over right now from the first lesson, as, for that matter, we will be recommending before long to all our readers. 2. And now, let us tackle the only delicate point of Latin conjugation, the formation of the future indicative and the present subjunctive. Before starting, it’s not a bad thing to know that the subjunctive is used much more in Latin than in modern English, whence it has as good as disappeared. To start with, in a main clause, it replaces the CONDITIONAL (e.g.: possim si velim, I would be able if I wanted) and sometimes the IMPERATIVE (e.g.: abeat!, let him leave!) In a subordinate clause, it is found after certain verbs expressing an order, a necessity or other nuances that you will learn from usage. The word subjunctive comes from sub, under and jungere, jungo, -is, -ere, junxi, junctum, to join with a yoke. It should cause no surprise to find it in certain subordinate clauses. For example, just as one says in some forms of English, “I demand that he leave” and not “I demand that he leaves”, one would say in Latin: impero ut abeat and not impero ut abit. Finally the subjunctive is used in the INDIRECT or REPORTED SPEECH. Example: DIRECT SPEECH: Quid faciunt?, What are they doing? INDIRECT SPEECH: Nescio quid faciant, I don’t know what they are doing. 1st First-conjugation verbs that form the present in -o, -as, -at, etc., form the future in -abo and the present subjunctive in -em, -es, -et, etc. Example: amo, as, -are, -avi, -atum (to love).

Present indicative: amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant (I love, etc.) Future indicative: amabo, amabis, amabit, amabimus, amabitis, amabunt (I will love, etc.) Present subjunctive: amem, ames, amet, amemus, ametis, ament (may I love, etc.) 2nd Second-conjugation verbs form the future in -ebo and the present subjunctive in -eam, -eas, etc. Example: moneo, -es, -ere, -ui, -itum (to warn). Present indicative: moneo, mones, monet, monemus, monetis, monent (I warn, etc.) Future indicative: monebo, monebis, monebit, monebimus, monebitis, monebunt (I will warn, etc.) Present subjunctive: moneam, moneas, moneat, moneamus, moneatis, moneant (may I warn, etc.) 3nd Third- and fourth-conjugation verbs form the future in -am, -es, -et, etc. and the present subjunctive in -am, -as, -at, etc. (preceded by an -i- for verbs in io). Example: lego, -is, -ere, legi, lectum (to read) (3rd conjugation). Present indicative: lego, legis, legit, legimus, legitis, legunt (I read, etc.) Future indicative: legam, leges, leget, legemus, legetis, legent (I will read, etc.) Present subjunctive: legam, legas, legat, legamus, legatis, legant (may I read, etc.) Similarly for capio, -is, -ere, cepi, captum (to seize), which belongs to the MIXED 3rd conjugation: Present ind., capio, capis, capit, capimus, capitis, capiunt; future ind., capiam, capies, etc.; present subj., capiam, capias, etc. Also similarly for audio, -is, -ire, -ivi, -itum (to hear), which belongs to the 4th CONJUGATION. We will have respectively: Present ind., audio, audis, audit, etc., audiunt; future ind., audiam, -ies, -iet, etc.; present subj., audiam, -ias, -iat, etc. 3. You will notice that in the 3rd and 4th conjugations, the first person singular has the same form (in -am) in the future indicative and the present subjunctive. In the other persons, a form in -as, -at, etc., may belong just as well to a present indicative of the 1st conjugation as to a present subjunctive of the 3rd or 4th. Likewise a form in -es, -et, etc., may just as well be a future of the 3rd or the 4th as a present subjunctive of the first, or even a present indicative of the 2nd. How can one tell which? It is sufficient to know to which conjugation the verb in question belongs. If you haven’t already done so, it would be a good idea now to develop the habit of taking notice of the principal parts of the verbs you encounter, as we indicated to you in lesson 28. Furthermore, with a little practice, you will come to “feel”, without too much risk of error, what the principal parts of a given verb may be, and consequently

to figure out which conjugation it belongs to. Thus verbs of recent formation (everything being relative!) belong in general to the first conjugation, and by the same token of a comforting regularity. For example: manducare, (L. 40, P. 2) belongs to the first conjugation, whereas mandere (which we mentioned in a note on the occasion), which is much older, belongs to the 3rd. Likewise, verbs even more recent like telephonare, dactylographare, etc., obviously belong to the 1st. 4. If now we want to form the future indicative and the present subjunctive of passive verbs or deponents, we need simply replace the active endings: m (or o), s, t, mus, tis, nt with the passive endings: r (or or), ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur. Example: Future ind.: amabor, amaberis, amabitur, amabimur, amabimini, amabuntur, (I will be loved, you will be loved, etc.); monebor, moneberis, monebitur, monebimur, monebimini, monebuntur (I will be warned, etc.); legar, legeris, legetur, etc.; capiar, capieris, etc.; audiar, audieris, etc. Present subj.: amer, ameris, etc.; monear, monearis, etc.; legar, legaris, etc.; audiar, audiaris, etc. We should note just a small irregularity in the future of the first two conjugations, the -e- in the second-person singular (amaberis, moneberis), in place of the -i- of the active form. Don’t try to remember these diffenent forms at all costs today; rather, devote two or three minutes to them each day for the next week. It may also help you to write down what you want to remember in tabular form. If you don’t know how to arrange things, you may take inspiration from the tables in the grammatical appendix.

Lectio quadragesima tertia (43) In a modern jail 1. In this modern-day prison, the prisoners do not remain idle all day, but work; by [this] (which) work, it is hoped (to-be [fut. inf.] that) they [will] be made better. 2. Each one, when he is thrown into prison, is asked what work he prefers to undertake. 3. Some prefer woodwork, others metalwork, others shoemaking, etc. 4. The warden asks (from) someone, recently arrived, what he wants to do. 5. [He] (this) answers: “[to be a traveling salesman] (of-trading for-the-reason totravel)!” 6. Peter, [6 years old] (seventh year conducting), attends (to) a wedding for the first time. 7. Mama —he says—, why is the bride dressed in a white dress? 8. Because the color white, my son, is a sign of happiness, and [one’s] marriage day is the happiest of [one’s] whole life. 9. A few moments later, Peter asks again: 10. Mama, why is the husband dressed in a black suit? (From Vita Latina, A. RODOT, september 1961) NOTES 1. Otiosus, -a, -um, idle; otium, -ii, n., leisure, the opposite of which is negotium, -ii, n., business, occupation. 2. Quo labore: the relative pronoun qui, quae, quod is sometimes used as a (relative) adjective: it indicates the thing or the person just mentioned. Quo is the ablative of qui (masculine). 3. Fore ut + subjunctive is in a certain way a future subjunctive; fore (or futurum esse) is the future infinitive of the verb esse. 4. Fio, fis, fieri, factus sum, is a semi-deponent verb; it takes the passive form in the infinitive and in the perfect series and serves as the passive of the verb facio, to make. These two verbs have many compounds. Fiam, fias, fiat, etc. is obviously a present subjunctive. 5. Cum, conjunction, when, is construed sometimes with the indicative (as here, where it indicates a simple temporal relation), sometimes with the subjunctive (where an idea of subordination is added, or where usage requires it). 6. Malit: you remember malo (magis volo), mavis, mavult, malumus, mavultis, malunt (vid. L. 33). The present subjunctive is malim, malis, etc. Likewise velim (vid. P. 4) and nolim are present subjunctives of velle and nolle. 7. Alius, alia, aliud, other, when there are more than two people involved; alii…, alii…, some…, others…; whereas alter, altera, alterum, are used only for two people or two groups: alter…, alter…, one…, the other. 8. Ars, artis, f., craft, art. 9. Lignarius, -a, -um, having to do with wood; lignum, -i, n., wood. In the same way ferrarius comes from ferrum, iron; but sutrinus, -a, -um, goes back to

sutor, -oris, m., cobbler. Here artem is understood before ferrariam and sutrinam. 10. Et cetera (etc.), and other things. Ceteri, -ae, -a, designates the group of people or things one has not already spoken of (vid. sup. alius and alter). 11. Aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, indefinite pronoun, someone, something. Used as an adjective, the neuter becomes aliquod. 12. Ingresso, ablative of the perfect participle of ingredior, -eris, -i, ingressus sum, in + gradior, to go into, enter, advance. 13. Peregrinari: do we still need to tell you that peregrinor, -aris, -ari, -atus sum, to travel, is a regular first-conjugation deponent verb? Likewise mercari, to trade. Peregrinus, -a, -um, stranger, foreigner, pilgrim (French pèlerin, Italian pellegrino). Mercator, -oris, m., merchant. Mercandi causá: causá + genitive of the gerund is a frequent construction. 14. Primum is here an adverb formed with the nominative-accusative neuter of primus, -a, -um, first. Matrimonium, -ii, n., marriage. 15. Induta est, you remember lesson 20: induo me vestibus. Here, it’s the same verb in the perfect passive. Albá stolá is a complement of means, therefore in the ablative (long á). 16. Nupta, from nubo, -is, -ere, nupsi, nuptum, to get married (of a woman). A man will use the verb (uxorem) ducere; (wife) to lead, (vid. inf. E. 43, P. 5). 17. Fili mi is the vocative of filius meus. 18. Paucis post momentis: post, preposition, is construed with the accusative. Don’t be uneasy about this apparent exception: post is an adverb here, therefore it has no effect on the case of the words accompanying it. We will point out above all that the adjective paucis, even if separated from its noun momentis, is easily related to it. From now on you are going to meet this arrangement quite frequently: you will get used to it quickly. 19. Iterum, adv., again. EXERCITATIO 1.— The merchant buys shoes that the cobbler makes and sells them to buyers. 2.— The carpenter doesn’t make multiplication tables, but tables upon which we lunch and dine. 3.— I asked the carpenter [to make] (that he made) a table; I hope it will suit (to) [my] wife. 4.— Who is that traveler (or that foreigner)? 5.— He is a certain farmer who wishes [to marry] (to lead into marriage) the cobbler’s daughter. 6.— He walks into the shop in order to buy a black suit and a [top] (towershaped) hat. 7.— The man [seems] (is seen) happy: I hope after the marriage he will always be happy. 8.—That cannot happen: don’t you know the Horace’s line: “nothing better than the celibate life”? 9.— Woman [is] an evil, but a necessary evil.

10.— Honey is better than gall. 11.— Same translation. Conficio, -is, -ere, -feci, -fectum = cum + facio: think of confection. Turritus, -a, -um, furnished with towers, or (here) tower-shaped; the tower is turris, is, f.; acc. turrim: abl. turri (vid. L.40 N.9). Caelebs, caelibis, adj. (having an ablative in -e and not in -i), single, celibate. It is in the ablative, just as vitá, because the complement of the comparative (melius) goes in the ablative, if quam is not used. Fel, fellis, n., the gall, the bile.

Lectio quadragesima quarta (44) A teachable student 1. The teacher writes on the board: “While the wolf runs towards the lamb, this one [i.e. the latter] flees from that one [i.e. the former]”. 2.— Marcellus —he asks—, which does “this one” indicate, and which “that one”? 3.— “This one” is the lamb, because it is closer, [and] “that one” is the wolf, because it is farther away. 4.— [Good] (well)! [This] (today) evening you will write something [by yourself] (by your own initiative) in which you observe the same rule. 5. The following day Marcellus hands his homework to the teacher. 6. The teacher reads [this] (these things): “[This] morning a butterfly [was] caught [by] my brother. This one has most beautiful wings. That one went off on the bicycle”. 7. Marcellus! Is it really true that [your brother has] (to brother there-are) most beautiful wings? Is it really true that the butterfly went off on the bicycle? You have not observed the rule. 8. On the contrary, teacher! I have observed the rule, for this butterfly, which I fastened with a pin on the same desk on which I was writing, was closer to me… 9. On the other hand [my] (that) brother with his bicycle was already far away from me. (From Vita Latina, Grégoire JOSEPH, november 1963) NOTES 1. Ad, prep. + acc., towards. A (ab before a vowel) prep. + abl., from, by, indicates movement away or also precedes the agent of a passive verb IF THIS IS A PERSON or A LIVING BEING (cf. L. 25, N. 6). 2. Hic, m., haec, f., hoc, n., this, demonstrative adjective-pronoun. It indicates that the noun it refers to is CLOSE TO THE PERSON who SPEAKS: hic homo, this person (that I’m pointing to). In the same way iste, ista, istud indicates that the noun it refers to is CLOSE TO THE PERSON to whom ONE IS PEAKING; sometimes it carries a scornful connotation: iste homo, that person (that you see, that you know); or also: that awful man! Ille, illa, illud corresponds to THE PERSON, or THE THING, of which ONE IS SPEAKING, sometimes with an admiring connotation (real or ironic). Ille vir, this (brave, remarkable) man being spoken of. Finally is, ea, id, ANAPHORIC adjective-pronoun, corresponds to THE PERSON, or THE THING, of which ONE HAS JUST SPOKEN. Hic and ille can be used in the same sentence: hic then indicates the nearest antecedent (in the sentence and not necessarily in reality as Marcellus believed) and ille the most distant antecedent in the sentence. 3. Propior, -oris (n. propius, -oris), closer, is a COMPARATIVE. The corresponding SUPERLATIVE is proximus, -a, -um, closest. The adjective meaning simply close is propinquus, -a, -um; the corresponding adverbs are: prope, closely; propius,

more closely; proxime, very closely. 4. Remotior, comparative of remotus, -a, -um, distant. Comparatives decline almost like adjectives of the second class, the neuter nominative and accusative are in -ius. The genitive is in -ioris for all three genders. There is nevertheless an important difference: adjectives of the second class normally form their ablative in -i, while comparatives always form their ablative in -e. 5. Vespere, abl. of vesper, -eris, m., evening. Further down (P. 6) mane is an adverb meaning: in the morning. 6. Scribo, -is, -ere, scripsi, scriptum, write. 7. Servo, -as, -are, etc., keep. Can you tell what moods these two verbs are in in P. 4? (see at the end of the notes for the answer) 8. Porrigo, -is, -ere, porrexi, porrectum, stretch out, offer. 9. Arripio, -is, -ere, arripui, arreptum, catch, ad + rapio (-is, -ere, rapui, raptum), snatch. 10. Pulcherrimus, -a, -um: adjectives in er have their superlative in -errimus and not in -issimus. E.g., pulcher, beautiful; comparative: pulchrior, more beautiful; superlative, pulcherrimus, most beautiful, very beautiful. 11. Proficiscor, -eris, -i, profectus sum, to set out, to depart (cf. E. 29, P. 7). 12. Numquid; we have already seen num (L. 13, N. 2) which introduces a question for which we expect a negative answer. The final quid has no other purpose than to call further attention to the word num: is it really the case that…? 13. Observare (ob, towards, because of + servare, keep), observ, in the sense of abide by (a rule, a law) (vid. P. 2 and N. 7). 14. Ipse, ipsa, ipsum: demonstrative adjective-pronoun which underlines the maintenance of the identity of its antecedent. Rex ipse, the king himself. Nosce te ipsum, know thyself. 15. Fibula, -ae, brooch (jewel) or pin. 16. Figo, -is, -ere, fixi, fixum, insert, fix (with a pin or a nail); clavos figere, drive nails in. 7. Answer: scribes: future ind. (3rd conjugation, future in -am, -es, -et, etc.); serves: present subj. (1st conjugation, present subj. in -em, -es, -et, etc.). EXERCITATIO 1.— By whom are the boards made that the teachers write on? 2.— They are made by carpenters; just as tables, furniture, and the different wooden things [are]. 3.— These boards, which are wooden, are very different from the multiplication tables, which are written on paper. 4.— Can you see the husband with [his] bride? [The latter] (This one) is dressed in a white dress, [the former] (that one) looks sad. 5.— Victor polishes his shoes himself; his mother doesn’t want to [be] (hold the role of) his servant. 6.— Victor used to write to his mother; his mother used to receive his letters. 7.— Marcellus believed that he had not erred. 8.— After Marcellus was questioned by the teacher, he understood that he had erred.

9.— After he questioned him, the teacher said that Marcellus had not observed the rule. Supellex, supellectilis, f., furniture. Ancilla, -ae, f., maidservant. Persona, -ae, f., theatrical character, whence personam sustinere, to play a role.

Lectio quadragesima quinta (45) Let’s unharness the horse! 1. A certain young man asks his friend [whether he could not give him some help] (not-? to himself help bring can). 2. (To) The other accepting, he said [to him]: “Come with me!” 3. They proceed [through] (in) dark (and) suburban streets, until the young man shows his friend a horse harnessed to a carriage. 4.— [We must] (it is requested that we) unharness the horse and lead it to a certain house. 5. They unharness the horse and arrive at said house. 6.— There is no stable here! Where (Whither) do we have to lead the horse? 7.— To the fifth floor. This is the reason why I asked [you] for help (from you). However, don’t be afraid (perf. subj.) at all (nothing): there is a lift (see note). 8. The friend is bewildered. Nevertheless he [helps] (brings help) and [they] both, not without much sweating, place the horse in the lift. 9. Friend and horse having been closed up in the cabin (the cabin could not take three persons), the young man goes up the stairs to the fifth floor and from there calls (raises) the lift with the electric push-button. NOTES 1. Nonne: this word, which you have already seen in DIRECT QUESTIONS (nonne venis?, aren’t you coming?) is also found in INDIRECT QUESTIONS: te rogo nonne venias, I ask you if you aren’t coming. In indirect questions, the SUBJUNCTIVE is used in the subordinate clause, NEVER THE INDICATIVE. 2. Sibi, dative of the reflexive pronoun (acc. se, gen. sui, abl. se) corresponds to mihi, tibi (acc. me, te, gen, mei, tui). This pronoun, which cannot be the subject (except in an infinitive clause) because it has no nominative (unlike ego and tu), REFERS BACK TO THE SUBJECT; if it is found, as it is here, in a subordinate clause, it refers to the subject of the main clause when the subordinate clause represents the thought of this subject (here adulescens). 3. Urbs, urbis, f., gen. pl. urbium, city (with a capital U: Rome). Urbanus, -a, um, urban (having to do with the city); sub, under; whence suburbanus, suburban (cf. suburb). 4. Progredior, -eris, -i, -gressus sum, advance, proceed. We had already seen ingredior, enter. Pro, before or in place of. 5. Donec (conj.) + ind., until. 6. Jungo, -is, -ere, junxi, junctum, join, i.e. harness to the same yoke (jugum, -i, n.). 7. Ostendo, -is, -ere, ostendi, ostensum (or ostentum), show (ostensibly). 8. Disjungere = dis (idea of separation) + jungere (see above, N. 5). 9. Híc is here an adverb obtained from the demonstrative adjective-pronoun we saw yesterday. We have likewise istic and illic. All three designate the location one is pointing to: the first corresponds to the 1st person (híc: at the place where I am); the second corresponds in the same way to the 2nd person and the last to the 3rd. Finally ibi, there, corresponds to the place one has been speaking of. All

respond to the question ubi? where? (without movement). 10. Stabulum, -i, n., stable. 11. Cur a te auxilium petivi? Why did I ask you for help? In direct questions the verb is in the indicative. In phrase 7 the same interrogative adverb cur is used for the indirect question (see above, N. 1). The verb petere (peto, -is, -ere, -ii, petitum) is there in the (perfect) subjunctive. A te, from you (abl.) and not tibi, to you (dat.). 12. Pegma, -atis, n. (3rd declension), scaffolding, lifting machine, word of Greek origin. Scansorius, -a, -um, having to do with ascending, from scando, -is, -ere, scandi, scansum, climb, ascend. 13. Ambo, f. ambae, n., ambo, both. 14. Amico et equo inclusis. This construction is called ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE; literally, the friend and the horse having been closed up. The whole is the equivalent of a circumstantial clause. At the same time take note of the rule of agreement: amico and equo are in the ablative singular, but as 1 + 1 = 2, inclusis is in the ablative plural. EXERCITATIO 1.— Do you want to have lunch at home tomorrow? 2.— I’d accept that with the greatest pleasure, but I don’t know where your house is (subj.). 3.— It’s in the Port Road, (distinguished by the) number 17, on the eighth floor, 2nd door to the left. 4.— Where is the Port Road? 5.— You will find it easily: it begins in front of the railway station and leads to the port. 6.— Is it far from the station? 7.— Not at all! No more than 300 meters. 8.— Excellent! Then I’ll see you again tomorrow. Farewell! 9.— Farewell [to] you too! When the lesson is shorter, as is the case today, make use of the available time in order to revise the preceding lessons. We remind you nevertheless that this exercise will take place automatically if you follow one of the procedures we indicated to you in the preface: for instance, to advance covering time three lessons, that of the previous day which you will be revising, that of the day which you study in depth, and that of the following day with which you make a quick contact.

Lectio quadragesima sexta (46) Let’s unharness the horse! (continued) 1. The cabin having been lifted to the floor, the young man opens the door. The horse and the friend burst out of their prison. 2.— Hold the horse firmly! Watch out that it doesn’t make a loud noise nor wake the tenants while we are in [this] dubious (two-headed) situation. 3. Saying these words, the young man tries very cautiously to open a (certain) door with a [picklock] (hook). 4. [His] friend gets angry, nevertheless [he keeps] (forcing) the horse [quiet] (mute): “I don’t want” —he says— “to be accomplice [to] (of) theft”. 5.— Be quiet! We won’t steal anything. We won’t do anything dishonest. I will explain the matter to you afterwards. 6.— There! The door is open: let’s go in! 7. They push the horse through a narrow corridor (plural). At last they arrive to a (certain) bathroom. 8. [It’s] now especially [that] your help is necessary. NOTES 1. Cellá evectá: another ablative absolute! Evecta, past participle of eveho = ex + veho (-is, -ere, vexi, vectum, transport with a vehicle), carry upward. 2. Valva. We have seen porta, city gate, and janua, that of a house. Valva designates door in general, or even the (mechanical) valve (electrical diode). 3. Aperio, -is, -ire, aperui, apertum, open. Not to be confused with operio, same conjugation, which means cover, conceal. 4. Suus, sua, suum, is the possessive adjective corresponding to the reflexive pronoun se (sui, sibi). Both refer normally to the subject of the clause, as we told you yesterday (L. 45, N. 2). Outside of the subject, the genitive ejus of the anaphoric demonstrative adjective-pronoun is, ea, id is then used, to replace the possessive pronoun (see E. 44, P. 5). 5. Erumpo, -is, -ere, erupi, eruptum = ex + rumpo (literally, break out), burst out, erupt. 6. Caveo, -es, -ere, cavi, cautum, beware. Example: Cave canem!, beware of the dog; Cave ne cadas, watch out that you don’t fall down. 7. Neve = et ne, in the same way that neque = et non. 8. Inquilinus, -a, m. or f., inhabitant, tenant, is from the same stem as incolere, inhabit. The inhabitant of a country is called incola, -ae, m.— Strepo, -is, -ere, strepui, intransitive verb (no direct object), lacking a supine, has given strepitus, -us, m., din, uproar. There are different words in Latin to represent the different sorts of sounds: sonitus, -us, m., sound in general; crepitus, -us, m., crackling (and equally a more incongruous sound); tonitrus, -us, m., the sound of thunder, etc. 9. Dum + ind. = while; dum + subj. = until. 10. Anceps, ancipitis, adj., two-headed, in other words which one does not know which end to take hold of. You have already seen this word (L. 31, P. 4): anceps

erit exitus. 11. Cautus is the perfect participle of caveo (see above, N. 6) whence the adverb cauté, cautiously, and its superlative cautissimé. Remember that U and V were formerly represented by the same letter. 12. Uncus, -i, m. hook; uncatus or uncinatus, hooked, in the form of a hook (unciform). 13. Conor, -aris, etc. + inf, try to (do sthg.). 14. Cogo, -is, -ere, coegi, coactum (cum + ago), force, compel. 15. Furtum, -i, n., theft, from fur, furis, m., thief; furari, steal, whose future you will find in the next phrase. 16. Conscius (from cum + scire) is the opposite of nescius (ignorant). Notice on the other hand that conscius is in the nominative, even though it is found in an infinitive clause. You know that the infinitive clause has its subject in the accusative (and that the same goes for the attribute to the subject if the verb in the infinitive is a verb of state). But here the infinitive clause is incomplete: conscius, which can have no other antecedent than the subject of the MAIN clause must agree with it, and therefore be in the nominative. In contrast we will say dico me conscium esse, for in this case the infinitive clause is complete: subject me (and no longer an understood ego), which can only be in the accusative, hence conscium, attribute, also in the accusative. 17. Esto!, be!; estote!, be[pl.]!, future imperative of the verb esse. 18. If you have forgotten fauces, refer back to L. 40, P. 7 and N. 9. EXERCITATIO 1.— A sure friend is recognized in unsure [circumstances] (thing). 2.— Is that man from lessons 45 and following of whom the young man requested assistance a sure friend? 3.— You will know [this] after you (will) have read the whole story. 4.— Without a doubt the young man led him into a dubious situation. 5.— Isn’t it a dubious affair to lead a horse to the fifth floor in a lift? 6.— Therefore, if he [gave] (brought) the other help in such a case, he is a sure friend. 7.— I don’t think so. The young man stole the horse: he is not a sure friend who is an accomplice to theft. 8.— He who [steals] (will steal) a horse will be thrown into prison. 9.— [In which case] (which-things since they-be so), you do not know whose (be the) horse (which) the young man took away. Phrase 2. Did you have the reflex of mentally pronouncing quadragesimae quintae in Latin, rather than 45 in English? Don’t forget that ordinal numeral adjectives are declined (here, gen. sg.) … and some cardinal adjectives too. Notice (P. 6) tulit, perfect of that famous irregular verb fero, fers, ferre, tuli, latum, bear.

Lectio quadragesima septima (47) Let’s unharness the horse! (concluded) 1. Both friends tie up the horse in fetters and [lifting it by the feet] (it by-feet lifted-up) throw [it] down at once into the bathtub. 2. The horse is so astonished by all these actions that it dares emit no [sound] (voice). 3. Both friends close the doors of the bathroom and the door of the residence; (by-suspended step silent) they leave [silently on tiptoe]. 4. In the street at last one asks (from) the other: “Tell me now for what reason we have done (perf. subj.) all these things”. 5.— It’s very simple: This is the home of a person who is most annoying to me… 6. for every day he poses [riddles for me of such a nature that] (such to-me riddles proposes as-to-which) I can never answer [them]. 7. It is required that I show to him that I am not so stupid as he himself thinks. 8. Without any doubt, tomorrow that guy will pose the latest riddle for me: “Could you tell me what I found this morning in my bathtub?”. 9. Then I will answer (to him): “A horse!”. NOTES 1. Ambo, ambae, ambo (cf. L. 45, N. 13) is declined like duo, duae, duo, two; acc. ambos, ambas, ambo; gen. amborum, ambarum, amborum; dat. and abl. ambobus, ambabus, ambobus. 2. Compedes, -um (f. pl. of the 3rd declension), from cum + pedes (pl. of pes, pedis, foot), fetters. 3. Illigare = in + ligare, bind. At first sight, the simple verb and its compound are translated the same way. You must have already noticed that Latin very often employed compound verbs (illigare, conducere, comedere, etc.)… and perhaps even, you may think, randomly. In fact the simple verb can indicate only the action in its most general sense, whereas the compound verb allows the action to be shown as applied to a particular situation. E.g.: plicare, to fold, says less than applicare (ad + plicare), which means to fold against something, whence the figurative sense: applicare se ad aliquam rem, to lean (apply) oneself to something. Similarly one says: edere oportet ut vivas, you have to eat [to live] (so that you live), but comedere pastillum farctum, to eat (up) a sandwich. 4. Ita... ut. We have already seen these two (separable) brothers (L. 39, N. 6). After ita, ut always requires the subjunctive (audeat). Obstupefieri is conjugated like fieri (cf. L. 43, N. 4). It is a semi-deponent verb with a passive meaning like fieri, which takes in the perfect (and in the tenses that are derived from the perfect) the passive form (obstupefactus sum, I have been astonished). The corresponding active verb is obstupefacere, which is conjugated like facere. Verbs in -facere indicate a state that one MAKES someone or something undergo, and go in pairs with verbs in -fieri, which, for their part,

indicate that the subject UNDERGOES the transformation. Ex. calefacere, to heat; calefieri, to become hot (see the exercise). 5. Aenigma, -atis, n. We had already seen pegma, -atis (L. 45, N. 12). There are other neuter Greek words equally declined according to the 3rd declension, even though they have a nominative in -a: their genitive is in -atis, dat. -ati, abl. -ate, plural: nominative acc. -ata, gen. -atum, but dat. abl. in -atís instead of -atibus (forgetting this last peculiarity doesn’t seem serious in our eyes). Another example: problema, -atis, n., problem. 6. Ipse, ipsa, ipsum: if you have forgotten it, refer to L. 44, N. 14. 7. Iste, which we have seen (L. 44, N. 2) is taken here in its pejorative sense: that awful person. 8. Novissimus, -a, -um, is the superlative of novus, -a, -um (new), the newest, i.e. the latest. E.g., agmen, -inis, n., which we have seen (L. 36) means in military language: the army on the march; novissumum agmen is the rear guard. EXERCITATIO 1.— Is there a bathroom in your house? 2.— Yes! there is a bathroom at (my) home. 3.— [Including] this one (added), the [rooms] (members) [in] (of) our house are five. 4.— The others are: the kitchen, the dining room and two bedrooms. 5.— How many tenants are there in the building? 6.— There are twelve families: six floors and two apartments (or two “cenacula”) on each floor (plural). 7.— How are you warmed? 8.— We are warmed from [the floor] (below). 9.— Magnificent! This is a most modern method of heating. 10.— Yes, but also very old, for it was invented by the Romans. Aedes, -is, f. (more generally employed in the plural), designates an important house, whereas domus is the house where one lives (whence domicilium, domicile). Habitatio, -onis, f., apartment, the part of a building rented to an individual. Cenaculum, -i, n., is the little lodging, where one can just have dinner (cenare). Don’t forget that domus has a hybrid declension: acc. domum, gen. domús, dat. domui, abl. domo; plural: nominative domús, acc. domús or domos, gen. domuum or domorum, dat. and abl. domibus; finally the locative, domi, at home. If you declined domus entirely according to the second declension, you would be wrong only three times: dat. sg., nominative pl., and dat. and abl. pl. If, on the contrary, you had bet on the 4th, there would be only one error, the abl. sg. domo.

Lectio quadragesima octava (48) It is a pair of shoes 1. A (certain) [corporal] (decurion) was waging a fierce war with a [private] (common soldier) under the [shade] (cover) of a (certain) tree. 2. Reclining in the grass, flask at the ready (placed), they pursued the loftiest philosophical reflections. 3. CORPORAL.— Tell me, Soldier, what do we have that all people have? 4. SOLDIER.— This, Corporal, is a very broad question that altogether surpasses my understanding: solve this riddle for me. 5. COR.— [It is] (They are) a pair of shoes: for we both, like [all other] (the remaining) people, have a pair of shoes. 6. SOL.— This is too clever: pose another riddle, that perhaps I may now solve. 7. COR.— If you are looking for riddles, here is another: “What do we have, that not all people have?” 8. SOL.— This seems even cleverer… I won’t find it out! 9. COR.— [It is] (They are) two pairs of shoes, for we have a pair for manœuvres and a pair for parades (suitable), but not all people have two pairs of shoes. 10. SOL.— Very clever! However I ought to [have] solve[d] this. [Please] (I beg), tell [me] a final one which I will try to solve myself. 11. COR., thinking [to] (with) himself he suddenly saw the cherries with which the cherry tree, by whose shade they were covered, was laden.— Soldier! What things are (by colour) red, and hang [in] pairs from a green stem? 12. SOL.— You will not fool me three times: [it is] (they are) three pairs of shoes! NOTES 1. Decurio, -onis, m., leader of a decuria, which, as the name indicates, consists of ten men. Corresponds to corporal or brigadier depending on the army. 2. Miles, -itis, m., soldier; militia, -ae, f., military service, army; miles gregarius, common soldier (2nd class) (grex, flock or troop, cf. L. 5, P. 2). 3. Tegmen, -inis, n. (from tego, -is, -ere, texi, tectum, to cover, to protect); note the compound detego, to uncover, to detect. 4. Atrox, -ocis (for the three genders) same family as ater, -tra, -trum, dull black. 5. Caespes, -itis, m., grass, turf, sod. 6. Recubare, to lie down on one’s back; accumbere, to lie down next to a table, to dine (cf. L. 41, P. 2). 7. Lagoná positá: another ablative absolute. In promptu, at hand. 8. Cogitatio, -onis, f., from cogitare, to think, to reflect. From now on we will no longer give you notes for words in -tio whose meaning is obvious; they all have a genitive in -tionis, are feminine in gender, and correspond (more or less) with our words in -tion. As to the meaning there is always room for doubt: Thus ratio has given in English both reason and ration, but, while it has are several meanings in common with English reason, on the other hand it has little to do with the ration (of food). Equally rationalis, rational, means having to do with reason (and not with rationing). 9. Agitare, FREQUENTATIVE of agere, to do (drive) OFTEN, whence to agitate. Note

that forms derived from verbs belong generally to the 1st declension regular. 10. Solvo, -is, -ere, solvi, solutum, loosen, dissolve, resolve. Solutio means solution as well as dissolution. The contradiction implied by these two senses is only apparent: in resolving a problem, one dissolves the difficulty. 11. Bini, -ae, -a, adj., in twos: terni, in threes; quaterni, quini, etc. Equally bis, twice; ter, three times; quater, quinquies, etc. If you have arithmetic operations to do, it’s useful to know these distributive adjectives and adverbs (do you remember the TABULA MULTIPLICATORIA of L. 6?). You will find more in the grammatical appendix pp. 494-497. Caliga, -ae, f., soldier’s boot, “clodhopper”. Its diminutive, caligula, was given by soldiers to an emperor as a cognomen. 12. Astutius: do we need to tell you that this is the neuter of astutior, -oris, comparative of astutus, -a, -um, adj., which we already saw above in P. 6? 13. Exercitatio, -onis, f., manœuvre, exercise; exercitus, -us, m., active, trained army (Spanish ejército, Italian esercito); exerceo, -es, -ere, exercui, exercitum, to exercise; exerceor, pass., to be exercised, to take exercise, to practice a sport + abl. (see L. 54, P. 3). 14. Decursus, -us, m., parade, line of march (cursus, course). 15. Debui: perfect indicative of debere. In this case there is no question of using the subjunctive (to translate our conditional), for Miles thought that he must really solve it. 16. Cerasum, -i, n., cherry; cerasus, -i, f., cherry tree. Almost all names of trees are feminine in Latin (as in Italian and Provençal). 17. Ruber, -bra, -brum, red; rubigo, -inis, f., rust. 18. Color, -oris, m., and in general all words in -or, are in Latin, as in Italian and Spanish, but not in French or Catalan, MASCULINE in gender. The rare exceptions are soror, -oris, sister; arbor, -oris, tree, which are feminine, as well as the neuters: marmor, -oris, marble; aequor, -oris, surface (of the sea); cor, cordis, heart. CARMEN Let us rejoice then! Let us rejoice then, while we are young! (twice) After a pleasant youth, After a troublesome old age, The earth will have us. (twice) Where are those who were before us in the world? Go to those above [in heaven], Cross over to those below [in hell], Where they have already been [for a long time]. This very European students’ song is even better known than Lauriger Horatius. You will be able to find it as well in the two collections we cited at the end of L. 34. Gaudeo, -es, -ere, gavisus sum, to rejoice, is a semideponent verb, like fieri

which we saw above. Perfect indicative: gavisus sum, es, est, etc.; pluperfect: gavisus eram, etc.— Igitur, then, has just about the same meaning as ergo, but is always placed after the first word of the sentence: the same difference in construction as between autem and sed; ergo is preferred in demonstrations (e.g. mathematical).— Juvenis, -is (gen. pl. juvenum), m., young man; juventus, juventutis, f., youth. Equally senex, -is (gen. pl. senum), m., old man and senectus, senectutis, f., old age.— Humus, -i, f., earth (soil), follows the same rule as domus for the locative: humi, on the ground. Fuere = fuerunt: the 3rd person plural of the perfect has an alternative form in ere in place of -erunt.— Vado, -is, -ere, intransitive verb, lacking perfect and supine, go, walk, which is found in the expression quo vadis?— Superus, -a, um, from above; comparative superior, higher, superlative supremus, highest, very high; equally inferus, from below; inferior, lower; infimus, lowest, very low.— Transire = trans + ire, to go across, to cross.

Lectio quadragesima nona (49) Revision and Notes To finish with the declensions, we have only to look at those of the PRONOUNS and ADJECTIVE-PRONOUNS. Their only difficulty lies in their variety, but you will quickly see that it is easy to retain the diverse forms that are to follow, because the corresponding words are very frequently used. We remind you again that in English certain pronouns have retained a part of their declension (e.g., I, me; he/she/it, him/her/it; etc.), and that this seems entirely normal to us. 1. Let us consider first a perfectly regular case, the indefinite adjective-pronoun solus, alone.

nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.

Singular Masculine Feminine solus sola solum solam solius solius soli soli solo solá

Neuter solum solum solius soli solo

Masculine soli solos solorum solis solis

Plural Feminine solæ solas solarum solis solis

Neuter sola sola solorum solis solis

You will notice that this declension differs from that of the 1st class of adjectives (bonus, bona, bonum) only in having a genitive singular in -ius for the three genders and a dative singular in -i, also for all three genders. You remember that it’s the 4th declension that has a genitive singular in -us (not in -ius) and the 3rd that has a dative singular in -i. Like solus are declined unus, -a, -um, one; nullus, -a, -um, none; totus, -a, -um, whole. 2. Replacing -us with -er, -a with -(e)ra, -um with -(e)rum, we decline alter, -era, -erum, one / the other (of two), second; neuter, -tra, -trum, neither; and uterque, utraque, utrumque, each (of two) (-que does not change). E.g.: acc. m. alterum, f. alteram, n. alterum; gen. alterius, for all three genders; dat. alteri, for all three genders; abl. altero, f. alterá, n. altero; and plural according to the declension of the 1st class of adjectives. Replacing -us with -e in the masculine, we decline the demonstrative ipse, ipsa, ipsum, (one)self; ipse véni, I came myself, I came in person. By further replacing neuter -um with -ud, we decline iste, ista, istud (acc. sg. istum, istam, istud), demonstrative adjective-pronoun so-called of the 2nd person, as well as ille, illa, illud, which corresponds with the 3rd person (see L. 44, N. 2).

Likewise is, ea, id, anaphoric demonstrative adjective-pronoun (the person or thing one has just spoken of) differs from the preceding only in the masculine and neuter nominative singular and the neuter accusative singular (acc. sg. eum, eam, id). In the plural, the forms ei (nominative m.) and eis (dat. and abl. of all three genders) are sometimes written ii and iis. Finally, the genitive of all three genders is eius using the classical letters (but minuscule), or ejus in modern spelling, which has no effect on pronunciation since j = consonantal i. Like is, ea, id is declined ídem, eadem, idem, the same (the person or thing one has just spoken of), reinforcing the preceding with the indeclinable particle dem. Finally, hic, hæc, hoc, demonstrative adjective-pronoun so-called of the 1st person (see L. 44, N. 2) is favored with an intermittent c that appears also in the accusative singular hunc, hanc, hoc (note also n instead of m); disappears in the genitive hujus; reappears in the dative hujc and the ablative hóc, hac, hóc, and shows itself in the plural only in the neuter nominative and accusative: hæc (m. hi, hos; f. hæ, has). 3. After the declension of the solus type, let us look now at the other branch of the family. We already know the personal pronouns well enough not to spend time with them here. Just be aware that only the first two persons: ego, tu; pl. nos, vos; are represented in all cases. The 3rd exists only in the reflexive form (acc. se, gen. sui, dat. sibi, abl se) which has no nominative and serves for the plural as well as the singular. Let us instead look again at the declension of the interrogative adjectivepronoun.

nom. acc. gen. dat. abl.

Singular Masculine Feminine quis* quæ quem quam cujus cujus cuj cuj quo quá

Neuter quid* quid* cujus cuj quo

Masculine qui quos quorum quibus quibus

Plural Feminine quæ quas quarum quibus quibus

Neuter quæ quæ quorum quibus quibus

This declension is a little closer to the 3rd declension (acc. m. sg. and dat. abl. pl. of all three genders). Note also that q- becomes c- in the genitive and dative singular and that the neuter nominative and accusative plural has æ instead of a (like hæc). The RELATIVE adjective-pronoun qui, quæ, quod differs from the preceding only in the forms of the nominative singular (m. and n.) and the neuter accusative singular (marked with a * in the table above).

N.B.— Quis becomes qui and quid becomes quod for the INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE; e.g., quis (pr.) venit? but qui (adj.) homo venit? likewise quid (pr.) vidisti? but quod (adj.) animal vidisti? 4. Other adjective-pronouns are declined on these models. They are obtained, for example, by adding to an adjective-pronoun: — an indeclinable particle, e.g.: aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, someone, something; quidam, quædam, quiddam (quoddam for the adjective), a certain person, a certain thing. — another adjective-pronoun (plus an indeclinable particle), e.g.: unusquisque, unaquæque, unumquidque (unumquodque for the adj.), each one, each; unus is declined like solus (or can be even omitted: quisque, quæque, quidque, each one); quis is also declined as above and que does not change. This storehouse of words already seems imposing to you, and yet we haven’t shown all the ones that can be formed by the procedure indicated in 4 above. You will see through usage that all this is less frightening and much more practical than it would appear from the outpouring we have just succumbed to. And be remember furthermore that we have already made serious progress. Outside of a few exceptions and a few peculiarities, such as the Greek declensions, which we won’t insist on, we have already encountered all the important declinable forms. It remains to us only to get to know them better through use, and perhaps also through some reviews in the course of which you can start to avail yourself of the grammatical appendix. And now we are going to embark on the ACTIVE PHASE of our study: the second wave. Indeed, up until now, we had just asked you to listen, to read and passively to repeat the texts of the lessons and exercises. Regarding the notes and the revisions, we already said that they were intended to help you and not to torment you. For the lessons that follow, it is enough that you continue in the same way: read the text a first time, comparing it to the English and looking up the notes; then practice by repeating each phrase after having read it; finally, in case of need, start these exercises over again until you have become familiar with the text. And don’t forget that the recordings will help you in these repetitions. Here is what we ask of you now: when you have finished Lesson 50, return next to Lesson 1 (Latine loqueris?); read it and repeat it at first like an ordinary

lesson (or better, listen to the recording). Then, hide the Latin text and try to recreate it sentence by sentence using the English text as a starting point: this exercise can be done to good effect either aloud or in writing; the one does not prevent the other. N.B.— If the principle of the second wave seems to present difficulties, reread the introduction.

Lectio quinquagesima (50) What are you doing today? 1.— What are you doing today? With this nice weather it would be pleasant to go outside (to-go-out from-the-house). 2.— You enjoy games and sports (by games and sport you are delighted) too much, on the other hand you neglect [your] studies; 3. … you started to learn Latin, nevertheless you haven’t read any [classical] work (of a classical author) yet. 4.— What are you asking (out) of me? First, I can’t understand classical Latin; then, classical authors are boring; moreover, I yearn for fresh air. 5.— Except for the goodness of fresh air, you’re a bit mistaken; you could already understand simple texts [in] (of) the classical language if you wanted [to] … Therefore, if you want, we shall begin tomorrow … 6. thus we shall get acquainted with recent and ancient authors. 7.— That’s alright, if we avoid the boring ones: even in our time there’s no shortage of authors (authors aren’t lacking) in all languages who are impossible to understand (cannot be-understood). 8.— Don’t be afraid (perf. subj.) at all! There are many Latin authors of all types: we shall find [what] (that which) we seek with no difficulty (not difficultly). 9.— I trust (to) you. But first let’s go for a walk! NOTES 1. Tempestas, -atis, f., the weather; occasionally the storm; tempus, -oris, n., time; the same difference as in English between or in German between Wetter and Zeit, most Romance languages having the same word for both concepts. 2. Delectaris: not unlike English, Latin often prefers to use the passive construction when verbs of state are involved (you are delighted by) rather than the active construction: ludos et athletica amas; besides the verb amare applies rather to people than to things. 3. Nondum, adv., not yet. 4. Opus, operis, n., work (cf. L. 41, N. 10); opus est + inf., it is necessary. Opera, æ, f., trouble, pain, effort (cf. L. 13, P. 2). 5. Ullus, -a, -um; any, anyone, isn’t negative by itself: the negative being found earlier in nondum; the use of the pronoun nullus, -a, -um, which, itself, is negative, would transform the phrase into an affirmative. 6. Desiderare, to miss something. 7. Bonitas, -atis, f., from bonus, -a, -um. Henceforth we shall no longer point out for you words in -tas, -tatis, f., which correspond to English words in -ty. Note that the correspondence plays more often on the form than on the meaning. 8. Excipio, -is, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum = ex + capio, to take out of, to withdraw, to except. Here in the ablative of the participle (abl. absolute). 9. Aliquantulum: we have seen quantus, -a, -um, how large; from which aliquantus, of a certain magnitude; and its diminutive aliquantulus, of a certain small size, i.e. of a certain smallness; here used adverbially.

