igcse-sociology-trcd-web.pdf

August 6, 2017 | Author: Fathima Ahmed | Category: Survey Methodology, Qualitative Research, Sampling (Statistics), Sociology, Experiment
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Cambridge IGCSE Physics Teacher’s Resource David Sang

To find out more about Cambridge International Examinations visit www.cie.org.uk Visit education.cambridge.org/cie for information on our full range of Cambridge IGCSE titles including e-book versions and mobile apps.

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Cambridge IGCSE

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Sociology PL

Teacher’s Resource

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Completely Cambridge – Cambridge resources for Cambridge qualifications Cambridge University Press works closely with Cambridge International Examinations as parts of the University of Cambridge. We enable thousands of students to pass their Cambridge exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources.

Physics Teacher’s Resource

The Teacher’s Resource CD-ROM contains: • animations to illustrate key syllabus concepts • question sheets and answers covering each block from the Coursebook • answers to the end-of-chapter questions in the Coursebook and the multiple-choice questions from the Coursebook CD-ROM • guidance notes for the Activities included on the Coursebook CD-ROM • answers to the exercises in the Workbook.

Jonathan Blundell

David Sang

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This Teacher’s Resource is intended to be used alongside the Cambridge IGCSE Physics Coursebook and Workbook.

Cambridge IGCSE

Cambridge IGCSE Physics matches the requirements of the Cambridge IGCSE Physics syllabus (0625). It is endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations for use with their examination.

Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Introduction The resources on this Teacher’s CD-ROM have been written to help students studying the Cambridge IGCSE Sociology syllabus from Cambridge International Examinations. The materials are designed to support the Cambridge IGCSE ® Sociology Coursebook. The CD is intended to be a practical guide, an equally useful tool for: ■

teachers who are already experienced at teaching Sociology at IGCSE



teachers who will be teaching to this level for the first time



teachers who are not Sociology specialists but who have been asked to take on the teaching of this subject.

The CD will help teachers: ■

to gain a full understanding of the syllabus in terms of its content, what will be assessed, what format the assessment will take, the depth of knowledge which students will require and the skills which they need to develop



to plan and organise their teaching effectively



by providing practical suggestions regarding resources, schemes of work, teaching strategies and student activities.

The resources include: answers to the activities, case study tasks, test-yourself and exam practice questions (including mark schemes) in the Coursebook



a range of teaching ideas centred around research, presentations, discussions and debates, pair and group work and written work



revision notes



worksheets and answers



practice examination questions in the style of Cambridge Paper 1 and Paper 2 questions with mark schemes and guidance, written by the author.

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© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Introduction

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Answers to Coursebook activities Test yourself (page 8)

Structuralist approaches focus on large-scale (macro) social structures and institutions rather than individuals. Interpretivist approaches focus on small-scale (micro) social interactions and look at how individuals make sense of society and of social actions. 2 Encourage different styles of learning by allowing students to show ideas in a visual way. Key ideas include: the difference in emphasis on society and social structures and on individuals, and on the macro and micro levels of social interaction. Allow some written explanation but keep this to a minimum. Possible examples: mind map, flow chart or diagram, using found images (e.g. from magazines or the internet), using photographs taken for this work. 1

Test yourself (page 12)

For Marxists, societies are divided by social class, with higher classes exploiting lower classes. Marxists want to change society by abolishing class divisions and thus the exploitation of one class by another. Feminists are concerned with how males have greater power than females and want the two sexes to become equal. 2 a Marxists see the government as acting on behalf of the ruling class (bourgeoisie), ensuring that its power and wealth are not challenged. Functionalists see the government as representing all sections of society, finding a consensus based on shared values. b Marxists see the police force as enforcing laws that benefit the ruling class, arresting and charging offenders who are working class. Functionalists see the police force as enforcing laws that reflect society’s shared values.

Activity: discussion (page 12)

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Students could make a case for either type of approach; their case should be based on evidence, probably drawn from their own society.

Test yourself (page 14)

Sociologists can understand human behaviour and predict how people will behave in particular situations. We cannot predict the behaviour of a particular individual, but we can predict the behaviour of significant numbers, e.g. the number of suicides in a year and what types of individuals are most likely to commit suicide. 2 They have a different view of society and of social behaviour. They are interested in small-scale social interaction and in the meanings people attach to their actions so they favour methods such as participant observation and unstructured interviews. Positivists, on the other hand, favour experiments, surveys and structured interviews which provide statistical information. 1

Test yourself (page 17)

Choice of sampling method and sample will decide the findings of the research. Sampling method or sample may lead to findings which can be criticised as lacking in validity, reliability or representativeness. 2 Pilot studies are a way of checking before the main research that the research tool (such as a questionnaire) is fit for purpose and will produce the data required. 1

Test yourself (page 19) 1

The student should first introduce themselves, their institution or funding organisation, and the nature and purpose of the research. The introduction could continue: ‘You are being invited to take part in this research. Taking part is voluntary. Please read the information carefully so that you can make a decision about whether to give your informed consent to taking part. You may choose not to answer questions. We will do everything we can to protect your privacy. Your identity will not be revealed in any publications that result from this study. The information in the study records will be kept strictly confidential. Individual data will be stored securely and will be made available only to persons conducting the study. No reference will be made in oral or written reports that could link you to the study.’

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology 2

Ethical issues include: ■

Informed consent: whose consent would you need to obtain and how? Teacher, pupils (and/or their parents or guardians), other adults, such as teaching assistants.



Anonymity and confidentiality, e.g. do not identify teacher or pupils by name.



Deception: the researcher should inform everyone of who they are and why they are there.



The researcher may also affect behaviour in the classroom by their presence (the Hawthorne Effect) and this may have ethical implications.



The researcher may see unacceptable behaviour by pupils and have to decide whether or not to tell the teacher.



The findings may make the teacher question their abilities or competence.

Case study (page 23)

The census is a social survey involving the whole population rather than a sample. There were 23.4 million households in England and Wales. The first modern British census was