10. Posses si velles: imperfect subjunctive corresponding to a conditional. This construction corresponds to the UNREAL PRESENT: you might be able (to do it today) if you wanted (but you don’t want to). 11. Consuetudo, -inis, f. habit, custom (L. 29, N. 13). Words in -do, -dinis are feminine; consuetudinem jungere, to become acquainted (i.e. to establish habitual relationships). 12. Placeo, -es, -ere, placui, i.v., to please. On a voting ballot (tessera, like a railroad ticket) the inscription placet means YES (NO is veto, I forbid). 13. Intellego, -is, -ere, intellexi, intellectum, inter + lego. 14. Haud is used in front of an adjective or an adverb in preference to non: it allows showing without ambiguity that THE NEGATIVE REFERS TO THE WORD WHICH FOLLOWS and NOT TO THE ENTIRE SENTENCE. 15. Ambulatum, is, we remind you, the supine of ambulare. The accusative of the supine is practically used only after verbs of movement: eo visum, I go to see. The ablative, which is in -u, is used only after certain adjectives: horribile visu, terrible to see. EXERCITATIO 1.— Where is little Johnnie? 2.— He’s playing ball with his peers. 3.— He prefers playing to working (to play than to work). He prefers play to work (than work). He puts play before work (He puts before play to work). 4.— It’s better to play when the weather is fair and to concentrate [on] (to) literature (letters) when it rains. 5.— If the weather were fair, I would willingly play ball with you. 6.— Do you like to play ball (the game of ball)? 7.— I like it (it pleases [me]), but it’s raining [cats and dogs] (with stones) today: I prefer to read a book . 8.— Let’s go into the library! Here’s a book [which] you’ve never read! Æqualis, -e, equal; here understood in age.— Lapis, lapidis, m., stone; both construction stone and precious stone: do you know the noun and the adjective LAPIDARY? Our notes occasionally repeat themselves: it’s because we seek both to simplify your work and to make you better acquainted with important words. SECOND WAVE Today we start the second wave: reread the first lesson, then try to reproduce the latin text from the English translation.

Lectio quinquagesima prima (51) How (whence) he had learnt to speak 1. First, we shall learn from a truly Latin master, [called] Aurelius Augustinus (by name), (by) what method Roman children used (perf. subj.) for learning Latin. 2. ”For I wasn’t an infant that couldn’t speak, but I was already a talking boy. 3. For older people didn’t teach me… 4. presenting words to me in some fixed order of instruction, as [they did] letters a bit later… 5. but I myself, when they named some thing and when, after that utterance, they gestured (moved their body) toward something… 6. I saw and understood that that thing was called by them [by making the sound] (by-means-of-this: that they-made-the-sound) when they wanted to indicate it. 7. So, words placed in their own [proper] places in various sentences and heard frequently… 8. I gathered little by little of which things they were the signs… 9. and I would already express my wishes through them.” 10. These sentences of Augustin, which we [abridged somewhat] (made somewhat shorter), show [well] enough that he didn’t learn Latin any differently [from the way] (than) we learnt [our] native language. From Saint Agustin's Confessions, I, 8. NOTES 1. Verus, -a, -um, true; veré, adv., truly. 2. Ad linguam discendam: we told you that Latin doesn’t use the infinitive when the use of a more precise mood is justified. Here one could have just as well used the active voice with the GERUND: ad discendum (linguam), in order to learn (the language). But Latin doesn’t like to put a complement after a GERUND or a SUPINE: it prefers to reverse the construction by putting it into the PASSIVE FORM and to use the gerundive (here discendus, -a, -um, which is to be learnt). 3. Infans, infantis, not speaking, baby. Fari, is a very ancient verb meaning to speak, but which isn’t used in the 1st person of the present indicative (for); 2nd person faris; inf. fari; perfect fatus sum. Child is puer, pueri, for a boy or puella, -æ, for a girl. But “the children”, as opposed to the parents, is liberi, -orum, m., if there are several of them, or again filius or filia according to the sex. 4. Farer is the first person singular of the imperfect subjunctive of that verb fari we have just seen (N. 3). 5. Major, -oris, m. and f., majus, n., irregular comparative of magnus, large. The superlative is maximus, -a, -um. 6. Præbeo, -es, -ere, -ui, -itum, furnish, offer; here in the present participle (præbens, -entis). 7. Doctrina, -æ, f., instruction, teaching. You already know doctus, learned. These two words come from the verb: doceo, -es, -ere, docui, doctum, teach, instruct.

Ordo, -inis, m., order, arrangement, alignment. 8. Litteræ, -arum, f. pl., letters, in the different senses of this word, including that of literature (cf. E. 50, P. 4); littera, in the singular, has a more restricted meaning: a letter, in the sense of a character (a, b, etc.). We can also say ad litteram, literally (figurative sense). 9. Secundum here is used as a preposition: after, according to; e.g., Euangelium secundum sanctum Johannem, the Gospel according to St. John. Secundus, -a, um, that which follows; whence second, and by extension, favourable. 10. Vox, vocis, f., voice, speech, word. 11. Aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, someone, something, is declined like the interrogative quis, quæ, quid except for the nominative singular feminine (cf. R.&N. 42, 4). You have also just seen this word in the ablative masculine singular (P. 4). 12. Moveo, -es, -ere, movi, motum, displace, move, remove. Motus, -ús, m., movement, motion. 13. Hóc (here in the abl., hence the apex) quod sonabant, because they made a sound. Sonare, to produce a sound (sonus, -i, m.). This clause is the complement of means of vocari, to be called, the verb of an infinitive clause (subject rem illam, that thing, agent ab eis, by them), which is itself the direct object of the verbs videbam and tenebam. 14. Creber, -bra, -brum, frequent; crebro here is an adverb. 15. Signum, -i, n., distinctive mark, standard, sign, signal. 16. Essent, imperfect subj. of esse (essem, esses, etc.). 17. Paulatim, little by little. It comes from paulum, little. 18. Colligo, -is, -ere, -legi, -lectum, to reassemble, gather. It comes from cum + legere. The latter literally means to collect. Derivatives: lectio, gathering, harvesting, lecture, lesson, and collectio, collecting, mustering, assembly, recapitulation, (cf. collection and the German word Lektion). 19. Jam isn’t automatically translated as already. It also means now, soon, henceforth. 20. Patrius, -a, -um, paternal, of one’s homeland. For patria, native land, comes from pater, patris, m., father. In Latin one says “paternal language” and not “mother tongue”. EXERCITATIO 1.— Why do children speak their native language so easily? 2.— Because they learn it according to nature without effort. 3.— They hear words and sentences relating to matters of everyday life so often… 4.— that the spoken words are easily gathered along with the knowledge of the things and kept [in] (by) the memory. 5.— I have a friend whose father was English, [and] mother Italian; they lived in France. 6.— For [this] (which) reason he learnt three languages without any difficulty. 7.— [He was] (To him) favored [by] a tremendous luck, (by) which many don’t

know how to use as successfully. 8.— I am less fortunate (I have less luck), for the recordings (discs) don’t have as great an effect as one’s parents’ conversation, but I nevertheless wish to make use of them as best [as] I can. Cottidianus, -a, -um, everyday, daily.— Notitia, -æ, f., understanding, notion. Quam ob rem, literally on account of (ob) which thing, can be written in a single word.— Faveo, -es, -ere, favi, fautum, to favour.— Virtus, -utis, virtue, force.— Sermo, -onis, language, discourse. SECOND WAVE Today we revise the second lesson. Even if you cannot consecrate more than a few minutes to it, don’t neglect this exercise.

Lectio quinquagesima altera (52) He hated Greek grammar 1. Why did I hate Greek grammar? Homer was distressing (bitter) to me. 2. I believe that even to Greek boys Vergil is such, when they are forced to learn him (so) as I [was] Homer. 3. The difficulty of learning in depth a foreign language sprinkled all the Greek charms of [those] mythological tales as if with bile. 4. For I didn’t know any [of] those words, and I was vehemently urged with savage terrors and punishments that I should know [them]. 5. For also [of the] Latin [words] at some point [when I was] a baby I knew inevitably none… 6. and nevertheless by observing I learnt [them] without any fear and torment… 7. amid the blandishments of [my] nannies and the jokes of those smiling at [me] and the hapiness(es) of those playing with [me]. 8. From this it becomes clear enough [that] an unfettered (free) curiosity has greater effect for learning those things than frightening constraint. NOTES 1. You have already seen odi, odisti, odisse, a verb which has only the perfect system (like nóvi and memini). Oderam is a pluperfect: I had taken against = I hated; it has therefore the sense of an imperfect. 2. Sic… ut…, in the same way… as. These two words, which are paired, are sometimes separated, as here, sometimes reunited in the word sicut, just as. 3. Ediscere = ex + discere: the prefix serves primarily to strengthen the force of the verb (idea of extraction). You find again in any case the passive construction seen in the preceding lesson (N. 2), but this time the gerundive (ediscendus, -a, -um) is in the genitive. Fel, fellis, n., bile. 4. Nossem: short form of novissem, pluperfect subjunctive corresponding to nóvi. As nóvi has the sense of a present, the pluperfect has therefore the sense of an imperfect: that I might know (see N. 1 above). Another example of the short form in the perfect system: amasti for amavisti, you loved; amassem for amavissem, that I might love. Note the resemblance between the romance and the short forms. For the time being don’t try to use them, but just note their existence. Besides, don’t let yourself be impressed by these tenses which are new to you: we will see them again in the next revision. 5. Utique, adv., to be sure. Aliquando, sometime, formerly. 6. Advertendo: ablative of the gerund of advertere, to observe; its compound animadvertere, to notice, is very often used. 7. Metus, -ús, m., fear; metuo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, to fear. 8. Cruciatus, -ús, m., torture, comes from cruciare, to torture; and this last comes from crux, crucis, f., gallows, cross. For the repertoire of insults: abi in malam crucem! go hang yourself! (go to the evil cross). 9. Blandior, -iris, -iri, -itus sum, flatter, cajole; whence the noun blandimentum (one can also say blanditia). 10. Nutrix, -icis, f.: nouns in -trix are feminine and correspond to the masculines

in -tor. E.g. spectator, spectator, spectatrix, female spectator. 11. Rideo, -es, -ere, risi, risum, to laugh; ludo, -is, -ere, lusi, lusum, to play. Arridens, -entis, and alludens are the present participles of the verbs derived from the two preceding ones. The prefix ad- (here transformed into ar… and al…) adds the idea of going toward, in other words of laughing and playing, not all alone, but with others. 12. Lætor, -aris, rejoice. Lætus, -a, -um, happy, whence lætitia, happiness, joy. 13. Luceo, -es, -ere, luxi, i.v., to shine. Elucere, ex + lucere: the notion of a flashing light, light bursting forth, whence to appear clearly. 14. Vis, vis, f., strength; acc. vim; abl., vi; irregular plural vires, virium. 15. Meticulosus, -a, -um (fr. metus, see N. 7 above) fearful, apprehensive, timid; meticulous is a derived sense: a person who is always afraid of not doing as he should, and is therefore solicitous. EXERCITATIO 1.— Children prefer playing to going to school (to play [rather] than go to school). 2.— Pupils who don’t know what must be learnt or do their homework badly, sometimes are beaten. 3.— If [you play] (you will have played) in school and [don’t finish] (won’t have finished) your homework, you will rightly be beaten. 4.— However, many things are learnt by playing. 5.— Children learn not a few things pertaining to the human trade while they play, particularly social life, at the same time as their language. 6.— The study of classical languages is not a boring annoyance, but a pleasant game. 7.— That isn’t true unless it is learnt by playing. 8.— Why couldn’t it be done? EXERCITATIO ALTERA 1.— Augustin considered that Vergil was distressing to Greek boys. 2.— They were compelled to learn him [in the same way] (so) as Roman boys (were forced to learn) Homer. 3.— Augustin knew not a word of Greek and he was nevertheless compelled to learn Homer. 4.— Moreover, he had to learn the grammar of a language which he had not learnt by means of ordinary speech. 5.— For that reason, [as a] boy, he hated both the Greek grammar and the language; [as an] adult, on the other hand, he understood that the method had been very bad. 6.— Homer was a Greek poet; Vergil, a Latin poet. Alumnus, -i; f., alumna, -æ, pupil (from alere, to nourish).— Vapulare: in spite of its active form, the verb has a completely passive sense, since it’s about receiving blows! It’s more like “to get a beating”. You are going to get a beating

will be vapulabis (future).— Discenda, nominative plural of the gerundive from discere, the things to be learnt. We could have said lectiones, lessons, but this word would not have been appropriate. Lectio is indeed lesson, but in the sense of actio legendi, the act of reading (e.g., the reading of such-and-such a manuscript, that is to say what one reads in that manuscript). Also, when you read «lectio quinquagesima tertia» tomorrow, remember that the lectio must be read and re-read, whereas the annotationes are simply adeundæ, things to be approached [to see], things to be consulted. Don’t wear yourself out uselessly: today’s lesson has been quite rich in instruction. Tomorrow the lesson will be easier: you will be able to take the opportunity to go into reverse. 2nd wave: 3rd lesson

Lectio quinquagesima tertia (53) He praised the natural method 1. In the previous lesson you saw [that] a learned man not only had used natural methods to learn his own language [as] an ignorant child… 2. but also having become an adult praised these methods consciously. 3. He would have loved the Greek language already [as] a child, if he had had discs at hand with which he could have learnt it without difficulty. 4. Aurelius Augustinus lived in the fourth century of our era. 5. [As] a young man he had taught rhetoric. [When] older he was appointed bishop of Hippo, in Numidia. 6. His chief works are The Confessions, from which we excerpted the sentences above, and [the books on] The City of God. 7. His kind of writing, although it is of pure Latinity, is quite easily read by us, and so we began from him. 8. However, it is not always very easy, for it often poses difficult problems. 9. Thereupon we shall see more recent authors, before we become (subj.) acquainted with some ancient ones. 10. For the sake of variety, we shall mingle [those] (which) excerpts with the customary lessons. 11. For we have not yet learnt [enough] (many enough) sentences and words about daily life. NOTES 1. Superiore. Comparatives form the ablative in -e whereas adjectives of the third declension form the ablative in -i. E.g.: oppressus est vehiculo veloci, he has been crushed by a fast vehicle; but vehiculo velociore, by a faster vehicle. We take this opportunity to remind you in passing that the AGENT is preceded by a (ab before a vowel) only if the agent is a living being. 2. Non sólum… sed etiam, not only… but also; a very common locution. You see otherwise that the two infinitive clauses which follow respectively the two terms of this locution are construed in parallel: non sólum… usum esse,— sed etiam… laudavisse, and both are direct objects of the main verb vidistis (at the beginning of P. 1). 3. In promptu habere, to have at hand. We have seen an analogous expression (L. 48, P. 2). The word promptus, -ús, is used only in the ablative, and in particular in this expression. There exists on the other hand promptus, -a, -um, the past participle of promo, -is, -ere, prompsi, promptum, draw out of, bring out of. Promere vinum e dolio, draw wine from the barrel. 4. Vivo, -is, -ere, vixi, victum, to live. Vixit, the perfect of this verb, means: he is dead (because he has finished living!). 5. Senior comparative of senex, -is, aged. Used as a noun, senex means the old man. 6. Creatus est, the perfect of creari (passive). Creare (active) means both create and name. Notice that episcopus, an understood ATTRIBUTE of the subject, is in the nominative (cf. L. 46, N. 16).— Hippo, -onis, now Bône, in Algeria.

7. Ejus and not suæ because the noun which replaces ejus (its antecedent) isn’t the subject of the clause. 8. Excerpo, -is, -ere, -cerpsi, -cerptum, extract; derived from carpo, -is, -ere, carpsi, carptum, gather. Quæ excerpta, neuter accusative plural. 9. Varietatis causá, for the sake of variety. Don’t forget that causá is in the ablative and that you have the same construction as in exempli gratiá (e.g.), for example. 10. Misceo, -es, -ere, miscui, mixtum, to mix, mingle. EXERCITATIO 1.— Hello! How are you? 2.— I don’t feel well. 3.— What’s wrong with you (what of bad is to you)? 4.— I have a headache. 5.— You have a headache? Didn’t you take a holiday in January? 6.— I didn’t have one, but if I had had [one], I would gladly have left for the mountains. 7.— To the mountains? I for one spent an eight-day holiday at Bourg-SaintMaurice, in the Alps. 8.— What did you do there? 9.— I did mountaineering and skiing (mountains I climbed and through snows by skis I slid). From «Conversations latines», Vita Latina, n.º 19, by Prof. Michel RAMBAUD's students P. 4 and P. 5: Laborare, to work, to suffer (laboriously, painfully!).— Bergintrum, oppidum sabaudiense, Bourg-Saint-Maurice, a city (fort) in Savoy. Sabaudiensis, -e, adj., derived from the noun Sabaudia, Savoy.— Alpes, -ium, f. pl., no singular, the Alps or the alp.— Mons, montis, m., mountain.— Nix, nivis, f., gen. pl., nivium, snow.— Narta, -æ, f., ski: We will mention again this word, which we allowed ourselves to slip in here, at the end of the next lesson.— Labor, -eris, labi, lapsus sum, glide. Have you noticed, while reading the exercise, that the subjects of sentences 6 and 9 are obviously feminine? Do grammatical notes bore you? Whereas grammar can, we believe, be dealt with as something very interesting, we understand very well that you are not yet persuaded. If it is so, take it just in small doses, but quite frequently. Little by little you will understand its interest and usefulness. You can certainly learn Latin as many enthusiasts have learnt radio: by sheer practice. Assembling parts with big strokes of the soldering iron and modifying them until they appear to work more or less correctly, they have sometimes achieved amazing results. But both for radioelectrics as for Latin, some theoretical knowledge allow us to save a considerable amount of time, as well as to broaden our cultural horizons. Now, grammar is to the practice of languages what mathematics are to applied technology: one should not overdo it, buyt a minimum is necessary to get out of the routinary.

Today the lesson is easy. If you have a moment of leisure left, don't forget to repeat the Latin text of the preceding lesson, trying not to look up the translation. And don't forget the 2nd wave: today you should revise 4th lesson.

Lectio quinquagesima quarta (54) Charlemagne 1. Charlemagne was [of] ample and robust [build] (in body), pre-eminent height, which, however, did not exceed the right one, … 2. rounded top of the head, very large and lively eyes, a nose a little above the average, beautiful silvery hair, [and] a happy and cheerful face. 3. He used to exercise regularly [in] horse riding and hunting … he delighted in frequent swimming. 4. And not content only with his native language, he also [applied himself] (invested effort) to learning foreign languages … 5. among which he so learned Latin that he was accustomed to speak equally in it as in his native tongue. 6. Greek, though, he could understand better than speak (it). 7. He used to delight in the books of St. Augustine, and in particular [those] (these) which are entitled On the City of God. 8. He cultivated the liberal arts most passionately, and [since he revered] (having revered) their teachers highly he endowed them with great honours … 9. He tried also to write, but an effort begun [that was] unseasonable and [that had] begun late succeeded insufficiently. From EINHARD (775-840), Life of Charlemagne (23 to 25) NOTES 1. Magnus, -a, -um, big, great; for height, one says procerus, -a, -um. 2. Corpore amplo, staturá eminenti, etc.: we have here a whole series of complements of quality in the ABLATIVE. Do you remember canis brevibus cruribus in Lesson 25? Emineo, -es, -ere, eminui, i.v., project, jut out, be above. 3. Excederet: imperfect subjunctive of excedo, -is, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, surpass, excel. 4. Apex, apicis, m., summit, top: a term applied in the same sense in mathematics and cosmography. 5. Præ + abl., preposition, before, in preference to…, also serves to form a sort of superlative: prægrandis, -e = grandissimus, -a, -um. 6. Canus, -a, -um, white: is used only of the hair and beard. Hence canities, -ei, f., which is a less annoying consequence of age than calvities (cf. L. 39, N. 5). 7. Facies, -ei, f., face, appearance. Hilaris, -e, smiling. 8. Equitare, to ride horseback; venari, to hunt; equitando, venando, ablative of the gerund, in/by riding horseback, in/by hunting. 9. Natatus, -ús, swimming; from natare, a verb one also finds in a shorter form: no, nas, nare, navi, i.v. 10. Tantum, adv., only, so much. Non (nec) tantum sed etiam is a common expression (see above L. 53, N. 2). 11. Sermo, -onis, m., speech; we will find below in the same sense: patria lingua. 12. Impendo, -is, -ere, -pendi, -pensum, dedicate to, spend in something. 13. Æquus, -a, -um, equal, level (all senses of the word); æqué, equally. We have

already seen æqualis, -e, equal (in size, in age); æqué… ac, in the same way as; simul… ac, at the same time as. 14. Oro, -as, -are, to speak; hence orator, orator, speaker. 15. Sit solitus = solitus sit, perfect of the semi-deponent verb: soleo, -es, -ere, solitus sum, be accustomed to. The passive form above has therefore an active (intransitive) sense. Cf. Old French SOULOIR: Two parts of it [of his time] he made, of which he used [soulait] to pass The one to sleep, and the other to do naught. LA FONTAINE 16. Et scribere: when et doesn’t connect two words to one another, it means also, but the second et in phrase 9 connects two adjectives: it therefore has the normal sense. 17. Posterus, that comes afterward (post + acc., after); postero die, the next day; posteritas, the future, one's descendants. For the use of præ, see N. 5 above. In præposterus, that arrives inopportunely, literally, put hind part foremost, præ however doesn’t have the same force as in prægrandis: it is the opposition between præ and post which suggests the idea of mischance. 18. Serus, -a, -um, late, belated; sero, adv., late. 19. Inchoare, to begin, make a draft, sketch. We shall tell you more further on about the “inchoative verbs”. It is also written incohare. EXERCITATIO 1.— What happened to you? Why has [your] leg been [put] (bandaged) in plaster? 2.— This happened on the christmas holidays. I was skiing in the Alps and had a very bad fall (I fell very badly). 3.— Did you break [your] leg? 4.— Yes. [I have to spend] (it-is-required I-spend[subj.]) two months with [my] leg (clad) in plaster; the previous month I spent in bed. 5.— Now I can walk, but with great care: [I always have to be careful] (always for-me care-is-to-be-taken) that I don’t fall. 6.— Therefore (by which thing) you can’t [do your swimming training] (train by swimming). 7.— It's of no importance: we’re in winter. 8.— You’re wrong! It is of some importance. In our city, we can swim at all seasons (times of the year): the public swimming pool is heated in winter. RES NOTANDA Excerpted from the dictionarly of DU CANGE, Paris 1733: Narta, a type of wooden sandals which the Finns and other neighboring peoples use to cross ice and extremely deep snow. They are nothing other than a thin and rather longish [piece of] wood, curved in its front part, in the middle of which there is a strap made of leather, [in] (to) which the foot is inserted, with another [made] (out) of twisted wicker placed behind, by which [the heels] (the posterior parts of the foot) are supported.

Accidit, impersonal verb, it happens or it happened; the present and the past have the same form; you can deduce from that that this verb belongs to the third conjugation.— Gypsum, i, n., plaster and also gypsum (mineral used to make plaster of Paris).— Natalicius, -a, -um, concerning birth (here, understood, of Christ); natalicia, -orum, n. pl., birthday.— Frango, -is, -ere, fregi, fractum, break, fracture. Here you have the proof that our NARTA, which must not have failed to surprise you (E. 53, P. 9), was not chosen lightly: our reference dates back to 1733 and at that time the word had already proved its worth a long time ago. 2nd wave: 5th lesson

Lectio quinquagesima quinta (55) You would keep me from working 1. Victor, [age] six (years born), [would like his father to buy] (expreses a desire that his father buy) him a drum. 2. His father, on the other hand, [says]: “[No] (I don’t want [to]), for you would keep me from working” (hinder me working). 3.— Not at all, answers Victor, for [I promise you that I will beat the drum only when you are sleeping] (I-promise to-you me to-be going-to-beat the-drum only withyou sleeping). 4. MOTHER.— James, I don’t want [you playing] (you play [subj.]) with Leo, for he is an [ill-mannered] (badly brought-up) little boy. 5. JAMES.— Then, Mother, do you want Leo to play with me, for I am a [wellmannered] (well brought-up) little boy? 6. When the Second World War was being waged, there happened such a great lack of food supplies… 7. that a certain man, suffering from hunger, was forced to eat his dog, which he loved a lot. 8. After he ate [it], he exclaimed [to] (with) himself, [while] looking at the bones: 9.— Wretched little Mordax, how well you would dine, if you were here. From Vita Latina, A. RODOT, sept. 1961. Proverbs 10. [One] donkey rubs [another] (donkey) (= one ignorant praises another) 11. Dogs which bark too loudly are considered more despicable (= the smaller they are, the more they bark). NOTES 1. Natus, perfect participle of nascor, -eris, -i, natus sum, to be born. 2. Impedires, imperfect subjunctive of impedio, -is, -ire, -ivi, -itum. 3. Polliceor, -eris, -eri, -itus sum, to promise. 4. Te dormiente, you sleeping: ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE inside an infinitive clause: polliceor me… pulsaturum esse. These last two words form a FUTURE INFINITIVE: future participle in -urus, -a, -um + present infinitive of the verb to be. Note that me is in the accusative, and te in the ablative. 5. Jacobus, James or Jacob. Leo, Leonis, Leo or Leon; leo, a common noun, lion (f., leæna, -æ). 6. Visne: velle, an irregular verb, here in the 2nd pers. sg. of the pres. ind., (vis), is construed with an infinitive clause. 7. Puerulus, diminutive of puer; f. puellula, from puella. 8. Bellum, -i, n., war. 9. Cibarius, -a, -um, related to food (cibus, -i, m.), here neuter plural (taken as a noun).

10. Tantus… ut: tantus, -a, -um, as great, so great, goes hand in hand, — be it with quantus, -a, -um, how great (e.g., tantus est labor quantum vis, there is as much work as you want [the work is as great as you want]; — be it with ut (and the subjunctive) as here. 11. Fames, -is, f., hunger. 12. Cogere = cum + agere, force to (cf. L. 46, N. 14); same conjugation as agere. 13. Misellus, diminutive of miser, -era, -erum, unhappy, wretched, unfortunate, unlucky (poor little…). 14. Cenares, adesses: imperfect subjunctives of cenare and of adesse. CARMEN Let us rejoice then! (continued) Our life is short, it will end in a short time. (twice) Death comes quickly, It snatches us ruthlessly, No one will be spared! (twice) Long live the Academy, long live the professors! (twice) Long live any member! Long live any members! May they always flourish! (twice) Mors, mortis, f., death.— Velociter, atrociter, are adverbs formed from the adjectives atrox, atrocis and velox, velocis.— Nemo, neminis = ne homo, not a man, nobody.— Nihil = ne hilum, not a hilum (black dot on a grain) i.e. nothing.— Parcetur: future of parco, -is, -ere, peperci, parsum (note nemini in the dative), literally: it will not be spared to anyone. The 3rd person of the PASSIVE is sometimes used for an impersonal sense (as the equivalent of French ON, German MAN, etc.). Libet (short i), it pleases; quodlibet, demonstrative adj. (n.), the one which pleases: otherwise put, no matter which, whichever; cf. English quodlibet; the corresponding pronoun is quidlibet, no matter what, whatever; the forms quilibet (m.) and quælibet (f.) are common to the pronoun and the adjective.— Flos, floris, is masculine, as fiore in Italian. 2nd wave: 6th lesson

Lectio quinquagesima sexta (56) Revision and Notes This revision is going to be rather long, since we are going to give you today a panorama of the two principal modes of Latin conjugation: the indicative and the subjunctive. But set your mind at ease: it’s just a revision of forms which you have seen already —apart from a few novelties, which will be appropriate to mention in passing— and not a lesson. In any case, if you think that the dose is too strong, don’t take it all at once, but return to it when your heart tells you to. 1. ACTIVE CONJUGATION 1st The present system (in Latin we say infectum, i.e. unfinished) includes three tenses: the PRESENT (præsens), the PAST (præteritum) and the FUTURE (futurum). We should know all three of them now, but perhaps it is useful to revise them: a) The present (present of the infectum):

1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 3rd mixed 4th conj.



manduco, I eat manducas, etc. exerceo, I exercise exerces, etc. ago, I do, I push agis, agit, etc., agunt rapio, I take, carry off rapis... rapiunt finio, I finish finis... finiunt

manducem, that I eat manduces, etc. exerceam, that I exercise exerceas, etc. agam, agas, etc. rapiam, rapias, etc. finiam, finias, etc.

b) The imperfect (past of the infectum) is conjugated in the same way in the five conjugations: Indicative


manducabam, -bas, etc. I was eating exercebam, agebam, rapiebam, finiebam

manducarem, manducares, etc. that I was eating exercerem, agerem, raperem, finirem.

c) The future (future of the infectum) exists only in the indicative, and it is generally the present subjunctive which takes the place of the future subjunctive (this is the same in French):

1st and 2nd conjugations, future in -bo, -bis, -bit, -bimus, -bitis, -bunt: manducabo, exercebo, I shall eat, I shall exercise. For the other conjugations, future in -am, -es, -et, etc. agam, rapiam, finiam. We have already called your attention to the differences existing between the forms of the present subjunctive and those of the future indicative (R&N. 42). These are as well, we said, the only difficulties of the Latin regular conjugation: now that you know them better, you see that they are not too bad. In any case you will find all of this once more in the grammatical appendix, in the form of tables which are easy to consult. We think that these repetitions in different ways are necessary, since, in order to know a word or rule well, the same goes as in order to know an object: one must have seen it many times, from different angles, and have grasped it or used it in different circumstances. 2nd Let us now look at the perfect or perfectum (finished) system: It’s quite simple: again it contains the same tenses as that of the infectum, i.e. PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE. But this time the actions are completely finished, as the word perfectum, which is, as you should recall, the perfect participle (passive) of the verb perficere (to perform completely, to finish), indicates. a) The perfect, which we have already seen, is nothing but the PRESENT of the perfectum. It serves first of all to express an action finished at the moment of speaking. E.g., vixit, the perfect of vivere, to live, means: he has finished living, otherwise put: he is dead. But it can have other uses which you will learn through usage (and which you will find again in the grammatical appendix). You should know that the form of the first person of the perfect is given in the dictionary: indeed, it’s enough to know it in order to be able to form the other tenses of the perfect system. We remind you of the conjugation of the perfect indicative, which is a little unusual: Singular


1. manducavi manducavimus I have finished eating: I have eaten 2. manducavisti manducavistis 3. manducavit manducaverunt (or sometimes manducavere) Likewise, we will have: exercui, egi, rapui and finivi (or finii).

Note once again that the perfect of the 1st conjugation isn’t always in -avi (e.g. dare forms dedi), that that of the 2nd conjugation isn’t always in -ui and that those of the other conjugations are even richer in irregularities. In order to obtain the perfect subjunctive, one replaces the endings: -i, -isti, etc., with the terminations: -erim, -eris, etc.: manducaverim, manducaverimus that I may have finished eating: that I may have eaten manducaveris manducaveritis manducaverit manducaverint Likewise: exercuerim, egerim, rapuerim and finiverim (or finierim). b) The pluperfect, or PAST of the perfectum, indicates that an action has been finished at a given moment of the past; it is to the perfect what the imperfect is to the present. In order to obtain the pluperfect indicative, one proceeds as above, but with the endings -eram, -eras, etc.: manducaveram manducaveramus I had finished eating: I had eaten manducaveras manducaveratis manducaverat manducaverant Likewise: exercueram, egeram, rapueram and finiveram (or finieram). In order to obtain the pluperfect subjunctive, one uses the endings: -issem, isses, etc.: manducavissem, manducavissemus that I might have finished eating: that I might have eaten manducavisses manducavissetis manducavisset manducavissent Likewise: exercuissem, egissem, rapuissem and finvissem (or finiissem). c) The future perfect or FUTURE of the perfectum indicates that the action will be completed at a given moment in the future. This tense exists only in the indicative; in the subjunctive, it is normally replaced by the perfect subjunctive (same principle as in the infectum: the future is replaced by the present). The (indicative) future perfect is obtained by adding the endings -ero, -eris, etc., -

erint to the root of the perfect: manducavero manducaverimus I shall have finished eating: I shall have eaten manducaveris manducaveritis manducaverit manducaverint Likewise: exercuero, egero, rapuero and finivero (or finiero). Note.— You will note that eram is also the imperfect indicative of the verb esse, that ero is its future (but it makes erunt and not -erint in the 3rd pers. pl.), and essem its imperfect subjunctive. 2. PASSIVE CONJUGATION It can easily be derived from the preceding one by very simple rules (cf. R&N. 42, 4) with rare exceptions: 1st In the present system (infectum), it’s enough to replace -o by -or (or -m by r), -s by -ris, -t by -tur, -mus by -mur, -tis by -mini, and -nt by -ntur. E.g., present indicative passive of manducare: manducor, I am being eaten, manducaris, manducatur, manducamur, manducamini, manducantur. Likewise: exerceor, -eris, etc., rapior, etc. We will likewise have the present subjunctive passive: manducer, manduceris, etc; exercear, etc.; rapiar; etc. and so forth for the other tenses of the infectum. As an exercise, try to find by yourself what the following are: a) manducabatur; b) raperis; c) rapieris; d) manducaremini; e) manducabimur. Answers: at the end. If you haven’t found raperis, it’s completely normal, since the corresponding active form is rapis: you have just bumped into one of those exceptions we mentioned above. To know more about this matter, refer to the grammatical appendix and compare the respective forms of each active conjugation and its corresponding passive one. 2nd In the perfect system (perfectum) the rule is even simpler: it’s enough to put together the perfect (passive) participle with an appropriate tense of the verb esse: a) Perfect indicative: manducatus sum,

manducati sumus

I have been eaten manducatus es manducatus est

manducati estis manducati sunt

Pay attention to agreement in gender and number: a woman has been eaten, mulier manducata est; some women … manducatæ sunt; something (neuter), manducatum est; some things, manducata sunt. Likewise, exercitus, actus, raptus, finitus … sum, es, etc. Perfect subjunctive: We use sim, sis, etc., which is the present subjunctive of esse: Manducatus sim, that I may have been eaten, manducatus sis, manducatus sit, manducati simus, sitis, sint. Likewise, exercitus sim, etc. b) Pluperfect indicative: Manducatus eram, I had been eaten, eras, etc., with the imperfect indicative of esse. Pluperfect subjunctive: Manducatus essem, that I might have been eaten, esses, etc., with the imperfect subjunctive of esse. c) Future perfect indicative: manducatus ero, I shall have been eaten, eris, etc., with the future indicative of esse. N.B.— In the finite forms (indicative subjunctive and imperative) deponent verbs are conjugated exactly like passive verbs. 3. AGREEMENT OF TENSES Let us just take advantage of this general view of the six tenses in order to say a few words about their use in the complex sentence. In sentences including several verbs, these are in principle put in the same tense, if the corresponding actions take place at the same time. In the opposite case, it is useful to remember that the tenses of the infectum and of the perfectum correspond two by two: Examples: 1º PRESENT: scio cur veneris, I know why you have come (present ind. and perfect [subj.!]), i.e. the PRESENT of the infectum and the PRESENT of the perfectum. 2º PAST: sciebam cur venisses, I knew why you had come (imperfect ind. and pluperfect subj.), i.e. the PAST of the infectum and the PAST of the perfectum. 3º FUTURE: sciam cur veneris, I shall know why you have come (future ind. and

perfect subj.). To be sure, other constructions are possible. For the time being, just be aware that the tenses of the same Latin name, even if one belongs to the infectum and the other to the perfectum, willingly find themselves together. 4. THE CONDITIONAL This mood has no specific form in Latin, so it is replaced by the subjunctive and sometimes by the indicative. Just note: 1º Possum si volo, I can if I want: simple assumption (indicative). 2º Possim si velim, I could if I wanted to (if, one day in the future, I came to want it): this second turn of phrase is called potential. It corresponds in effect to a situation which might be realized in the future given certain conditions. We see that the potential is expressed in Latin by the present subjunctive (present of the infectum). 3º Possem si vellem: same translation as the preceding, but while understanding «in fact, at present, I don’t want to». This time it’s a present unreal, which is expressed in Latin by the imperfect subjunctive (past of the infectum). 4º Potuissem si voluissem, I could have if I had wanted (but I didn’t want to): This is the past unreal, which is expressed in Latin by the pluperfect subjunctive (past of the perfectum). Oof!, you will say at the end of this long revision. If you have endured up to now, and if this last lesson has been interesting to you, you can consider yourself a full member of the Latin family already! If, on the other hand, you experience difficulties, don’t despair nontheless: it’s just that the beneficial effect of repetition hasn’t yet been fully realised. Patience! Your perseverance will be rewarded sooner or later: Labor omnia vicit improbus, work conquered all [because it was] persistent. In any case, don’t forget the second wave. Today you should revise Lesson 7. Answers to the exercise above: a) 3rd pers. sg. impf. ind.; b) 2nd pers. sg. pres. ind.; c) 2nd pers. sg. fut. ind.; d) 2nd pers. pl. impf. subj.; e) 1st fut. ind.

Lectio quinquagesima septima (57) Aulus, eat your soup! 1. FATHER.— Aulus, eat your soup! At eleven o’clock in the evening, you should be sleeping … 2. AULUS, replying (offering resistance) to [his] father without shame.— [No] (Not at all)! I won’t eat the soup!— He begins to cry. 3. F.— If you [don’t] (won’t) eat the soup, you will rightly get a beating! 4. A.— It’s a crime! They always give [me] those things to eat which [disgust me] (set-in-motion disgust to-me).— He cries more intensely. 5. CHORUS OF NEIGHBORING TENANTS.— Look at the butcher of [his] children! 6. F., yielding a little.— What [on earth] (by Hercules) is not to revolt you (be not disgusting to you)? 7. A., suddenly placated.— I would gladly eat ham! 8. F.— Ridiculous! There’s no ham in the refrigerator. Moreover, the delicatessen (pork-butcher’s shop) is closed. 9. A.— Everyone is conspiring against me.— What sort of life I lead!— He cries very intensely. 10. CHORUS OF TENANTS.— That boy is being tortured by an unworthy father! 11. MOTHER-IN-LAW.— My son-in-law, I opine that in my day children used to be brought up much more properly. 12. F.— You, mother-in-law, go to hell! (L. 52, N. 8)— Nevertheless, in order to keep the peace, he goes down the stairs, wakes up the pork-butcher supplicating[ly], [and] finally returns home with a ham. 13. Now you have to eat the ham and go to bed. 14. A., behaving [as a] perfectly detestable [kid].— I want you to eat with me. 15. F.— Are you crazy? Am I to eat ham after [dessert] (second table)! 16. A.— You say so because maybe you wish to poison me (kill me by poison)!— He cries again. 17. F., strongly moved.— My son, why did you think up such a great barbarity? I shall show [you] your mistake.— Fighting off (to) nausea with difficulty, he eats half of the ham. 18. Aulus, yelling at the top of his voice, suddenly produces a torrent of tears. The chorus of tenants and the mother-in-law ask the reason [for] (of) [these] latest torments. 19. A.— He ate himself the part I wished for! NOTES 1. Deberes, imperfect subjunctive of debere (deberem, -es, etc.); here, you should (but you don’t). It is the PRESENT CONTRARY TO FACT (cf. R&N. 56). In fact, the subjunctive isn’t necessary and the indicative debes is sufficient. For a Latin, one MUST or MUST NOT. But Aulus’s father is a weak father… For the sentence to remain correct, it is necessary to understand: si obœdiens esses, if you were obedient…; what follows will show clearly that it is the PRESENT CONTRARY TO FACT from R&N. 56, 4! 2. Pugnare, to fight; repugnare, to rebel, resist. These two verbs are normally

intransitive, hence patri in the dative. 3. Edam (edes, edet, edemus, edetis, edent), future of edere, to eat (perf. édi, supine esum). There is another verb édere, which means to produce, publish (perf. edidi, supine editum). 4. Fas est, it is permitted (by divine law); nefas, equally indeclinable, is the opposite of fas. 5. Carnifex, -icis, m., butcher; caro, carnis, f., meat. 6. Cedo, -is, -ere, cessi, cessum, to proceed, give way, yield. 7. Armarium, -ii, n., originally, the place where are found one’s arms (arma, -orum, 8. Qualis, qualis, quale, which (of what nature, in what state, in what condition); it is normally associated with talis, -is, -e, such. E.g.: qualis pater, talis filius, of which qualities the father [is], of such qualities [is] the son (or like father, like son). 9. Excruciare, we have already seen crux, crucis, f., and cruciare (L. 52, N. 8); the prefix ex- reinforces the verb even more. 10. Socrus, -ús, just as nurus (see exercise), are feminine nouns of the 4th declension. Don’t forget that in this declension, the form in -us can correspond just as well to the nominative, vocative, and genitive singular as to the nominative, vocative, and accusative plural, whereas a word of the 2nd declension ending in -us must be in the nominative singular (the only exception being deus, dei, whose vocative is also deus). 11. Expergefacere, to awake; another compound of facere (same conjugation). What is its passive? — Answer: expergefieri, since fieri serves as the passive of facere. 12. Manduces and eas are both in the present subjunctive, required by the main verb oportet (which is constructed with or without ut). 13. Venenum, -i, n., poison. 14. Interficio, -is, -ere, -feci, -fectum, to kill, to assassinate; another compound of facere! Note that the a transforms itself into i in the present system (infectum). We have also seen already conficere and perficere. These three verbs form their passive regularly. E.g. : interficior, -eris, -i, -fectum esse. Compare with N. 11! 15. Immanitatem, you must have found out by yourself, it’s the accusative singular of immanitas, -atis, f. 16. Cruciatuum: gen. pl. of the 4th declension. 17. Inquiro, -is, -ere, inquisivi, inquisitum, (in + quæro), to search, inquire (cf. inquisition). 18. Comedit, he eats; comédit, he has eaten, he ate. EXERCITATIO 1.— [One’s] wife’s mother is called mother-in-law. 2.— The husband of the mother-in-law is the father-in-law; the mother-in-law is the wife of the father-in-law. 3.— I am the son-in-law of my father-in-law. 4.— The daughter-in-law and the mother-in-law are said to quarrel frequently

[with one another] (among themselves). 5.— They say that the daughter-in-law and the mother-in-law rarely love [one another] (among themselves). 6.— The main reason why the mother-in-law rebukes her son-in-law or her daughter-in-law concerns the upbringing of the children. 7.— All people prefer the [time] (age) [when] (at which) they were young to the remaining [periods of time] (ages). 8.— In our day, they say, everything [went] (had itself) much better than in yours! Nurus, -ús, f., daughter-in-law.— Socer, -eri, m., father-in-law, and gener, -eri, m., son-in-law, belong both to the 2nd declension.— Ait, aiunt, defective verb, s/he says, they say. Second wave: the 8th lesson

Lectio quinquagesima octava (58) At the grocery store 1. A mother of a family is going to do the shopping. At the butcher’s, she buys beef (veal, mutton, pork). 2. She asks for bread from the baker. She gets out of the bakery. In the provision-market she shops for various vegetables. She enters the grocer’s shop. 3. GROCER.— Good day, ma’am! How can I help you (what are you looking for)? 4. LADY.— I need (There is need of) salt, pepper, one bottle of oil, one litre of vinegar, one kilo of sugar, chickpeas, dry beans, [and] lentils. 5. G.— What amoung of beans? What amount of lentils? 6. L.— Two kilograms of beans, [and] one and a half pounds of lentils (I will buy). 7. G.— I’ll give you a box in which you can put all of these things. 8. L.— Thanks! Give me also flour, pasta (pl.), [and] rice. 9. G.— These things are now provided in small bags: it is neater to supply bags than to take grain (pl.) from a sack with one’s hands, and easier than to weigh [it] out on the scales. 10. L.— Do you have [toilet soap] (soap suitable for cleanliness)? 11. G.— I also have this one, ma’am. Just as the sun [drives away] clouds, so does “Moonlight” soap drive away dirt! NOTES 1. Mater familias, pater familias (or familiæ), plural matres familias (-æ or arum), patres f… In this expression, familias isn’t declined. But the expression retains a regular form if one replaces familias with familiæ (gen. sg. of familia, -æ) or familiarum (gen. pl.). 2. Obsonare (some times obsonari), to provide oneself with necessities (food), to do the shopping, to buy (sense more restricted than emere). 3. The adjectives bubulus, -a, -um; vitulinus; etc.; correspond to the nouns: bos, bovis, m., (gen. pl. boum, dat. abl. pl. bobus or bubus), ox, bull; vitulus, -i, m., calf; ovis, -is, f., sheep (wether is vervex, -ecis, m.); and sus, suis, m., (3rd decl.), pig. For this last animal, we can also say porcus, -i, m., the noun to which the adjective porcinus corresponds. 4. Peto, -is, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itum, to seek to gain a place, to go looking for something, to claim, to seek. We have seen this verb in the first sense (L. 10, P. 8). In the other senses, we say petere aliquid ab aliquo, ask/seek/demand something from someone (ablative, and not dative, because the one is going to receive FROM someone and not give something TO them). 5. Macellum, -i, market; olus, oleris, n., vegetable. 6. Oleum, acetum, saccharum, 2nd declension neuters; sal, salis, m., abl. sale; kilogramma, -atis, n., a word of Greek origin (according to Greek, one should write chilo or even chilio, but the international symbol for x 1000 is k. Although it is faulty, we have preferred to follow current usage). Lastly, piper, eris; cicer, -eris; are neuters of the 3rd declension. 7. Sesqui- is a prefix which means x 3/2. E.g.: sesquipedalis, one and a half feet

long (3/2 of a foot); likewise semi-, x 1/2; semipedalis, half a foot long. 8. Lanx, lancis, f., dish; in the plural, lances, -ium, scale (cf. L. 20, N. 3). 9. Pendo, -is, -ere, pependi, pensum, to weigh; a transitive verb and sometimes intransitive. E.g.: hic saccus 100 kg pendit, this sack weighs 100 kg. Appendo, -is, -ere, appendi, appensum, to weigh (less used, but always transitive); e.g. condimentarius cicera appendit, the grocer weighs the chickpeas. 10. Sapo, -onis, m., nubes, -is, f.; sordes, -ium, f. pl.; this last yields the adjective sordidus, dirty, filthy, sordid. 11. Mundus, -a, -um, proper, clean; comparative mundior, -ioris (neuter: mundius, same genitive); superlative mundissimus (not to be confused with mundus, i, m., the world); antonym: immundus, dirty, unclean; mundities, -ei, f., cleanliness, whence doing oneself up. 12. Pello, -is, -ere, pepuli, pulsum, to push, shove, impel; depello, -is, -ere, depuli, depulsum, to push far away, to chase. EXERCITATIO 1.— Cato, in [his] book On Agriculture, describes the salting of hams in this fashion: 2.— It is required to salt the hams as follows either in a large-earthenwarestorage-jar or a smaller-earthenware-storage-jar. 3.— You will sprinkle (fut. imp.) salt on the bottom of the large or not-so-large storage jar, you will then place a ham… 4.— let the skin face downwards; you will cover (fut. imp.) the whole [ham] with salt. 5.— After that you will put (fut. imp.) another [ham] on top; you will cover (fut. imp.) it in the same fashion. 6.— Beware that the meat does not touch the meat. 7.— You will cover (fut. imp.) all [of them] that way. 8.— When you (will) have already arranged all [of them], cover (pres. imp.) [them] on top with salt so that the meat doesn’t show; you will make (fut. imp.) it uniform. 9.— When they (will) have already been in the salt [for] five days, you will take all [of them] out (fut. imp.) along with their salt. 10.— Then you will make [fut. imp.] bottom [those] which (will) have then been top, and you will cover (fut. imp.) and arrange (fut. imp.) [them] in the same manner. 11.— After twelve days in all, you will take out (fut. imp.) the hams and wipe off (fut. imp.) all [of] the salt [thoroughly] (well) with a sponge, you will smear [them] all over (fut. imp.) with oil, [and smoke them for two days] (hang them in smoke the-space-of-two-days). 12.— On the third day, you will take [them] down (fut. imp.), smear (fut. imp.) [them] all over with mixed oil and vinegar, [and] hang (fut. imp.) [them] in the meat-rack. 13.— Neither maggots (sg.) nor worms will touch [them].

M. Porcius Cato (-235 to -149) fiercely sustained the fight against Carthage. He wrote the De Agriculturá of which we give you this extract as an exercise. The same shows that the salting of the hams is not from yesterday. Today the exercise is a bit long, but it isn’t difficult. As it entails quite an abundant vocabulary, we don’t ask you to try to retain it. Simply note the use of the FUTURE IMPERATIVE: sternito, ponito, etc. (see grammatical appendix). Note, too, the subjunctives spectet (so spectare); tangat, (so tangere, 3rd conjugation); appareat (so apparere, 2nd conjugation) but also the future tangent. But if you are courageous and if you still have a few minutes to spend, we won’t prevent you from taking a dictionary and looking up the declension of the nouns and the principal tenses of the verbs about which you may have doubts. Thus you will find: dolium, -ii, n., obruo, -is, -ere, -rui, -rutum, etc. Second wave: the 9th lesson

Lectio quinquagesima nona (59) A water mill 1. Abbot Bear established a monastery, namely located on the River Indre, … 2. in a recess of a mountain over which a château now rises, called by the same name [as the monastery] (by which the monastery [is also known]). 3. As the [friars] (brothers) pulverized (subj.) the wheat necessary for their sustenance turning the millstone by hand, … 4. [he had the idea] (it seemed [good] to him) to erect a mill in the bed itself of the River Indre [to replace] (instead-of) the toil of the brethren. 5. Having embedded piles in the river, [and] having gathered heaps of large stones, he made a dam… 6. and collected by means of a channel the water, by whose force the wheel of the device was driven around with great rolling motion. 7. By this work, he relieved the toil of the monks, and entrusted it to one of the brethren. 8. Thus was the necessary toil carried out. 9. Which sentences have been excerpted from the Lives of the Fathers, [a book which] (which book) was written by Gregory of Tours. You will find a more complete extract of this story, and nearer to the original text, in Textes latins du Moyen Âge, by Jean DELANNOY (Éditions O.C.D.L., Paris). NOTES 1. Abbas, -atis, m., abbot (superior of a monastery). 2. Scilicet = scire licet, it is permitted to know, to wit. 3. Anger, -eris, m., the river Indre (a tributary of the Loire, in France). Fluvius, -ii, m., or flumen, -inis, n.; have the same sense: river. 4. Recessus, -us, m., from recedere, a fold, remote place, recess. 5. Castrum is a rarity because this word is used only in the plural: castra, -orum, n. pl., a camp. Its diminutive castellum, -i, n., means fortificaton, fortified castle. Cui, dative of the relative pronoun qui, quæ, quod, governed by the verb imminet (imminere, to be suspended above; we had already seen eminere, L. 54, N. 2). 6. Triticum, -i, n., wheat; frumentum, -i, n., corn, grain, is more common. 7. Victus, -us, m., a derivative from vivere, to live. 8. Minuo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, to lessen (cf. minute), whence comminuere, comminuerent (3rd pers. pl. impf. subj.). 9. Pro + abl., in front of, in place of…, it would be more correct to use the gerundive of an appropriate verb, e.g.: ad laborem fratrum levandum, in order to lighten (levare) the work of the brethren. 10. Molendinum, -i, n., mill. In classical Latin, one would rather say mola, -æ, millstone or in the pl. molæ, -arum, mill (cf. the title of this lesson). 11. Alveus, -i, m., hollow, trough, site of a river bed (cf. alveolus). 12. Defigo, -is, -ere, -fixi, -fixum: don’t confuse figere, to plant, to thrust, or to

drive in, and fingere, finxi, fictum, to fashion, to invent. Sublica, -æ, f., post, pile, pile work. Sublicis defixis: ablative absolute; likewise, further on, congregatis acervis. 13. Acervus, -i, m., heap; coacervare, to heap up, to pile up, to amass; congregare, to gather together, to collect (from grex, gregis, m.). 14. Claustrum, -i, n., enclosure, barrier (cf. English cloister); comes from claudere, to close. 15. Canalis, -is, m., channel. 16. Colligo, -is, -ere, legi, lectum = cum + lego. 17. Fabrica, -æ, f., denotes rather a forge, smithy, factory or fabrication, manufacture; here machine, device, in the sense of a manufactured object. Volvo, is, -ere, volvi, volutum, to roll, to turn (around an axle); derivatives: volubilitas, capacity for turning, and in the figurative sense: flexibility, agility, fluency of language or speech; volumen, -inis, n., book, because in olden times books were ROLLS of papyrus or of parchment. 18. Circumagere, to push in a circular motion, to cause to turn. Here in the perfect passive. 19. Uni, dative singular of unus (see R&N. nº 49). This lesson, whose original text we have already modified considerably in order not to trouble your mind, provides you with an example of Latin which is none too classical and not to be taken as a model. We have nevertheless resolved to give you in this lesson, as well as in the following one, examples of low Latin, not to say kitchen Latin. Remember simply that these brave people didn’t wait until they could emulate Cicero to dare to write in Latin. So don’t hesitate to do as they did. Nothing will prevent you later from perfecting yourself by reading good authors and by allowing trustworthy friends to correct your texts. You can also perfect yourself in an amusing fashion by noting some flaws of low Latin: for example, the use of improper words, or those which are unnecessarily complicated, and the abuse of prefixes or suffixes. Likewise today too many people, forgetting the resources of their mother tongue, don’t hesitate to use words such as ‘to position’ when “to put” would be more than enough. EXERCITATIO 1.— Wheat or wheat is ground by the millstone; that is, it is reduced into flour. 2.— Ancient mills were driven by the power of men or of animals. 3.— In the middle age[s], mills driven by the power of rivers were already widespread. 4.— In Holland, on the other hand, the power of the wind, which can move the [blades] (wings) of machines [which are] not [very] different, was used not only for milling wheat, but also for draining off the water of streams and swamps. 5.— Now all these things have fallen into disuse, and can be seen only in pictures. 6.— For modern mills are driven by electric power.

Tero, -is, -ere, trivi, tritum, to grind, to crush, to smash; in the figurative sense, note trita via, a beaten path.— Haurire, to draw [a liquid] (4th conj., perf. hausi, supine haustum); exhaurire, to drain; more precisely, to pump is: antlare and we also have exantlare, to empty completely with a pump, whence to drain (in the proper and the figurative senses). We have already seen antlia (L. 40, P. 9). Antlia Pneumatica, the Air Pump, is also a constellation of the Southern Hemisphere.— Palús, -udis, f., a swamp (consider paludism, a rarer name for malaria); its homonym, pálus, -i, m., stake, post, has a sense less precise than sublica, which we allowed ourselves to substitute for it in phrase 5 of the lesson.— Obsolesco, -is, -ere, -levi, -letum, go out of fashion (cf. the English adj. obsolete). Second wave: the 10th lesson

Lectio sexagesima (60) Chemist’s Latin 1. Pharmacists, before they could [practise] (comply with) their profession, once had to [take] (give) an oath. Here’s a transcript of this oath: 2. “… they will have true and fair weights from the pound all the way to the «scruple». 3. They will not put in their clysters [any] (some) medicine whose virtue has been caused to evaporate or has been spoiled. 4. They will not [substitute] (put) one medicine for another in [any] (some) prescription… 5. and if they don’t happen to have (subj.) an herb or medicine [that has been written] (put) in the prescription, they will inform (to) the prescribing [physician] (master), so that he may make provision [concerning it] (around this). 6. They will not give [any] (some) clyster nor [any] (some) other medication nor knowingly permit [it] to be given… 7. unless they have (subj.) a prescription for [it] (this) specifically prescribed by some [physician] (master). 8. They will not accept an [assistant] (shaveling) unless he knows (subj.) [how] to understand, speak and write Latin and French… 9. and before [accepting] (they accept) the same, he will be [required] (held) to swear all the aforesaid oaths. 10. In Paris, on the 2nd of October, 1422”. NOTES 1. Antequam is construed with the INDICATIVE when it indicates simply that, of two events, one precedes the other, and with the SUBJUNCTIVE when used to highlight an intention, hypothesis, etc. (whence the use here of possent, impf. subj.) 2. Jus, juris, n., law, (legal) right … or juice, sauce! Jurandus, -a, -um, gerundive from jurare: juramentum (below, P. 9) is less classical than jusjurandum (gen. jurisjurandi). 3. Libra, -æ, f., 1 pound (weight) = 12 ounces = 288 scruples; uncia, -æ, f., ounce (weight), or inch = 1/12 of a foot (length); scrupulum = 1/288 of a pound or of a foot. 4. Clyster, -eris, m., or clysterium, -ii, n.: a syringe used for administering enemas. 5. Virtus, -utis, f., virtue, here force. 6. Corrumpere = cum + rumpere. Rumpo, -is, -ere, rupi, ruptum, to break. 7. Receptus, -a, -um: perfect participle of recipere, to accept, = re + capere. Used here in a sense not too far removed from that of its English derivative recipe. 8. Circa: prep. + acc., around, concerning (use here doubtful). 9. Aliquis, -qua, -quod, indefinite adj.-pronoun, some, a certain. 10. Clericus, -i, m., clerk (cf. clerical). 11. Here is a more correct form for phrase 8: non accipient adjutorem nisi Latine et Gallice intellegere, loqui, scribere possit (accipient, recipient: future

indicative). Likewise, in phrase 9, tenebitur jurare is not classical; it would be better to say: (totum) jusjurandum supradictum dare debebit. EXERCITATIO 1.— Hello, Mr. Pharmacist (or Mrs. Pharmacist), do you have a remedy [for] (suitable for curing) catarrh? 2.— Here! Ten drops into the nose from this flask morning, noon and evening (pour)! 3.— Before you go to bed, [take] two pills from that box with a hot drink (absorb). 4.— I want also a cream against sunburn(s). 5.— If you rub (fut. perf.) [your] skin with this cream, [you will never have] sunburn (will never harm you). 6.— I don’t think so, my skin is [sensitive to] (injured at once by) even the least burning. 7.— Then beware the sun; don’t lie on the [beach] (sand) all afternoon (time). 8.— I will [follow] (make use of) your advice… I want toothpaste too… what [else] (further)? I’m certain I have forgotten something. 9.— Do you want [shaving] soap (for shaving the beard)? 10.— By no means! I use an electric razor… Ah! I [know] (found)! I want a toothbrush. Pyxis, -idis, f., box.— Jaceo, -es, -ere, jacui, v.i., to lie down; not to be confused with jacio, -is, -ere, jeci, jactum, v.t., to throw.— Peniculus, -i, m., brush; penicillus, i, m., paintbrush. Note the expression vel minima, even the least, and more generally vel + superlative (of an adjective or adverb); vel optimé, even in the best possible way. Vel used as a conjunction means or (non-exclusive) whereas aut corresponds to an exclusive or. Second wave: the 11th lesson

Lectio sexagesima prima (61) To your health 1. APPIUS.— Then let each one drink up his glass. You will take [your] example from me. I drink this to your health, Marcus! 2. MARCUS.— I accept [it] from you with pleasure. Instead of which people say “I’m waiting!” 3. I for one do not refuse [it]. I will refuse nothing [because of you] (for your cause). 4. APPIUS.— You, next, drink-to-the-health [of] (for) the others. 5. MARCUS.— Titus, I drink half a cup to you! 6. TITUS.— I pray that it [is to your benefit] (to-you it-be to-good). May it be good and advantageous to you. 7. To your health! (To your success! is more coarsely said). 8. APPIUS.— But why is the cup [held up] (delaying)? Why is it not proceeding? 9. [Are we running out of wine] (does the wine fail us)? Where are your eyes, boy? Fly, bring two pints of the same kind [of wine]! 10. DELIA.— I [would have done better] (would like) to have married [any old fool] (to a mushroom), rather than (that I married to) my Marcus. 11. CYNTHIA.— Why so, pray [tell]? Has it so quickly [turned sour] (come together badly) between you? 12. DELIA.— And [it will never go well] (there will never be agreement) with such a husband. You see how I am dressed-in-rags! [This is how] (Thus) [he allows] (suffers) his wife to leave (from) the house. 13. May I perish if I am not often ashamed to go out in public, when I see how elegant the others are… 14. who married (to) much poorer husbands. After ERASMUS. You will find more complete extracts of these texts in Exercices latins 4e/3e, by A. BOURGEOIS and J. LUPIN (Éd. Hachette, Paris) ERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM, Dutch scholar, writer and philosopher (1467-1536). He contributed to the renaissance of Latin which, you could notice, had hardly improved since the barbarian invasions. NOTES 1. Prosum, to be useful = pro + sum; is conjugated like sum, but with the addition of a d in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular of the present indicative (prodes, prodest), in the infinitive (prodesse), in the imperfect (proderam, prodessem) and in the future indicative (prodero). As with other verbs, the PERFECT system poses no problem (profui, profueram, etc.). Prosim, -sis, -sit, etc., present subjunctive; prosit, literally may it profit, here, to your health! (as in German, except that the s is not pronounced as a z). 2. Ebibere, to drink completely (bibere). 3. Quisque, each one; here in the nominative (subject of ebibat); f. quæque, n.

quidque. Suum refers to calicem (calix, -icis, m.): the adjective is often separated from the noun it modifies by another word (here quisque), which allows to highlight the expression by a symmetrical construction. 4. Propinare + dat., to drink to the health of… 5. Abs = ab (or a before a consonant). 6. Vulgus, -i, n., the people, the crowd; even though it is in the 2nd declension and ends in -us, this noun is NEUTER: the accusative remains therefore vulgus. It is not used in the plural. Derivative: vulgaris, -is, -e, common (of the common people). 7. Præstolari, to wait; from præsto = præ + sto, to stand in front. This verb is little used. 8. Equidem = ego quidem, as for me. 9. Præbibere: another compound of bibere (see above, N. 2). 10. Precari, to pray. 11. Proficere: compound of facere. 12. Cessare, to delay, to slow down. 13. Obambulare: the prefix ob- gives the idea of going in front of… 14. Deficit nos vinum: deficit is construed with the accusative (nos). Another example: pecunia Juliam deficit, Julia runs out of money (literally, money abandons Julia). Note the difference between deficere, which denotes a new state, and deesse, to be lacking, which denotes a permanent state. 15. Nubere + dative: see above, L. 43, N. 16. 16. Fungus, -i, m., literally: mushroom. In case of need, make a note of the potential use of this word as an insult! 17. Nec umquam = et numquam. 18. Patior, -eris, -i, passus sum, to suffer. Think of the Passion. 19. Multo pauperioribus: before a comparative, adverbs of quantity (multum, parvum, etc.) become multo, parvo, etc. 20. Nupsere: it’s the other form of 3rd person plural of the the perfect indicative (beside nupserunt). EXERCITATIO 1.— Which wine do you want to drink, [red] (dark) or white? 2.— I prefer the red. For the white [gives me] (creates) indigestion. 3.— It is better that you drink [mineral] (medicinal) water. 4.— What did you say? I am not ill nor do I wish to take any medicine. 5.— [You are lucky] (fortune serves you), I suffer from many ailments. 6.— I often lie down with a fever; I cough with a harsh cough. 7.— I am arthritic and gouty. 8.— I itch [all over] (with the whole skin). 9.— I have been bitten by a rabid dog. A rabid dog bit me. 10.— [Those] who are always ill live a very long time. 11.— [Hypochondriacs] (who to themselves always seem ill) enrich doctors and pharmacists.

Febris, tussis, vis have their accusative singular in -im and ablative singular in i.— Mordeo, es, ere, momordi, morsum.— Diu, adv. for a long time; comparative diutius, superlative diutissimé.— Locupletare (from locuples, etis, adj., rich). To finish this lesson, it would be good if you revised the grammatical appendix, § 24. And don’t forget the second wave Today lesson nº 12


checking the

Lectio sexagesima altera (62) A last wish 1.— You want to accept neither a small glass of rum nor a cigarette? 2. But go on, perhaps there is something else [you wish] (to-you in wishes), said the magistrate to a (certain) convicted [man], five minutes before his execution. 3.— Certainly, [Your Honor] (Mister Judge), he answered, since childhood I have always wished with all my heart to learn Hebrew! 4. As a [local] newspaper (of a certain city) had published this marriage advertisement: 5. «Estate manager’s daughter, 30 years [of age] (born), [good figure] (with wellformed body), most charming nature, [with great prospects] (hoping for many things), and owning an ultra-modern farm, wishes to marry (to) a young man, etc.» 6. Someone wrote back: “Send a list of [your] prospects, and a photograph of the farm”. 7. A (certain) car driver, when, adorned with white wings, he approached Saint Peter, asked by the doorkeeper of paradise what had happened to him, answered thus: 8.— I don’t understand what happened (perf. subj.): scarcely a few minutes ago I was [happily] (happy) driving [my] car with [my] wife… 9. I remember only her last words: 10. «If you wanted (pres. subj.) to lend me the steering wheel, you would really be (pres. subj.) an angel!» From Vita Latina (no 5, Sept. 1958, by G. COTTON). NOTES 1. Pocillum, -i, n., small glass, diminutive of poculum. 2. Forsitan (or forsan + subj.), perhaps = fors sit an (fors, fortis, f., chance). An, conj. is it that…?, is generally construed with utrum; e.g.: nescio utrum loqui an silere debeam, I don’t know whether I should speak or remain silent. 3. Aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, something; alius quis, alia quæ, aliud quid, something else. 4. Judex, -icis, m., judge; judicium, -ii, n., judgment. 5. Totá… mente, with all my mind (heart); another example of separation of the two syntactically related words. 6. Diarium, -ii, n., comes from dies, -ei, m. or f., day. We have already seen diurnarius, journalist. 7. Cum, conj., in the sense of when, is construed with the subjunctive (here, in the pluperfect) when it introduces a past fact having a cause-and-effect relationship with the fact expressed by the main verb: if the newspaper hadn’t published the advertisement, the quidam of phrase 6 would not have written back (rescripsit).

8. Villa, -æ, f., farm, country estate; villicus, -i, m., farm overseer, estate manager. 9. Formosus, -a, -um, beautiful regarding shape (forma, -æ, beauty, form). 10. Possideo, -es, -ere, -sedi, -sessum. 11. Index, -icis, m., sign, indication; here, index (list). 12. Imago, -inis, f., representation, portrait, image. 13. Again cum with the imperfect subjunctive (adiret). 14. Quidnam sibi accidisset: INDIRECT QUESTION (here in the pluperfect subjunctive). The direct question would be: quidnam tibi accidit? (perf. ind.). The same word (here quidnam, what then) can introduce a direct as well as an indirect question. There are three impersonal verbs to say: it happens (that): accidit, there occurs an unforeseen event (sometimes unfortunate); cf. casus, -ús, m., chance, accident; evenit, there occurs an event whatsoever; contingit, there occurs a foreseen (or fortunate) event. Notice that these verbs, generally used impersonally, can have a subject, if it corresponds to the 3rd person (here quid). 15. Vix, adv., hardly. Abhinc = ab + hinc, from here. 16. Rego, -is, -ere, rexi, rectum; derivative: dirigere (same conjugation), to direct, to drive. 17. Gubernaculum, -i, n., rudder (here, steering wheel); we could have equally well said: manubrium, -i, n., handle, (bicycle) handlebar. CARMEN Let us rejoice then! (concluded) [Long] live all girls, good-natured and beautiful! (twice) [Long] live also women Tender, lovable, Good, [and] hard-working! (twice) [Long] live also the commonwealth, and [the one] who governs it! (twice) [Long] live our city! [And] the generosity of [our] patrons Which protects us here! (twice) Mæcenas, -atis, Mæcenas; a rich contemporary of Augustus and generous patron of litterature and the arts.— Protegere = pro + tegere; we already saw tegmen (L. 48, N. 3). Second wave: the 13th lesson

Lectio sexagesima tertia (63) Revision and Notes 1. Irregular verbs.— In Latin as in all natural languages, irregular verbs are numerous, and they are among the most frequently used words (if there were uncommon, they wouldn’t have enough vitality to preserve their irregular form and would be, in some way or another, replaced by regular verbs). It is therefore important to know them, and for this nothing can take the place of USE. Still, we are going to suggest to you a way of getting to know them better without waiting until you’ve had a lot of experience with them. Henceforth, we will point out these verbs (1) with an asterisk; for example: fert*. Each time you see this indication, refer to the grammatical appendix (I.D.4 §36-41). When you have found the indicated verb there, make note of its idiosyncrasies on a piece of paper that you will henceforth keep in your book. Then, when you encounter it again, assure yourself that you know its conjugation well. Any time you have doubts, revise your notes and, if they are insufficient, complete them by referring again to the grammatical appendix. Example: you encounter the verb ferre, to carry, or one of its compounds (afferre, to bring; proferre, to bring forward, etc.). On your paper, first note its principal parts: fero, fers, ferre, tuli, latum (2). Then, each time you run into this verb again in whatever form, first verify that you are familiar with its five principal parts, then complete its entry little by little, taking note of its other irregularities (3). If you were content with learning just its principal parts, you would already be able to conjugate the verb in question in a reasonably understandable manner, and with sufficient rigour for conversation. But if you have to write a letter or if you wish, as we hope you will, to speak correctly, you must look more closely at the grammatical appendix and take note of all the irregularities that lurk inside certain tenses. Thus, for ferre you are going to find: — The PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE which, for the reason we have indicated above, is the tense that presents the most irregularities: fero, fers, fert, ferimus, fertis, ferunt; the irregularity is the absence of i in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sg. and 2nd pr., marked in bold. — The PRESENT INDICATIVE PASSIVE: feror, ferris (two r’s, because it is a contraction of fereris), fertur, ferimur, ferimini, feruntur; — The IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE, which lacks an e in all persons in the active voice: ferrem, ferres, etc., and in the passive: ferrer, ferreris, ferretur, etc., (in place of fererem, etc.); — Same absence of an e in the ACTIVE INFINITIVE: ferre (for ferere) and the

ferri; as well as in the PRESENT IMPERATIVE ACTIVE: fer, carry (sg.); ferte carry (pl.) (for ferite); passive: ferre, ferimini; — The FUTURE IMPERATIVE (exists only in the active voice): ferto, fertote. The other tenses of the INFECTUM (present system) are regular (imperfect, ferebam; future, feram, feres, etc.); — The PERFECTUM (perfect system) where another verb is utilized: tuli, tulisti, etc., for the perfect indicative; tulerim, etc., for the perfect subjunctive; tuleram (subj. tulissem) for the pluperfect and tulero for the future perfect; with no other irregularity than the use of this new root; — Finally that it is the same with the SUPINE latum and the PERFECT PASSIVE: latus (-a, -um) sum, es, etc., I have been carried; as well as with the other tenses of the PERFECTUM PASSIVE. PASSIVE:

You see that, after all, this verb is not so nasty as it seemed to be: if you remember the principal parts and the fact that, sometimes, an e evaporates, you need just a bit of flair to get by without too great a risk of error. But check from time to time that your flair doesn’t mislead you! 2. For most Latin verbs, only the formation of the principal parts poses any problems. Once the principal parts are known, their conjugation can be derived in an entirely regular fashion. Besides, the formation of the principal parts, although it doesn’t proceed according to strict rules, nevertheless follows certain laws whose existence you have perhaps suspected. Let us look then how our four conjugations behave: A.— 1st AND 4th CONJUGATIONS You may have noticed that their PERFECT is often in -vi (with an alternative form in -ii for the 4th) and their SUPINE is even more often in -tum. Examples: 1st conjugation: amo, -as, -are, -avi, -atum, to love; 4th conjugation: audio, -is, -ire, -ivi (or -ii), -itum, to hear. Nevertheless, there are exceptions, for example, 1st conjugation: do, -as, -are, dedi, datum, to give; cubo, -as, -are, cubui, cubitum, to lie down; 4th conjugation: venio, -is, -ire, véni, ventum, to come. B.— 2nd CONJUGATION Likewise, for the second conjugation, the PERFECT is often in -ui and the SUPINE in -itum: debeo, -es, -ere, -ui, -itum; likewise teneo, to hold; placeo, to please, etc. But we also have: moveo, -es, -ere, movi, motum, to move;

rideo, -es, -ere, risi, risum, to laugh; mordeo, -es, -ere, momordi, morsum, to bite. C.— 3rd CONJUGATION But it is in the 3rd conjugation and the 3rd mixed that the variety is the most remarkable. Here are some examples of the most common formations (classed according to the form of the perfect): a) Root of the perfect identical to that of the present: volvo, -is, -ere, volvi, volutum, to roll; or differing from it only by quantity and accent: edit, he eats, but édit, he has eaten, he ate; and likewise in the 4th conj., evenit, present (cf. L. 62, N. 14), but evénit, perfect. b) Reduplication of a syllable: cano, -is, -ere, cecini, cantum, to sing; cado, -is, -ere, cecidi, casum, to fall. c) Change of vowel: ago, -is, -ere, egi, actum, to push. d) Change of consonant: nubo, -is, -ere, nupsi, nuptum, to marry; díco, -is, -ere, dixi, dictum, to say; uro, -is, -ere, ussi, ustum, to burn. e) Perfects in -vi or -ui (which were formerly written identically): cupio, -is, -ere, cupivi (or cupii), cupitum, to desire (3rd mixed); colo, -is, -ere, colui, cultum, to cultivate. f) Shortening: obstupesco, -is, -ere, obstupui, no supine, to be astounded. So much for the formation of the perfect! That of the supine is easier to remember: in fact it is this that furnishes the most derivatives, and in particular those that can be traced most easily in English. Thus, following the order of the words given above, we can find: amateur, auditor, data, cubit, (ad)venture, debit, (e)motion, risible, morsel, volute, cantor, case, act, nuptial, diction, (comb)ustion, cult. You can see from this list, where all the supines except one (cupitum) have given at least one derivative, how much Latin has given to English: even if you didn’t manage to draw from our method all the benefit that we hope you will, you can at least be sure that you won’t have wasted your time learning better to know a language to which your own owes so much.

NOTES 1. Except for the verb esse, whose conjugation you should by now be familiar with through usage. 2. Which you will find in table 41 of the Grammatical Appendix. 3. Which can be found in the paragraph that table 41 refers you to; e.g. §37 in the case of fero. Second wave: the 14th lesson

Lectio sexagesima quarta (64) Test Flight 1. A (certain) passenger aircraft approaches (to) the airport. The passengers see, written in luminous letters: “[Fasten your seat belts] (by belts be girded)”. 2. [This] (Which) command is repeated by the loudspeaker. The passengers [fasten] (are girded by) [their seat] belts, so that, [should anything] (if something) happen (perfect fut.), they are (subj.) not thrown [on top of one another] (others upon others), [and are] (or they be not) more seriously injured that way. 3. Again the voice of the loudspeaker.— [Dear] (excellent) passengers! You will be the first witnesses [to] (of) a heretofore unheard-of experiment. For this is the first passenger flight which is made without a pilot. 4. The craft by which you are being carried is [guided] (driven) by an automatic pilot and will now be led by electromagnetic waves all the way to the airport. 5. There is no [human] pilot [on board] (among you), but only the steward and stewardess who [attend to your comfort] (provide conveniences to you). 6. Up until [this] (that of) moment, because of competition, we have had to conceal these things [from] other companies. But fear (perf. subj.) [not at all] (nothing), dear passengers! 7. All things have been most ingeniously provided for; all the instruments, although most safe, have nevertheless been [provided with backups] (prepared double). 8. If, what seems hardly possible, one of these should fail, the other will immediately [take over] (perform) its function (abl.). 9. Therefore be calm, nothing (of) unforeseen can hap…— A sepulchral silence ensues… 10. Although the voice of the loudspeaker suddenly failed, happily it turned out that the aircraft carried its passengers, pale with fear yet uninjured, to the airport. PRONUNCIATION.— The words aëronavis (áá.vis) and aëroportum (á have five syllables each. The diæresis (¨) can —or rather should— be used to indicate that the vowel e doesn’t form a diphthong with the preceeding one, particularly in the context of spelling practices which don’t indicate diphthongs through the digraph æ. Unfortunately, modern spelling antics, on specious grounds of purity, leave us in the dark regarding the pronunciation of the combination ae in each specific case. After all, who needs to know how the words was actually pronounced? NOTES 1. Probativus, -a, -um (from probare, to verify, to test). Volatus, as well as (aëro)portus, casus, apparatus, and, in the exercise, concentus, gustus and tumultus, belong to the 4th declension. You have probably noticed that these 4th declension words are for the most part abstract nouns often drawn from the supine of a verb. E.g.: cadere, to fall; supine casum (abl. casu). The noun casus, ús, a falling, accident, chance, case, makes in the ablative casu, by chance (same

form as the ablative of the supine, which is in fact practically never used). 2. Cingo, -is, -ere, cinxi, cinctum, to surround, to gird; cingimini: second person plural of the present imperative passive. Notice that the Latin passive often corresponds to the reflexive of other languages, as in lavare = to wash, lavari = to wash oneself. 3. Ne = ut non: so that… not + subjunctive. Neve = vel ne, or so that… not; same mood. 4. Testis, -is, m., witness; testimonium, i, n., testimony. 5. Veho, -is, -ere, vexi, vectum, gave vectio, -onis, f., the action of transporting; vector, -oris, m., traveller (cf., in mathematics, vector); vectrix, -icis, f., female traveller; as well as the adjective vectorius, -a, -um, having to do with travel. Aëronavis vectoria, passenger aircraft. 6. The verb gubernare likewise gave gubernaculum (see L. 62, N. 17); gubernator, [human] pilot (see below, P. 5); as well as the adjective gubernatorius, -a, -um. If the pilot were a woman it would be gubernatrix, but since here it is a sexless instrument, we must use the neuter form of the adjective: gubernatorium, which thus becomes a substantive (i.e. a noun). 7. Ministrare, to serve; minister, -tri, m. (f., ministra, -æ), servant; ministerium, ii, n., service. 8. Duplex, -icis (for the three genders), double; likewise simplex, simple, triplex, quadruplex, etc. 9. Comparare, to prepare, arrange, obtain (cf. L. 27, N. 14). 10. Accidere: this verb corresponds to an unforeseen event (necopinatus, -a, um) but whose possibility has been repudiated by the negative pronoun nihil. Then, after the emotion caused by the failure of the loudspeaker, the safe landing is truly a happy event, hence the contigit in the following phrase (see above L. 62, N. 14). N.B.— When you listen to the recording, don’t blame your machine if you hear something abnormal in phrase 9. EXERCITATIO 1.— What is this instrument? 2.— This is the gramophone that [my] uncle gave (to) me [as] (for) a gift (double dative). 3.— Do you enjoy music? 4.— Yes, [I enjoy] (am delighted by) music, especially classical. 5.— I prefer modern music, above all black trumpeters and electric guitars. 6.— I, in fact, prefer the piano, the violin, [and] the organ, and I mostly [go to] (spend my time in) concerts. 7.— There is (to be) no arguing over tastes. 8.— (To) some [like] symphonic concerts (are pleasing); (to) others, dance music; (to) others, scream[s] and commotion. Note the construction quod mihi muneri obtulit (double dative). Munus,

muneris, should already be known to you. Obtulit, perfect of offerre*, to offer. We could also have said just mihi dono dedit (same construction).— Aëneator, -oris, m., player of a brass (aëneus, -a, -um) instrument. Note also tubicen, -inis, m., player of the straight trumpet (tuba, -æ, f.), and the expression tubá canere, to play (sing on) the trumpet, or, figuratively, to announce something loudly.— Versari, to frequent.— Saltare, to dance (cf. L. 30, N. 4 and exercise); saltator (m.), -trix (f.), dancer; the corresponding adjective is saltatorius; saltatio, -onis, f., a dance, dancing. To leap is salire (4th conjugation, supine saltum); saltus, -ús, m., a leap. Natura non facit saltús, Nature does not take leaps, say those who believe in the continuity of physical phenomena. Second wave: the 15 th lesson

Lectio sexagesima quinta (65) For lunch they served me … 1.— Did you [have a good lunch] (lunch well)?— Yes, [I had] for lunch (were served to me): 2. Various hors d’œuvres, especially pork pâté, [two dozen] (twice twelvefold) escargots (snails), [coq au vin] (cock cooked in wine) with [spring onions] (little onions), all these things lavishly infused with (pure) Burgundy wine. 3.— Aren’t you mad (frenzied)? You already told me [your stomach bothered you] (you by-stomach to-toil). You are too fat, your face seems tinged with purple, [your] nose is budding with pimples. (Peradventure) Is spring approaching? 4.— (Peradventure) Do you think you’re witty? 5.— I will only say to you, in place of those leaden foods of yours, [you would have been better-off eating] (more-rightly you … going-to-eat to-have-been) a beefsteak with [fries] (fried potatoes). 6.— [Don’t worry] (fear nothing) (perf. subj.), old friend, for afterwards I had a beefsteak with fries. 7. In a very [high-class household] (bourgeoise dwelling), the bell of a telephone rings. 8. Nestor, the [butler] (valet de chambre), with that dignity which he is accustomed to employ in all domestic acts, takes [the receiver] (instrument). 9. VOICE ON THE TELEPHONE.— Hello, [idiot] (mushroom)! Is it you, [you] old ass? 10. NESTOR, with even [greater] (increased) dignity.— Pardon me, Sir, I am Nestor, the valet. The master, on the other hand, is not in. NOTES 1. Mihi prandio apposita sunt: another double dative! Apponere = ad + ponere, to apply, to serve. 2. Promulsis, promulsidis, f., hors d’œuvre; a word of Greek origin (employed in the singular). 3. Artocreas, -atis, n., another word of Greek origin («artos», bread; «kreas», meat). 4. Cochlea, -æ, f., snail, an important word, as it is used by extension to convey the idea of a coiled-up curve, whence it comes to designate a screw. 5. Coquo, -is, -ere, coxi, coctum, to cook. 6. Cepa, -æ, f., onion; cepula is its diminutive (which gave Italian «cipolla», onion, and French «ciboule», scallion, «ciboulette», chive, and «ciboulot», slang for head). The cep (a mushroom) is called boletus. 7. Perfundo, -is, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, a derivative of fundere, to pour, which you will find in phrase 7 of the exercise. 8. Pinguis, -e, fat; pinguior, -ius is its comparative. 9. Purpura, -æ, f., purple dye, obtained from a shell, the murex, -icis, m. Tingo, is, -ere, tinxi, tinctum, to dye. 10. Gemma, -æ, f., bud, precious stone, whence the verb gemmare, to bud. Papula designates another sort of bud, those that sometimes flourish on the human

skin. 11. Plumbum, -i, n., lead; plumbeus, -a, -um, leaden. Equally ferrum, iron, gives ferreus; etc. An iron box, pyxis ferrea (or e ferro). 12. Assula, -æ, slice. 13. Solanum, -i, n., potato, belonging to the family of the Solanaceæ. Frigo, -is, ere, frixi, frictum, to fry. 14. Æs, æris, n., bronze and, by extension, musical instrument (cf. Eng. brass), bell. The corresponding adjective is æreus, or aëneus (cf. E. 64, P. 5). 15. Tinnire, to ring, has given tintinnabulum, bell, a word which could very well have been used instead of æs. 16. Adhibere = ad habere, to apply, to put into practice, to have recourse of, is a verb with many uses. 17. Vetulus, -a, -um, diminutive of vetus, veteris. 18. Erus, -i, m., master of the house; f., era, -æ. EXERCITATIO 1.— What time is it? 2.— It is half past eleven. 3.— It’s not yet time [to have lunch] (of lunching). But what do you think [of taking some aperitif] (about a certain aperitif to-be-taken)? 4.— Every occasion seems to you suitable for drinking. 5.— I’m not asking you whether your grandmother [rides] (makes use of) a bicycle or not, but what you want to drink: anisette, absinthe, wine, or a cocktail? 6.— I prefer an orange or grape juice. 7.— Here! I am pressing the orange and pouring its juice into a glass. Do you want sugar? 8.— Yes, give [me] two cubes. I stir the drink with a spoon. 9.— To your health!— To yours!— To yours too! 10.— What do I smell? It smells very [good] (well). This smell comes from the kitchen. 11.— A (gallinacean) chicken is being cooked in the kitchen: we can smell the aroma of the chicken. 12.— Let’s go to lunch! Propoma, -atis, n., aperitif (synonyms: potio apertiva or vinum apertivum).— Idoneus, -a, -um, suitable.— Gallicauda, a literal rendering of English «cocktail».— Uva, -æ, f., bunch of grapes; vitis, -is, f., vine; vinea, -æ, f., vineyard, grape arbour or mantelet (a mobile screen for military use).— Note the two subjunctives in phrase 5 (indirect question) and also necne, which, in an indirect question, corresponds to annon in a direct question. Second wave: the 16th lesson

Lectio sexagesima sexta (66) The microscope 1. By the power of the microscope, in a flea, a fly, [or] little worms, the exact forms and outlines of the body… 2. and also colors and motions previously invisible, can be discerned, not without astonishment. 3. What’s more, they say a straight line, drawn by a pen or paintbrush, [appears] through a microscope of this sort exceedingly uneven and tortuous (to be discerned). 4. Men have even [attached to this fact] (added in this thing) a certain superstitious interpretation (as happens in [the case of] new or wonderful matters)… 5. namely [that] microscopes of this sort (to) illuminate works of nature, [but] (to) discredit [those] of art. 6. That, in fact, is nothing other than that natural tissues are (subj.) much finer than artificial [ones] … 7. If Democritus had seen [such an] (quod, which) optic instrument, he would perhaps have leapt up, 8. and have supposed [that] a means of seeing the atom (which he asserted [to be] altogether invisible) [had been] (to have been) discovered. From the Novum Organum of Francis BACON. The original text, along with several other excerpts from F.BACON’s writings, can be found in Textes latins modernes, by J. DELANNOY (ed. O.C.D.L.). Francis BACON, an English philosopher (1561-1626) considered to be one of the developers of the experimental method. Today and tomorrow, we are presenting you with more difficult texts. Don’t be too discouraged if you found this attempt unsatisfactory. After the next lesson we will adopt a more relaxed rhythm. NOTES 1. Pulex, -icis, m., flea; vermiculus, -i, m., diminutive of vermis, -is, m., worm. A line of poetry is called versus, -ús, m. 2. Lineamentum, a derivative from linea, line. 3. Necnon, and also; two negatives make an affirmative. 4. Cerno, -is, -ere, crevi, cretum, to see clearly, to discern. 5. Quin is either a conjunction used with verbs of doubt or hindrance (e.g.: non dubito quin + subj., I do not doubt that…), or, as here, an adverb meaning why not? Followed by etiam or immo, it has the sense of moreover. 6. Hujusmodi: the two words that make up this expression, hic and modus, are joined together when used in the genitive; one can also say hujuscemodi. 7. Quam: adverb serving to mark comparison or equality. Alius, -a, -ud… quam, [an]other… than; subtilior quam, finer than; melior quam, better than; tam

quam, as … as. 8. Quod (used here as a conjunction) that, the fact that, because. 9. Multo, before a comparative (subtiliores) reinforces the latter (cf. Grammatical Appendix 44). 10. You should have recognized several pluperfect subjunctives in phrase 7-8: vidisset, exsiluisset (exsilio, -is, -ere, -ui, i.v. = ex + salio, see E. 64, P. 8), putasset (shortened form of putavisset, pluperf. subj. of putare). This last sentence is a past contrary to fact. EXERCITATIO 1.— Who was Democritus? 2.— He was a Greek philosopher who lived in the fifth century before our era. 3.— He thought that matter was composed of atoms. 4.— [What] (of-what-nature) are atoms [like]? 5.— This name in Greek means «indivisible» things, i.e. [things] that cannot be cut. 6.— Therefore all matter consists of indivisible parts, like grains? 7.— We have some reasons [for believing] (why we should believe) so. 8.— Nevertheless, the grains of matter which learned people of the last century called atoms… 9.— are now divided into several parts by the learned of our century… 10.— to wit, into a nucleus and electrons that are said to revolve around the nucleus. 11.— The nucleus itself is now divided into parts… 12.— Close the [floodgates] (ditches) already, boys, the meadows have drunk enough! Constare (cum + stare), to consist, be made of (ex + abl.), also means to cost: do you remember quanti constat? from lesson 10?— Sat, shortened form of satis, enough.— Atomus, -i, f., and electro[n], -onis, m., are words of Greek origin. Note that the first is feminine. We had already seen methodus, -i, f. Phrase 12 is the last line of VERGIL’s 3rd Eclogue. It is sometimes quoted to indicate that an argument or a speech has gone on long enough. As this is no doubt your opinion as well, we say to you: See you tomorrow: Valete! Cras nos revisemus! Second wave: the 17th lesson

Lectio sexagesima septima (67) The bonds between peoples are getting closer 1. The three main technical arts whereby [words] (voices) are presented from a distance to the ears, [and] on the other hand images (of things) [are presented from a distance ] to the eyes, 2. [that] (this) is, [cinema, radio and television] (the cinematographic, radiophonic and televisual art), 3. pertain not merely [to entertaining and relaxing people] (to people who-are-tobe-entertained and who-are-to-be-relaxed), 4. even though not a few listeners and viewers request (subj.) only this, 5. but to [broadcasting] most especially those things (which-are-to-be-broadcast) which (ea... quæ), since they [are concerned (attineant, subj.) with] (touch onto) [culture] (the cultivation of the mind) and [the fostering of] virtue (which-is-to-benourished), 6. can contribute not a little to rightly [training and educating] the civil society (which-is-to-be-trained and to-be-educated) of our times. 7. More available at present (unless faciliore modo is meant: in a more easier fashion) than [printed matter] (things published by typography), these technical arts can certainly bring it about 8. that people to be sure may communicate among themselves and provide [mutual assistance] (associated effort) to themselves. 9. Let them on the other hand serve (to) [the propagation of] truth (which-is-tobe-propagated) in [such a] (that) way 10. that the bonds between peoples are daily made closer, 11. that the same [peoples] understand [one another] (themselves) by a mutual valuation of things, 12. that they aid [one another] (themselves) in any [crisis] (danger of things), 13. [and] that, finally, there exists a cooperative effort between those who govern the state and individual citizens. From PIUS XII, encyclical letter Miranda Prorsus. This passage is also found in Textes latins modernes, by J. DELANNOY (O.C.D.L., Paris). The original texts of encyclicals are published by the Vatican State. NOTES 1. Pertineo, -es, -ere, -ui, i.v. (P. 3) and attineo (P. 5), both derivatives from teneo, to hold, have the same conjugation (2nd); the former is in the present indicative, the latter in the present subjunctive. 2. Edita, past participle of édo, -is, -ere, edidi, editum, to publish. It is not to be confused with edere (ésse), to eat. 3. Inservire + dative (here: veritati propagandæ, the truth that is to be propagated); servire, to be a slave; inservire, to serve the interests of. 4. Artior, comparative of artus (or arctus), close. 5. Quivis, quævis, quodvis, indefinite adjective, any. 6. Discrimen, -inis, n., distinction, difference, difficulty, danger.

7. Adjutor, -oris (f. adjutrix, -icis), s/he who helps. 8. Intercedo, -is, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, to intervene, exist between. You may have already noticed that Latin sometimes uses long sentences: this is because the structure of this language, which is at once supple and precise, lends itself to constructions that can represent the most complex thoughts. 1st. You will see that the first sentence, even though it contains 63 words grouped into 7 clauses, is not after all very complicated: Artes (P. 1) is the subject of the main clause. We will find the main verb later on, but let’s not concern ourselves with this yet. Quibus, ablative (by which), introduces a first subordinate (relative) clause, which has two subjects, voces, voices, and imagines, images; two indirect objects in the dative, auribus, which corresponds to the first subject (voces), and oculis, which corresponds to the second (imagines); a circumstantial adverbial phrase in the ablative, ex longinquo (longinquus, distant); and whose verb is proponuntur (passive voice). Hocc est … ars (P. 2) is a parenthetical phrase introduced by hocc est (same meaning as id est, that is to say). Pertinent (P. 3) is the MAIN VERB. The construction of its first complement, ad homines recreandos, should by now be familiar to you. Quamvis … spectatores (P. 4) is a concessive clause (introduced by quamvis, even though) in the present subjunctive (requirant). The adjective pauci refers to auditores and spectatores. Sed … propaganda (P. 5) is the second complement of pertinent, construed in opposition to the first: non tantum ad homines recreandos, sed ad ea propaganda … (pertinent). Ea is the antecedent of quæ (P. 5) (is … qui, that which), introducing a relative clause whose verb is possunt (P. 6). Cum … attineant (P. 5) is a causal clause in the subjunctive, placed inside this relative clause. Conferre (P. 6), is an infinitive, governed by possunt. This verb conferre, whose meaning is modified by the adverb parum, has as a complement: ad societatem civilem «society», to which are attached: a noun phrase in the genitive, nostrorum temporum, and two gerundives, instituendam and conformandam. 2nd. The construction of the second sentence (P. 7 and P. 8) is very simple: id efficere possunt, ut homines, etc. (these arts) can bring about (id = it) that (ut) people, etc. Id introduces ut, as above ea introduced quæ. 3rd. An analogous construction can be found in the final sentence: eá ratione … ut, in such a way … that. In fact there are four clauses in parallel, each preceded by ut, and introduced by the same eá ratione. The main verb inserviant is in the subjunctive because it expresses a wish. If this long analysis hasn’t turned you off, and especially if you have understood it

without great difficulty, we say to you: BRAVO! You have passed the most difficult step and the Latin path is wide open to you. If not, don’t worry, calmly follow the course of lessons and revisions: the rest will come in its own time … you need only be patient! EXERCITATIO 1.— This is aircraft «Alpha Delta» calling the New York airport! How do you [read] (hear) me? 2.— Aircraft «Alpha Delta», from the New York airport: I [read] (can hear) you loud and clear. Where are you coming from and where are you going (to)? 3.— New York, from A.D.: from London to New York; altitude 30,000 feet, heading 275 (two, seven, five), flying in the clouds. 4.— A.D., from N.Y: [Radar contact] (you are touched —i.e., seen— by the radar); heading towards the airport 230 (two, three, zero), distance 50 nautical miles. Descend (all the way) to 6,000 feet. 5.— N.Y., from A.D.: Heading 230, descending … now at an altitude of 6,000 feet. 6.— A.D., from N.Y.: Maintain altitude and heading, the airport is 20 miles away, [lower landing gear] (wheels lead-out), (landing) flaps at [your discretion] (pleasure). 7.— N.Y., from A.D.: Wheels down and flaps verified (abl. abs.). 8.— A.D., from N.Y.: Five degrees to the right; begin final descent, [at a rate of] six hundred feet per minute…, two degrees to the left; excellent descent (abl. abs.). 9.— N.Y., from A.D.: O.K. (all right). I can see the (landing) runway. 10.— A.D., from N.Y.: [Visual landing] (land by sight), the runway is free! Remarks.— On the telephone or the radio, to facilitate understanding, letters are spelled out by means of conventional words, for example, A as Anatole, B as Bernard, etc. To remain within Latin, we could have called our airplane (the civil identifications of airplanes are composed of letters) Aulus Decius, impeccably Roman names. But, as it turns out that the code prescribed by the I.C.A.O. (International Civil Aviation Organization) is, in large part, of GrecoLatin inspiration (Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, etc.), we have preferred not to modify it. For the same reason of intelligibility, certain numbers are pronounced digit by digit. E.g. P. 3: duobus, septem, quinque = 275, with gradibus (degrees) understood. The expression O.K. (in Latin ó ká) has made its way into aeronautical jargon from American English. Those who know its origin will notice that the restored Latin pronunciation doesn’t change the expression’s phonetics, but does efface the original misspellings (orl’ korrect). Finally, note that certain words are in the ablative (altitudine, cursu, etc.) because they function adverbially.

Today the lesson and exercise were long and departed a little bit from the ordinary. If you found them at all difficult to follow, don’t waste too much time on them. It will be better to return to them when you have some time at your disposal. Second wave: the 18th lesson

Lectio sexagesima octava (duodeseptuagesima) (68) And still no letter 1. JOSEPH.— What is bothering you so much, father? You seem [more worried than usual] (beyond habit seized by sadness). 2. FATHER.— Surely it is [time] (hour) [for] (of) the postman, is it not? 3. J.— Yes, certainly. [I don’t see the connection] (What from-there I do not grasp). 4. F.— Ah, my son! Don’t you know [it is] four (themselves to be) days since Anthony must take his exams in Barcelona, and still no letter to us? 5. J.— For myself, I hadn’t thought [of that]. Truly, father, he [could have written] (had been able to write). 6. F.— Or even, if everything had gone well, [been] home with us (to be). [The postman knocks at the door] (The doors are knocked on by the postman). 7. J.— The postman [has come] to us! I am running right away — He hurries to the entrance of the house. 8. F., addresses his son from upstairs.— [Is it] something (of) good, Joseph? 9. J.— It’s Anthony, Anthony himself who has written. Toss down 30 cents which I may give to the postman. 10. F.— Hand the letter to me: I will open the envelope [myself]. 11. With a happy voice: «(Antony gives greeting to his) Very dear father, I wished to write earlier, which actually was not [possible] (allowed). 12. For the rest, all [is well] (favorable). I have [passed] (achieved the laurel). I will arrive on the train that leaves (from) Barcelona at (the point of) nine [o’clock]. [Greetings, Antony] (Be well, my dear father)! 13. (Given [to the postman] in) Barcelona, (on) the 26th (day) of June.» 14. Thank(s to) god! Now at last I recover my spirit[s]. From Vita Latina (sept. 1957, Emmanuel JOVÉ). NOTES 1. Maeror, -oris, m., grief, sadness; the corresponding adjective is maestus, -a, um, sorrowful. 2. Ultra + acc., beyond. 3. Enimvero, conj., in fact, truly, certainly. 4. Inde, adv., thence, from there; corresponds to the question unde? whence? from where?, to which the response may be: hinc, istinc, illinc, from here (there) where I am, where you are, where he/she/it is. 5. Periculum, -i, n., danger, peril, or trial, test. This scarecrow of a word frightens only those who do not know ASSIMIL! 6. Barcino, -onis, Barcelona; the ablative having the value of a locative. 7. Subire* = sub + ire, irregular verb, is conjugated like ire. Quisquam, anyone; quidquam or quicquam, anything; this adjective pronoun has no feminine. Note that litterarum is a genitive. Similarly later on (P. 8): (num) quidnam, what then? 8. Putaram, shortened form of putaveram (pluperf. ind.). 9. Quin immo: quin, adv., why not? (quin loqueris?, why don’t you speak?);

immo, adv., on the contrary, rather (cf. L. 66, N. 5, quin etiam, same meaning). 10. Fores, -ium, f. pl., the two leaves of a door. 11. Vestigium, -ii, n., trace, is sometimes (as here), instant. 12. Maturius, earlier, is an adverb formed from the neuter of the comparative degree of the adjective maturus, -a, -um, ripe, early. 13. Ceterum, adv., corresponding to the pronoun adjective ceteri, -ae, -a, the others, those that haven’t been spoken of. The latter is used only in the plural. 14. Faustus, -a, -um, fortunate, favourable. 15. Mi: vocative of the possessive pronoun meus, -a, -um. Mi pater is more familiar than pater mi, which means simply my father. EXERCITATIO 1.— Why does Desiderius seem so seized by sadness? 2.— His mother-in-law died (departed from life): for [this reason] (which thing) he is sad. 3.— This is a great sadness. 4.— Nevertheless [it] is ([a cause] of) a greater sadness to become deprived [of] (from) a mother or father. 5.— For me the greatest of all sorrows is to lack (from) money. 6.— You are a base and greedy man: you care not for the misery of others, but only for your own wealth. 7.— The farmer is rich in land. 8.— The servant, [who has] (to whom are) no goods, nevertheless seems content with his lot. 9.— People helpful to the state are honored; on the other hand, thieves worthy of a lashing are cast into prison. 10.— (So) They understand each other as thieves at [a fair] (market days). Decedere, depart from; derived from cedere which you saw in phrase 6.— Careo, -es, -ere, -ui, i.v. + abl., to lack.— Sors, sortis, is feminine. Second wave: the 19th lesson

Lectio sexagesima nona (undeseptuagesima) (69) How can I know? 1. Among madmen.— To whom are you writing, (oh) good [man]? — To myself! 2.— And what are you writing to yourself? 3.— How can I know, since I haven’t yet received the letter? 4. PROFESSOR.— Who said this: «I come [to] (that I may) bury Caesar»? 5. STUDENT.— The undertaker, obviously! 6. When you sold me this dog, you said he was excellent for thieves … 7. but last night thieves entered my house [to] (that they might) rob [it], 8. and he didn’t bite even a single one (out) of them. 9.— I already told you he was excellent for thieves! 10. A (certain) centurion has an assembly [of] (in the presence of) the soldiers, to whom he explains [this] (these things): «The fatherland is our mother…» 11. Then he asks one (out) of the soldiers: 12.— What is the fatherland, Anthony? 13. ANTHONY.— The fatherland is my mother. 14. Afterwards [he asks] Joseph.— What is the fatherland, Joseph? 15. JOSEPH.— It’s Anthony’s mother! 16. In the hospital: DIRECTOR.— The [patient] (sick person) whom you now see hanging from the ceiling says that he’s a lamp. 17. VISITOR.— Why then don’t you take him down? 18. DIRECTOR.— Because afterwards we’ll be without light. From Palaestra Latina. NOTES 1. Mens, mentis, f., mind, intellect; whence the adjectives demens and amens, deprived of mind, i.e., insane. 2. Acceperim, -is, -it, etc.: perfect subjunctive of accipere. 3. Sepelio, -is, -ire, -ivi or -ii, sepultum, to bury (here, in the subj. after ut); sepultura, burial; sepulcrum, grave, tomb. 4. Libitina was the goddess who presided over burials, whence libitinarius, -ii, m., undertaker. 5. Venum do (or vendo, -is, -ere, vendidi, venditum), to sell, veneo, -is, -ire, -ivi or -ii, venitum, to be sold: haec raeda 8.000 f. (octo milibus francorum) veniit, this car was sold for 8,000 francs. 6. Superior, -ior, -ius: comparative of superus, -a, -um, high (superlative, supremus, -a, -um, cf. L. 48, song). 7. Ingredior, -eris, -i, ingressus sum = in + gradior, to enter. 8. What verb does momordit belong to? Answer: R. & N. 63, 2B.

9. Centurio, -onis, m., centurion, officer commanding 100 men. 10. Contio, -onis, f., assembly, meeting, speech. 11. Nosocomium, -ii, n., hospital. 12. Tectum, -i, n., roof, ceiling; like tegmen (L. 48, N. 3), comes from tegere. 13. Quidni? why not? 14. Mitto, -is, -ere, misi, missum, to send. Think of the Missi Dominici of Charlemagne. Missio, -onis, f., the act of sending, mission. Demittere, to send from above, to cast down. 15. Lux, lucis, f., light. Circus song From the consul’s hand The signal has fallen, Spirited, with the chariot The horse leaps forth. Behind us sound The doors of the [starting stalls] (prisons). How the [races] (circus games) bring delight! How the charioteers rejoice! There stands the turning point; Make the (four-horse) chariot(s) turn! Who[ever] does not avoid [it] (he) breaks [his] wheels. The horses run together, The noise goes [up] to the sky; The chariots fall commingled, Gore [flows] everywhere (is made). Chorus They jingle, they jingle, All the way, the harnesses. How gladly do they hear [them] The charioteers in the race. From Carmina Latina. Music by J. PIERPOINT (Jingle Bells). Latin lyrics by T. W. MELLUISH. Record and collection published by Centaur Books, Slough (England). Circensis, -e, adj., associated with the circus; circus, -i, m., usually refers to the hippodrome, sometimes to the arena where gladiators fought (normally called amphitheatrum).— Mappa, -ae, f., handkerchief that was dropped to signal the start of the games.— Acer, acris, acre, sharp, piercing; here spirited, agreeing with equus. Meta, -ae, f., a conical column, around which one has to turn.— Quadrigae, arum, f. pl., chariot drawn by four horses; a two-horse chariot is analogously called

bigae. These two words are generally employed in the plural, even if only a single chariot is meant.— Cruor, -oris, m., blood flowing from a wound; blood, in general, is sanguis, -inis, m. Phalerae, -arum, f. pl., military decorations, or metallic ornaments on the harnesses of horses.

2nd wave: the 20 th lesson

Lectio septuagesima (70) Revision and Notes THE GENDER OF NOUNS Since English nouns don’t have a grammatical gender, associating a gender with a given Latin noun may still seem to you an exercise as finicky as it is arbitrary. In reality, here, as in so many other cases, experience is the best guide. Also, from repeated exposure to NOUN-ADJECTIVE pairs like ars technica, clamor magnus, etc., you will manage to become perfectly familiar with the gender of the corresponding nouns. Thus, in these two examples, ars is obviously feminine and clamor masculine. But while you wait for all the words to become this familiar to you, you can save time by learning a few rules… more or less abundantly provided with exceptions. 1. To start with, the gender of a noun can be determined from its meaning: 1st. Nouns are MASCULINE when they correspond to beings which are male or are considered as such: Vir, viri, man; mas, maris, a male (diminutive masculus, whence the adjective masculinus); lupus, i, wolf; agricola, ae, farmer; nauta, ae, sailor (masculine professions); aquilo, onis, the North wind; Garumna, ae, the Garonne (river); Montes Saxei, the Rocky Mountains. For these last three, it will be remembered that winds, rivers and mountains were represented by male deities. Nevertheless, Alpes, ium, f. pl., the Alps, is feminine. 2nd. Along with the names of women (Lucia, Marcella, etc.) and female professions (ancilla, maidservant, etc.), nouns are FEMININE when they are: — names of animals which are female (lupa, ae, she-wolf) or are considered as such: aquila, ae, eagle; — names of trees: pópulus (alba), the (white) poplar. 3rd. Nouns and expressions are NEUTER when it is truly impossible to assign them a gender, for example clauses and verbs in the infinitive: decorum est pro patriá mori, it is beautiful to die for one’s country; indeclinable words (if they don’t refer to persons): e.g., zero absolutum1, absolute zero (the temperature below which it is theoretically impossible to fall). 2. But the gender of nouns can also be recognized from their form. A) For the 1ST AND 2ND DECLENSIONS, the matter is simple. Nouns in a are generally feminine, nouns in us are generally masculine, nouns in er are always masculine, and nouns in um are always neuter.

B) In the 3RD DECLENSION, the endings are quite varied: 1st. As masculine endings we will find, for example: — or, oris: odor, smell; maeror, sorrow, etc.; but soror and uxor are feminine2. — os, oris: flos, flower; ros, dew; but ós, oris, mouth or face and os, ossis, bone, are neuter. 2nd. Feminine endings: — as, atis: dignitas, dignity; — do, dinis: longitudo, length; — io, ionis: motio, movement; — go, ginis: imago, image. Exceptions: ordo, inis, rank and cardo, inis, hinge, which are masculine. Remember also that masculine words in tor, toris form their feminine in trix, tricis: auctor, author, originator; f. auctrix. 3rd. Neuter endings: — the endings c, l, n, t: lac, lactis, milk; animal, animalis, animal; discrimen, inis, danger; caput, itis, head; — endings in ar, ur, us (still referring to the 3rd decl.): pulvinar, aris, sacred cushioned couch; robur, oris, strength; opus, eris, work; — the ending in e: mare, maris, sea; — words of Greek origin in a: problema, problematis, problem (in general, Greek words retain their gender after their assimilation into Latin). Exceptions: sal, salis, salt; fur, furis, thief; mus, muris, mouse, all three of which are masculine. We could add to the list of typical 3rd declension endings, but we will refrain so as not to add even more to the list of exceptions! C) Finally, for the 4TH AND 5TH DECLENSIONS: 1st. Nouns in us, ús, are masculine: e.g., appulsus, landing. Exceptions: acus, needle; domus, house; Idus (f. pl., genitive Iduum), the Ides (13th or 15th of the month); manus, hand; porticus, portico; tribus, tribe, which are feminine; 2nd. Nouns in u, us, are all neuter. Unfortunately there are very few of these: cornu, horn; genu, knee; veru, spit or javelin-point; 3rd. Nouns in es, ei, are all feminine: fides, faith; res, thing, etc.; except for:

— Dies, day, which is always masculine in the plural (dies praeteriti, bygone days), and also in the singular if it refers to a specific day (dié tricesimo primo mensis Augusti, on the 31st of August), but dies illa, that (distant) day. — meridies, noon, which is always masculine. As an exercise, try to find the gender and the declension of the words below. When you have finished, check yourself against the second list, which for each word gives you: the genitive (and hence the declension), the gender, and the translation: Maeror - sors - contio - ars - discrimen - atomus - nucleus - pulex - dignitas propoma. Maeroris, m., sorrow - sortis, f., lot, fate - contionis, f., assembly - artis, f., art discriminis, n., difficulty - atomi, f., atom - nuclei, m., kernel - pulicis, m., flea dignitatis, f., dignity - propomatis, n., aperitif. NOTES 1. Zero is given as a neuter indeclinable by GOELZER (Nouveau Dictionnaire Français-Latin) and quoted as such by BACCI and BADELLINO. Absolutus, a, um, is used in the sense indicated above by SOCCORSI (see the Bibliographic Index). 2. Arbor, arboris, is feminine, as are most names of trees (see above, 1., 2nd); aequor, oris, surface of the sea (sometimes of the land) and marmor, oris, marble, are neuter, but note that these exceptions are only apparent, since the o is short in these three nouns. At the same time notice also cor, cordis, heart, which will give us a total of three feminines and three neuters in or. 2nd wave: the 21th lesson

Lectio septuagesima prima (71) He was worthy of writing in Latin 1. GENEVIÈVE.— Good day, Albert! You seem very absorbed: I knocked on the door three times, but you have heard nothing. [This is why] (By which thing) I have [allowed myself] (dared) to come in. 2. ALBERT.— Good day, Geneviève! You have done well: I really heard nothing. Take a seat, please. 3. GEN.— I don’t want to be annoying. It seems that you have many things to do! 4. ALB.— Not at all! I was reading a book. Do you know [it]?— He hands over the book to Geneviève. 5. GEN., reading the title.— Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: The Little Prince or only the children can understand. I am not unaware [of] the reputation of this book. Wasn’t [this] (that) Saint-Exupéry an aviator? 6. ALB.— Certainly. Before the Second [World] War (of all peoples), he flew postal and commercial aircrafts. 7. At the war itself, he served in the Air [Forces] (Fleet). He died while [flying] (piloting) a reconnaissance aircraft. 8. Not only was he an audacious and courageous aviator, but he also wrote many very good books, wherein he has shown himself [as] a very humane philosopher. 9. GEN.— Did he write in Latin ? 10. ALB.— He was worthy of writing in Latin. On the other hand, the book which is entitled The Little Prince was very well translated into Latin by Professor Aug. Haury, of the University of Bordeaux. 11. GEN.— [What is that book about] (About what things is it dealt with in this book)? 12. ALB.— We shall see [that] (this) tomorrow. NOTES 1. Audeo*, -es, -ere, ausus sum, is a SEMI-DEPONENT verb: it takes a passive form in the perfectum series: perfect: ausus sum, ausus es, etc. (ausa sum, etc., if it applies to a woman); pluperf. ausus eram, eras, etc. 2. Reapse, adv., indeed, in fact. 3. Assido, -is, -ere, -sedi, i.v., to take a seat; assideo, -es, -ere, -sedi, -sessum, to be seated; sedeo, the same conjugation: to be seated, to remain still. Sedes, -is. f., a seat. Sancta Sedes: The Holy See. 4. Nostine, or nostin’, abbreviated form of novisti, followed by the interrogative particle. 5. A Sancto Exuperio: the «de» of certain French names is translated by a + ablative (ab in front of a vowel). Likewise, Vincentius a Paulo, Vincent de Paul. However if the «de» is followed by an important name of town or place, one can use the adjective in -ensis; e.g. Martinus Turonensis, Martin of Tours (Turonian). 6. Cursualis, -e, related to the mail or to the race (cursus, -ús, m.); we have already

seen this adjective (L. 15, P. 12 and L. 22, N. 9). 7. Vectorius, -a, -um, adj., already seen in lesson 64. A cargo plane would be aëronavis oneraria (cf. L. 10). 8. Speculatorius, -a, -um: from speculari, to observe; speculator, a scout (a soldier undertaking a reconnaissance mission); mereri, to deserve (here, the army pay, which is still called in French “solde”, whence to be a soldier). 9. Obeo*, -is, -ire, -ivi, or -ii, -itum (irregular verb which conjugates like ire), to go in front, to die. It is not necessary to specify mortem; e.g. obiit anno 1953º, he died in 1953. 10. Audax, -acis, adj.: from audere, to dare. 11. Dignus qui + subjunct.: it can be useful to remember this phrase. 12. Converto, -is, -ere, -verti, -versum: 1st to turn (e.g. convertere terga, to turn one’s back[s]); 2nd to translate (e.g. convertere librum de linguá Graecá in Latinam). EXERCITATIO 1.— Which book is this? 2.— It is a treatise on electricity (electric stuff). 3.— Can I have a look at it? 4.— Obviously you can! Books are [made] (published) [to be] (so that they are) browsed, consulted, [and] read. 5.— Thank you! I see that you are not [someone] (a person) who locks his books in(to) libraries and [doesn’t allow his friends to use them] (keeps at bay [his] friends from their use). 6.— I open the book and turn its pages. 7.— This treatise is very [different from what] (differently than) I believed. 8.— What did you believe [that you would find] (you [to be] going to find) in it then? 9.— I was expecting descriptions of machines, lamps and different things of this sort, (decorated) with plenty of images… 10.— and I don’t see anything other than mathematical calculations and geometric figures with signs that I can’t understand. 11.— This [happens] (is made) because, for devising electric appliances, the theory of electricity, which is based on mathematics, is very useful. Lampas, -adis, f., lamp (it is also called lychnus, -i, as we shall see soon).— Computatio, -onis: from computare, to count; we can also say calculus, m., this word in its proper sense meaning a pebble. But, in modern Latin, calculus rather means «differential and integrated calculus». This branch of modern mathematics was invented by Newton and Leibnitz separately, who both used to write their treatises in Latin.— Nititur: we shall see the verb niti again (L. 74); you can put it aside for the moment. 2nd wave: the 22th lesson

Lectio septuagesima altera (72) The Little Prince 1. [My plane had a breakdown] in the Sahara desert (abandoned I lay down). Something [was] (had been) broken in [the machinery] (those assemblages) which moved the machine. 2. Since, on the other hand, I was carrying neither a mechanic nor any passengers with me, I set myself [to attempt] (so that I attempted) to [repair] (remake with skill) it [all] alone. 3. The task was difficult indeed, but I [was in danger of death] (had been taken to trial of life). 4. For I [just had enough water for 8 days] (had so much of water as [much] was enough for the drinking of eight days)… 5. … I made friends with the Little Prince. 6. A lot of time passed by before I could understand where he was coming from. 7. For the Little Prince, inasmuch as he asked (out of) me many things, (so) he did not seem to hear [my questions] (me asking). 8. By words thrown by chance, little by little I discovered everything. 9. Thus, when he looked at my plane for the first time (which (machine) I shall not represent: for its form is complicated to the degree that I wouldn’t be able to draw it), he asked (out of) me: 10. THE LITTLE PRINCE.— Whatever is this (of) thing? 11. ANTOINE.— This is not a thing — for it flies — but an aeroplane, my aeroplane. 12. And I was [proud] (carried away by pride) while I let him know that I can fly. 13. PRINCE.— What? Did you fall from the sky? 14. ANTOINE, modestly.— Yes. From The Little Prince, by Antoine de SAINT-EXUPÉRY, translated by Auguste HAURY (Fernand Hazan, publisher, Paris) NOTES 1. Garamantes, -um, m. pl., a people living in the Sahara. 2. Compages, -is, f., or compago, -inis, f., structure, framework, bond. 3. Artifex, icis, m., means at the same time artist, craftsman or even worker: man of art (ars, artis). 4. Ita … ut + subj., in such a way that. 5. Quidem, adv., certainly; ne… quidem, not even… 6. Discrimen, -inis, n., distance, separation, difference; in a figurative sense: trial, danger. In discrimen vitae (in + acc., because adductus gives an idea of MOVEMENT). To say danger of death in Latin, one says: «danger of life» (the same as in German Lebensgefahr). 7. Quantum aquae?, How much (of) water?; tantum aquae, so much (of) water; tantum … quantum, so much… as; here: enough for. 8. Intercedere, to advance between: another compound of cedere!

9. Priusquam and antequam govern the subjunctive when the idea to be conveyed is beyond a simple relation of anteriority. The second verb, veniret, is also in the subjunctive since it is an INDIRECT QUESTION. 10. Percontari, deponent verb, to ask. If you worry about the present participle percontantem, it means that you need to revise R. & N. 28, 3B. Pay attention as well, in this phrase 7, sic… ut, as well as, the same as; but the two terms are reversed and mark an opposition. 11. Comperio, -is, -ire, -peri, -pertum, to discover, to learn, to recognize. 12. Velut, conj. (vel, ut), at the beginning of a sentence, it means: so, for example; but more often it means: just as. It is often found with sic or ita: velut… sic…, just as… so…; or with si: veluti si…, as if… 13. Volucer, f. volucris, n. volucre (3rd decl., gen. in -cris for all three genders), which flies. 14. Adeo… ut, to such a degree… that. 15. In case you had forgotten, we remind you of quaero, -is, -ere, quaesivi or quaesii, quaesitum. Quaerere rem ab aliquo, to ask something from someone. Quaeso is conjugated in the same way (-is, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itum) but is only used in some expressions like dic, quaeso! tell me, please! 16. Dum, meaning while, is constructed with the present indicative, even if it describes a past event. 17. Delapsus es, perfect of delabi, which conjugates like labi, to slip, to slide. EXERCITATIO 1.— How do we calculate the area of a rectangle? 2.— It suffices to multiply the measure of its greater side by the measure of the smaller. 3.— [Good] (Well)! Let there be, for example, a rectangle 1 m long, [and] 30 cm wide; tell me, how large will its area be? 4.— First, we need to measure these two sides with one and the same [unit] (reckoning) of length. 5.— For instance, I may say that your rectangle is 10 dm long, [and] 3 [dm] wide. 6.— Since 3 times 10 [is] (are) 30, its area is 30 dm2. 7.— A rented horse [runs fast] (makes short miles). 8.— What is a rented horse? 9.— It is the one which the trader has lent to you for money, or, if you want, [that] which you have hired from a trader. 10.— Why short miles? 11.— Because the rider loves and takes care of his own horse, (the horse of) another, on the other hand, he doesn’t hesitate to exhaust it by making it run fast. 12.— If he does so, even with someone else’s horse, he is a very bad rider. Latus, -eris, n., side; think of


Metrum unum longus: measurement

is expressed by the accusative, except when one insists on the idea of SEPARATION or DISTANCE; e.g. urbes ambae 20 kilometris distant, the two cities are 20 km from each other.— You must have found this out yourself: longitudo, inis, f.; brevis, -is, -e, adj.; mango, -onis, m., trader, dealer. Many names of occupations are in -o, -onis; you have already seen caupo and centurio. Do you always think about learning the numbers (lesson titles, page numbers, and indications at the bottom of the right-hand-side pages)? 2nd wave: the 23th lesson

Lectio septuagesima tertia (73) The Little Prince (sequel) 1. THE LITTLE PRINCE.— Do you come from the sky in that way too? On which [planet] (wandering star) were you born? 2. ANTONY.— So you, you come from another star? 3. But he did not answer: for gently shaking his head he observed my machine. 4. PRINCE.— Truly with that machine you could not have [come] (been transported) from very far away places… 5. The Little Prince asked Antonius many things which, due to lack of space, we had to omit. We have preferred to extract some short passages about his astronautic trips. 6. … As he approached closer to [asteroids] (little stars) 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, he undertook to visit them both in order to look for an occupation and [to educate himself] (so that he could adorn himself with knowledge). 7. A king inhabited the first. The king was seated, dressed in purple and in ermine (skins of Pontic mouse), on a throne made very simply, but majestic nonetheless. 8. THE KING.— Well, well! Here is a subject who obeys me. 9. PRINCE.— How can he recognise me, since he has never seen me? 10. KING.— Come closer so that I may see you better … 11. PRINCE.— O, King, what do you rule (with command)? 12. KING, very simply.— All things. 13. PRINCE.— Do the stars obey you? 14 KING.— Of course, and they obey at once; I do not allow my orders to be ignored. Ibidem. NOTES 1. Nascor, -eris, nasci, natus sum, to be born; here in the perfect (pres. of the perfectum) since it is about a past action, but whose effect continues into the present (if A. hadn’t been born, R. could not speak to him!). Stella errans or planeta: this last word, of Greek origin, means precisely wandering star. 2. Renuo, -is, -ere, -ui, i.v., to make a negative sign with the head. 3. Intueor, -eris, -eri, -itus sum, to look at attentively (t. dep. v.). 4. In phrase 6, note that the main clause is in the perfect tense (instituit), that the subordinate introduced by cum is in the pluperfect subjunctive, but those introduced by ut are in the imperfect subjunctive (quaereret, posset). 5. Ponticus, -a, -um, pertaining to Pontus, a region of Asia Minor. Pellis, -is, f., the skin of an animal, the fur; cutis, -is, f., human skin. 6. Solium, -i, n., throne. 7. Pareo, -es, -ere, -ui, -itum + dat., to obey. Do not confuse its present participle, párens, -entis, obeying, here taken as a noun and signifying subject, with parens (short a), the parent (father or mother). 8. Agnosco, -is, -ere, agnovi, agnitum, to recognise. 9. Quoniam + ind., since, because.

10. Imperium, -ii, n., power; from imperare, to command. 11. Jussa, n. pl., comes from jubeo, -es, -ere, jussi, jussum, to order; this verb is constructed with an infinitive clause (e.g.: jubeo te exire, I order you to leave), whilst impero is constructed with ut + subj. EXERCITATIO 1.— Who has placed this announcement? 2.— First, let me read it. 3.— [The Municipality announces] (The councillors announce): yesterday, after the market in the [square] (marketplace) of cows there were found: 4.— a ring, aparently golden; a woollen cap; a very worn sandal; 5.— a drunk person [who has] forgotten his name; 6.— an ass tied to a column (maybe [that] of the drunk, but neither of them talks); 7.— a rusty knife; a wooden doll; 8.— a philosophy book full of endives; 9.— a yellow dog without tail; 10.— a naked baby in a pile of cabbage leaves. 11.— All these are to be reclaimed from the “Lost and Found” employees. 12.— The last sentence answers your question: an employee has placed the poster. After the aforementioned book by BOURGEOIS and LUPIN, Exercices latins, p. 15 (Hachette, Paris). Sino, -is, -ere, sivi, situm + inf. or subj., to allow. Do not mix up the imperative of this verb with the preposition sine (+ abl.): sine fine, without end.— Aedilis, is, m., municipal councillor (from aedes).— Moneo, -es, -ere, -ui, -itum, to warn.— Vincio, -is, -ire, vinxi, vinctum, to attach; do not mix up with vinco, -is, -ere, vici, victum, to conquer. To which conjugation do these two verbs belong?— The first one belongs to the 4th (inf. in -íre, long and accentuated penultimate syllable) and the second to the 3rd (inf. in -ere, short and nonaccentuated penultimate syllable).— Neuter = ne uter, neither one. Such is the case of the neuter gender (neutrum) which is neither masculine nor feminine.— Culter, -tri, m., knife.— Rubigo, -inis, f., rust, mildew, blight.— Volumen, -inis, n., a roll, a book, a volume, comes from volvere, to roll. The paper of books was once rolled on itself, and was not put on top of each other in successive pages. Thus, one could wrap different things with paper from an old book. Do you remember volumen tabaceum (L.38, N.1).— Repeto, -is, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itum, to reclaim. Do you remember: petere, to make for, to go searching or to ask for something? (e.g. petere rem ab aliquo). 2nd wave: the 24th lesson

Lectio septuagesima quarta (74) The Little Prince (sequel) 1. THE LITTLE PRINCE.— I wish to see the sun set… [I shall be grateful] (You will have done [something] appreciated to me) if you [order] (will have ordered) the sun to set. 2. THE KING.— If I ordered a general to fly around the little flowers in the manner of a butterfly, or to write a tragedy, or to change himself into an ocean bird… 3. [and] the general (on the other hand) did not execute the order, whose fault (out of the two [of us]) would that be, mine or his? 4. PRINCE, in a steady voice.— Yours! 5. KING.— You are right. For only as much is to be required [of] (from) each one as each one can give. 6. Namely, authority is based on reason. 7. If you ordered your fellow citizens to throw themselves into the sea, they would cause a revolution. 8. PRINCE.— Then what about my sunset? (for he would never forget [a question] (what) once he had asked [it]). 9. KING.— That sunset will be given to you. Because I shall exact it. But [since I] (as [one] who) am skilled [in the science of government] (of administering the commonwealth), I shall wait [for the right] moment. 10. PRINCE.— At what time is it going to happen? 11. KING, after he checked an enormous calendar.— Hem! Hem! … it will happen this evening … it will happen … at 7:40 (40 min. after the 7th hour), 12. and you will see how attentively [my orders are obeyed] (it is obeyed to me) … 13. PRINCE.— There is nothing [more] (already) for me [to do] (of business) here. I shall depart soon. 14 KING.— Don’t depart! 15 PRINCE.— O very great king, if you wish to be obeyed attentively, [give me a reasonable order] (command me [things] in agreement with reason). Order me to depart. For everything seems to be favourable. 16. KING, seeing the Little Prince already flying out.— I order you to be my ambassador! Ibidem. NOTES 1. Dux, ducis, m., the chief, the leader; Italian duce (pr. doochay). 2. Flosculus: diminutive of flos, floris, m., and masculine like the latter. 3. Avis, -is, f.: to help you remember its gender, think about rara avis, a rare bird (the same ironic meaning as in French). 4. Si jubeam, mihi vitium sit, POTENTIAL PRESENT, if I ordered, I would be wrong (I can order, and I am free to do it or not to do it): in Latin, PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. Si juberem, mihi vitium esset = UNREAL PRESENT (same translation); but in

Latin the use of the IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (the past of the infectum) permits specifying whether it is an unrealised hypothesis in the present (as it seems to be the case here!). Si jussissem, mihi vitium fuisset = PAST UNREAL, if I had ordered, I would have been wrong (but I did not order anyway): in Latin, PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (the past of the perfectum). Notice also that faceret (P. 3) is an imperfect subjunctive as well (si is understood). 5. Another tantum… quantum. 6. Nítor, -eris, nisus sum + abl., to be based on (see. L. 71, exercise). It also means to make an effort, to strive: niti ad gloriam, to strive for glory. 7. Commutare = cum + mutare, to change completely; hence commutare rem publicam, to change the state, i.e. to start a revolution. 8. Exigo, -is, -ere, -egi, -actum = ex + agere. 9. Fasti, -orum, m. pl., lawful days, during which the courts could sit, whence the table which indicates these, i.e. the calendar.— Ingens, -entis, adj., immense. 10. Obœdire = ob audire (4th conjugation), to lend an ear; hence to obey. 11. Legare, to delegate; do not confuse it with legere, to read. Legatus, delegate, ambassador. The legatus was the deputy (lieutenant) of a general. EXERCITATIO 1.— [What work do you do] (In which craft do you exercise yourself)? 2.— I am the captain of the metropolitan firemen. 3.— What is your job like?— I command (to) the firemen [to] (so that they) extinguish fires. 4.— Do you often put out fires in this city? 5.— Too often! In our houses the wooden floorboards, the furniture, the curtains [and] the upholstery [burn] easily (are inflammed). 6.— People and above all women very often [are careless] (act carelessly) with fire. 7.— Do you have modern equipment? 8.— We have two excellent [fire engines with a pump] (automobile pumps). 9.— I shall now sleep [like a baby] (on either ear), [because I] (who) am now not ignorant that the firemen of our city, [with] you [as] captain, are perfectly equipped. 10.— And you, [my dear] (good [man]), [what do you do] (with which function are you invested)? 11.— I am an undertaker. 12.— Excellent! Finally I can go to put out a fire without any worry, because I know that I shall be buried well by you. 13.— Let each one exercise (himself at) the job (which=quam) he knows (=norit) = mind your own business. Ignis, -is, m., fire; think about igneous, ignite, etc.— Norit*, abridged form of noverit, perfect subjunctive of nosse* (novisse). 2nd wave: the 25th lesson

Lectio septuagesima quinta (75) The Little Prince (conclusion) 1. The second star was inhabited by a vain person. He, as soon as he saw the Little Prince, cried out [from] far away: «Here comes [an admirer] ([someone] who admires me)»… 2. The third was inhabited by a drinker: THE LITTLE PRINCE.— Why do you drink? 3. THE DRINKER.— To forget (So that I may forget). 4. PRINCE.— To forget what (So that you forget of what thing)? 5. DRINKER.— To forget that I am ashamed. 6. PRINCE.— What are you ashamed of? 7. DRINKER.— I am ashamed of drinking… 8. On the other stars, the Little Prince paid a visit to a businessman who was counting his wealth continously,… 9. to a lamplighter who considered he had an awful job, for his star rotated every single minute,… 10. finally to a geographer, who wrote huge books: 11. THE GEOGRAPHER.— So, you come from places far away. You explore unknown [regions]. Describe now your planet to me. 12. PRINCE.— At (my) home everything is very small. I have three volcanoes, two of which are (subj.) still [active] (ardent), [and] one is (subj.) extinct… I have a flower too… 13. GEOGRAPHER.— We don’t normally mention flowers in our treatises. 14. PRINCE.—Why not so? They are the most beautiful (of all) things. 15. GEOGRAPHER.— Because flowers vanish… 16. PRINCE.— What do you suggest [me to] (that I) visit? 17. GEOGRAPHER.— The planet Earth. For she [has a good reputation] (hears well). The Little Prince left, while pondering (about) his flower. Ibidem. NOTES 1. Simul, adv., at the same time; simul ac, simul atque, as soon as. 2. Huc, like istuc and illuc, refers to the place one goes to: huc venis, you come to where I am, istuc venit, he goes to where you are; etc. 3. Me pudet, impersonal verb. Shame is pudor, -oris, m. 4. Divitiæ, -arum, f. pl., wealth; dives, -itis, adj. rich. 5. Curator, from curare, to care. You will also find curator viarum, one who takes care of the roads.— Lychnus, -i, m. lamp. 6. Immanis, -is, -e, immense, cruel, inhumane. 7. Vulcanus, -i, m, Vulcan; the god of fire has given his name to volcanoes. But, in antiquity, this name was not used as a common noun; this is why instead of vulcani we find a periphrasis: mountains that discharge fire (ignivomus, -a, -um;

from ignis and vomo, -is, -ere, -ui, -itum, to vomit). 8. Formosissimæ rerum: the complement of the superlative is either a genitive, as is the case here, or preceded by inter. In the latter case it goes in the accusative case: formosissimus inter flores, the most beautiful among the flowers. N.B.— Res is feminine and flos masculine. 9. Evanesco, -is, -ere, evanui, i.v., to vanish, to disappear, whence the adjective evanidus. Caducus, -a, -um, deciduous, perishable (from cadere, to fall) would have been more precise but wouldn’t have fitted the intention of the author. 10. Hortari, deponent verb of the 1st conjugation, to exhort. It constructs with ad + acc. if its complement is a noun (e.g. te hortor ad patientiam, I exhort you to patience), or with ut and the subjunctive as in P. 16. Viso, -is, -ere, -i, visum, to look attentively (meaning slightly different from videre). You may think, and rightly so, that we have mutilated the beautiful story of the Little Prince. That’s because our purpose is above all is to teach you a language, giving you examples as varied as possible of latin words and expressions, with the only necessary amalgam to keep your attention. Don’t be surprised therefore to find cuts and modifications which often take us away from the original text. If, as we hope, you would like to know more, you can from now refer to the sources, whose list you will find by the way in the BIBLIOGRAPHY at the end of this book. EXERCITATIO 1.— Hey! Stephen! Where are you? I can hear you singing, but I cannot see where you are. 2.— I am at home; I am in the granary where we keep the grain (wheat). 3.— In the new house there is no granary. 4.— I am coming down from the granary. 5.— Get out of the house! 6.— I do not want to get out of the old house. 7.— I want to get out of Paris. 8.— Let’s go into the granary. 9.— Don’t you want to go home? 10.— They prefer to go to Chicago. 11.— We are not going to New York. 12.— We are not going to New York, a famous city. 13.— We are heading to Grenoble along the valley of the Isère. 14.— We are heading to Chambery by the Emilian way. 15.— Aren’t you coming from Milan? 16.— Yes, we have passed by Aosta. Chicago, -inis, f., declines like Carthago, -inis, Carthage. We can also say Chicagia, -æ, f.— Camberium, -ii, n., Chambery, capital of French Savoy.— Gratianopolis (cf. L. 31, N. 4) takes an acc. in -im.

You must have noticed that this exercise is exclusively on the complements of place. If you want, we will put this area to order in our next revision. 2nd wave: the 26th lesson

Lectio septuagesima sexta (76) I will follow your advice 1. GENEVIÈVE.— What you [just] explained to me encourage[s] me to read the whole book. Do you want to lend it to me? 2. ALBERT.— Most gladly. When you came into the house, I was reading the last page. Here is the book! 3. GEN.— The edition is very beautiful. Who has painted those pretty pictures with pleasant colours? 4. ALB.— The author himself; he drew simply but nicely. 5. GEN.— Do you believe that I can understand the (Latin) copy [in Latin]? 6. ALB.— Of course you can. But here you have a copy written in our language. [To the extent this is possible] (As much as can be done), [avoid using] (beware lest you should use) it, except in great difficulty. 7. GEN.— Thank you; I shall follow (serve myself with) your advice. 8. ALB.— Do not forget (perf. subj.) however to study the daily lessons and to listen [to] your discs! 9. Eight days later: GEN.— I read the book (written) in Latin without great difficulty. The dictionary I used a little bit. 10. In the end I compared the Latin [copy and the one] (with the copy) written in our language. I didn’t believe [that our mother] (paternal) tongue could be translated into the Latin one with so much simplicity. 11. ALB.— Hurrah! You have found the best way of learning foreign languages, reading as many books as (is) possible. 12. GEN.— The only difficulty is at the beginning. At first, you understand nearly nothing. 13. ALB.— [It is] at [that] (this) time [that] one has to continue. First it is convenient to read and read again, without [using] (use of) the dictionary. 14. Then little by little you become accustomed to the style of the author, and little by little you understand his language better and better. 15. GEN.— Do you have another book of the same difficulty? 16. ALB.— I shall lend you an English book which has been written also for children. But now, let us go for dinner! NOTES 1. Pingo, -is, -ere, pinxi, pictum, to paint, to draw; and in a figurative sense, to describe; pictor, -oris, painter; pictura, -æ, painting. 2. Exemplar, -aris, n., is declined like a parisyllabic (like mare, maris, n.: abl. sg. in -i and gen. pl. in -ium). It is the same for the words in -al and in -ar, which were once in -ale and -are. 3. Consilium, advice; do not confuse with concilium, council, assembly. There is in any case no chance of error if you pronounce the latter correctly: "konkiliyoom" (even in Italian: "conchilyoome"). 4. Conferre*, to gather, to compare, is another compound of ferre. 5. So far we have more frequently gerundives than gerunds. With the gerund, we have:

1° Accusative: te hortor ad discendum (linguas), I exhort you to learn (languages). 2° Genitive: modus discendi (linguas), a way of learning (languages). 3° Dative, ablative: discendo (linguas), for learning (dat.), by learning (abl.) (languages); equally libros legendo. When the gerund has a complement (linguas in our example), Latin often prefers to use the gerundive, which is an adjective in agreement with this complement; our three sentences, while keeping the same meaning, become: 1° Accusative: te hortor ad linguas discendas; 2° Genitive: modus linguarum discendarum; 3° Dative and ablative: linguis discendis. 6. Tot… quot, indeclinables, are used for things (or beings) that can be counted, while tantus, -a, -um and quantus, -a, -um are used for things more or less big. Tot homines quot sententiæ! As many people as opinions! But (L. 74, P. 5): tantum… exigendum est quantum unusquisque dare potest. 7. Pergo, -is, -ere, perrexi, perrectum, to follow one’s path, to continue. Circus song (conclusion) While on to the whips leaning I hang, wild shout our supporters. I am crowned with laurels; I am happy [that the emperor] (prince) out of our victories has made a lot of money. May I always be the first! May nothing overtake me! Who so has the strength? Who can drive like this? Death (be) to the red! May the blue tremble! Luck however favours the treasury (dative) when the green wins. More than one emperor was impassioned by horses and charioteers. CALIGULA (12-41 A.D.) liked "the greens" to the point that he spent entire days with them. Verber, -eris, n., whip, lash.— Pronus, -a, -um, leaning forward.— Clamitare, frequentative of clamare (to cry), to cry endlessly. The same for agitare below, frequentative of agere.— Ferus, -a, -um, fierce, ferocious, savage; fera, -æ, f., wild animal, beast.— Factio, -onis, f., action or power to do (facere), (political) position, party, clan, faction.— Cingo, -is, -ere, cinxi, cinctum, to surround, to encircle, to gird, here in the passive.— Rem facere, to earn money, to make a fortune, corresponds to the first meaning of res, rei, f., which, just as thing in English,

ended up becomming a word OMNIBUS! Russatus, -a, -um, dark red. As in our time, runners were recognised by the colour of their shirt, and every colour had its supporters, i.e. a «faction».— Venetus, -a, -um, sky blue, colour of the Venetians (Veneti), inhabitants of Venice (Venetia), and of the «blue» faction.— Prasinus, -a, -um, green, colour of a 3rd faction.— Fiscus, -i, m., a wicker basket; later, the money collected inside, the public treasury, the fisc.— Fors, fortis, f., chance, luck; fortuitus, -a, -um, accidental, by chance. 2nd wave: the 27th lesson

Lectio septuagesima septima (77) Revision and Notes 1. COMPLEMENTS OF PLACE The exercise of lesson 75 was aimed at refreshing in your memory the notion that we had introduced in our first lessons. Today we are going to try to put our ideas in order definitively. Latin distinguishes four kinds of places, which we shall look at successively: A. The place where one is. Question: Ubi? Ubi es? Where are you? — Sum in horreo, I am in the granary. As a general rule, the complement, preceded by in, is in the ablative, in some particular cases: names of cities, towns and small islands, the words domus, rus, and humus, with which we do not use the preposition in:


1° IF THESE NAMES HAVE A locative (singular proper names of the 1st and 2nd declension), WE USE IT: Sum Massiliæ, Lugduni, Sami, domi, ruri, humi: I am in Marseilles, in Lyon, in Samos (small island), at home, in the country(side), on the ground. 2° OTHERWISE, ablative without in: Sum Athenis, es Chicagine: I am in Athens, you are in Chicago. Remarks: — IF ONE OF THESE NAMES IS ACCOMPANIED BY A QUALIFICATIVE OR PRECEDED BY AN APPOSITION, WE FOLLOW THE NORMAL RULE: In nová domo, in durá humo, in urbe Massiliá: in a new house, on the hard ground, in the city of Marseilles. (But exceptionally with the possessive adjective: domi tuæ, at your home, instead of in domo tuá, which is also sometimes used.) — IF THE APPOSITION IS PLACED after THE CITY NAME, THE LATTER is treated separately ACCORDING TO THE GENERAL RULE: Massiliæ, in urbe Marii: at Marseilles, the city of Marius. B. The place where one goes to. Question: Quo? Quo vadis? Where are you going? — Eo in Italiam, I am going to Italy. As a general rule, the complement, preceded by in, is in the accusative, EXCEPT for nouns mentioned as an exception in the preceding general rule, which use the accusative without in: Eo: Romam, domum, domum tuam, Athenas, Samum, but in urbem Romam, in veterem domum, and Massiliam, in urbem Marii.

C. The place where one comes from. Question: Unde? Unde exis? Where are you coming out of? — Exeo e scholá polytechnicá, I come out of the Polytechnic. As a general rule, the complement, preceded by ex (e in front of a consonant), is in the ablative, But ex disappears in front of the words in the preceding categories, always with the same exceptions: Exeo: Massiliá, domo, domo meá, etc… Massiliá, ex urbe Marii. As an exercise, you can take again all the examples of A and subsequently answer questions B and C, and use the opportunity to conjugate the verbs ire and exire. E.g.: eo in horreum, exeo ex horreo, is Massiliam, exis Massiliá, etc. D. The place where one passes by. Question: Quá? Quá transivisti? Through where have you passed? — Iter feci per urbem, I have passed through the city. General rule: per and the accusative. Exception: THE FOLLOWING WORDS ARE NOT PRECEDED BY per AND TAKE THE ablative: iter, mare, terra, porta, pons, and via. E.g.: Itinere longo, terrá marique peregrinavit: he travelled along a long itinerary, by land and by sea.— Portá Capená, viá Aureliá: through the Capenan gate, along the Aurelian way.— Ponte transiit: he crossed by a bridge. 2. CORRELATIVE ADVERBS OF PLACE You will find a summary table of them in the grammar appendix. What follows is going to be even more of a summary. When the complement of place is not a noun, it can be an adverb. Thus, to the question ubi? correspond the following adverbs: — DEMONSTRATIVE: Ibi, there; ibidem, at the same place; híc, here where I am; istic, there where you are; illic, over there where s/he is; the latter correspond to the adjective pronouns hic, iste, ille respectively; — RELATIVE: ubi, where…; ubicumque, wherever…; — INDEFINITE: Alibi, elsewhere; ubique, everywhere; ubivis, wherever. Other adverbs are constructed in a similar way, responding to the other three questions. Examples: — Quo? — Eo, (towards) there; istuc, (towards) there where you are (vid. L. 75, N. 2); alio, elsewhere (towards another place).

— Unde? — Inde, from there; illinc, from there where s/he is (vid. L. 68, N. 4); aliunde, from elsewhere. — Quá? — Eá, through there; hác, through here; aliá, through another place. Remark the long á, as in the singular ablative of the 1st declension. 3. PREFIXES We have been able to see that Latin used many compound words, formed by prefixes and suffixes. E.g.: with vocare, to call, we make provocare, to call out, provoke (prefix pro-); but also vocitare, to call frequently (suffix -ita). Today, let us have a look at some words formed with some prefixes, which are at the same time (not all of them are).


1° ab (+ abl., a in front of a consonant) indicates separation: Ferre*, to bear; auferre*, to carry away (perfect abstuli, supine ablatum); Rapere, to seize; abripere, to drag away by force. 2° ad (+ acc.) indicates closeness or addition: Affere*, to bring (perf. attuli, supine allatum; vid. sup. abstuli, ablatum); Dare, to give; addere, to add (addidi, additum). 3° cum (+ abl.) indicates the idea of common action, union and reinforcement: Colloqui, to speak with, to talk to each other; collocare, to put together; Conficere (from facere), to do completely; Conferre* (from ferre*), to bring together, to compare (cf. L. 76, N. 4). We leave you the task, if you feel like it, to look for other verbs fromed with these three prefixes. N.B.— Notice that for euphonic reasons (contrary to “cacophonic”), the prefix, and even the word that follows, undergo sometimes quite remarkable changes. 4. THE GENDER OF NOUNS (sequel) What are the genitive, gender and translation of: mors, artifex, solitudo, latus, scriba, exemplar, volucris? ANSWER: mortis, f., death; artificis, m., artist, craftsman; solitudinis, f., desert; lateris, n., side; scribæ, m., office employee; exemplaris, n. (gen. pl. -ium), model; volucris, feminine of the adjective volucer, -cris, -cre. 2nd wave: the 28th lesson

Lectio septuagesima octava (78) A killer story 1. A man accused of murder was summoned to court. 2. THE PRESIDENT.— The friend [with whom you used to keep company] (whom you cultivated) was found dead in your room. Only you [can have killed] (could kill) him. 3. THE LAWYER.— Mr President, you have asserted this without any evidence (this without any evidence you have asserted). There is no trace on the corpse. He [cannot have been killed] (could not be killed) by a gunshot, nor with a dagger, nor by strangulation, nor by poisoning. 4. THE DEFENDANT.— I want to tell the whole truth myself. I killed him [against my wishes] (unwilling). I told him a story that kills. 5. PRES.— What is this latest lie? 6. DEF.— It is not a lie, but —alas!— the truth. I am a comic author and I came up with a story so funny that people who listen to it die [laughing] (with laughter). 7. This [I discovered] (I experienced) unwilling[ly], in the most inconvenient manner, with a friend of mine who wished to listen to this story. 8. PRES.— I order you to tell this story so that we may see whether you are telling the truth or lies. 9. DEF., struck with horror.— It is impossible: I do not want to kill innocent people again. 10. PRES., with the highest authority.— Our job is to find out the truth. Let the [public] (spectators) leave the [court]room! Let there remain the judges, the lawyer, the defendant and two [policemen] (guards)! 11. We are courageous and serious people. We are not afraid of anything. Let the defendant tell the story! 12. The defendant, once more against his wishes, told the story. A few seconds later, the lawyer collapsed from laughing and then died. 13 After a moment (of time) the judges died. The president followed them quickly into death… 14 However the two policemen stayed unperturbed… They died the following day, for they understood the story (rather) late! NOTES 1. Cædes, -is, f., murder; cædo, -is, -ere, cecídi, cæsum, to strike, to cut down, to fell. Mortiferus, -a, -um (from mortem ferre), death bringing. 2. Præses, -idis, m., president. 3. Indicium, -i, n., sign, evidence. 4. Cadaver, -eris, n. 5. Ictus, -ús, m., thrust, wound. Manuballista, -æ, f., litt. hand ballista; the ballista was an instrument for hurling projectiles (cf. ballistics). 6. Pugio, -onis, m., dagger. 7. Veneficium, ii, n., poisoning; we have already seen venenum (L. 57, N. 13). The suffix -ficium that we find in beneficium comes from facere.

8. Interficere, to kill; compound from facere (cf. L. 57, N. 14). 9. Invitus, -a, -um, adj., forced, against one’s will. 10. Ridiculus, -a, -um, which provokes laughing, laughable, and not necessarily ridiculous. 11. Emorior = ex + morior, -eris, -i, mortuus sum, to die. 12. Nolens: present participle of nolo*. Volens nolens, whether he (she, one) wants it or not. 13. Auditorium, -ii, n., (from audire, to hear) means, in a single word, audience room. 14. Discedo, -is, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, to leave, to go off. Again a compound from cedo, -is, -ere, cessi, cessum, to march. EXERCITATIO 1.— The crowd of spectators enters into the courtroom. 2.— The spectators perturbed by fear run away in all directions. 3.— Where do these spectators come from?— From all sides. 4.— Where have they travelled through?— Through wherever. 5.— Where are they sitting?— Wherever. 6.— Can you lend him some money? 7.— What! Is he in financial hardship? 8.— He bought a luxurious racing-car on credit (with coins not present). 9.— He thought [he was making a good deal] (himself to be seizing a wonderful opportunity). 10.— Three days later, to repair the car, he spent 1000 euro. 11.— Now he has nothing [to pay] (whence he can pay) his drafts. 12.— It is convenient to rule over money, not to be [its] servant = money is a bad master and a good servant. Syngrapha, -æ, f., a bill of exchange (Greek origin). Note some indefinite adverbs of place that we did not see in our previous revision: Question: ubi? — ubivis, wherever (where you want). quo? — quoquoversus, in (towards) all directions. unde? — undique, from all sides. (Did you notice the demonstrative inde in P.12 of the lesson and the relative unde in P.11 of the exercise?) quá? — quálibet, through wherever (through where it pleases). You can even form others, ubilibet, ubique, quovis, etc. But do not try to make a complete inventory at this moment: you will have time to encounter them in your readings.

2nd wave: the 29th lesson

Lectio septuagesima nona (79) Piglet is not a lover of baths 1. KANGA, a female kangaroo, Roo’s mother (together, Kanga & Roo), carrying Piglet with her in her pouch instead of Roo.— Come on! Come, dearest Roo. It’s time to go to bed.— She drags Piglet out of her pouch. 2. PIGLET.— Ouch! 3. KAN., evidently did not understand what Piglet’s complaint meant.— First of all, the bath! 4. PIG.— Ouch!— Timidly he searches for his companions with his eyes, but the others are not there. 5. KAN.— I remain undecided and am not sure whether it wouldn’t be a wise plan to [take] (make use of) a cold bath today. Do you like cold baths, dearest Roo? 6. PIG., who never had been a lover of baths, shudders, gasping heavily.— Kanga, I understand that [it’s urgent that I speak] (the time of speaking) with genuine good faith (is pressing). 7. In a loud voice.— I am not Roo, I am Piglet! 8. KAN.— Yes, my dear little heart, yes; you are even imitating Piglet’s voice.— She takes a very large [cake of] soap from the cupboard. 9. PIG.— Don’t you see? Are you blind? (N.8) Look! 10. KAN.— I see you, dearest Roo. And you know what I told you about making faces: 11. «Imitating Piglet, you will look like (will be seen) a piglet [as] an adult, and imagine how much that could disgust you». 12. Come on! Into the bath! Watch out that I don’t [have to repeat] (iterum dicam) the same thing too often. 13. Before he can understand what is happening, Piglet is in the bath. Kanga rubs him energetically with a thick and soapy cloth, tough as if leathern. 14. PIG.— Oh dear! Let me go! I am Piglet! 15. KAN.— Don’t open your mouth, dearest, or the soap will get in. Look! Which had to be proven! From Winnie the Pooh, by A. MILNE; translated into Latin by Alexandre LENARD (Ed. Methuen, London). NOTES 1. Marsupium, -ii, n. pouch, whence marsupiales, marsupials, animals which have a pouch (kangaroos, opossums, etc.). 2. Porcellus, -i, m.; diminutive of porcus, -i, m., itself a synonym for sus, suis, m. (see L. 58, N. 3). 3. Querimonia, -æ, f., derived from queror, -eris, -i, questus sum, to complain, which should not be confused with quærere, to seek, which you will see again in phrase 4. 4. Hæreo, -es, -ere, hæsi, hæsum, lit. to be attached (adhere).— Anceps, ancipitis, adj., which we have seen (L. 31, P. 4) in the sense of an uncertain thing, here

refers to a person who is hesitating. 5. Horreo, -es, -ere, -ui, v.i. to bristle, to shudder, to be afraid; one also says: horresco, -is, -ere, horrui; the perfect system is the same for the two verbs. Horresco referens*, I shudder with horror [while] telling (this story). 6. Fides, -ei, f., faith, belief, good faith; from fido, -is, -ere, fisus sum, a semideponent verb (+ dat.), to trust, rely on. 7. Corculum, -i, n., diminutive of cor, cordis, n., heart. 8. Caligare, to be in a fog, be have blurred vision, be dazzled; calígo, -inis, f., dense smoke, fog, mist, darkness. Not to be confused with caliga, -æ, f., boot (short i, since it is not accented). 9. Sanna, -æ, f., wry face, grimace, mockery. 10. Adultus, -a, -um, grown up, full grown, perfect passive participle of adolesco, -is, -ere, adolevi, adultum, to grow up; the present participle adolescens means: in the process of becoming adult, but the corresponding nouns is written as adulescens. 11. Piget* (me, te, etc.), impersonal verb, to feel repugnance [at], (lit., it affects me, you, etc., with displeasure of). Likewise pænitet* me, I rue it, and pudet* me, I am ashamed of it. These impersonal verbs can, however, have a subject in the THIRD person, here: id. 12. Sæpius: comparative of sæpe, adv., often. What would be the superlative of this adverb?— Answer: sæpissime. Note that these three adverbial forms have no corresponding adjectives. 13. Pannus, -i, m., piece of fabric. 14. Loreus, -a, -um, leather; lorum, -i, n., strap, thong. Lorica, -æ, f., corselet, cuirass. Currus loricatus, armored vehicle, a tank. In spite of appearances, the relationship between the first two words and the last two is doubtful. 15. Ós, oris, n., mouth, face; the rest of the phrase clearly shows you that it is not a matter of os, ossis, bone. 16. Abbreviated as Q.E.D. EXERCITATIO 1.— Whither is the farm-overseer going?— He is bringing food to the pigs. 2.— The sheep and cows are roaming in the meadows. 3.— Wherever they find [tasty] (edible) grass, they stay in that same spot in order to graze (for the sake of grazing). 4.— Who is that Puus or Pu?— He is little Christopher’s bear. 5.— What! Can a little boy have a bear? 6.— Bears are very ferocious animals. 7.— Yes! Wild bears are very ferocious, on the other hand bears [made] of plush are very gentle. 8.— An animal [made] of plush isn’t a real animal: it lacks the-breath-of-life. 9.— [That’s what] (Such things) naturalists say; on the other hand, authors who write to delight (for the pleasure of) children feel otherwise. 10.— In books for the use of children, as much real animals as imaginary ones do not only have a mind, but even human ways-of-life.

11.— Don’t keep your hands in your pockets! Esca, -æ, f., nourishment, and esculentus, -a, -um, are from the same family as edere (L. 40, N. 4).— Gausapa, -æ, f., designates a thick or plushy fabric.— Mitis, -e, gentle (of character); dulcis, sweet to the taste; mollis, soft to the touch.— Physica, -æ, f., has a broader sense than our contemporary Physics and designates everything related to nature (physis in Greek), that is, both Physics and Natural History.— Animus, -i, m., spirit, heart, courage, the totality of intellectual and moral functions of a human. Anima, -æ, f., has in principle a more restricted sense: the breath of life, which an animal (animal, -alis, n.) also possesses. But it is used in the sense of breath, life, and, by extension, soul. 2nd wave: the 30th lesson

Lectio octogesima (80) Piglet (conclusion) 1. PIGLET, as soon as he could speak, said with his mouth trembling.— You… you… you did it deliberately.— By chance it happened that he got the leather-like and soapy cloth onto his face again. 2. KANGA.— [My] (Best) dearest, stop talking.— After an instant, the washed Piglet has been wiped off with a towel. 3. … Come on, take this medicine, afterward you will go to bed. 4. PIG.— Wh… wh… why should I take medicine? 5. KAN.— To strengthen and fortify you. [Do you (peradventure) intend] (Peradventure is to you in the mind) to remain very small and weak like Piglet? Come here! 6. But then there was a knock at the door (the door was knocked on).— Come in!— Christopher Robin entered. 7. PIG.— Christopher Robin, Christopher Robin! Tell Kanga who I am! She doesn’t stop saying [that I am Roo] (me Roo to be). *I* am not Roo, am I? 8. CHRISTOPHER ROBIN, closely inspects him and denies [it].— You can’t be Roo, because I saw Roo playing in [Rabbit’s] (Hare’s) house just now. 9. KAN.— Oh, dear! Imagine it! How much my [mind] (opinion) deceived me! 10. CHRIS., again denying.— He is not Piglet. I know Piglet inside out (see note 7): he has a very different color! 11. KAN.— I was not unaware that he was not Piglet. I am eager to know who he is. 12. CHRIS.— Perhaps one from the lineage of Pooh. A son or (paternal) uncle or someone. 13. Piglet extricated himself from Kanga’s embrace and jumped down to the ground. To his immense delight, Christopher Robin had left the door(s) open. 14. Never had he run with such great speed as he then ran, nor did he stop (from) [his] running before (than) he almost arrived to his own house. 15. But when he was 200 feet from the house, he halted and rolled himself in the dirt for the rest of the journey [in order to restore] (so that he could restore) his pleasant and customary colour. (Ibidem.) NOTES 1. Dixit: In the preceding excerpt, we had put the narrative in the present to simplify the reading for you; here we leave it in the past as in the text by A. LENARD. 2. Mitto, -is, -ere, misi, missum means first of all to let go, to allow to leave: Præfectus milites misit, the commander let the soldiers depart [on leave] (whence a primary sense of missio, leave); here it means to renounce to, to give up, to desist from, to cease from. But it can equally mean to cause to leave, to throw, to hurl, to launch, to send someone (whence the second sense of missio, mission) or something (missile, -is, n., a weapon which is thrown).

3. Lautus (from lavo, -as, -áre, lavi, lautum), to wash or to wash oneself. The form of the perfect participle is easier to understand if one remembers that in the past the u and the v were the selfsame letter (u, v, see preface P.X). There exists also a form lavo, -is, -ere, lavi, lautum or lotum, which means to wash or to water, to sprinkle, but not to wash oneself. E.g.: lavas manús, you wash your hands; but lavit mala vino, he drowns his troubles in wine. Abstergeo, -es, -ere, -tersi, -tersum, to wipe dry (ab + tergeo, to clean). 4. Corroboráre, to make strong; from robur, -oris, n., power, strength, or oak. 5. Fallo, -is, -ere, fefelli, falsum, to deceive; falsus, -a, -um, false. 6. Abnuo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, to make a negative gesture. Nutare means to nod with the head, to rock slightly (cf., in astronomy, nutatio, nutation, a slight rocking of the polar axis). We have already seen renuere (L. 73, N. 2). 7. Intus et in cute nóvi, literally I know him (nóvi) inside (intus, adv.) and on the skin (cutis, L. 39, N. 10). 8. Aveo, -es, -ere, to desire ardently, to be eager (avidus, -a, -um). There is a second verb avere, to be well, with no relationship to the preceding, which is chiefly used in the imperative: Ave, Avete, Good Day, Greetings. E.g.: Ave Cæsar! Hail, Cæsar! Avete sodales! Hello, buddies! 9. Stirps, stirpis, f., stem, stump, and, by extension, origin, posterity, family. 10. Salio, -is, -ire, salui, saltum, i.v., to leap, to jump. Derivatives: exsilire, to jump up or out (L. 66, P. 7); insilire, to jump into or upon; desilire, to jump down. Likewise, sto, -as, -are, steti, statum, to stand, has given, via a first derivative sistere, to put, to set, the compounds: desisto, -is, -ere, destiti, i.v., to stop, to cease from, and consisto, -is, -ere, -stiti, i.v., no supine, to stop, to settle down (cf. L. 8). You will find these two verbs in P. 14 and P. 15. 11. Prius… quam: these two words can be separated as here, or together: priusquam. The sense remains the same, but the separation allows better to highlight the function of the clauses governed by each of these elements. Ante… quam, same sense, is construed in the same fashion. 12. Lutum, -i, n., mud, dirt. 13. Assuesco, -is, -ere, -suevi, -suetum, to get accustomed to; but assuefacere (aliquem alicui rei), to accustom (someone to something). 14. Restituo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, = re + statuo (-is, -ere, statui, statútum), to put back in place, to replace, to restore. EXERCITATIO 1.— Paul! [You have to get out] (It is convenient that you should get out) of the (swimming) pool! How long have you stayed in the water? 2.— I stayed in the water for some time, but I didn’t swim for as long as Emily. 3.— She should have got out long ago. 4.— How long has she been in the pool?— For a long time! She’s been in the pool for three hours. 5.— She swam the length of the pool a hundred times in three quarters of an hour. 6.— Since the pool is 25 meters long, she went through two and a half kilometers.

7.— After you [get out] (will have got out) of the water, [dry] (you shall dry, fut. imp.) yourself with a towel. 8.— Dry (you-pl. shall dry, fut. imp.) [yourselves] (your bodies)! Don’t roll yourselves in the dust while [your] swimsuits are wet. 9.— Don’t behave like a piglet. 10.— If you [imitate] (will imitate) the behaviour of a piglet, you will get no toys. 11.— PROVERB: Don’t cast pearls before swine. Nare or natare, to swim; tranare = trans + nare, to swim across.— Dodrans, dodrantis, m., means three quarters by itself: est tertia hora cum dodrante, it’s 3:45. We had already seen quadrans = 1/4.— To say: how long ago? (question quamdudum?) one uses the ordinal numeral adjective (phrase 4, tertiam, 3rd) and the accusative. But to answer the question quamdiu? (how long for?) we use the cardinal adjective: tres horas natavit, she swam [for] three hours.— Gausapa, which we had seen in the previous exercise also designates swimsuit fabric and, by extension, the swimsuit. 2nd wave: the 31th lesson

Lectio octogesima prima (81) They gave me a bad beating 1. EUCLIO, an extremely greedy old man, who has hidden his gold in a (certain) little jar; he is talking to himself.— Today I wanted [to gather courage] (to confirm my spirit) at last, so that I am all set (impf. subj.) for my daughter’s wedding. 2. I come to the market, I keep asking for fish: [they give me a high price] (indicate [them] expensive), [lamb is expensive] ([they indicate] lamb [as] expensive), beef [is] dear, veal, tuna, pork, everything is costly. 3. And they were all the more expensive because [I had] (there was [to me]) no money. 4. I go away from there angry, because there is nothing I can buy. 5. My mind assented to my [first] resolution, that I should give my daughter in marriage at the least possible cost. 6. Now I bought this bit of incense and [these] floral garlands. 7. These will be placed on the hearth for our Lar, 8. so that he may make [my] daughter’s wedding fortunate. 9. But what do I see? Our house wide open!— A voice is heard in the house. 10. And there is a racket inside. Am I, poor wretch, being pillaged? 11. CONGRIO, a cook, sent to prepare the dinner, has been keeping himself busy [is keeping himself busy] in Euclio’s kitchen for a long time now.— If you can, fetch a bigger pot from the neighbourhood: this one is small; it can’t hold [it]. 12. EUCLIO.— Woe is me! [Goodness] (By Hercules), I’m done for! [My] gold is being plundered, [they are trying to find] the pot (is being sought). Apollo, I beg [you], come to my aid and help me! Transfix the treasury thieves with [your] arrows!— He runs into the house; shouts and lashes are heard. From Aulularia (the [play] about the little pot) by PLAUTUS (lines 371 … 395). NOTES 1. Contundo, -is, -ere, -tudi, -tusum, to crush, to pound, ”to bludgeon” (with a blunt instrument) = cum + tundo (perf.: tutudi), to strike. Not to be confused with tondeo, -es, -ere, totondi, tonsum, to cut (hear), to shear. The literal translation of the title is: they have badly ”bludgeoned” me. 2. Euclio, proper name, gen. Euclionis. Likewise, we will find Congrio later on. 3. Nuptiæ, -arum, f. pl., wedding (nuptials). 4. Bubulam, vitulinam, porcinam, with carnem understood (cf. L. 58, N. 3). Cetus, -i, m., or cete, -is, n., a large sea fish (cetaceous); here very probably tuna, a relatively cheap fish. 5. Eo… quod, especially… because; and here, with the comparative (cariora), all the more… because. 6. Æs, æris, n., bronze, money. Æs alienum, others’ money, debts. 7. Quam + superlative, the most… possible. Sumptus, -ús, m., expense (sumere). 8. Nuptum, supine of nubere (cf. L. 43, N. 16). 9. Tus, turis, n., incense, perfume which is burned in honour of the gods; whence its diminutive túsculum, not to be confused with the town of

Tusculum which we shall find again in L. 87, N. 12. 10. Floreus, -a, -um, adj., meaning made with flowers (flos, floris, m.). 11. Lar, Laris, m., the god Lar, protector of the family. 12. Natus, -i, m., son; noun formed with the past participle of nascor. Likewise nata, -æ, daughter (it’s also written gnatus, gnata). 13. Conspicari, t. deponent v., to perceive, catch sight of. 14. Strepitust = strepitus est; abbreviated form which often found in Plautus. Strepitus, -ús, m., noise, uproar. Intus, adv., inside, in the interior (cf. L. 80, N. 7). 15. Compilare, to pillage, plunder, ransack, rifle, rob; here in the PASSIVE. 16. Satagere = satis agere (no supine), to be busy, keep oneself busy. 17. Queo*, -is, -ire, quivi, quitum, to be able of (+ inf.). Its opposite nequeo is much more common. Aula, -æ, f., a cooking pot, whose diminutive aulula has given the title of the play, is an archaism. Now we write olla. 18. Configere, to transfix; we have seen figere (L. 44, N. 16). 19. Sagitta, -æ, f., arrow. 20. Fur, furis, m., thief. Trium litterarum homo (an expression used by Plautus in the same play), a man of three letters, i.e. whose name is written with three letters (F.U.R.). 21. Thesaurarius, -a, -um, formed from thesaurus, -i, m., treasure. N.B.— Plautus’ play is in verse, but as we have had to perform some modifications and some excisions, we have not considered it good to separate the verses from one another. You can thus temporarily consider these excerpts as prose. EXERCITATIO 1.— When did Plautus use to live? 2.— Titus Maccius Plautus is believed to have been born in the year 500 from [the founding of Rome] (the City founded), i.e. in the year 254 [BC] (before Christ born), and [to have] died in the year 184 BC. 3.— How long did he live? If these times are established without error, he lived [for] 70 years. 4.— What was his life like? 5.— We really don’t know much about it. 6.— [As] a young man, he is said to have been an actor, from some company of comedians. 7.— Then he himself wrote comedies, in which he imitated Greek authors. 8.— [The money he obtained] (Which money he obtained) by means of the theatre he lost by engaging in business. 9.— For which reason he suffered from such financial hardship that he had to seek his livelihood at a baker’s. 10.— They say that he also wrote comedies in front of the oven whenever there was spare time. 11.— His life and works are little different [from] (to) the life and works of JeanBaptiste Poquelin, who is called Molière [by] (among) the French. 12.— For example, that French author imitated the Aulularia of Plautus in that comedy which is entitled The Greedy Man.

Histrio, -onis, m., actor.— Acquiro, -is, -ere, -quisivi, -quisitum, to add to, to acquire.— Furnus, -i, m., oven.— Dissimilis is construed with the DATIVE. 2nd wave: the 32th lesson

Lectio octogesima altera (82) They gave me a bad beating (sequel) 1. CONGRIO, bursts forth from Euclio’s house.— Dear citizens, fellow-citizens, local people, neighbours, foreigners, everyone… 2. [Make] (Give) way [so that I can escape] (through which it be permitted [for me] to flee), make [it that] all the avenues are clear. 3. Never except for today have *I* come to a Bacchants’ house to cook for a Bacchanal. (vid. N. 6). 4. So badly have they pounded me, poor wretch, and my apprentices with cudgels. 5. I ache [all over] (whole) and I’m completely done with, that damn old man has treated me so [like a whipping post] (an exercising area). 6. Nowhere [in the world] (of the nations) have I seen lumber (ligna, pl.n.) more beautifully delivered… 7. Wow! By Hercules, I’m undone, poor me: he’s here, he’s following! 8. I know what (thing) I’ll do: the master himself has taught me this. 9. EUCLIO.— Come back! Where are you fleeing to now? [Stop him, stop him] (Hold [him], hold [him])! 10. CONG.— Why are you yelling, [you] blockhead? 11. EUCL.— Because *I* am going to report [you] (your name) to the police right now. 12. CONG.— For what reason? 13. EUCL.— Because you have a knife. 14. CONG.— It’s right [for] a cook. 15. EUCL.— Why did you threaten me? 16. CONG.— I think [what] (that) was wrongly done [was that] (because) I didn’t jab [your] side. 17. EUCL.— There’s no person more criminal than you (who is) alive today! (Ibidem, 406…419) NOTES 1. Optatus, -a, -um (past participle of optare, to choose, to wish) is often used in an apostrophe: optati amici, dear friends. Civis, civis, m., citizen. 2. Popularis, -e, adj., concerning or related to people (populus). Used as a noun, it means fellow-citizen, compatriot. The other three nouns in the phrase do not present any difficulties. Note that these are masculines of the 1st declension. 3. Fugio, -is, -ere, fúgi, i.v., to flee; but fugo, -as, -are, t.v., to put to flight: Euclio Congrionem fugat, E. puts C. to flight; but Congrio Euclionis verbera fugit, C. flees E.’s blows. 4. Platea, -æ, f., public square, avenue, platform (E. 67, P. 9). 5. Pateo, -es, -ere, -ui, to be open; here in the subjunctive with ut understood. Another sense: to be clear, to be evident. The form patesco, -is, -ere, patui, to open up, to be revealed corresponds with this verb. 6. Baccha, -æ, f., Bacchant, priestess of Bacchus, god of wine and of intoxication.

Bacchanal, -alis, n., place consecrated to this god, whence Bacchanalia, -ium, n. pl., festivals of wine, must have been, one supposes, celebrated in a lively fashion! 7. Coquina, -æ, f., cuisine; whence coquinare (supine coquinatum), to do the cooking; also culina (L. 81, P. 11); to cook is coquere (cf. L. 65, N. 5), and a cook is coquus (L. 81, P. 11). 8. Fustis, -is, m., cut wood, cudgel (cf. French fustiger). 9. Oppido, adv., completely. The relationship with oppidum, -i, n., town (fort) is doubtful. 10. Ne… usquam or nusquam, nowhere; likewise, above, ne(que)… umquam = numquam, never. 11. Tresviri (gen. triumvirorum), m. pl., the triumvirs or tresviri we are dealing with here were at that time in charge of policing the prisons. There were other sorts of triumviri: the best known were at first Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, then Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus, whose triumvirate (lit. group of three men) was established in 43 B.C. 12. Quam ob rem, for what thing, why (can be written as a single word). Ob + acc., on account of. 13. Comminari, the same as minari = to threaten (dep. v.). Fodio, -is, -ere, fódi, fossum, to pierce, excavate, dig. 14. Scelestus, -a, -um, criminal, villain (scelus, -eris, n., crime), here in the comparative; its complement te is in the ablative (without quam). EXERCITATIO 1.— In what way did you get used to drinking so copiously the beverage called “whisky” among the English? 2.— I shall explain to you: first of all with water, afterwards without water, finally like water. 3.— Whither are you going so quickly? 4.— Home, for mother has promised me a beating. 5.— Then, I don’t understand why you are hurrying so. 6.— So that I can get home before father returns: for he beats much more strongly. 7.— Olive boasts that the lakes in her country are very jam-packed with fish(es): 8.— “By Pollux” —she says— “there are so many fish in these lakes that they can be caught merely [drawing some] water (having been removed)”. 9.— Marius, on the other hand, says: “Which is nothing: in Marseilles, there are so many fish in the Old Harbour that they have to be removed to free the water [for navigation] (by cause of navigating)”. From Vita Latina. Vhiskeum: Latin v is pronounced like English w.— Verber, -eris, n., stick, cane,

whip; in the plural, verbera (gen. verberum), blows from the same instrument. Verberare, to beat, to whip. Verbero, onis, m., good-for-nothing, rogue (accustomed to the whip). Lacus, -ús, m.: dative and ablative plural lacubus. Likewise acus, needle, and some other nouns of the 4th declension have the dative and ablative plural in ubus instead of -ibus (cf. E. 33). Vetus, -eris, contrary to the majority of third declension adjectives, forms its ablative singular with -e rather than -i (likewise dives, divitis, and pauper, pauperis, as do the comparatives (cf. L. 39, N. 7). 2nd wave: the 33th lesson

Lectio octogesima tertia (83) They gave me a bad beating (conclusion) 1. EUCLIO.— But what (of) business [did you have] (was-there to-you) in my house [while] I [was] away, if I hadn’t ordered it? I want to know. 2. CONGRIO.— Then shut up! Because we come to cook for the wedding. 3. EUCL.— What the devil do *you* care whether I eat [my food] raw or cooked, if you aren’t my guardian? 4. CONG.— I want to know whether or not you allow us to cook dinner here. 5. EUCL.— Equally *I* want to know whether-my-possessions [are] going-to-be safe in my house. 6. CONG.— I wish I could just take my possessions I brought to you safe back [with] (for) me: I do not covet yours. 7. EUCL., mockingly.— I know, don’t tell [me]; I’m fully aware. 8. CONG.— What is there on account of which you now prevent us [from] cooking dinner here? 9. EUCL.— You still insist on asking, [you] villain, who are making (me) all corners of [my] house and of [my] rooms [into] a thoroughfare? 10. If you had been there (ibi) where (ubi) your business was, by the fire, you would not [have ended up with] (be taking away) a split head; [you deserved it] (it’s happened to you deservingly). 11. So that *you* may straightaway be aware (of) my point of view: if you [come] (will have approached) here nearer to the door, unless I [order] (will have ordered) it, *I* will make you [be] (that you are) the most wretched mortal man. 12. CONG.— Now what am *I* to do? *I* bloody came here under an unlucky star: I was hired for a coin; already the doctor requires more [of a] fee. 13. EUCL., carrying with him the little pot which contains his gold.— This at least, I swear, whithersoever I shall go, it will be with me, I shall carry it with me, nor shall I ever permit that it is here among such great dangers. 14. Thus by all means now all inside, both cooks and flute players. Cook, get busy, hurry as much as you like! (Ibidem, 427…453) Proverb: The pot boils, friendship lives! (understood: if the pot is empty, friendship suffers). NOTES 1. Meis is in agreement with ædibus; likewise, quid goes with negotii (literally, what of business) (cf. R&N. 84,1). 2. Jusseram: pluperfect indicative of jubere (cf. L. 74, N. 4). 3. Coctum, supine of coquere (cf. L. 82, N. 7), whereas the coctum of P. 3 is the accusative of the perfect participle passive used as an adjective. Plautus enjoys practicing this type of word play. 4. Malum, neuter adj. used as an interjection; Nisi = si non. 5. Phrase 4, A BIT OF ANALYSIS:

a) main verb: volo; b) 1st infinitive clause, performing as direct object: scire… etc.; whose understood subject is that of the main one: Congrio. c) noun clause, performing as object of scire: utrum sinas an non sinas (= utrum sinas annon); this clause is moreover interrogative (introduced by utrum); d) (full) infinitive clause, performing as object of sinas (annon): nos coquere híc cenam. Note that this last híc is not the demonstrative adjective-pronoun hic, but the demonstrative adverb of place (question ubi?) of the first person (there where I am). 6. Phrase 5: Analogous construction: the object clause of scire, introduced by the particle ne (after mea) is an indirect interrogative clause whose understood verb must be in the subjunctive: meane salva futura (sint). 7. Auferam: present subjunctive of auferre*; tuli, perfect of ferre*. 8. Expetere, to try to take (ex), to covet. 9. Rogitare, «frequentative» form of rogare (to ask), whence to ask continuously, without stopping. 10. Angulus, -i, m., angle, corner. Conclave, -is, n., from cum clave, with a key. Pervius, -a, -um, passable (per viam); pervium, -i, n., passage; likewise permeabilis, -is, -e, permeable, from meare, to flow through, to pass. 11. Focus, -i, m., hearth; in optics, the «hot» point where the rays of light converge. 12. Fissilis, -is, -e, adj., derived from findo, -is, -ere, fidi, fissum, to cleave, to split; likewise, fissio, -onis, f., the action of splitting (cf. atomic vocabulary: fission), and fissura, the result of this action (cleft, crack). 13. The end of phrase 11 could be written: faciam uti (= ut) miserrimus mortalis sis. Te, direct object (therefore in the acc.) of faciam (fut. indic.), just reinforces the idea expressed. Mortalis, attribute of the understood subject of sis (subj.) is in the nominative, the same as its epithet miserrimus. You remember that adjectives in -er form the superlative in -errimus? 14. Edepol!, by Pollux! A woman would say Ecastor!, by Castor! (twin brother of Pollux). 15. Huc: demonstrative adverb of place regarding the question quo? (cf. N. 5d above: híc). 16. Medico: here in the dative (the ablative has the same form); mercede, ablative of merces, -edis, f., pay for a job. Merx, mercis, f., merchandise. Commercium, -ii, n., commerce. Mereri, to deserve, to win (cf. P. 10, merito, with good reason, and L. 71, N. 8). 17. Intro, adv., inside, generally with movement (intrare). We have seen intus, inside (without movement). 18. Tibicen, -inis, m., (male) flute player (tibia, L. 42, P. 8); f., tibicina, -æ. 19. Festinare, to hurry (cf. festina lenté, make haste slowly, that is, without headlong haste). Note the alliteration in Sentence 10: ibi ubi tibi. You will find this phrase again in the next revision. CARMEN

Barbapoom There was in Ethiopia once a king, Ras Seyoom. He had a big beard. They called [him] Barbapoom. Battling with the enemy, a big noise he made, boom! Then the soldiers kept shouting: See [you all] Barbapoom! But finally he died from a bullet of the enemi(es), pierced [with a wound]. May it be for [the] glory [of] (for) Ethiopia. May it be also [for that of] Barbapoom. CHORUS: Barbapoom, Barbapoom, etc. Traditional tune. Latin lyrics from Palæstra Latina (no. 171). Hostis, -is, m. or f., enemy. Genitive plural hostium, since this noun is parisyllabic.— Prœliari, dep. v., to fight, to do battle. Telum, -i, n., missile weapon (arrow, shell, etc.), and more generally offensive weapon.— Confodio, -is, -ere, -fódi, -fossum, to pierce through; from fodere, to dig (cf. L. 82, N. 13), whose perfect participle has given fossa, ditch. Again a lesson which is rich in vocabulary. Don’t try to memorise all words in one go, but rather to check your knowledge by means of revisions. It’s to this effect that we remind you every now and again of words we have already seen (see above jubere, coquere, etc.) by giving you, not their translation, but the number of a lesson where you have already found them. If you no longer remember their meaning, refer to the indicated lesson and make again the acquaintance of the word in its living state in the sentence where it is to be found. This exercise is very fruitful: don’t be afraid to repeat it, especially for those words whose meaning you have forgotten several times. 2nd wave: the 34th lesson

Lectio octogesima quarta (84) Revision and Notes 1. WORD ORDER AND THE NOTION OF SYMMETRY Classical Latin construction, with its many possibilities, should not have failed to surprise you, and it may even have seemed to you to partake of the outright whimsical. Indeed, it seems that the words in a simple clause can come in any order. Thus the basic sentence Euclio Congrionem verberat (Euclio is beating Congrio) can in theory be expressed in six different ways (E.C.V.; E.V.C.; V.E.C.; V.C.E.; C.E.V.; C.V.E.). These six forms are all grammatically correct, but they are not identical in meaning: each gives expression to a particular nuance. The most commonplace order is: SUBJECT, (direct) OBJECT, VERB: the sentence E.C.V. is thus the only one that contains no extra nuance. But any modification of this order carries some nuance: so, if we wish to stress the fact that it’s Congrio who is taking the beating, we can put Congrio first and say: Congrionem Euclio verberat. Likewise, if we want to stress the fact that there’s a beating involved, we can put the verb first (V.E.C. or V.C.E.), according to the (secondary) respective importance of E. and C. But let us not give too much importance to the meanings of the different possible combinations, since here as elsewhere PRACTICE often diverges from THEORY. So, don’t go too far in this direction, and wait to be well informed by USAGE: it is the best guide of all. What is true of the order of words in a simple clause is often true for the order of clauses in a complex sentence. Thus, in is fecit cui prodest (literally, he has done [it] to whom it profits = he who did it is he who benefits from it), the two clauses can be reversed: cui prodest is fecit (it is he who benefits who did it). You should have no trouble grasping the nuance that distinguishes these two sentences. As the number of words and the number of clauses increases, it may seem that the situation rapidly becomes inextricable. Yet, the Romans found their way through the maze: why shouldn’t we? Before becoming more familiar with the safety net provided by the «NOTION OF SYMMETRY», let us first see what we should not do. The most frequent error is to take epithets, appositions or attributes and hang them on to nouns they do not refer to. Whereas, in English, the epithet is almost always found next to the noun it applies to, the situation in Latin is entirely different. Examples: a) Porcellum imitans, adultus porcellus videberis (L. 79, P. 11): Porcellum

(accusative) cannot be the subject, and imitans cannot be in apposition to it. But the fact that the verb (videberis) is in the 2nd person clarifies everything: — imitans (nominative) (1), in apposition to the understood subject; Porcellum, direct object of the present participle imitans (object-verb order); and the whole Porcellum imitans is equivalent to a conditional clause: if you imitate P. — Adultus (nominative) can likewise only refer to the understood subject (tu). This word is a perfect participle (verb and adjective at the same time): it can be considered as a temporal clause (see the grammatical appendix) equivalent to cum adultus factus eris, when you will have become an adult. — Finally, porcellus videberis is just a main clause: subject tu, understood; verb videberis; and porcellus (nominative), an attribute of the subject, this function being confirmed by the word order, because the attribute, like the direct object, is preferably placed just before the verb: you will seem (to be) a piglet. But, you may say, and rightly so, this analysis of the sentence is not LIVING. And how can we understand a conversation? If you have listened to the recordings, you have perhaps realized that all of this could be learned intuitively. If not, here is an explanation that you will find useful: The only difficulty of Latin order is that it makes greater use (2) of the possibilities of memory: it’s enough to bear that in mind. When I hear a phrase, I put the words in waiting in my memory while attaching labels to them instinctively; thus, in our example: — Porcellum, accusative, is therefore going to be the object of some process; — imitans, present participle, is a verb; therefore here is already the indication of the process the preceding Porcellum is the object of; but it is at the same time an adjective, probably in the nominative (what comes later will tell us); which therefore refers to the subject I am calmly awaiting; — adultus, perfect participle (if I take it as an adjective, that doesn’t affect comprehension at all), in the nominative; therefore it refers to the subject and confirms the supposition advanced for the preceding word (imitans = nominative); before and after adultus, the voice indicates a brief pause; therefore adultus is not an epithet but the equivalent of a circumstantial clause (see above); — porcellus, in the nominative: either the subject or an epithet, apposition or attribute to the subject, this last hypothesis being immediately confirmed by the appearance of — videberis which, after definitively settling the relations between the preceding words, brings the whole thing to an end. Described in this way, these operations will seem even longer to you than those of the preceding analysis: in fact they are much shorter, since experience renders them instinctive and thus almost instantaneous. Moreover, if you tried to describe the way your brain deals one by one with the elements of an English sentence that you intuitively understand, you would realize that the operation

is every bit as complex. b) Another example (L. 83, P. 1): in ædibus quid tibi meis erat negotii. Meis can only refer to ædibus since, in the sentence, only these two words are in the ablative (3) plural; negotii cannot be a nominative plural since there is no verb in the plural (and, as a neuter, it would end in -a, in any case): it is thus a genitive singular, therefore the complement of a noun or pronoun (4), in this case the pronoun quid. But this analysis is still tedious! You can arrive effortlessly at the same result if you take good notice of the fact that this sentence is constructed with a certain SYMMETRY: Ædibus is in symmetry with its epithet meis with regard to the group quid tibi; likewise quid is symmetrical with negotii with regard to tibi … erat: the schema below will help you grasp the spirit of the construction: In ædibus…………………meis quid…………………………negotii tibi……………erat

in my house what (of) business to-you was

NOTES 1. Imitans could be an accusative neuter, but this hypothesis is easily discarded. 2. And, in making more use of them, it allows greater efficiency in the transmission of information: See the very simple example above of is fecit cui prodest and compare its conciseness with the length of its translations. This quality, if well used, is even more valuable when very complex ideas are to be expressed. 3. Or in the dative, a hypothesis easily discarded. 4. The hypotheses: genitive complement of a verb such as memini, or locative, are to be discarded. 2. SIGNPOSTS OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCE IN THE COMPLEX SENTENCE, an analogous structure can be found: interlocking of words and sometimes of clauses, arranged so as to make the sentence more compact. Happily enough there are signposts which clearly show the path to follow in the midst of this apparent complexity: these are the CORRELATIVES. There are several sorts of them: a) Demonstratives and relatives.— Example: is … qui — is fecit cui prodest, he did it [who benefits from it] (to whom it is beneficial); or, reversing the two clauses: — cui prodest, is fecit, [it is he] who benefits from it [who] did it (notice the economy of words that the suppleness of Latin allows). Likewise talis (of such kind, i.e. such…) … qualis (of which kind, i.e. as…): qualis pater, talis filius, as is the father, so is the son.

b) Correlative adverbs of place.— Example: ibi (there) … ubi (where): — si ibi adfuisses ubi tibi erat negotium, if you had been there (ibi) where (ubi) your business was. Likewise with the question quo?: eo … quo: si eo adiisses quo tibi eundum erat, if you had gone thither whither you should have gone. And finally inde … unde and eá … quá for the questions unde? and quá? As we indicated above, the order of clauses can be reversed: si ubi tibi erat negotium ibi adfuisses, or even more profoundly modified. Thus (in L. 83, P. 10) Plautus grouped the words ibi ubi tibi to achieve a comical effect. c) Correlative adverbs of time.— Example: cum (when) … tum (then): — cum hirundines demissé volant tum imber imminens est, when the swallows fly low, [then] rain is imminent. d) Correlative adverbs and adjectives of quantity.— Example: tantus, -a, -um (so large) … quantus, -a, -um (how large, i.e. as): — tantum aquæ habebam quantum ad potum satis esset (L. 72, P. 4). ATTENTION! Adjectives being declinable, you may find the two terms in different cases, numbers and genders. e) Other correlatives.— You have already encountered a certain number of conjunctions in pairs: adeo … ut, to such a point that; ita … ut, in such a way … that; sic … ut, in the same way as; sicut … sic, in the same way as … likewise, etc. Finally, a pair of correlatives may be composed of two terms of different kinds. For example, tantus, -a, -um … ut: so large … that. It is useless to go any farther for the moment. Just remember that Latin makes great use of these correlative words. Each time you manage to recognize them, you will better grasp the meaning of the sentence. Don’t forget that the order of correlative words can be reversed (sic … ut or ut … sic), that they can be joined together (sicut) or on the contrary separated by several words or even several clauses, and finally that the demonstrative term can be understood (fecit cui prodest). If you want to know more about this, you will find the most important of these words, classified by category, in the grammatical appendix. But above all, make yourself familiar with them by reading and rereading many Latin sentences and by trying to forget their English translation. By dint of practice, you will notice that everything that still seems artificial to you will soon become entirely natural.

3. PREFIXES (continued) Let us still look at a few prefixes which are also prepositions: Ex: a) IDEA OF EXITING: exire, to go out; expetere (L. 83, P. 6), to request; b) IDEA OF COMPLETION: exhaurire, to drain completely, to exhaust. In: IN, ON: ingredi, to enter into. Per: a) THROUGH: percurrere, to run through; b) COMPLETELY: perficere, to do thoroughly, to finish. Trans: across: transmittere, to transmit; tranare, to swim across. This review is long, but we hope that you will have found it of interest. We preferred to wait until the end of our work to explain to you the very important question of word order. Indeed, for the first wave instinctive assimilation took precedence over everything else. Do not forget that this initial study should be followed by a second wave … and even by a third, if you feel the need. That will be the occasion for you to make use of your new knowledge. Now, in order to progress, it will be good to seek to understand. Today you should revise lesson 35.

Lectio octogesima quinta (85) I am a terrible mechanic 1. CHARLES.— Hey, René! What are you doing here? [What’s wrong] (what bad incident befalls / befell you)? 2. RENÉ.— You can see [for] yourself, (oldie) Charles [my old friend]. The car doesn’t want to move forward. The engine stopped suddenly, I don’t know [why] (for what reason). 3. I soiled [my] hands with axle grease, but I couldn’t find anything; I’m [a terrible mechanic] (the worst craftsman). 4. CHARLES.— [Let me] (allow [that] I) inspect! Let’s think logically! [The problem is] either the ignition or the petrol (fails you): for the driving force comes from [the combustion of] petrol (having-been-ignited). 5. The fuel is set on fire by an electric spark… First, let’s check the ignition! 6. [You will have to turn] the drive shaft with the crank (to-you to-be-turned willbe) while I check whether the spark flashes in every cylinder or not. 7. RENÉ.— There! The crank is in (its) place. I’m beginning to turn it. 8. CHARLES, is suddenly shaken off into the air, crying out.— Ouch! … What a bad shock, [to touch] (to be struck by a touch of) the electric current! 9.— A little later, having calmed down:— But now we know that the ignition (equipment) is fine. 10. Let’s therefore inspect if the fuel is flowing in well. Give me a [spanner (?) to] (key with which I may) take out the screws of the carburettor. 11. The screws having been taken out, the cover of the carburettor is lifted up. 12. RENÉ.— The bowl is dry. The petrol isn’t [getting] (being brought) here. 13. CHARLES.— Let’s work the fuel pump with a finger. Drat! The petrol isn’t passing through. Perhaps the pump’s membrane has been punctured. 14. RENÉ.— What am I to do? [This has caused] (these things have made) me too great a delay: at this very hour I [should] (would like to) be attending a trial. 15. CHARLES.— Of what crime have you been accused? Are you at all afraid of being condemned to death? 16. RENÉ.— Don’t be funny! *I* am not [the one who is] accused. I wish only to watch. The defendant is a very famous man; the advocates are excellent: I would most gladly listen to them. 17. CHARLES.— It [would be best] (is better) for you to go by [foot] (feet), or [to take a taxi] (to use a hired carriage) … Let me inspect the tank nevertheless. 18. RENÉ.— Alas for us! I forgot to fill it [this morning] (today in the morning); we have played mechanic(s) in vain! NOTES 1. Axungia, -æ, f. (from axem ungere, to grease the axle), axle grease. Axis, -is, m., axis, axle, pole (P. 6). 2. Inquinare, to soil, to stain. 3. Literally, with (logical) reason let us think! 4. Petroleum, -i, n., Medieval Latin: oil (oleum) drawn from the ground (petra, rock). For refined petroleum, the French use the term essence (de pétrole), but the

Latin equivalent essentia (the nature of a thing) would only cause confusion. We have chosen petroleum, the word used by the first automobilists and aviators, and still today (as petrol) by the English; we could also have said, with the Italians and the Germans, benzinum, -i., n., (a word already sanctioned by BACCI), or, with the Spaniards and the Americans, gasolina. These words cause confusion in all languages! 5. Fomes, -itis, m., any product capable of feeding a fire: fuel (which comes, via the Old French fouaille, from focus, hearth). All these words come from fovere, to warm; but, in Latin, fire is ignis, -is, m., whence ignire, supine ignitum, to set on fire, and ignescere, to catch fire. Ignitio is a modern word, but igniarius, -a, -um, having to do with fire (P. 9), is classical. 6. Dum, when it means just while, takes the indicative, and generally the PRESENT indicative, regardless of the tense of the main verb: this rule is not obligatory. 7. Cylindrus, -i, m., cylinder, roller. 8. Emicare, to leap out, to burst forth (ex + micare, to tremble, to flash). 9. Excutio, -is, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, to cast out, to knock off. Here in the passive. Likewise, several words farther down, percuti, to be struck through. 10. Vexare, to shake; vexatio, -onis, f., jolt, suffering, mistreatment. 11. Influo, -is, -ere, -fluxi,- fluxum, to flow into. 12. Lábrum, -i, n., bowl, tub (origin: lavare). This word, which we have already seen (L. 47, P. 1 and P. 8), has almost the same form as labrum, -i, n., lip (origin: lambere, to lick). 13. Membrana, -æ, f., means membrane, sleek and smooth skin, parchment. Not all pumps have a membrane; older ones have a piston (fundulus, -i, m.) 14. Accusare + gen. in order to express the reason for the accusation: accusare aliquem furti, to accuse someone of theft. But it takes the ablative of the word crimen, whence crimine in phrase 15. Damnare + abl. in order to express the penalty incurred. This rule is not absolute. 15. Audirem, imperfect subjunctive = present contrary to fact: I would gladly listen, but I cannot. 16. Meritorius, -a, -um, hired (from mereri, to earn a salary). Carpentum, -i, n., a suspended carriage (on springs or some similar apparatus) yields carpentarius (cf. L. 24, N. 1). EXERCITATIO 1.— Where is there a [garage] (workshop of-cars)? 2.— There is one in the next village. 3.— They sell petrol and oil there. 4.— They can [do bodywork and mechanical repairs] (repair carriage-related and mechanical things). 5.— Do they fix [tyres or inner tubes] (gums or little tubes)?— Yes, they [vulcanize them] (repair them by the method of-Vulcan). 6.— The tyre is punctured. 7.— The [mechanic] (craftsman) immerses the inner tube in(to) a bowl full of

water. 8.— Why are you doing [that] (thus)? 9.— Where bubbles come out from, (out of there) the air escapes from the tube: thus it can be perceived [where] (in what place) the puncture is hiding. 10.— What punctured the tube? 11.— The nail which you see stuck here in the tyre. 12.— It is the nail of a boot. 13.— [In these parts] (in this region) the peasants use [studded] (ironclad) boots. Ancient proverb.— Unless the axle is greased, the started journey is more slowly continued. More modern proverb.— Play (free movement of the joints) is the soul of mechanics. NB.— This last proverb is generally used ironically. Cummis, -is, f., (or gummis), abl. cummi, gum, rubber, whence (pneumatic) tyre.— Pungo, -is, -ere, pupugi, punctum, to puncture, to pierce, has given many derivatives, in Latin as in English; e.g., punctum, point; punctura, puncture.— Latere, to lie hidden, here in the pres. subj. (for the indirect question).— Pagus, -i, m., village, country district; paganus, -a, -um, of the country, whence heathen, pagan (the countryside was converted to Christianity after the cities).— Rusticus, -a, -um, comes from rus, ruris, n., the country (loc. ruri, see R.&N. 77). Ungo, -is, -ere, unxi, unctum, to anoint, to oil, here, to grease (cf. N. 1). Laxitas, from laxus, -a, -um, loose, slack (cf. laxare, to loosen; relaxare, to relax; relaxatio, loosening, relaxation). With this lesson, we have put our finger on one of the points where the practice of living Latin poses some delicate problems. Indeed, although it is easy to describe and explain in Latin —or in classical Greek— the most recent scientific discoveries, for the simple reason that the scientific vocabulary is almost entirely of Greco-Latin formation (cf. L. 66, L. 67 and the bibliography), we must recognize on the other hand that in the realm of the applied mechanics, the Latin language is somewhat behind the times. So, in order to avoid certain barbarisms, we have sometimes had to content ourselves with terms whose precision leaves something to be desired. Such as: petroleum (cf. N.4); igniarius (cf. N.5); vectis, which denotes a lever in general rather than a crank in particular. On the other hand, carburatorium, -ii, n., is precise and universally recognizable, but cannot be found yet in the dictionaries! As Latin is a living language that is always being perfected, you can conclude from this that if, thanks to some, its efficacy is today appreciable in this delicate area, tomorrow, thanks to the efforts of all, it will not cease growing in all areas. 2nd wave: the 36th lesson

Lectio octogesima sexta (86) Do you not see that your plans lie uncovered? 1. Marcus Tullius Cicero, a most famous advocate and most impassioned orator, denounces in the Roman Senate the conspiracy and misdeeds of Catiline: 2. «Up to what point at length will you abuse our patience, Catiline? 3. For how long still that madness of yours will mock us? To what limit will [your] unbridled daring flaunt itself? 4. Did [neither] the night garrison of the Palatine, [nor] the watches of the city, [nor] the fear of the populace, [nor] the gathering of all good [men], [nor] this most fortified place [where is held] (of holding) the Senate, [nor] the regards and countenances of these [men] stir you at all? 5. Do you not sense that your plans lie bare? Do you not see [that] your conspiracy [has been] (to be held) restrained already by the knowledge of all of these [men]? 6. Which one of us do you think [is] (to be) unaware [of] what you did last [night], what [you did] the night before, where you were, whom you summoned together, what plan you formed? 7. O the times! O the customs! The Senate understands these things; the consul sees [them]; this [man], however, lives. 8. Lives, did I say? More than that indeed he even comes into the Senate, is made a participant [in] (of) official deliberation, [and] marks out and designates with [his] eyes each one of us for slaughter. 9. On the other hand, we, brave men, appear to do enough for the Republic if we avoid the madness and weapons of that fellow. 10. You, Catiline, should have been led to [your] death by the order of the consul long ago, [and] the plague which for a long time now you [have been] (are) contriving against all of us [should be] transferred against you.» First speech of M. TULLIUS CICERO against L. Catiline [given] (had) in the Senate (Cicero, First Catilinarian). NOTES 1. Coniuratio (conjuratio), -onis, f., conspiracy, plot. Catiline had armed a whole band of adventurers and intended to make a revolution for his advantage! 2. Abutere = abuteris, 2nd person singular future indicative of abuti (ab + úti, to use). The forms in -ris (2nd pers. sg. of passive or deponent verbs) are sometimes replaced by forms in -re; likewise -erunt (3rd person plural of the perfect active) can be replaced by -ere. E.g.: fuerunt or fuere. Here abutére (or abutéris) is a future (long é). In the present the e is short (abuteris or abutere, you abuse). 3. Effrenatus, unbridled (frenum, -i, n.). 4. Jactare, to agitate, toss, «frequentative» of jacio, -is, -ere, jeci, jactum, to throw (which should not be confused with jaceo, -es, -ére, -ui, i.v., to be outstretched, lie); jactare se, to vaunt; sese, a strengthened form of se. 5. Palatium, -ii, n., (here Palati = Palatii, gen. sg.), or Palatinus Mons, the Palatine hill, the chic area of Rome.

6. Patere, which we had met in L. 82, P. 2, is used in a figurative sense. 7. Scientia: here, the fact of knowing (scire). 8. Nostrum (sometimes nostri), gen. of nos (gramm. § 12) and not of noster.— N.B.: The first four verbs of P. 6 are perfect subjunctives. 9. Particeps, -ipis, adj., one who takes part in (partem capere). 10. Fortis, -is, -e, brave (here taken ironically). 11. Do you remember (L. 83, Carmen) about telum, -i, an offensive weapon, bolt, shaft (e.g., sagitta, arrow; pilum, javelin; glans, gen. glandis, bullet; etc.)? arma, orum,, means rather defensive weapons (e.g.: clipeus or scutum, shield; lorica, corselet, cuirass, etc.), or weapons in general (ensis, sword; gladius, sword, etc.). 12. Dúci, passive infinitive of ducere; not to be confused with the dative of dux, ducis, leader, guide. Iussus, -ús, m. (or jussus), order. 13. Omnís = omnes. This accusative plural of the 3rd declension, in -is instead of -es, is found in other authors of the same period (e.g., Vergil). Numerous editions reproduce this form, which produces confusion however. Thus we point it out to you, but only in this lesson, so that it does not surprise you when you read classical editions. 14. Machinari, deponent verb, to devise an engine of war: a modern word which dates from thousands of years ago! N.B.— This piece is the only extract which has not suffered from any internal excision or any retouching. As is known of all Latinists, we think that you should not ignore this, even if only to state the clear simplicity of an author of whom too many people make a bugbear. In order to put you into a completely classical environment, we have, in this text, and in this text alone, with the exception of the tonic accent marked in bold and of the long á, adopted the writing which you will find in the majority of academic works (see the Preface, p. X, Note). This will allow you to see how easy it is to pass from one system to another. We have equally respected the Ciceronian form which, in some words, differs from the modern form adopted in the rest of our work. Try to find the corresponding differences yourself and, at the end of the lesson, compare your results with the list which you will find below. Once this lesson is finished, we shall resume the modern spelling. List of peculiarities of the text (the only differences are the letters in italics).— iactabit = jac…— Palati = Palatii.— uigiliae = vigiliæ— uoltusque = vultús…— mouerunt = mov…— iam = jam.— coniurationem = conjurationem.— uides = vides.— conuocaueris = convocav…— consili = consilii.— uidet = vid…— Viuit = Vivit (for capitals, see the preface, p. X).— uenit = ven…— uiri = viri.— uidemur = vid…— uitamus = vit…— iussu = jussu.— iam = jam.— omnís = omnes. EXERCITATIO

1.— What is the difference between optimism and pessimism? 2.— Optimism takes everything for the better (part), pessimism for the worse. 3.— Can you give examples of both doctrines? 4.— Two philosophers dying of thirst are passing through a certain desert. 5.— They find a bottle [a litre in size] (with the size of a litre), but [which is only half full of water] (in which water is contained only up to its half). 6.— The first, who practices optimism: “Hooray!” —says he— “luck is helping us, look the bottle is half full!” 7.— The second, on the other hand, who [practices] pessimism: “Alas!” —he says— “luck fails us: that bottle is half empty!” 8.— A [city guard] (police officer) is directing vehicle traffic on the street. 9.— To a certain driver: “You” —says he— “proceed forward”. 10.— The driver, quite an educated man: “What do my ears hear? A pleonasm!” 11.— The officer, on the other hand, who had not understood the meaning of this word: “What? You are hurling insults at a magistrate: I shall fine you!” Proverb.— A tree is known from its fruit. Optimismus, pessimismus, pleonasmus, communismus, etc., are masculine words of the 2nd declension: in this declension, the majority of words which signify emotional tendencies are masculines in -us and not neuters in -um. We had already seen feminines in -us which are of Greek origin (atomus, methodus, etc.).— Multare, to condemn (to a fine or reparation) cf. capite damnare (L. 85, P. 15). Not to be confused with mulgeo, -es, -ere, mulsi, mulsum or mulctum, to milk. E.g.: hircos mulgere, to milk billy goats, that is, to attempt something impossible. 2nd wave: the 37th lesson

Lectio octogesima septima (87) Letter to Atticus 1. Marcus Tullius Cicero sends many greetings to Titus Pomponius Atticus. 2. When I was eagerly awaiting a letter from you toward evening, as I usually do, low and behold news [arrive that] boys (to) have arrived from Rome. 3. I call [them], [and] I ask [them if there is any letter] (peradventure-something ofletter). They [say no] (deny). 4. «What are you saying» —say I—, «nothing from Pomponius?» 5. Thoroughly terrified by [my] voice and countenance, they confessed (themselves) to have received [one], but [it fell] ([for it] to have fallen) out on the way. 6. What [can I say] (do you ask [from me])? I took [it] very badly: for throughout these days no letter had arrived from you [which was] devoid of some useful and pleasant matter. 7. Now, if there was anything worthy of account in that letter which you [posted] (gave) [on the 16th day before the] (before the 16th day) Kalends of May (i.e. the 16th of April), write it as soon as possible so that we are not unaware. 8. But if [there was] nothing but jesting, [resend] (give back) that very thing! … 9. But be informed of our routes, [to decide] (so that you may decide) where [to see us] (you are to see us). 10. We want to arrive to [our] Formian [estate] on the Parilia; subsequently we will depart from the Formian [estate] on the Kalends of May (= the 1st of May) [in order to be] (so that we may be) at Antium five days before the Nones of May (= the 3rd of May). 11. For there are to be games at Antium. Tullia wants to watch them. 12. Subsequently I intend [to go] to [our] Tusculan [estate], then to Arpinum, [and] to Rome for the Kalends of June (= the 1st of June). 13. See to it (curá) that we may see you either in [our] Formian [estate], or at Antium, or in the Tusculan [one]. 14. [Send again] (Restore) the previous letter to us and [add] (paint in addition) something (of) new. 15. (I was writing at) Antium, 15 days before the Kalends of May, in the year 695 from [the foundation of] the city (founded) (= 17/4/-59). From the letters of CICERO (Att. II. 8). N.B.— We remind you that this letter has been trimmed and retouched (the address and date in particular). If you want to be acquainted with Cicero’s correspondence in a more precise fashion, you will have to refer to a classical edition (see the BIBLIOGRAPHY, p. 546). NOTES 1. Cum, temporal, calls for the subjunctive (exspectarem, impf. subj.) if the tense of the subordinate is the imperfect or the pluperfect. 2. Ecquis, ecqua (or ecquæ), ecquid, interrogative pronoun, is there anyone who?

is there anything which? 3. Pomponio: This is evidently Titus Pomponius Atticus, and old school friend with whom Cicero exchanged an extensive correspondence. We remind you: Titus, forename; Pomponius, gens name (from the gens Pomponia), and Atticus, the Athenian, a surname which was the result of a long and fruitful sojourn at Athens. Cicero belonged to the gens Tullia, and his cognomen comes from cicer, -eris, n., which we have seen in L. 58, P. 4. 4. Confiteor, -eris, -eri, -fessus sum (cum + fateor, to declare), to acknowledge, to confess. 5. Excido, -is, -ere, -cidi (ex + cado), to fall from, to slip out of the hands. 6. P. 6, word for word: no letter from (abs = ab) you empty of some useful and pleasant thing had arrived [to us]; said in another way, all your letters are interesting to us (two negatives make a positive). Inanis, -e, empty; likewise, utilis and suavis are adjectives of the 3rd declension (parisyllabic). Inane, the void (in physics). 7. Kalendæ, -arum, f. pl.: the ancient Roman calendar, and also the Julian calendar (the calendar improved by a reform of Julius Cæsar in -46), were quite complicated. Instead of counting the days from the beginning of the month, they counted them backwards from certain fixed dates: the KALENDS (1st of the month), the NONES (Nonæ, the 5th or 7th day of the month, but the 9th day counting backward from the Ides, whence their name), and the IDES, (Idus, abl., Idibus, the 13th or 15th day of the month). For further information, you can consult a classical grammar, or any another specialized work. 8. Historiá dignum: after adjectives such as dignus (worthy of), contentus (satisfied with), plenus, (full of), and after their opposites, we use the ablative. E.g.: dignus verbere, worthy of the whip, contentus sorte suá, satisfied with his lot; vacuus petroleo, empty of petrol; see above inanis re utili. However, some of these same adjectives can be followed by the genitive: plenus vini, full of wine. 9. Ne = ut non (+ subj.). 10. Sin = si + negative, if on the contrary. 11. Statuo, -is, -ere, -ui, -utum, to set, fix; same root as stare. Visurus sis: future participle + present subjunctive of esse = future subjunctive. 12. Formianus, -a, -um, of Formiæ (Formiæ, -arum, f. pl.), town where Cicero had property. Likewise, Tusculanum, adj., here designates another property located in Tusculum. From this it proceeds that M. Cicero was not among the economically needy! 13. Parilia, -ium, n. pl. (or Palilia): a festival in honor of Pales, goddess of herds, which took place on the 21st of April. 14. Antium, -ii, n., Antium; Anzio in Italian. 15. Tullia: Cicero’s name being Marcus Tullius, the feminine proper name Tullia designates Cicero’s daughter. 16. Adpingo, -is, -ere, -pinxi, -pictum, to add by painting (ad + pingere, same conjugation, to paint). EXERCITATIO 1.— Soldier Gaius! You have conducted yourself bravely in besieging the town.

2.— You will have a furlough of a fortnight. Where do you want to go to? 3.— Thanks, [my] captain! I wish to go to Nîmes. 4.— For I would most gladly watch the games which are to have place at Nîmes. 5.— You prefer to watch [gladiatorial] matches (of gladiators) than rushing at the enemy yourself! 6.— I prefer to be present at the bull fights, or even at ball games. 7.— What will your address be at the time of [your] furlough? 8.— I shall be at my paternal uncle’s, who has a house in the grain market. 9.— [Whenever] (As many times as) I am in financial difficulty, (so many times) he lends me money. 10.— Soldier Gaius, [you are not serious] (there is no seriousness in you): I am afraid that this leave of yours may turn out very badly. Proverb.— The little donkey taken to Rome comes back [just as] ignorant. Gai, vocative of Gaïus (sometimes spelt Caïus, because c and g were one and the same letter in the past, corresponding to Greek gamma).— Pilicrepus, -i, n., player of court tennis (a game analogous to pelota); pila, -æ, f., ball; crepare, to crack, snap, crackle, creak.— Patruus, paternal uncle (father’s brother, cf. L. 80); avunculus (cf. L. 30), which has given the English word uncle, corresponds to the maternal uncle (mother’s brother).— Quoties… toties, as many times… so many times, correlative adverbs of time. 2nd wave: the 38th lesson

Lectio octogesima octava (88) Do you have some spare time? 1. CICERO, THE SON— I am interested, dear father, to hear in Latin those things which you have passed on to me in Greek about the method of speaking in public, just if you have the time to spare and if you want. 2. CICERO, THE FATHER— Is there [anything], dear Cicero, that I may prefer than that you be as learnèd as possible? 3. Free time, on the other hand, to start with, [I have the greatest] ([to me] is highest), since [I] finally [have been given] the opportunity of leaving Rome (has been given [to me]); 4. [more over] (then), I would gladly put those interests of yours even before (to) my most important occupations. 5. THE SON— Do you want therefore that, as you [usually question] (have the habit to question) me in order in Greek, so I may question you in turn about the same matters in Latin? 6. THE FATHER— Certainly, if it pleases [you]. For in this way both shall I understand that you remember what you have learnt, and you will hear what you (will) ask about… 7. THE SON— In what does the power itself of an orator reside? 8. THE FATHER— In the [content] (things) and in the [expression] (words). But both the things and the words must be found and put together. 9. The voice, gestures, countenance, and the whole performance is the companion of eloquence; [and] the guardian of all [these] things is memory… 10. THE SON— Since finding is therefore the first thing of an orator, what will he seek? 11. THE FATHER— That he should find how he might inspire trust [in] (to) those whom he (will) want to persuade, and how he can [affect their emotions] (bring about the movement of their spirits)… 12. THE SON— What are the types of evidence(s)? 13. THE FATHER— The divine and the human. Divine [evidence] is [such things] as oracles, auspices, [and] as the predictions and responses of priests. 14. Human [evidence] [is that] which is considered [as coming] from [someone’s] authority, from [their] will, from [their] speech either free or forced, in which are included witten documents, agreements, promises, oaths, [and] interrogations. From CICERO, The Divisions of Oratory, (I. 1 to II. 6). NOTES 1. Mi pater is more familiar or more affectionate than pater mi, which simply means my father! Again an example which shows that the position of words in Latin is not arbitrary (cf. R. & N. 84). Studere, to have an inclination to… (studium, the inclination to do something), hence to study; it is construed with the dative: studeo grammaticæ, mathematicis, etc. 2. Trado, -is, -ere, tradidi, traditum, to deliver into the hands, to hand over, to

deliver (trans do). 3. Vel + superlative, even the most. E.g.: vel minima sentire, to perceive even the smallest things; compare with quam + superlative (P. 2. above).— Vel means or if you want (same etymology as velle*) and marks a NON-EXCLUSIVE or: Paulus vel Petrus venit, Paul or Peter are coming (or perhaps both of them are coming).— Aut, on the other hand, expresses an EXCLUSIVE or: Paulus aut Petrus venit, Paul or Peter is coming; but if Peter comes, Paul is not coming, and vice-versa. We will note that English or French do not possess conjunctions neatly adapted to each of these two logical operations, which are however very different from one another. 4. Ut is here a comparative adverb (and not a conjunction). This becomes evident if one notes that it is paired with sic. 5. Græcé, adv.: the normal language of instruction was Greek before it was Latin. 6. Vicissim, adv., in turn; from vix (a word used only in certain cases: acc. vicem, gen. vicis, nom. and acc. pl. vices, dat. and abl. pl. vicibus), turn, time, succession; in vicem, by turns, in turn (cf. English vicissitude, vice versa, viceadmiral, etc.). 7. Comes, -itis, m. / f., companion; this word became a title in the Late Empire, whence the French comte, the Italian conte and the English count. 8. Volet: future indicative of velle*.— Above (P. 2) malim, present subjunctive of malle*. 9. Suadeo, -es, -ere, suasi, suasum, to persuade; persuadere means to persuade completely; construed with the dative (quibus). 10. Oraculum, -i, n., from orare, to speak, then to pray; oracula are the utterances of an inspired prophet(ess).— Auspicium, -ii, n., (avis spicium, from aves inspicere), prophecy, obtained by examining the flight of birds (avis, -is, f., and in old spelling, auis).— Vaticinatio, -onis, f., prophecy. Vates, -is, m., prophet or poet; indeed, many ancient poets were considered as prophets (e.g. Vergil, who had predicted the future of Rome and even, according to certain people, that of Christianity); moreover, prophetic formulæ were often in verse.— Sacerdos, otis, m. / f., priest(ess), from sacer, -cra, -crum, holy. 11. Exprimo, -is, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, to press (premere) in order to bring something out (cf. to express the juice from a fruit). 12. Paciscor, -eris, -i, pactus sum, to make a pact; this verb can be transitive: quid pacti sumus?, what have we agreed? 13. Quæsita (from quærere, to look for) is that which is obtained by a quæstio, onis, f., question, which was sometimes posed by means more efficacious than a simple verbal query! EXERCITATIO 1.— Why don’t you say anything? Aren’t you enjoying [your] leisure (calmly) in my home? 2.— I am enjoying [my] leisure [greatly] (most calmly) here. 3.— On the other hand, I am listening to you with the greatest pleasure, who

are so skillfully discussing [very enjoyable] matters (suitable for enjoyment). 4.— You are mocking us [while we are] debating! 5.— On the contrary! You are too modest. Both of you have spoken aptly and often humorously. 6.— Excepting however some matters in which we disagree! — [Those] pertaining to the United Nations. 7.— You disagree only in [your] words; in actual fact our opinion is the same: peace on earth to people of good will! 8.— We argued only about the ways to establish and strengthen peace. 9.— You argued in such a way before the last war (German Assimil, L. 101). 10.— I am afraid that war cannot be avoided: a man is a wolf to a man. 11.— I completely disagree [with] (from) your opinion: from that time we have progressed a lot in the good direction. Verecundus, -a, -um, modest; modestus means moderate (modus); the corresponding nouns are verecundia, modesty, and modestia, moderation.— Dissentire, to feel differently.— Disputastis = disputavistis; disputare means to discuss, debate, argue (coming from putare, to think) and not to quarrel, to wrangle. 2nd wave: the 39th lesson

Lectio octogesima nona (89) Our ships run a great risk 1. Cæsar orders warships to be built in the river Loire, which flows into the ocean, oarsmen to be appointed from the province, sailors and helmsmen to be mustered… 2. For indeed the [enemy’s] (enemies’) ships had been constructed and armed in this fashion: 3. The hulls [were] somewhat flatter than [those] of our ships, so that they could withstand the shallows and the fall of the tide more easily; 4. the prows [were] quite raised, and likewise the sterns, adapted to the size of the waves and storms; 5. the ships [were completely] (whole) made of oak in order to endure any force and rough treatment whatsoever; 6. the thwarts [were] made out of beams a foot wide fastened with iron nails of a thumb in width; 7. the anchors [were] bound fast with iron chains instead of ropes; 8. [there were] hides in place of sails… whether because of a scarcity of linen, or for the reason (which is more like the truth) 9. that they thought that such great storms of the Ocean, and such great onslaughts of the winds could not be endured nor could such great loads of the ships be steered comfortably enough by means of [canvas] sails. 10. Our fleet excelled in speed alone and the push of the oars; 11. the rest, on account of the nature of the place, [and] (on account of) the force of the storms were more adapted and suited to them. 12. For neither were ours able to damage [them] (to these) with the ramming beak, so great a solidness was in them, nor was a weapon easily targeted because of [their] height, and for the same reason they were less readily held by grappling hooks. 13. They endured storms more easily, and stopped in the shallows more safely and [when] left [aground] by the tide, they feared the rocks and crags not at all; 14. the outcome of all of these things was beginning to be dreaded by our ships. From The Gallic War, by Julius CÆSAR (III. 9… III. 13). NOTES 1. Navis longa, warship, longer than a cargo vessel (cf. navis oneraria, L. 10, P. 8). 2. Remex, -igis, m., rower; remus, -i, m., oar. 3. Provincia, the Roman province, which comprised Provence (to which it gave its name) and Languedoc, where its capital (Narbo, -onis, m., Narbonne) was located; the adjective Narbonensis, -e, also designated this province (also called: Narbonnaise). 4. Comparare, to get for oneself, procure (parare = to prepare, cf. L. 27, N. 14); to compare is rather expressed as conferre or componere (to carry or to put along with); finally there is another verb comparare (which comes from par, paris,

equal, like) and which means to confront, match. 5. Vadum, -i, n., shoal, or shallow (that is to say, a spot where the bottom is elevated and the water is less deep). Quo = ut eo, in order that, by this [means], is usually followed by the comparative (here, facilius). 6. Æstus, -ús, m., here, the tide; more generally, boiling due to heat (æstuare, to be very hot, to sweat buckets). At high tide, pleno æstu; at low tide, æstu reverso; decessus, -ús, m., falling tide, ebb(ing), reflux. 7. Fluctus, -ús, m., wave; not to be confused with fluxus, -ús, m., current, flow.— Prora, -æ, f., prow (in front of a vessel); puppis, -is, f., stern (back of a vessel). 8. Contumelia, - æ, f., injury, harm, damage. 9. Transtrum, -i, m., cross bar, cross piece; here, ribs, crosswise timbers («frame ribs») on which the lengthwise planks which form the «planking» of the hull are fastened. 10. Trabs, trabis, f., beam.— Pedalis, -is, -e, one foot wide (or long); bipedalis (of two feet); sesquipedalis (1.5 feet, cf. L. 58, N. 7); verba sesquipedalia, words which are too long.— Altitudo, -inis, f., is the third dimension (that is to say, height as well as depth). E.g.: altitudo arboris, fossæ, nivis: the height of a tree, the depth of a trench, the thickness of the layer of snow (you remember the two other dimensions: longitudo and latitudo?). 11. Pollex, -icis, m., thumb (uncertain relationship with polleo, -is, -ere, to be strong), but a thumb as a measure of length is called digitus, -i, m., that is to say, a finger, and it is then the Roman thumb of 1/16 of a foot, whereas uncia (L. 60, N. 3), like the French thumb and the English inch, is 1/12 of a foot.— Crassitudo, thickness, density; crassus, -a, -um, thick. 12. (Re)vincio, -is, -ire, -vinxi, -vinctum, to fasten, tie, attach, chain; vinculum, -i, n., bond, tie; prisoner’s chain; not to be confused with vinco, -is, -ere, vici, victum (cf. from the same Cæsar: véni, vidi, vici, I came, I saw, [and] I conquered). Catena, -æ, f., chain (cf. English catenary, and French cadenas, padlock). Funis, -is, m., rope (cf. funicular). 13. Linum, -i, n., linen.— Inopia, - æ, f., lack, coming from inops, -opis, adj., without resources (opes, opum, f. pl.).— Pro: prep. + abl.: in front of, or (here) in the place of; it doesn’t mean for except in certain special cases, Pro Archiá, (pleading) for Archias, that is to say, a speech delivered by Cicero for the defense of Archias (cf. prout in the exercise, P. 5). 14. Rostrum, -i, n., a bird’s beak, or a ramming beak of a ship. 15. Copula, -æ, f., bond, binding, here assured with the help of a grappling iron; this word has given the English couple.— If you have not understood telum, dart, bolt, refer to L. 86, N. 11. 16. Tutius, comparative of the adverb tuté, safely (from the adjective tutus, -a, um, safe). 17. Saxum, -i, n., rock. Cos, cotis, f., hard or sharp stone (whetstone, flint); here, reef. We can also find cautes, -is, f., reef, rock. 18. Extimesco, -is, -ere, extimui, (derived from timere, to fear) is an «inchoative» verb (cf. R. & N. 91), meaning to begin to fear. EXERCITATIO

1.— Can you lend me a hand? I wish to participate in the [regatta] (skiff competition) which is going to occur today, but I lack a crew member. 2.— For [my] usual (to me) colleague has been sick for three days (is sick the third day). 3.— But I am not skilled in seamanship (of the nautical art)! 4.— Fear not! I shall pilot and handle the mainsail. 5.— You, on the other hand, will furl or unfurl the [jib] (front sail) with the sheet as I [bid] (will have bidden) you. 6.— What is a sheet?— It’s what people call a rope, but it is a rope which is used to shorten or spread the sails. 7.— You should know that there are very many instruments in ships, which appear similar to those who are ignorant of sailing matters, [but which] nevertheless have [their own] special names. 8.— Why have sailors complicated ordinary language so? 9.— Because the words by which the captain orders (to) the sailors [to do] what must be carried out must be short and not ambiguous… 10.— Hoist the anchor! Spread the sails! Tie the mainsail [one reef] (once more tightly)! Helmsman, hold the course [as close as possible to the wind] (with the wind as opposed as possible)! Cymba, -æ, f. (remember that the y is pronounced like French u or German ü), barque or light boat. — Prout, or pro ut, conjunction, according as… — Pando, -is, -ere, pandi, pansum, to extend.— Semel, once; bis, twice, two times, ter, quater, quinquies, etc.— Subnecto, -is, -ere, -nexui, -nexum, to attach by a knot beneath (necto, etc., to knot). In rigging of the traditional type, one reduces the surface of the sail (if the wind is too strong) by folding it partly back on itself with the aid of small cords called «reefs». In modern rigging, one can roll the bottom of the sail around a «roller reefing boom». The command then becomes: Velum semel (bis, ter, etc.) circumvolvite!, take one (two, three, etc.) turns of the roller! NOTE.— The end of the exercise, its translation, and the corresponding remarks are provided to you as a curiosity. In reality, we are posing a problem rather than resolving it. During the last five hundred years, the art of navigation (by sail or other means) has developed considerably, and it has as a consequence required a more and more precise vocabulary. As the majority of nautical terms have been borrowed from the Nordic languages, the (temporary) delay incurred by Latin is more difficult to make up in this domain than in that of the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences. As we told you (L. 85), for the majority of them, electronics and nuclear science included, almost the entirety of new terms is imported from the Græco-Latin lore, which resolves the core of the problem. If you have doubts abut what we are asserting, it will be enough for you to consult modern Latin works, such as those of DESCARTES or NEWTON, or even «ultra modern» ones as the De Physicá Quanticá of SOCCORSI (1956, see the Bibliography) in order for you to realize that Latin is a living language particularly well adapted to scientific communication.

We will not give you extracts from these texts, because they would interest but a part of our readers. We just hope that our unassuming little exercises will attract to new studies those who wish to learn more and thus to contribute to the progress of the Latin language. 2nd wave: the 40th lesson

Lectio nonagesima (90) The situation is to be feared (continued) 1. Approximately 220 [of their] ships (of theirs), very well prepared and very well equipped with every sort of weapons, having set out from the harbour, took up a stand opposite (to) ours. 2. Neither to Brutus, who was in command of the fleet, nor to the [military] tribunes (of the soldiers) and the centurions, to whom [each individual ship] (single ships) had been assigned, was it clear enough what they were to do or what method of battle they should follow. 3. One thing [of] (for) great utility had been readied by our [forces]: extremely sharp sickles, inserted and attached to long poles, in form not unlike [that] of the (mural) sickles [used to attack city walls]. 4. When the ropes which fastened the yardarms to the masts had been grabbed and pulled by means of these, the ship quickly driven by the oars, they broke. 5. With these torn away, the yardarms inevitably collapsed, so that, since all hope for the Gallic ships rested on the sails and the rigging, 6. having snatched these away, all use of the ships was snatched away in one [go] (time). 7. The [rest of the] (remaining) battle depended on courage, in which our soldiers were easily superior… 8. Having, as we said, disabled the yardarms, when two or three ships had surrounded an individual one, the soldiers endeavoured to board (onto) the enemy’s ships in a definitive display of force. 9. Which after the savages noticed was happening, the majority of [their] ships having been stormed, since no help was found for that situation, they endeavoured to seek safety in flight. 10. And having the ships already changed course towards that direction whither the wind was carrying [them], suddenly so great a calm and stillness arose that they could (subj.) not move themselves from the spot. 11. Which was certainly most advantageous for completing the task, 12. for our men, having caught up with [the ships] one by one (singulas), stormed [them], so that very few, [and] through the intervention of the night, arrived to the land, since [the battle] was being fought from about [ten in the morning] (the fourth hour) until sunset. Ibidem. NOTES 1. CCXX = 220. We still find the so-called Roman numerals in classical works. When large numbers are involved, one must acknowledge that it is really not practical! In fact, Roman men of action had faster and more efficient systems at their disposal, which, unfortunately, we know only imperfectly. But this is another story! If you don’t know it, you will find the way to use these the socalled Roman numerals in any classical grammar whatever. 2. Profectæ, f. pl. perfect participle of proficiscor (L. 44, N. 11).— Adversæ,

p.p.p. of advertere, to turn towards. Adversus is also an adverb, which means against, facing, and is construed with the accusative. 3. Tribunus militum, colonel in the army, transformed here, for the needs of the cause, into the captain of a vessel! Same observation for the word centurio, which designates a subordinate officer of the territorial army. 4. Insisto, -is, -ere, -stiti, i.v., to stand on, to rest on (here impf. subj.). 5. Falx, falcis, f., sickle. Nouns ending in two consonants or in a double consonant (x = cs) in the nominative singular are generally feminine (trabs, urbs, etc.) but the exceptions are numerous: fons, pons, dens, grex, etc. 6. Longurium, -ii, n., a long pole (longus, -a, -um, long). 7. Absimilis = dissimilis. 8. Muralis, -is, -e, relating to a wall, to a rampart (murus, -i, m.), here siege implements. 9. Antemna, -æ, f., here the word is taken in its primary sense: yard, that is to say, pieces of wood destined to hold the sails; the antenna of an insect and the antenna of a radio are derived senses. 10. Málus, -i, m., mast (long á). Not to be confused with málus, -i, f., apple tree (á likewise long, the same as málum, -i, n., apple), or with malus, -a, -um, bad (short a). 11. Prærumpere, to break at the end (præ, prep. + abl., in front). 12. Abscído, -is, -ere, -scídi, -scísum, to separate by cutting (cædere, to cut). 13. Concido, -is, -ere, -cidi, no supine, to fall at one blow (cadere, to fall). 14. Spes, spei, f. (5th decl.), hope (adjective: omnis, three words before). 15. Eripio, -is, -ere, -ripui, -reptum, to remove, take away, seize and carry away (ex + rapere). 16. Reliquus, -a, -um, that which remains (cf. Eng. relic). 17. Disjectis: Other editions different from the one whose text we have followed have dejectis (or respectively disiectis and deiectis). The first is the perfect passive participle of disjicere (or disicere), to disjoint, dislocate, take to pieces; the second is the perfect passive participle of dejicere (or deicere), to throw down. Both come from jacere: jacio, jeci, jactum (to throw), which must not be confused with jacére: jaceo, jacui (to lie down).— If you read the Bellum Gallicum in a critical edition, as the one which we point out in the bibliography, you will find mention there of the variations in different manuscripts, and the preface will give you information on the exciting question of the origin of the text which you have before your eyes. 18. Cum, conj.: 1st TEMPORAL SENSE: when; construed with the indicative, as is the case in phrase 8.— 2nd CAUSAL SENSE (even if the temporal relation is partially preserved): as, since; is then construed with the subjunctive. E.g.: cum id animadvertisset (pluperfect subj.) fúgit, as he noticed it, he fled (cum is certainly causal, and not only temporal, for if he hadn’t noticed anything, he would have remained); likewise (P. 9), cum nullum reperiretur (imperfect subj. passive) auxilium. 19. Quod (from P. 9) is a simple relative, otherwise in correlation to ei (cf. is… qui, ea… quæ, id… quod); the subject of fieri (word for word, which to be done), this infinitive clause being the direct object of animadverterunt.

20. Postquam is construed with the indicative, but antequam (before) follows the same rule as cum (cf. note 18 above and the GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX). 21. Contendo, -is, -ere, -tendi, -tentum, to stretch, hold out towards, to make an attempt, to make a trial… 22. Malacia, -æ, f. (Greek origin), lull, calm, that is to say, a becalming of the sea; the opposite of storm, tempestas (cf. L. 50, N. 1) or procella. 23. Exsisto, -is, -ere, -stiti, to rise, go up, show oneself, to become, to exist. 24. (Con)sectari, to follow (cf. Eng. sect). 25. Horá quartá: The day, from sunrise to sunset, was divided into twelve hours equal among themselves, but whose duration varied necessarily as a function of the season: the fourth hour began therefore at the second half of the morning (9 o’clock at the equinox). As for the worker of the eleventh hour, that was one who presented himself for work one hour before sunset. CARMEN Seafaring song 1 The sun was turning toward September [at the end of August] (twice) When we caught sight of a trireme (twice) Which, having set out from the Carthaginian land, Was cleaving the [salty foam] (foams of salt): It was headed for [Sicily] (the Trinacria). Chorus:

One must drink from the bottle! (twice) Drink a toast to lovers! (twice) To the health of the Roman Senate And the plebs. But may the Carthaginians All go to hell (to the evil cross)!

2 When the captain saw the Carthaginians (twice) He summons us to the charge. (twice) We hit the trireme with the ram. With the axe and the sword those contemptible men We sent to the shades below. In this poem, which is Vergilian only in inspiration (!), don’t try to retain the order of the words: versifiers often allowed themselves certain fantasies! Likewise, the strong beat of the melody doesn’t always correspond to the grammatical tonic accent marked in bold. Trieris, -is, f., or triremis, -is, f., trieris (Athenian) or trireme (Roman): a galley with three ranks of oars.— Carthago, -inis, f., Carthage, mortal enemy of Rome. The Carthaginians: Pœni, -orum, m., whence the adjective Punicus, -a, -um, Carthaginian; fides Punica, Carthaginian good faith, that is to say bad faith, for the Romans, who valued one’s word highly, accused the Carthaginians of not esteeming it at all.

Lagona = lagœna; note e (ex) lagoná and not ad lagonam (obvious logical reason).— Plebs, plebis, f., the people, the plebs; here in place of populus, for rhythmical reasons. Nauarchus, -i, m. (word of Greek origin), person who commands (archos) the ship (naus).— Securis, -is, f., hatchet, axe: belongs to the nouns which have the accusative in -im and the ablative in -i (like vis, turris, etc.).— Gladius, -ii, m., sword, here the sabre, broadsword (for boarding). 2nd wave: the 41th lesson

Lectio nonagesima prima (91) Revision and Notes 1. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Outside of certain specific cases, subordinate clauses are introduced by those CONNECTING WORDS that we are getting to know better thanks to frequent exposure. These SUBORDINATING words are: — either subordinating conjunctions indicating, among other things: CAUSE: quod, quia, because …; quoniam, since …, etc.; PURPOSE: ut, so that …; ne, lest …, etc.; CONDITION: si, if …; TIME: antequam, before …; dum, while …; postquam, after …, etc.; COMPARISON: sic … ut, in the same way … as; etc. — or relatives: etc.


qui, quæ, quod, etc., or


ubi, quo, where,

A more complete list of these subordinating words, organized by category, can be found in the GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX. Subordinate clauses with FINITE VERBS (those employing the infinitive, participles or gerunds/gerundives do not need “subordinators”) can be: — either in the indicative, if it is simply a matter of showing that two FACTS are connected by a simple and natural relation not involving a wish or an opinion of the subject. Examples: clause: funes qui antemnas destinabant (L. 90, P. 4); clause: otium est quoniam exeundi potestas data est (L. 88, P. 3); TEMPORAL clause: cum naves circumsteterant milites transcendebant (L. 90, P. 8); RELATIVE CAUSAL

— or in the subjunctive: a) if the subject’s wish or opinion influences the relation of subordination: accusatus est quod maledicta in magistratum conjecisset (pluperf. subj.): CAUSAL clause where the subjunctive indicates that it is a matter of the authority’s opinion, and that this opinion might be erroneous; if the insults had been an indisputable actual fact, conjecerat (pluperf. ind.) would be used instead (N.B.— for the meaning of the words, see E. 86); b) if the meaning of the subordination demands it: non satis constabat quid agerent (corresponds to the English conditional). (L. 90, P. 2). N.B.— Notice that the same is true of the verb in a main clause; c) if the subordinating word always takes the subjunctive:

cave ne cadas, take care not to fall; in this case, there is nothing to think about, since ne is used only with the subjunctive. If you wish to investigate the matter further, you will find in the GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX: — the moods used with the various conjunctions, some of which, by the way, can take either the indicative or the subjunctive, depending on how they’re used (cf. L. 90, N. 18); — some general information concerning the use of the moods and tenses (sequence of tenses, etc.); — several examples of the principal types of subordinate clause; — some information about reported speech (subordinate clauses using infinitives or the subjunctive). 2. PREFIXES (concluded) Now here are several prefixes called INSEPARABLE (because they are not used as prepositions): — dis-, idea of dispersion: dissentire (see E. 88, P. 12); — in- = ne, idea of negation, of opposition (not to be confused with in, preposition, in, on, etc.): insanus, insane, opposite of sanus, healthy in mind and body; — re-, idea of repetition: reficere, repair, rebuild; idea of return or opposition: repugnare, fight back (from pugnare); — se- or sed-, idea of separation: seducere, lead astray, seduce; seditio (sed + itio, a going), rebellion, sedition. 3. SUFFIXES In the same way that it is possible to fine-tune the meaning of certain words by preceding them with a prefix, it is also possible to form new words by adding an appropriate ending to existing words. Modern Latinists must be aware of this possibility, since they may have need of it when the dictionary fails them. But they should use it advisedly, since too often a new word, created hastily, is no more than a new source of confusion (cf. L. 59, final note). a) DIMINUTIVES: -ellus, -ollus, -ulus (-a, -um). E.g.: Mus, muris; mouse; musculus, little mouse, or muscle.— Asinus, donkey; asellus, young donkey.— Filius, son; filiolus, young son, dear son. b) NOUNS (abstract, of profession, etc.). E.g.: On the basis of struere, to arrange, to assemble, the following nouns can be formed: structor, -oris, m., builder;

(con)structio, -onis, f., the act of building; structura, æ, f., the result of building, structure. Other examples: vanitas, vanitatis, f., vanity (from vanus, vain); consuetudo, inis, f., habit, custom (from consuescere, to become accustomed to); audacia, æ, f. (from audax, acis, daring); decessus, -ús, m., ebb (from decedere, to withdraw); tramen, inis, n., train (from trahere, to pull, to drag); atramentum, i, n., ink (from ater, dull black); etc. These derived words have at least one advantage: their gender is automatically given by their ending. Thus -tio, -tas, -tudo are feminine; -or, -us are masculine; -men, -mentum are neuter. Check, though, that you’re dealing indeed with words derived in the way discussed above, since, for example, optio, optionis, assistant, is masculine; marmor, marble, is neuter; manus is feminine, etc. c) ADJECTIVES. Most adjectives are derived words formed with the help of suffixes such as: — -ax, -acis, which indicates an (excessive) tendency: loquax, talkative, from loqui; — -ilis, -e (or -bilis), possibility: missilis, which can be thrown (missile), from mittere; possibilis, etc.; — -eus, -ea, -eum, material: ferreus, of iron, from ferrum; likewise aureus, of gold, argenteus, of silver, cupreus, of copper; — -osus, -a, -um, abundance: copiosus, abundant, from copia, abundance; arenosus, sandy, from arena, sand…; — -ensis, -is, -e, designating an inhabitant of …: Amstelodamensis, from Amsterdam (Amstelodamum); — -idus, state: cupidus, desirous, from cupere, to desire; avidus (cf. L. 80, N. 8); callidus, crafty, sly, and calidus, hot; stupidus, etc.; — -orius, connection with action: aleatorius, -a, -um, having to do with games of chance (aleatoric), from alea, -æ, f. (a die). Example: Let’s pose the following problem: “How are we to say LIFT in Latin?”.— The modern descendants of Latin tend to name this item with words rooted in the Latin verb scandere, to climb (French, ASCENSEUR; Spanish, ASCENSOR; Italian, ASCENSORE). We are therefore going to try and form a word from this verb, and more particularly from its supine scansum, for we have noticed that derived words are mainly formed on the basis of the supine (or, for passive verbs, the perfect participle). Thus we could opt for the noun scansor; except that we have just seen that derivatives in -or are masculine; they represent the MEN who perform an action: scansor is thus a man who climbs, and not a machine. So we will prefer to use the adjective scansorius, -a, -um, relative to climbing; but, as an adjective cannot live alone, we must either add a noun to it: pegma scansorium, or cella scansoria (cf. L. 45 and L. 46), or replace it with a noun. Still, we have already noted that the NEUTER form of an adjective could be used as a noun to mean “the thing that has such-and-such a quality” (e.g., mala, bad things, evils). We can thus use: scansorium, -ii, n., a thing having to do with climbing.

Verification: BACCI’s dictionary (see the Index) gives: pegma scansorium, cellula scansoria, machina scansoria, and anabathrum, a word of Greek origin (p. 59, ascensore). Conclusion: By using scansorium on its own, we risk at most to make the same mistake, which is acceptable in everyday usage, that we make when we say “an automobile” when we should be saying “an automobile car”. d) VERBS. New verbs can also be formed on the basis of other words, or the meanings of existing verbs fine-tuned, by the use of the appropriate verb endings or suffixes: — VERBS indicating the act of realizing what the source word implies. E.g.: liberare, to free, from líber, -era, -erum, free; machinari (L. 86, P. 10), from machina; moderari, to manage (an enterprise), from modus, just as modulari, to modulate (music, radio), comes from its derivative modulus (little) measure; ratiocinari, to reason, from ratio; sermocinari, to converse, from sermo, speech. N.B.— Note that these verbs belong to the 1st conjugation (active or deponent). — INCHOATIVE VERBS (from incohare, to begin), indicating entry into a state. E.g.: lucesco, -is, -ere, luxi, to begin to shine, from luceo, -es, -ere, luxi. Notice that the perfects of these two verbs are identical, since, in the perfectum series, two different verbs would be redundant. — FREQUENTATIVE VERBS, indicating repetition. E.g.: jactare, from jacere (cf. L. 86, N. 4); agitare, from agere (L. 48, N. 9). — DESIDERATIVE VERBS, indicating a desire or a need. E.g.: esurire, to need to eat (to be hungry), from edere (supine esum). NOTA.— The preceding lists are far from complete. You can use your readings to make new discoveries, which will have the attraction of being personal; but you can also consult specialized works, such as those that we have indicated for you in the BIBLIOGRAPHIC INDEX. (e.g., BALSAN p. 545). 2nd wave: the 42th lesson

Lectio nonagesima altera (92) I washed up the dishes 1. A tenant who had not paid his [rent] (fee of habitation) for several months already 2. went to see the landlord and explained to him his financial difficulties with such eloquence 3. that [the other] (that one) showed (perf. subj.) himself most sympathetic and pledged (perf. subj.) that he would willingly forego half of the charge. 4.— "And I" —said the debtor— "do not wish [to be less kind than you] (by you in-kindness to be beaten). 5. And so the other half I shall most willingly subtract." 6. A certain traveler, since he had not yet ever sailed (pluperf. subj.), was with difficulty repressing a shiver [as he boarded a boat] (ascending onto a boat). 7. [To take courage] (In order that he should strengthen himself), he asked a sailor whether [this kind of ships often sank] (of this kind ships often by shipwreck were sunk). 8. The sailor in turn: «Not at all often, but once only!» 9. A mother, after [having] (she had) returned home [with the shopping] (having done the shopping), asked her children if they had [been] well behaved. 10. Which children, most worthy of praise, replied: 11. THE FIRST.— I washed the dishes. THE SECOND.— I, on the other hand, dried them. THE LAST.— I, in fact, collected the pieces and pasted [them] together with (fish) glue. 12. A man and his spouse are buying various things [they need] (necessary to them) in a [department store] (large shop). 13. But with a crowd flowing in more and more, they are completely separated [from one another] (the other from the other), and in no way can the husband find his wife, nor the wife [find] her husband. 14. [Seeing him] (which) flustered, a salesgirl asks (him): «What are you looking for, Sir?» 15. He, sighing.— I lost my wife! 16. Immediately THE SALESGIRL, unperturbed.— Funeral clothes [are] on the upper floor, [to] (from) the right-hand side. From Vita Latina (May 1961, A. RODOT) NOTES 1. Solvo, -is, -ere, -i, -lutum, to disengage, to dissolve; here, to pay. 2. Ostenderit, promiserit: (perfect) subjunctive, after the expression tanta… ut…— Detracturum, future participle, esse is understood, and se detracturum (esse) is an infinitive clause. Ostendere: cf. L. 45, N. 7. Detrahere, from traho, -

is, -ere, traxi, tractum, to draw, to drag. 3. Vinco, -is, -ere, vici, victum: cf.: L. 89, N. 12. 4. Nondum… umquam: as nondum, not yet, is negative, umquam , ever, must be used, and not numquam, never, for the two negatives would cancel each other out. 5. Reprimo, -is, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, to keep back, to restrain (from premere, to press). 6. Naufragium, -ii, n., shipwreck, from navis (v = u) and from frangere, to break (cf. E. 54, P. 3). 7. If you have forgotten obsonari, refer to L. 58, N. 2. 8. Laus, laudis, f., praise, laud; laudare, to praise, to laud. 9. Vas, vasis, n., vase, pot, its singular belongs to the 3rd declension, and its plural to the 2nd; but vasa, -orum, n., means then dishes, and by extension, furnishings, baggage.— Escarius, -a, -um, pertaining to food (esca, E. 79). 10. Lávi, cf. L. 87, N. 3: where you will also find abstergere (abstersi on the following line). 11. Fragmentum, -i, n., a derivative from frangere (see N. 6 above).— Colligo, is, -ere, -legi, -lectum, to collect (cum legere). 12. Gluten, -inis, n., glue (cf. English to agglutinate). 13. Prorsus, adv., forward, straight forward, here absolutely (cf. miranda prorsus, L. 67). 14. Venditrix, -icis, feminine of venditor, -oris, m. 15. Funebris, -e (nom. acc. pl. n. in -ia), pertaining to a funeral (funus, funeris, n.). EXERCITATIO 1.— What (unfortunate event) is happening? What crash did we hear? 2.— The maid has broken the dishes [while] washing [them] up. 3.— A stack of (pottery) dishes [having] slipped from her hands has fallen. 4.— Nothing else is to be done than to sweep up the pieces and throw them into the trash. 5.— Now how will I [set] (spread) the table? What am I to put on the tablecloth? Should I perhaps take out the camping set? 6.— It is not proper to [serve] (offer foods to) our guests on camping dishes. 7.— Rather, put out the dinner service that Uncle Ludwig gave us as a present [for our wedding] (at the time of our marriage). 8.— Jane! Do not put forward these sausages in that black frying pan! There is no lack of platters on the sideboard. 9.— Alas! There is no light (the light fails us). 10.— The electrical workers are on strike. 11.— Where are the candles? Give me a box of matches! 12.— Bravo! We shall dine by an ancient mode of illumination! 13.— My dear (Honey mine), don't cry out [like that] (in such manner). The walls have ears (there are ears in the walls).

Fictilis, -e, adj., earthenware, pottery (from fingere, to fashion, and, by extension, to imagine; French feindre).— Strues, -is, f., heap, pile.—Verro, -is, -ere, versi, versum, to sweep, clear away.— Mantele, -is, n., tablecloth (or napkin).— Castra, orum (cf. L. 59, N. 5): whence the adjective castrensis, -e, pertaining to the camp, or to camping.— Sartago, -inis, f., frying pan.— Abacus, -i, m., sideboard or counting-board (cf. L. 6, N.1).— Paries, -ietis, m., wall, partition. In this exercise we have increased your dose of new vocabulary. We shall do the same in those to follow. Do not be surprised if they seem a little more difficult than the previous ones. This little extra effort will enable you to increase your stock of useful words. Indeed, the words we use are not chosen at random: when, thanks to revisions, you will know them all, you will be able to understand the gist of most texts without the help of a dictionary. 2nd wave: the 43th lesson

Lectio nonagesima tertia (93) We burn with desire to visit the City 1.— Rome! Rome! All travellers, alight (imp.) from the cars! 2.— [I hope] (Let it be that) our friends are awaiting (pres. subj.) us at the station! Without their help, what are we to do in this unknown city? 3.— Look! The gentleman near the exit with the grey suit and the lady with the saffron dress, who both [are waving] (with-the-hands are-signalling) to us! 4.— Hello [dear] (best) friends! How are you? 5.— Hello to you too! We are well! [And] you (on the other hand)? Have you [had a good trip] (made [your] trip well)? 6.— Fabulous(ly)! We had engaged [couchettes] (little beds); the whole trip we slept, and we were awakened in the morning by a splendid sun. 7.— If you are not tired, [after leaving] (after you will have left) your luggage at [my] home, you will be able to visit the city immediately. 8.— Your plan agrees [perfectly] (strongly) with our wishes. We burn with eagerness to go round the city. 9.— A taxi (rented carriage) is waiting for us outside the station. Allow me to carry a suitcase. 10. Driver, [take] (lead) us to my house, on Flaminia St., Number 37. 11.— [Go] (Proceed) more slowly, I beg you! We [cannot see anything] (can see nothing) … 12.— Here, we are at home. Enter, please … Here is your room. 13.— You have a sink in the room with cold and hot water taps, but there is also a bathroom. 14.— If you want to [do yourselves up] (wash yourselves), here is soap and towels. [Make yourselves at home] (You can enjoy the same freedom which [you enjoy] at your home). 15.— Before we (should) leave, let us [have] (take) a cup of coffee together. 15.— Where will we be going to? 16.— First we shall climb (onto) the Janiculum hill, from where we shall be able to see the whole city. NOTES 1. Croceus, -a, -um, of the colour of the saffron flower (crocus); that is, orangeyellow. We have already seen (L. 22) cinereus, of the colour of ashes, and some other colours. We have also seen those of the three factions in the carmen circense (L. 76).— What are the colours of the rainbow?: Violet, violaceus, from viola, a violet; indigo (as a curiosity, for this colour has no great natural role), Indicum, -i, n., a noun which means the pigment only (the adjective Indicus means Indian); blue, cæruleus (cærula, -orum, the azure parts of the sky); green, viridis, -e, is used mainly for plants (virere, virescere, revirescere, to be green, to become green, to become green again); yellow, fulvus (blond is called flavus, whence the verb flavescere which is used, for example, to designate ripening wheat); orange, flammeus (flame color: flamma, -æ, of the same family as flagrare of P. 8); red, ruber, -bra, -brum. We are far from having exhausted the list, for in

Latin, as in all languages, there are numerous hues. If the question interests you, you will find it useful to consult BALSAN's vocabulary (cf. BIBLIOGRAPHY). 2. Expergiscor, -eris, -i, -perrectus sum, to wake up, arise; expergefacio, -is, -ere, feci, -factum, to awaken (someone else); expergefio, -fis, -fieri, -factus sum, to be awakened by someone or something (passive of the preceding).— There exist numerous variants of the facere-fieri pair; for example, patefacere, to open; patefieri, to be opened (from patere, to lie open, be visible); stupefacere, to stun, astound; stupefieri (passive); stupere (a verb of state), to be in the state of stupefaction. 3. Impedimenta, -orum, from impedire, to hinder, literally to put in shackles (in pedes). In French one also says impedimenta.— What are the tenses of the verbs of P. 7?— Answer: present indicative, future perfect, present infinitive, future indicative. 4. Congruo, -is, -ere, -ui, i.v., to match, coincide, agree; Congruus, -a, -um, agreeable, conforming (cf. Eng. congruous, incongruous). 5. There are two verbs lustrare; the first comes from lucere, to shine (lux, light) and means to light up; the second has two very different meanings: 1st , to purify (with lustral water, lustralis aqua); 2nd , to go around, visit, inspect; but these come together because one casts lustral water as one moves about. 6. Duc: the verbs dicere, ducere, facere, ferre do not end with an -e in the 2nd person singular of the present imperative: it is easy to remember them, thanks to the formula dic duc fac fer. 7. Lábellum, -i, n., diminutive of lábrum, which we have already seen (L. 85, N. 12). 8. Epistomium, -ii, n., tap, a word of Greek origin (epitonium is also used). 9. Manutergium, -ii, n., a cloth to dry (tergere) one’s hands (manús).— Note as well that ecce governs the nominative (e.g. ecce homo, behold the man). En (P. 12) has the same meaning and is used in the same way. 10. Quá: as this is a comparison, the verb frui (+ abl.), which has eádem as its complement, is also understood after quá (see the translation): these two words are therefore in the ablative. EXERCITATIO 1.— Where are our wives? 2.— A few minutes ago they stopped in front of the [window] (front) of a jewellery shop. 3.— Let's go there to see! 4.— This silver bracelet does not displease me. 5.— Look, rather, at this gold necklace. 6.— Im looking neither for bracelets nor necklaces nor rings, but [rather for] a mirror and a comb. 7.— We shall find these things in a department store. 8.— [I need] (There is need of) needles and thread.— Wool or cotton [thread]? — Silk [thread]. 9.— Now let us look at shoes at the shoemaker's.

10.— Our purchases [don’t fit in] the basket (cannot hold). 11.— I can put some in [my] handbag. 12.— Where are our husbands? 13.— My husband is at the barbershop, [and] yours at the tailor's. 14.— I have forgotten to buy him a t-shirt and handkerchiefs. 15.— Spin, mother, I shall sew! Armilla, -æ, f., bracelet.— Monile, -is, n., necklace.— Anulus, -i, m. ring.— Speculum, -i, n., mirror (cf. optics, specular reflection, reflection as on a mirror).— Pecten, -inis, m., comb. While we are at it, let us add calamister, -tri, m., a curling iron, in order to remind us that the French word «calamistré» means curled by a curling iron, and not pomaded (hair oiled), as is sometimes supposed.— Acus, ús, f., is one of the rare feminine nouns of the 4th declension; note the dative and ablative plural in -ubus.— Filum, -i, n., thread.— Laneus, -a, -um, of wool (lana, æ, f.).— Xylinus, -a, -um, of cotton (a word of Greek origin).— Sericus, -a, -um, of the country of the Seres, -um, the Chinese, major producers of silk.— Sutor, oris, m., shoemaker; shoemaking, sutrina; likewise, tonsor and tonstrina, from tondeo, -es, -ere, totondi, tonsum, to cut, shear [hair].— Sportula, -æ, f., diminutive of sporta, -æ, f., basket. The «sportula» had acquired a bad reputation, for it was used for a kind of begging. Sudarium, -i, n., handkerchief for wiping one’s sweat (sudor). The handkerchief for blowing one's nose is called mucinnium, -i, n. The last sentence is a trick sentence, intended to show that sometimes one must pause to think before pouncing on the first meaning that comes to mind. The first word is the present imperative of neo, -es, -ere, nevi, netum, to spin or weave, and the last is the future of suo, -is, -ere, -i, sutum, to sew, which has given sutor (P. 9) and in English suture.— The other words of the exercise present no difficulty; you must have worked out on your own vestifex, -icis, m., tailor (vestificus is also used, and vestifica for seamstress). 2nd wave: the 44th lesson

Lectio nonagesima quarta (94) The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitoline Hill 1.— Come here! From here the view lies wide(ly) open. 2.— I did not believe the city was so [extensive] (wide). What river is this? 3.— The Tiber divides the city into two parts and flows all the way to the [port of Ostia] (Ostian port). 4.— And near us, [what are] these gardens with the lake in the middle? 5.— They are the Cæsarian Gardens. The lake was dug by Cæsar Augustus for [holding] (exhibiting) naval battles. 6.— Behind (pone, prep.) them you can see the Pons Sublicius (Pile-supported Bridge), which formerly was supported by piles. 7.— Across the Tiber, this closest hill is the Capitoline [Hill] (Mountain), with the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus to the left, and the Tarpeian Rock to the right. 8.— Why do they say that the Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitole? 9.— Because very famous men celebrating Triumphs would ascend the slope of the Capitole, but traitors to the Republic used to be thrown from the Tarpeian Rock, which is very close. 10.— Sometimes they were [one and] the same [people], and the road from honours to execution was short. 11.— This [large building] (big mass) which appears on the right bank of the Tiber, is it not Hadrian's Tomb? 12.— Yes, and to the right [is] the Vatican [Hill] (Mountain) with [St.] Peter's Basilica. 13.— Tomorrow we shall visit Vatican City and perhaps we shall see the [Pope] (High Pontiff). 14.— Where is the Forum? 15.— We can not see it, for it is hidden by the Capitoline [Hill] (Mountain), but from the top of the Capitoline [Hill] (Mountain) [it can be seen entirely] (far and wide it is seen). 16.— This [viaduct] (railway bridge) that we see towards the east, was it destroyed by [an air bombing] (aerial bombs)? 17.— Hah! You are utterly wrong. The day after tomorrow I'll [give] (provide) you a document to read about that question. IMPORTANT REMARK: To acquaint you with a few interesting monuments of ancient Rome without weighing down the text too much, we have taken the liberty, which some would say is excessive, of having ancient and modern monuments co-exist, side by side. The two texts that you will find next (L. 95 and L. 96) have to do with modern Rome. NOTES 1. Pateo, -es, -ere, -ui, i.v. (cf., L. 93, N. 2). 2. Tiberis, -is, m.; acc. Tiberim; abl. Tiberi. Do not confuse with the emperor Tiberius, -i, Tiberius, who was so unpopular at the end of his reign that his

death was greeted with cries of Tiberium in Tiberim (cf. SUETONIUS, De Vitá Cæsarum, Lib. LXXV). 3. Medius lacus, the lake in the middle or the middle of the lake. Likewise, in the exercise (P. 15), summo repositorio, the top shelf or the top of the shelves. 4. Naumachia, -æ, f. (word of Greek origin) naval (naus = navis) combat (machia) [show]. Note the similarity of construction with the Latin word naufragium (L. 92, N. 6). 5. Sublica, -æ, f., pile, post that is planted in the water. 6. Collis, -is, hill. 7. Jupiter, the greatest of the Olympian gods, declines in an unusual way: acc. Jovem, gen. Jovis, dat. Jovi, abl. Jove. The declension of Jesus is much simpler: nom. Jesus, acc. Jesum, and Jesu in the other cases, including the vocative. 8. Rupes, -is, f., rock, boulder; saxum, -i, n., is also used. 9. Clivus, -i, m., slope, ascent, gently sloping hill. If you look up this word in a methodical glossary, such as the one we indicate in the BIBLIOGRAPHY, it will be a bit longer than in the dictionary, but also more instructive. You will find interesting derivatives, for example: — proclivis, which slopes, inclined; whence inclined to or easy to do, and proclivitas, proclivity; — declivis, which slopes down, and declivitas, declivity; — acclivis, which slopes up, and acclivitas, acclivity, ascent; — inclinare, to incline, whence inclinatio, incline or bow; — declinare, to turn aside, deflect, decline (a noun, to conjugate a verb, or to be in one’s way down). By using this method you will learn more and will remember better. But do not for all that reject the use of the dictionary: it is indispensable in order to VERIFY what you believe you know. 10. Proditor, -oris, m., traitor; from prodo, -is, -ere, -didi, -ditum (pro, do), to take outside, whence to make known and to betray. Do not confuse it with prodeo, is, -íre, -ii, -itum (pro, eo), to go in front, to appear (L. 61, P.13). Note the difference in quantity and accentuation between pródere and pródíre. 11. Moles, -is, f., a mass that is difficult to move or carry (movere), a heap, a great work, a war engine; derivative molestus, a, um, annoying. 12. Hadrianus, -i, m., the emperor Hadrian or Adrian (76-138). 13. Mausoleum, -i, n., mausoleum, denotes a sumptuous funerary monument of large dimensions, such as that which the widow of king Mausolus offered to her late husband. Hadrian's is also known as the Castle of St. Angelo. 14. Petrianus, -a, -um, having to do with Peter. 15. Basilica, -æ, f., a word of Greek origin (basileus, king): 1st, very large buildings serving as a law court, chamber of commerce, etc.; 2nd, churches that were built under the christian emperors, following the plan of the above; 3rd, an honorific designation accorded to some churches (for example, the Basilica of Lourdes). 16. Pyrobolus, -i, m., (the y is pronounced as a French u or a German ü); a word of Greek origin: pyr (gen. pyros) fire (cf. pyrotechnic); bolos, a throw, that which is thrown (cf. parabola).

EXERCITATIO 1.— [We decide] (It pleases [us]) to return home. Allow us [to examine] (that we may examine) it. 2.— We are on the threshold. We are opening the door. 3.— At night we close it with a bolt. There is also a [lock] (bar) that is opened with a key. 4.— Through the corridor we [reach] (arrive at) the [living room] (atrium). The atrium is the [room] (member) of the house where we spend the greater part of the day. 5.— Among the ancients it was not [completely] (out of every part) covered. 6.— Through the roof opening (compluvium) not only would air and light penetrate, but also rain water, which was [caught] (received) in the impluvium. 7.— In our times, an aquarium with [gold]fish (carps) suffices! 8.— This panelled ceiling made from visible cedar beams is truly marvellous. 9.— They are not cedar beams, but fir [ones]. 10.— On the same floor are the kitchen, the dining room, and the library. 11.— We warm ourselves in the winter (time) with this heater. 12.— There is also a large [fireplace] (chimney) where logs can be burned. 13.— Let us ascend by the stairs to the bedrooms. 14.— Do you want a book [to read in bed so that you can fall asleep better] (which reading in bed you may be able more easily to catch sleep)? 15.— [Let me see] (Make [it so that] I may see) that one, on the top shelf. 16.— Move closer a chair or stool [so that I can reach it] (by whose help I may be able to reach it). Limen, -inis, n., threshold.— Pessulum, -i, n., bolt.— Sera, -æ, f., lock; do not confuse with serra, saw.— Clavis, -is, f., key.— Compluvium, Impluvium (-i, n.).— Lacunar, -aris, n., ceiling (initially, the panels that formed it; from lacuna, -æ, f., hole; itself from lacus): a false imparisyllabic, like is trabs, trabis, f., beam.— Cedrus, -i, f., cedar; abies, -ietis, f., fir; whence the adjectives of P. 8 and P. 9. Let us take this opportunity to note pinus, pine; platanus, plane tree; pópulus, poplar; pirus, pear tree, all four feminines of the 2nd declension (cf. R.&N. 70).— Caminus, -i, m., chimney, fireplace.— Stipes, stipitis, f., trunk (separated from its roots), wood for burning (we could have said more simply ligna, pl. of lignum, -i, n., wood). Do not confuse with stirps, stirpis, f., stump, stock (cf. L. 80, N. 9) nor with stips, stipis, f., obolos, a small coin.— Attingo, -is, ere, -tigi, -tactum (from tangere, perfect tetigi) to touch. 2nd wave: the 45th lesson

Lectio nonagesima quinta (95) Today and tomorrow, the purpose of the lesson is to provide you with some additional information about the visit to Rome, which was sketched in the preceding lesson, and, by the same token, about the spelling the Italians use. Follow the guide! 1. Since we are staying [only] a few days at Rome and we then have not-enough (of) time, let’s use a guide [to] (who may) show us and illustrate (pres. subj.) the most important [sites] (things). 2.— Here! Very opportunely a guide is at hand. This [man] will be most useful to us. 3. Tell [me], please, sir (most excellent man), what things can we quickly see today? 4.— First I shall take you to [St. Peter's Basilica] (the temple dedicated to St. Peter), which, as is known to all, is the largest [in Christendom] (of Christianity). 5.— Hooray! [We're eager to see it] (We're burning with the desire of seeing it)! [Immediately] (No delay having been made), let us by [taxi] (hired carriage) make for [that] most celebrated temple! 6.— [How magnificent and massive is] (What is the magnificence and mass of) the temple! 7.— The immense square which we have before our eyes is on either side surrounded by a portico [which is] curved in an apse, and [supported by] (suspended on) columns. 8. The edifice supports that great dome, which rises on high and is seen from all quarters of the city. 9. The dome spans 132 metres in height, [and] 42 in width. 10. The [interior] (centre space) of the church is of so great a size that, when you stand in it, you seem [lost] (strayed) and alone, and a certain religious awe spreads through you (pres. subj.). 11. The right and left wings have many chapels, decorated with paintings and marble [statues]. 12. The ceiling is of wondrous splendour, adorned with gold and decorated with splendid colours. 13. Moreover, marble statues, made with miraculous artifice, are placed on all sides, which represent (the images of) saints and popes. 14. Notice the famous altar that arises in the middle of the basilica: it’s not allowed to any priest apart from the Pope to celebrate mass on it. 15. Time, alas!, flies, and it is already the appointed hour in which the doors of the temple are closed, and it is no longer allowed to ascend to the top [of the] dome, from which far and wide a very beautiful prospect lies open. NOTES 1. Porticus, -ús, f., colonnade, portico. 2. Apsis, -idis, f.: semi-circular enclosure adjoining a room or building (apse); planetary orbit (in astronomy the apsides are particular points of an orbit).

3. Tholus, -i, m., dome, vault of a temple; the general term for vault is fornix, -icis, m. 4. Vagus, -a, -um, errant, strayed; vagari, to rove, wander. 5. Perfundo, -is, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, to pour into or onto, to wet, to penetrate. 6. Ædicula, -æ, f., a little temple, chapel; a diminutive of ædes, which in the SINGULAR means temple. 7. Distinguo, -is, -ere, -tinxi, -tinctum, to separate, distinguish, adorn. 8. Altar or altare, -is, n., altar; ára, -æ, f., is also used. 9. Attollo, -is, -ere, (no perf. or supine), to raise towards (ad tollere); tollo, -is, ere, sustuli, sublátum, to raise, remove, make disappear. 10. Pontifex, -icis, m., priest, pontiff, and in christianity, the Pope (cf. L. 94, P. 13). 11. Iam = jam; here we have respected the spelling which is peculiar to Italy, where they use v but not j, as if Latin was Italian; you can see that this change causes little difficulty. EXERCITATIO 1.— What is Miseno? 2.— It is a cape situated near Naples. 3.— In what [direction] (region of the sky)? (Looking) to the West. 4.— What are the other [cardinal points] (regions of the sky)?— They are the North, East, and South ("meridies" or "auster"). 5.— Australia is an island situated in the Southern Hemisphere, where Kanga, the kangaroo of lesson 79, was born. 6.— Spain is a peninsula which is called Iberia. 7.— The [Gulf of Genoa] (Ligurian Gulf) is that part of the sea that embraces the Ligurian coast or seashore of Liguria, which is curved in an arc. 8.— Genoa is the principal port of this coast. 9.— When a road passes between two mountains, what is its highest part called?— It is called a [ridge] (yoke), but this name among some authors designates the top of the mountain itself. 10.— Before and after a ridge, a road often follows a valley. 11.— The summits of mountains shine white with snow. 12.— Steep rocks overhang the narrow pass. 13.— The path crosses the stream by a wooden bridge and leads to the mine(s). 14.— The earth of these mountains abounds [in] (with) iron, copper, tin, lead, gold, coal, [and] diamond[s]. In these mountains iron, etc. are [produced] (born) abundantly. 15.— These riches cannot be found at the same time in one place. 16.— Hooray! You know [your] natural history well. Misenum, -i, n. (promuntorium), (Cape) Miseno: Cf. L. 97, P. 7.— Neapolis, -is, f., Naples.— Septentrio, -onis, m. (minor): one of the two constellations of seven stars (= septem triones, the seven draft oxen), and which is called in astronomy Ursa Minor, the Little Bear, whence the North; the other being Septentrio (Ursa) major, the Big Bear. Oriens and Occidens are taken from the present participles

of the verbs oriri, to rise, and occidere, to fall, to die (ob + cadere, supine occasum), which should not be confused with occídere (long i, supine, occísum), to strike, kill, which comes from cædere, to cut. Auster, -tri, m., south wind, and, by extension, the South.— Amplector, -eris, -i, -plexus sum, to surround, embrace, i.e. to hold in one's arms; to kiss, which in French is said the same, is in Latin osculari (osculum, little mouth or kiss).— Jugum, -i, n., yoke (from jungere, to join). Here, the idea of junction between two mountains, two valleys, or two slopes.— Culmen, -inis, n., summit, culminating point. Cacumen is also used, same declension.— Tellus, -uris, f., the Earth (more or less deified), soil (cf. the Eng. adj. telluric).— The metals of P. 14 are all neuters in -um, -i. The corresponding adjectives are all in -eus, -ea, -eum (ferreus, of iron, etc.). Carbo, onis, m. coal; adamas, adamantis, m., diamond.— Rivus, -i, m., stream; rivulus, brook; amnis, -is, m., a large watercourse, river. Flumen and fluvius are less precise terms (idea of current, from fluere).— Metallum, -i, n., mine or metal; metalla, -orum, n., mine or mines; damnare in metallum or condemnare ad metalla, condemn to forced labor in a mine. 2nd wave: the 46th lesson

Lectio nonagesima sexta (96) Follow the guide! (concluded) 1. In [Piazza Venezia] (the square which is named after Venice), there is a monument, marvellous to see, which was built in honour of Victor Emmanuel [II] (second of this name), king of [Italy] (the Italians). 2. From this monument, which rises through many stairs and floors, the Roman Forum, [which consists of many remains] (whose remains are many), [lies open to view] (is subjected to the eyes). 3. Among all things there stand out the arches that were built in honour of the emperors Titus, Septimius Severus, [and] Constantine, [on] (to) which [sc. arches] images were sculpted that perpetuate the memory of the things carried out by them. 4.— How many things there are to be visited with attentive mind, and diligently! 5.— If we look forth from the Capitoline Hill, [there we have] (behold) on the right the Basilica Julia, the House of the Vestals, and the Temple of Jupiter Stator. 6. Next we see the temple dedicated to Venus and to Rome, and the basilica erected by emperor Constantine. 7. On the left appears the Curia Maxima, between whose walls [the famous] (that) Cicero [gave] (had) many (and) brilliant speeches. 8. And not to be overlooked are the Rostra, [where] (whither) orators would ascend [to discuss] (so that they might discuss) about the commonwealth in the assemblies. 9. A day is not to suffice, if we wish (pres. subj.) to list everything! 10. There remain, as you can see, marble columns and the ruins of temples, of which the main [ones] are the Temple of Saturn, the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and the Temple of Vesta. 11.— It [is a pity] (displeases) that there are too many remains, and we do not have the leisure [to see] (of seeing) them one by one. 12.— Which we will certainly do, when we [have at our disposal] (shall be able to enjoy) [some more] (a larger space of) time. NOTES 1. A Venetiá: cf. L. 71, N. 5. 2. Titus, -i: emperor from 79 to 81. 3. Septimius Severus: emperor from 193 to 211. 4. Constantinus: emperor from 306 to 337. It is easy to guess that these three emperors were builders. 5. (In)sculpo, -is, -ere, sculpsi, sculptum, to engrave (on), cut (into). 6. Gestus, -a, -um: perfect participle passive of gero, -is, -ere, gessi, gestum, to carry, to administer (gestio, performance, administration). 7. Basilica Julia (cf. L. 94, N. 15): this basilica was begun by Julius Cæsar (whence its name) and finished by Augustus. 8. Vestalis, -e, relating to Vesta, the goddess of the hearth, of whom we shall

talk again in P. 10. Employed as a noun, it designates the Vestal Virgins, priestesses of Vesta. 9. Jupiter Stator: Jupiter assumed different functions (here that of guardian or protector). 10. Curia maxima: the Curia designated either an administrative district, or a meeting place where the Senate assembled. 11. Rostra, pl. of rostrum, -i, beak (of a bird), prow (of a ship), the «rostra» were a dais ornamented with the prows of ships captured from the enemy. 12. Contio, -onis, f., assembly (of the people or of soldiers), address, harangue (cf. L. 69, N. 10). Finally, note the i's that in this lesson replace the j's: Huius = hujus; subiectum = subjectum; cuius = cujus; Iulia = Julia; Iovis = Jovis; maiore = majore. EXERCITATIO 1.— On the plain there are fields, pastures, [and] farms. 2.— «Latifundia», as can be understood from the word [itself], are wide estates; that is, large farms, whose fields comprise many acres. 3.— Farmers plough the fields with a plough. 4.— After that they sow the seed(s) in(to) the furrows, and smooth the earth with a harrow. 5.— What do they sow?— Wheat, barley, rye, and even now rice. 6.— While the crop grows, the countrymen often inspect the sky. 7.— Rain, hail, frost, flood, wind, [or] dryness can in one day destroy entire crops. 8.— The crops are turning golden, soon the reapers will cut them with sickles. 9.— The grain is [collected] (piled up) in a granary until it is transferred to the mill. 10.— The chaff [is put to various uses] (is used with various uses), e.g. for making straw bed[s] for the draft animals. 11.— What are the principal country tools? 12.— Already you know the plough, harrow, [and] sickle; add the mattock, spade, [and] rake. 13.— Using these you can [shine] (be experienced) in agriculture… 14.— Today you had to provide me a document pertaining to the viaduct that we saw the day before yesterday. 15.— Forgive me! I forgot (of) this matter. Now it is time to relax. If you want, next week we shall [look into] (see) this. Campus, -i, m., a plain, and not a camp (castra, -orum).— Jugerum, -i, n., acre (28,800 square feet).— Aratrum, -i, n., plough (cf. English arable).— Semen, -inis, n., seed.— Secale, -is, rye.— Cresco, -is, -ere, crevi, cretum, to grow; decrescere, to decrease.— Cuncti, -æ, -a, all, the whole, complete.— Grando, -inis, f., hail.— Gelu, -us, one of the rare neuters of the 4th declension.— Messis, -is, f., harvest, the harvested crop.— Seges, segetis, sown field, standing crop.— Falx, falcis, f. (cf.

L. 90, N. 5).— Jumentum, -i, n., beast of burden (ox, horse, mule, donkey).— Stramen, -inis or stramentum, -i, n., that which one spreads on the ground, from sterno, -is, -ere, stravi, stratum, to spread (cf. L. 26, P. 3).— Ligo, -onis, m., mattock; rastrum, -i, n. (and more often, rastra, -orum): a kind of rake with several teeth whose diminutive rastellus has given French rateau (rake).— Calleo, -es, -ere (no perf. or supine), to have calluses (callum, callosity), to be well trained in…, has given the adjective callidus, skillful, clever, crafty. 2nd wave: the 47th lesson

Lectio nonagesima septima (97) From our reporter 1. Newspapers! Who buys newspapers? 2. How much [does it cost] (do they cost)?— 50 liras! … Thank you, Sir! 3. It’s unbelievable! What an horrific disaster! Look! Read [it your]self! 4. Eruption of Vesuvius. Towns buried… Absolutely incredible! 5. We have been [informed] (made more certain) that a very great disaster has befallen Campania (dat.). 6. We have [learnt the following] (received these things) from our [reporter] (journalist), Pliny the Younger: 7. «At Miseno, [on the 24th of August 79] (9 days before [lit. before the 9th day] the Kalends [i.e. the 1st] of September (acc.) in the 832nd year of the City having been founded). 8. There had preceded for many days a tremor of the earth, less terrifying because [it is] usual for Campania. 9. But on that night it grew stronger to such an extent that [one could believe that] all things (were believed) [would] not [just] (to be) move(d), but (to) be overturned. 10. Then did it finally seem [best] to get out of the built-up area. Having left the buildings behind, we halt. At that point we [experience] (suffer) many amazing things, [and] many frights. 11. For the vehicles, which we had ordered to be brought out, although on a very level plain, 12. were being driven in opposite directions, and not even chocked with stones did they stay put in the same spot. 13. Moreover, we could see the sea being swallowed back into itself, and pushed away as it were by the shaking of the earth. 14. Surely the seashore had spread outward, and it was stranding many [creatures] (animals) of the sea on the [now] dry sand(s). 15. From the other side, a black and terrifying cloud, broken (disrupta) by swirling and darting bursts (discursibus) of fiery (ignei) vapour (spiritús), 16. kept splitting open [to produce] (into) long [flaming] shapes (of flames); 17. those were both similar to and larger than lightning bolts…» From Acta Diurna, nº 53. Have you noticed that this account is a deception? We have borrowed it from the humorous journal Acta Diurna (cf. BIBLIOGRAPHY), which has the custom of presenting some sensationalist articles «on front page»! In fact, this article is an extract from a letter (VI, 20) by Pliny the Younger to one of his relatives. As Pliny was an eyewitness to this catastrophe and since his letters were sometimes read in public —but we cannot confirm for you that they appeared in the Acta Diurna of the time— you can see that this deception is less extreme than one might believe at first sight. Let’s hope that if such events must happen again, the lesson Pliny’s testimony teaches us will not be lost!

NOTES 1. Acta diurna, literally, the things carried out (p.p.p. of agere), the events of the day (dies, whence the adjective diurnus, -a, -um). Our word journal, which in French means daily newspaper, has a parallel origin (French jour, day). 2. Libella, -æ, f., diminutive of libra, -æ, f., pound (weight and money), gave lira, the former Italian currency. 3. Vesuvius, -ii, m., Vesuvius, a volcano about which you have surely heard. Further down, for Misenum, see the beginning of E. 95. 4. Incido, -is, -ere, -cidi, to fall in or on; from cadere, to fall; not to be confused with incedere, to advance (against), to arrive (same family and same conjugation as præcedere of P. 8 and excedere of P. 10). 5. Gaius Cæcilius Plinius Secundus, Junior, Pliny the Younger (62-113), a high official renowned for his correspondence, is the nephew of Pliny the Elder (C. Plinius Secundus, Major), who wrote a voluminous treatise on Natural History. 6. Præcedo, -is, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, to walk in front or before; to precede. 7. Formidolosus, a, um, timid, fearful or frightening; from formido, -inis, f., fear, apprehension, terror. 8. Invalescere, an inchoative verb (cf. R.&N. 91, § 3, d.), to strengthen oneself, to grow strong (from valere). 9. Verto, -is, -ere, verti, versum, to cause to turn; we have already seen its compound convertere (L. 71, N. 12). 10. Ne… quidem, not even. 11. Fultus, -a, -um, from fulcio, -is, -ire, fulsi, fultum, to support, prop up, hold up; fultura, -æ, f., support, prop, stay. 12. Vestigium, -ii, n., track, footprint; same family: vestigare, to track (Eng. investigation). 13. (Re)sorbeo, -es, -ere, -ui (no supine), to swallow, to absorb (again). 14. Quasi, 1st conjunction, as if; 2nd. adv., so to speak, as it were. 15. Litus, -oris, n., the seashore, coast. 16. Harena or arena, -æ, f. (already seen in E. 60, P. 7), sand, beach, or arena. 17. Detineo, -es, -ere, -ui, -tentum (de tenere), to keep away, to hold back. 18. Torqueo, -es, -ere, torsi, tortum, to twist, to contort. 19. Vibrare, to shake, vibrate or to cause to vibrate. 20. Discurrere, to run in several directions; whence discursus, -ús, m., disorderly movement. It is only in the Middle Ages that this word took as well the meaning of description (cf. DESCARTES’s Discourse de la Méthode), then of discourse. 21. Disrumpo (or dirumpo), -is, -ere, -rupi, -ruptum (rumpere, to break), to cause to burst. 22. Dehisco, -is, -ere (no perfect nor supine), to open up, to split. 23. Fulgur, -uris, n., lightning, flash of lightning; fulgor, -óris, n., brightness, radiance; fulgeo, -es, -ere, fulsi (no supine), to shine brightly, to glitter; fulmen, inis, n., thunderbolt; thunder is tonitrus, -ús, m. CARMEN

Holy cup 1: Let us drink a toast to Provence / our language, [Our] native land which is to be honoured! Let us all drink in turn The unmixed wine [from] (of) our vineyard! Chorus: Holy cup, full of fire, Pour [in] to [our] souls: Pour joyful ardour And the strength (pl.) of the brave. 2: Of a free and ancient people The Barbarian wishes for the destruction: If our tongue were to keep silent, Our glory would die out. 3: Instead, of a re-emerging people Let us be the first seeds! And of a Latin nation Let us set down the foundations. After Coupo santo, Provençal lyrics by Frédéric MISTRAL. 2nd wave: the 48th lesson

Lectio nonagesima octava (98) Revision and notes 1. DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH In order to report what someone says, we may transcribe the exact words s/he pronounces, introducing them in an appropriate manner if need be: Theodoricus dicit (dicebat, dixit, dicet): «Frater meus abest.», Theodore says (was saying, said, will say): “My brother is not here.” This is the direct speech: we have almost always used it in this book, because it better captures living reality. Nevertheless, it is useful for you to know the other method, called indirect speech, since many Latin authors (Cæsar, Cicero, etc.) make considerable use of it. 1st What happens to a simple sentence in the indirect speech? Let us take again the preceding example. We will have: Theodoricus fratrem suum abesse dicit (dicebat, etc.) You will notice that what appears in the direct speech as an INDEPENDENT clause in the indicative becomes a SUBORDINATE INFINITIVE clause in indirect speech. 2nd What happens to an interrogative clause? Example: Th. dicit: «Ubi est frater meus?» It is transformed into an OBJECT CLAUSE (cf. Grammatical Appendix, § 70) IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE: Th. quærit ubi sit frater suus. Th. asks where his brother is. Note that not only have we transformed the possessive adjective as above (meus into suus), but that we have also had to replace dicit with quærit to better indicate an INTERROGATION. 3rd What happens to a subordinate clause in indirect speech? — if it is in the INDICATIVE, it changes to SUBJUNCTIVE; — if it is in the SUBJUNCTIVE or the INFINITIVE, IT DOES NOT CHANGE mood. Example:

Th. dicit: «Nescio ubi sit frater meus quia eum videre non possum». becomes: Th. dicit se nescire ubi sit frater suus quia eum videre non possit. N.B.— Object clauses which are the objects of verbs such as scire, nescire, cogitare, etc., are INDIRECT QUESTIONS (and as such are in the SUBJUNCTIVE) when they are introduced by interrogative pronouns or adverbs, such as quis, ubi, etc. In summary, the INDICATIVE becomes an INFINITIVE or a INFINITIVE and the SUBJUNCTIVE are preserved.


while the

2. SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN INDIRECT SPEECH A) We will take as an example an independent clause that we will subsequently introduce in indirect speech. Take for example the following direct questions: a) Quid cras facies? What will you do tomorrow? (FUTURE) b) Quid hodié facis? What are you doing today? (PRESENT) c) Quid heri faciebas (fecisti, feceras)? What were you doing (did you do, had you done) yesterday? (PAST) B) What will happen to these tenses in an indirect question in the subjunctive? There are two cases to consider: 1st The MAIN VERB is in the PRESENT or in the FUTURE; in other words, we report today (or we are going to report tomorrow) the different direct questions above. We will have, for example: — if we ask our question today: (hodié) quærimus (pres. ind.), (today) we ask… a) quid cras sis facturus (pres. subj. of esse + future part.), what you will do tomorrow; b) quid hodié facias (pres. subj.), what you are doing today; c) quid heri feceris (perfect subj.), what you did yesterday. — if we ask our question later: (cras) quæremus (fut. ind.), (tomorrow) we will ask… a) quid postero dié sis facturus (pres. subj. of esse + future participle), what you

will be going to do the following day; b) quid eodem dié facias (pres. subj.) what you will be doing on that same day; c) quid præterito dié feceris (perfect subj.) what you will have done (you have done) the day before. In summary, if the main verb (here scire) is in the present or the future (of the the verb of the subordinate clause is in the present of the INFECTUM or of the PERFECTUM:


— PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (of the infectum) if the subordinate action (facere) takes place at the same time as the main action (b); — PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE of the auxiliary esse and FUTURE PARTICIPLE if it takes place later (a); — PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (i.e., the PRESENT of the PERFECTUM) if the subordinate action has taken place before the main action (c). Note.— We have added adverbs of time (hodié, cras, etc.) to bring out better the times of the actions. They could be replaced by others (for example, nudius tertius, the day before yesterday, perendie, the day after tomorrow) as long as the order of the actions is not disrupted. They can also be omitted; e.g.: quæremus quid feceris. 2nd The MAIN VERB is in the PAST: (heri) quærebamus (impf. ind.), (yesterday) we were asking (heri) quæsivimus (pf. ind.), (yesterday) we asked (heri) quæsiveramus (plupf. ind.), (yesterday) we had asked a) quid postero dié facturus esses (impf. subj. of esse + future participle), what you were going to do the following day; b) quid ipso dié faceres (impf. subj.), what you were doing the day itself; c) quid praterito dié fecisses (plupf. subj.), what you had done the day before. The verb of the subordinate clause is in the past of the PERFECTUM:


or of the

— IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (i.e., the past of the INFECTUM) if the subordinate action takes place at the same time as the main action (b); — IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE of the auxiliary esse and FUTURE PARTICIPLE if it takes place later (a); — PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (i.e., the past of the PERFECTUM) if it has taken place earlier (c). C) What will happen to these tenses in indirect speech in the infinitive? The infinitive having three tenses, the PRESENT, the PERFECT and the logic of its use is very simple:



— PRESENT infinitive if the two actions take place at the same time; — FUTURE infinitive if the subordinate action takes place later; — PERFECT infinitive if the subordinate action has taken place earlier. Let the following statements of Vincent be reported: Vincentius dicit (dicebat, etc.): «Heri nihil feci, hodié nihil facio, cras nihil faciam». We will simply have, for example: Present: Hodié Vincentius dicit … se heri nihil fecisse; se hodié nihil facere; se cras nihil facturum esse. Past: Heri Vincentius dicebat (dixit, dixerat) … se præterito dié nihil fecisse; se ipso dié nihil facere; se postero dié nihil facturum esse. And, if the main action (dicere) is in the future, it will be exactly the same. Conclusion: You can see that the infinitive clause is a remarkably practical tool. Learn to take advantage of it! 3. CHOOSING TENSES AND MOODS IN COMPLEX SENTENCES A complex sentence consists of a main clause (or even several coordinate clauses joined by words such as et, sed, etc.) and subordinate clauses which can be OBJECT clauses (as in the examples above) or not (e.g., adverbial clauses). You should know at least that: 1st In an independent clause, whether main or coordinate, the mood and tense of the verb are chosen solely on the basis of the meaning and the actual time of the facts that one wants to express. It will therefore suffice to follow the directions regarding moods and tenses that can be found in the grammatical appendix, §§ 62-69. 2nd Completive clauses (of which you will find examples in the grammatical appendix, §§ 70 and 71) follow the rules of sequence whose essentials we have just given you throughout the current revision. 3rd Adverbial and relative clauses (cf. grammatical appendix, §§ 72-79) are an intermediate case. The choice of mood and tense generally depends only on the nature of the facts to be expressed. Nevertheless, certain turns of phrase or

certain linking words can dictate the choice. Thus certain SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS always take the INDICATIVE; others always the SUBJUNCTIVE; still others take one or the other ACCORDING TO THE MEANING. Don’t forget that you have in the grammatical appendix a table (§ 49) giving you this information for the main subordinating conjunctions. Likewise, verbs that take object clauses can require a specific construction. For example: — Jubere takes an infinitive clause: jubeo te venire, I command you to come. — whereas imperare takes ut and the subjunctive: impero ut venias, I command that you come. If you find this lesson too arduous, just try to retain the examples that we have given you in bold type: you will find them useful. If on the other hand you think that this description comes too late, be aware that this delay is on purpose: theory bears interest only if it rests on a solid practical basis. The first wave had to be essentially practical. As you pursue the second wave you are not forbidden to take advantage of this new knowledge. 2nd wave: the 49th lesson

Lectio nonagesima nona (99) So much water! 1. Since every matter assigned by the Emperor requires a rather attentive care, and [since] now to me by the Augustus Nerva, an Emperor [who] I don't know [whether he is] more diligent or more loving of the State, 2. the office [of the administration] of the [aqueducts] (waters) has been imposed (sit … injunctum), [an office] pertaining as much to the practical benefit as to the health and even the safety of the city, 3. I reckon [that] first and foremost, as I had decided [to do] in [my] other affairs, [is] to understand what I have undertaken. II 4. Therefore the usefulness of this commentary will concern perhaps also (to) [my] successor 5. but since it has been written [during the beginning] (among the beginnings) of my administration, it will benefit above all my [own] training and guiding … X 6. … Agrippa brought [the water from the source known as] «The Maiden», [channelled] (collected) at the Ager Lucullanus, all the way to Rome (this water now feeds the famous Fontana di Trevi). 7. It was called «The Maiden» because a little maid showed some [water streams] (veins) to soldiers [who were] seeking water, 8. which [they followed] (having followed), [and where those] who (had) dug found a huge [quantity] (measure) of water. 9. «The Maiden» rises in [a] swampy place(s), [with] concrete laid around for reason of [enclosing the gushing springs] (of the gushing springs which are to be enclosed) … XV 10. … The conduit of the New Anien [aqueduct is] (makes) [58,700 paces] (58 thousands of paces [and] 700 [paces]); out of that [number], [49,300 paces] (49 thousands of paces [and] 300 [paces]) by a subterranean channel, 11. and [6,491 paces] (6 thousands of paces [and] 491 [paces]) [on arches] (by arched work) nearer the city. 12. These are very high arches, upraised in some places 109 feet [above the ground]. XVI 13. [Go now and compare] (may you compare, pres. subj.), to the so numerous vital masses of so many [aqueducts] (waters), the of course useless Pyramids, or

the [other] (remaining) idle but celebrated (with renown) [works] of the Greeks! From JULIUS FRONTINUS, The Water Conveyance of the City of Rome. NOTES Here we present to you some extracts from a book by FRONTINUS, partly for reasons of vocabulary, partly because we think that it can be interesting to look carefully at a document that informs us directly about some details of Roman administration and civilization. This will allow us to realize that the nature of administrative problems has scarcely changed in 2000 years. Its title is: De aquæ ductu, on the conveyance of water (the sense is wider than the Eng. aqueduct) urbis Romæ, of the city of Rome. The Roman numerals, which correspond to the 130 sections of the original, will give you an idea of the audacious cutting we have allowed ourselves. 1. Intentus, -a, -um, (p.p.p. of intendere, to stretch toward) applied, intent. Here, its comparative (intentiorem) modifies curam, with the noun and its modifier solidly surrounding the verb exigat (subj.). 2. Exigo, -is, -ere, -egi, -actum: 1st to push out, expel (first meaning of agere, to push); 2nd to carry out or execute entirely (derivative sense of the same verb); 3rd to demand, exact (cf. the Eng. exigent). 3. Nerva (-æ) Augustus, the emperor Nerva, born in 22, emperor from 96 to 98. Frontinus (35-104) distinguished himself successively as a military leader and as a civil administrator. 4. Imperatore and the two comparatives in the ablative (in -e, not in -i like the adj.) refer to Nervá, ablative of agent with injunctum sit (here sit … injunctum), perfect of injungere (to charge with…, enjoin). This latter verb has for its subject officium (pertinens, etc.), a charge (pertaining, etc.). 5. All of P. 1. and P. 2. is a double adverbial clause introduced by the first cum (P. 1) of whose two verbs (pres. subj.) are exigat and injunctum sit.— Cum … tum (P. 2), not only … but also; this pair of conjunctions must already be known. 6. Existimo is the main verb of the whole P. 1, P. 2, P. 3; it has for its object an infinitive clause, whose verb (esse) is understood, its subject is nosse, an infinitive having as object the relative clause (id) quod suscepi, and its predicate is primum ac potissimum.— Potissimus, -a, -um (superlative of potis, -e, able, used only in the nominative and with esse, e.g. potis es, you are able), the main, the best. 7. Suscipio, -is, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, to undertake (sub + capere). 8. Quapropter, adv., for which reason. 9. Fortasse or fortassis, adv., perhaps, about, more or less; from fors, fortis, f., chance (cf. forsan, forsit, forsitan, perhaps). 10. Regula, -æ, f., rule for drawing or rule of conduct (regere); it can also mean a rail: a fair return to Latin, for the English «rail» now used in French actually comes from the old French raille (a small bar) which itself comes from regula. 11. Agrippa, -æ, m., (-63 to -12), another military man, contemporary of Augustus, and one who was also a builder. 12. Virginem: each aqueduct has its own name; this one is called the Virgo (cf. L. 40, N. 7), you will soon learn why (P. 7).

13. Virguncula, -æ, f.: a diminutive of the above. 14. Concipio, -is, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, to take, in the sense of to receive (vela ventum concipiunt, the sails take the wind), to contain, to conceive, to engender, whence, in the passive, to arise. 15. Signinus, -a, -um: from Signia, a town celebrated for its mortar. Opus signinum, a work in concrete, masonry in cement. 16. Scaturigo, -inis, f., a gushing spring (scatere, to bubble up, gush out). A spring, generally, is called fons, fontis, m. 17. Opus arcuatum, lit., work in arches: this is the one that corresponds to the typical aqueduct of illustrations. In L. 94 our tourist had therefore mistaken an aqueduct for a viaduct. 18. Pyramis, -idis,f. (remember that the y is pronounced as a French u or a German ü): a Greek noun, follows the 3rd declension but with the accusative plural in -as rather than -es. You can forget this detail as the form in -es is equally acceptable. EXERCITATIO To begin training ourselves in cursory reading, that is, reading that flows (lit. runs), as when we read a novel written in our own language, we are going to read the continuation of the text by PLINY THE YOUNGER that we encountered in lesson 97, trying not to look at the translation and the notes until a second reading: From our reporter (the end). 1.— And not much later, that cloud [started] to descend to the [earth] (lands), [and] to cover the sea(s); 2.— it had surrounded Capri and hidden [it]. 3.— [Here was the] ash already, still rare nevertheless. 4.— I look back: a thick black cloud was hovering [over] (onto) our backs, [and it] (which) was following us like a torrent plunged onto the ground. 5.— You [should] (would) hear the wailing(s) of women, the complaints of babies, the shouts of men. 6.— Some were seeking their parents [shouting] (by voices) [and] were [also] trying to recognize them by their voices, others [were seeking and trying to recognize] their children, others their spouses. 7.— [Some] (these) were decrying their situation, [others] (those) [that] of their [loved] ones; there were [those] who through fear of death were invoking death. 8.— It grew lighter a little, which seemed to us not daylight but a sign of the [arrival of] (arriving) fire. 9.— And the fire in fact stopped rather far off [= remained at quite a distance]; [but] again [came] the darkness(es), again the ash, [abundant] (much) and heavy. 10.— Standing up once and again we shook this [ash] off us; we would have been covered otherwise and even crushed by the weight. 11.— Finally that murkiness, having thinned out, withdrew as if into (sc. light) smoke or a mist. 12.— Soon true daylight [arrived]; the sun even shone, pale yellow, however,

such as it is wont to be when it eclipses. 13.— Everything appeared changed to [our] still-trembling eyes, and covered in deep ash, as [if] with snow. 14.— Having nevertheless returned to Miseno, and [our] bodies having been taken care of as best we could, we spent a night [which was] anxious and uncertain with hope and fear. Ibidem. NOTES 1. Descendere, operire, are known as narrative infinitives (cf. GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX, § 65). Their subject is in the nominative, for they have nothing to do with an infinitive clause. 2. Abscondo, -is, -ere, -condi, -conditum, to place far from sight, to hide.— Capreæ, -arum, f., the Isle of Capri, to the south of Naples. Capra, -æ, f., goat; ram: caper, -pri or hircus, -i. 3. Cinis, -eris, m. (cf. L. 24, N. 7). 4. Respicere, to look behind oneself. We have already seen aspicere (L. 9). This is a very numerous family: conspicere, circum-, di-, de-, in-, per-, pro-, suspicere; just be able to recognize their kinship (specio, to look at, a verb that disappeared in practice, but that left us species, -ei, f., appearance, then species); if you need to know the precise meaning of one of them, refer to the dictionary or, better, to a methodical vocabulary. 5. Caligo, -inis, m. (cf. L. 79, N. 8). 6. Infusa: perfect participle passive of infundo, -is, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, to pour upon, shed; here refers to caligo; note its complement terræ in the dative. 7. Ululatus, -ús, m., from ululare, to howl (animals), to make a piercing cry. 8. Likewise, quiritare, lit., to call for the help of citizens (quirites, -ium or -um, m.), to be linked to quæritare, frequentative of quærere, to seek. We have followed the indicated text, but it seems that neither of the two verbs is appropriate in the case of babies (infans, cf. L. 51, N. 3). 9. Conjux, conjugis, m. and f., spouse. 10. Noscitare, to try to know, frequentative of noscere (we rather use nosse = novisse). 11. Miserari (1st conj.), to complain, deplore, express one's pity; not to be confused with misereor, -eris, -eri, miseritus sum, to have pity for + genitive. Do you know its imperative and the expression: miserere nostri, have pity on us (pl. miseremini)? N.B.— the dative nobis, although better known, is less classical than the genitive nostri. 12. Precari, to pray or wish for: precari aliquid ab aliquo, to beg something from someone; alicui bona precari, to wish someone well. Note that in P. 7 this verb is in the subjunctive (impf.); this is the rule expressed as sunt qui + subj.: there are some people who (go as far as to…). 13. Relucescere (perf. reluxi), to shine again, an inchoative verb; relucere (same perfect), to reflect, glitter. 14. Adventare, to draw near (with ad, sub or in + acc.), to advance.

15. Subsisto, -is, -ere, -stiti, i.v., to halt, remain, hold out; in itinere subsistere, to halt in one’s way. 16. Rursus, adv., back, again. 17. Identidem, repeatedly. 18. (As)surgo or (ad)surgo, -is, -ere, surrexi, surrectum, to get up (toward, in order to). 19. Excutio, -is, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, to shake off (cf. percutere, same conjugation, to strike, to pierce while striking, as in percussion). 20. Alioqui or alioquin, otherwise. 21. Oblido, -is, -ere, -ísi, -ísum, to smother, suffocate; from lædo, -is, -ere, læsi, læsum, to wound, damage (cf. Eng. lese-majesty). 22. Tenuare, to lessen; the corresponding adjective is tenuis, -e, thin, slender. 23. Effulgere, to shine out, blaze (cf. L. 97, N. 23). 24. Luridus, -a, -um, of a sallow yellow; luror, -oris, yellowish colour or pigment. 25. Utcumque, in a way, in any case. If, having arrived at the end of this first cursory reading, you have the feeling that you did not understand much, do not despair however, and attempt anew such exercises often. You had to read many books before reading in your native language felt truly natural. Do not forget that it is the same for all other languages. 2nd wave: the 50th lesson

Lectio centesima (100) What a horrible monster! 1. Popeye the sailor, as he was rowing in a boat, (lo and behold!) suddenly saw behind him a sea serpent. 2. POPEYE.— By Hercules! What a horrible monster! 3. THE MONSTER, examining Popeye, who was not of the greatest beauty.— I was just about to say the same to you! 4. OLD MAN.— Is this arrow yours? 5. LITTLE BOY.— What’s broken? 6. OLD MAN.— Nothing’s broken. 7. LITTLE BOY.— [Good] (Well), [then] it’s my arrow. From Acta Diurna, No. 53. 8. Cosine, a most experienced naturalist, was investigating the habits and movements of [bugs] (little beasts). 9. In his laboratory he was [raising] (feeding) flies, ants, grasshoppers, bedbugs, lice, etc. 10. At some point he received a trained flea with a description [provided] (given) by its trainer. 11. From this description he was able to know to what words the little creature obeyed. 12. He prepared a first experiment. Since he was a learned and methodical man, he would note all events in appropriate pieces of paper. 13. [With] all things [set up] (having been put in their places), he ordered the flea (dat.): «Jump!». 14. The flea jumped. Cosine took down the event in [his] notes. 15. After that, remembering (of) surgery, (in) which he had formerly [practised] (exercised himself), he cut off the little legs of the flea and prepared another experiment. 16. He ordered again to the flea: «Jump!». The flea, on the other hand, did not jump. 17. In his notes he did not hesitate to take down: 18. «[With his] legs cut off, the flea becomes deaf». From Acta Diurna, No. 40. Remark.— For reasons of vocabulary, we have allowed ourselves to modify and enlarge the original text. Besides, this little adventure is attributed by Acta Diurna to a certain Fulvius. We ourselves think that it should be attributed to Zephyrin Brioché, better known under the name of the Wise Cosine, the hero of one of the first French comic books, whose exciting experiences were related by CHRISTOPHE (1956-1945). This wise man being absent minded, we fear he forgot to immortalize his labors in the tongue that we are studying. May this lack be filled as soon as possible, and this appeal to people of

goodwill not be in vain! NOTES 1. Poppædius, -ii, m., Popeye, a character in numerous English language animated cartoons, is equally known in France, formerly under the name of Mathurin. He feeds (vescor, -eris, -i) only on spinach (spinacia, -æ, f.) from which he draws his legendary strength(s): Poppædius spinaciis sólís vescitur unde vires suas fabulosas trahit. 2. Draco, -onis, m., serpent or dragon. Draco, as a proper noun, is also the Drac river, a tributary of the Isère. Serpent is also serpens, -entis, m. (pres. part. of serpo, -is, -ere, serpsi, i.v., to crawl, creep). 3. Dicturus fui: with the future participle and the passive of the auxiliary we obtain THE FUTURE IN THE PAST. 4. Bestiola, -æ, f., diminutive of bestia, -æ, f., beast (as opposed to the human, whereas animal is opposed to plants and minerals). 5. Cimex, -icis, m., bedbug; there is no difficulty with finding the declension of the other «little beasts» of P. 9. 6. Pulex, -icis, m., flea. Note, as for cimex, the MASCULINE gender. 7. Condocefactus, perfect participle of condocefieri which serves as the passive for condocefacere, to train (from docere). We could have said: mansuetus, -a, um, trained, tame, gentle (mansuetudo, the state of being tame, gentleness, mildness; mansuefacere, to tame; mansuefieri, to be tamed; mansuetarius, one who trains, a tamer) if this had been about a bestia and not a bestiola. 8. Obœdio or obedio, -is, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum (ob audire), to listen to, whence to obey. Here in the imperfect subjunctive (cf. R&N. 98, § 2. B, 2nd). 9. Exsilire is more precise than salire which we could have in any case. If you have forgotten the latter, vid. sup. L. 80, N. 10. 10. If you do not know which verb eventum comes from, vid. sup. L. 62, N. 14. 11. Commentarius, -ii, m., notebook, register, historical memoir (commentary) and even review (periodical). One can also say commentarium, -ii, n. 12. Crusculum, -i, n., diminutive (from crus, cruris, n., leg) for it is a small creature that is being discussed. 13. Desecuit: do not forget that not all the verbs of the 1st conjugation have the perfect in -avi and the supine in -atum. Thus, seco, -as, -are, secui, sectum, to cut, slice (cf. L. 23, P. 2), and its compounds desecare, to separate by cutting, and dissecare, to divide by cutting, to dissect. 14. Abscído, -is, -ere, -scídi, -scisum, to remove by cutting; there exists also abscindo, -is, -ere, -scidi, -scissum. Clearly pronounce the two s of the supine of the latter in order to distinguish it from the former. 15. Obsurdesco, -is, -ere, -surdui, inchoative verb (R&N. 91, 3. d) to become deaf (surdus, -a, -um); mute is mutus, -a, -um, and blind was already seen (cæcus). EXERCITATIO 1.— In this last exercise we will continue to read, (all the way) to the end, those excerpts [from] (of) Frontinus, the first part of which we saw in the 99th lesson.

2.— LXIV— …Now I shall put what I, by means of careful research, found in the registers… 3.— More [water] was reckoned at [the point of] distribution than [had been] (in the) extracted, by [as much as] 1263 quinariæ (see note)! 4.— Astonishment [at] (of) this thing [incited] (turned) me not [a little] (middlingly) to examining how more was delivered than was in the patrimony, so to speak. 5.— And so, before [anything else] (all things), I undertook to measure the [intakes] (heads) of the conduits, but I found a by far more ample amount than [noted] in the records… 6.— LXXIV— The measurements made, [this] (that) is discovered: 10,000 quinariæ [had] (to have) been lost [along the way], whereas the [emperors] (princes) regulate(d) their concessions according to the measure written in the records… 7.— LXXV— A cause of [this] (which thing) is fraud [by] (of) the water-men, whom [I] (we) have caught [diverting] (to divert) water(s) from the public conduits to private use(s), 8.— but also the majority [of land owners] (possessors), [around whose fields water is conducted] (whose fields [dat.] water is led round), pierce the [masonry] (forms) of the channels… 9.— LXXVI— [I] (We) have found irrigated fields, inns, even appartments, [and] lastly brothels, all [of them] furnished with [running water] (continuous sources)… 10.— CXV— Also that [source of income] (reditus) of the water-men is to be [stopped] (removed) that they call the "piercings". 11.— Long and diverse are the spaces through which pipes pass [throughout] (by) the whole city, hidden under the [pavement] (flint). 12.— I found [that] these [pipes], pierced [here and there] (passim) through the intervention of the one who was styled "[the person in charge of] (from) the piercings", have been supplying water by private pipes to all the businesses [along the way] (in [their] course). 13.— Whereby it was brought about that a scarce amount arrived to the public necessities… 14.— CXXX— I would not deny [that those who are] contemptuous of the law [are] worthy of the punishment that is forseen, but those [who have been] deceived (deceptos) by a carelessness of long duration ought to be called back [to order] with leniency. 15.— For the future, in fact, it’s my wish that the execution of the law is not necessary, as it is better to safeguard the trust (fidem) [in] (of) [my] office even through misdemeanours (ofensas). Quinaria (fistula understood), the pipe called of five (quini, -æ, -a, in fives), because, according to Frontinus, it was 5/4 inches in diameter. The input of such a pipe was the unit of measure employed by the water distribution company: metering devices had not yet been invented.— Erogare (ex rogare), to distribute; here, to take water (from the main pipe) to distribute it (through

smaller pipes).— Patrimonium, -ii, n. (from pater), that which belongs to the father of the family, patrimony. Other words in -monium are: matrimonium, marriage (from mater); testimonium, testimony (testis, -is, m., witness), etc.— Detego, -is, -ere, -texi, -tectum (de + tegere, cf. L. 48, P. 11), to uncover, detect.— Modus, -i, m., measure.— Intercido, -is, -ere, -cidi, (inter + cadere), to fall between (short i).— Temperare, to combine, dispose, organize, moderate. Notice that dum, when it means while, is constructed with the indicative, and often actually with the PRESENT indicative, no matter what the real tense of the subordinate is.— Fraus, fraudis, f., a trick in bad faith, fraud.— Aquarius, -a, -um, relating to water. Aquarius, taken as a noun, designates a man who deals with water, a plumber. The corresponding neuter noun, aquarium (tank), has given the French évier (sink).— Deprehendo, -is, -ere, -di, -sum, to catch, intercept (from prehendere, same conjugation).— Plerique (f. pleræque, n. pleraque), the majority of, is used as an adjective.— Inriguus or irriguus, -a, -um, irrigated; irrigare, to water, irrigate.— Salire (L. 80, N. 10) is used for running water.— Lateo, -es, -ere, -ui, to be hidden (cf. the latent image in photography, which is invisible before being developed).— For punctum, cf. E. 85, P. 9 and note. It is amusing to see that here FRONTINUS considers punctum as a slang word of the water-men.— Silex, icis, m., hard stone (like flint), paving stone.— Meare, to pass, circulate; (per)meabilis, where something can pass (through).— (Con)vulnerare, to wound, damage, cf. Eng. vulnerable.— Contemno, -is, -ere, -tempsi, -temptum, to scorn; whence contemptor, one who scorns.— Leniter, adv., from lenis, -e, soft (to the touch), kind.— Tueor, -eris, -eri, tuitus sum, to have under one's eyes (cf. intueri, to look at), to watch over. Derivative: tutela, -æ, f., protection, watching over.— Præsto, -as, -are, -stiti, -stitum, literally, to stand before, whence, to prevail over, to be preferable. It is here used impersonally. 2nd wave: the 51th lesson

Lectio centesima prima (101) Well done! 1. Well done, you who have arrived up to this final lesson! 2. If in pursuing these lessons we kept to the proposed [method] (manner of learning), 3. many (and) much-used words have become for us like friends and family members; 4. examples of different sentences have been impressed upon our ears; 5. [and,] finally, we are no longer completely ignorant of grammar itself. 6. Nevertheless, if the Latin language has become [our friend] (friend to us), even now we are able to progress toward better things. 7. For first we will go on unwinding the «second wave» all the way to the end of the book. 8. Moreover, every day we will open the book at [a random] (whichever) page, reread some lessons, consult again the notes, listen to the discs again, 9. until all things that can be found in this book we shall comprehend without any strain (of the mind). 10. Afterwards [we will have to go] (it will be to be proceeded) farther, without this support [from] (of) the translations and the notes, which has thus far never failed us. 11. It will already be convenient that we find by ourselves books, documents, advice, and also friends who can give us aid to get hold of these things, either through conversations or through letters. 12.We will be able to procure for ourselves for example those books whose excerpts, [found] (put) in this work, pleased us most. 13. If we (shall have) read books, by reading them we shall find such stimuli to read new books or magazines that it may never be possible for us to lack things to (be) read. 14. Grammar, indeed, although usage is often preferable to its rules, nevertheless [should not be] (is not to be) completely and lightly neglected. 15. We will then first revise again and again the Grammatical Appendix that is contained in the final pages of the book; afterwards, on the other hand, it will be useful to consult more accurate and more comprehensive works. 16. In which matter we should always remember (of) this advice: 17. We must always unite and join [together] (with themselves) the [practice] (active art), which consists in speaking in Latin, reading in Latin, writing in Latin, [and] thinking in Latin, and the theory, by which we can understand the morphology and the syntax. 18. Relying on these precepts, let us audaciously seize for ourselves the pilots' motto: through difficulties to the stars… 19. [And] now, confident in your forces, [take joyous flight on your own wings] (let you happily take flight yourselves)!

20. Farewell, excellent readers, and love our language! NOTES This lesson and these notes are more especially intended to conclude the second wave. If you are reading them for the first time, pay particular attention to phrases 1 through 9: 1. Mactus, -a, -um (an adjective which is only used in the nominative and vocative masculine and feminine) means honoured. An example of the vocative masculine singular: macte animo, generose puer! [be honoured by your] courage, boy of (good) lineage (genus, -eris, n.)! 2. Estote, future imperative of esse. We have tried to bore you as little as possible with analysis of tenses and moods. Now we advise you to refer frequently to the GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX, until you are perfectly in command of all active, passive, and deponent forms. 3. From what verb does tritus come?— Answer E. 59 (notes). N.B.— At the end of its clause, amica et familiaria facta sunt, have become like friendly and familiar things (neuter), would have been more grammatically correct, but the masculine agreement of the verb and the attribute shows us that these friends now have a more marked personality than "things" would have. 4. Pervolvere, to roll (or make roll) completely; but also to read assiduously, for you remember that the book was formerly a volumen. Volvo, -is, -ere, -i, -utum, to roll or make roll. 5. Consulo, -is, -ere, -sului, -sultum, to take counsel, examine, consult. 6. Donec, conj., which we have already seen (L. 45, N. 5), but which you will also find in the grammatical appendix, § 49. 7. Contentio, -onis, f., straining, effort. We have especially made this effort bear upon vocabulary. In this book you have encountered about 3,000 different words. When through REPETITIONS you will know more or less all of them, you will be able to READ any ordinary text WITHOUT A DICTIONARY and understand, at least approximately, what it is about. This in itself will be an ENORMOUS ABILITY, and one which too many Latinists wrongly neglect. But to maintain and increase this capacity, you should not be afraid to READ A LOT, even if you do not always perfectly understand what you are reading. Only when you will have accumulated the essential of these assets will the use of DICTIONARIES and GRAMMARS become perfectly productive. We do not hide that you will need these TWO AIDS if you want to appreciate good authors fully, or simply if you want to speak and write correctly. 8. Fultura, -æ, f. (cf. L. 97, N. 11). 9. One way to find such correspondents is to send your name and address to a Latin magazine that has a section devoted to this. With a little luck, someone will write to you. But do not forget that, regarding correspondence, the same applies to Latin as to the other living languages: great perseverance is necessary, as experience shows that few correspondents are capable of maintaining a lasting commercium epistulare. Do not worry therefore if your first efforts are not crowned with the success that you would hope, for it is not likely that larks will come upon you already cooked: nulli per ventos assa columba volat, for no-one (dat. of nullus) does a roast pigeon fly upon the winds. 10. Stimulus, -i, m., lit., a goad, to prod (stimulare) oxen. The stinger of insects is

aculeus, -i. m. (acus, needle) or cuspis, -idis, f. We are not oxen, but we sometimes have need of a STIMULANT! When a book has interested us, don't we want to read its sequel, if there is one, or another book by the same author, or still other books on the same subject, whether they are explicitly mentioned by the author or not? Let us remind you that in most books one finds, in addition to the text proper, a good deal of useful information to this effect (prefaces, notes, appendices, flyleaves, etc.). 11. Potior, -ius, comparative of potis, -e (cf. L. 99, N. 6). 12. Appendix, -icis, f., object hanging from… (appendo = ad pendo, to hang), accessory, appendage. Note that the gender is not the same as in French. 13. Revolvere, to roll back, go over again. It has given us revolt, revolution, and even revolver! (cf. N. 4 supra). 14. May our imperfect work give you that desire for perfection which was one of the character traits of Cæsar! LUCAN said of him: … nil actum credens cum quid superesset agendum … … believing that nothing was done when there remained something to be done … (Pharsalia II, 657). But let’s not transform this desire for perfection into a proud isolation, and let us listen, still through Lucan, to this precept of Cato of Utica: Nec sibi sed toti genitum se credere mundo and not …………………………………………………… to believe ………… …………………………………………………… oneself …………………… ……………………………………………… born …………………………… …… for oneself [alone] ……………………………………………………… ………………………… but …………………………………………………… …………………………… [for the] entire ………………………… world …… (Pharsalia II, 383). 15. Syntaxis, -is, f.: words in -is of Greek origin have the accusative singular in im and the ablative singular in -i. In case you didn't know it, you will learn the meaning of the words morphology and syntax by reading the GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX.

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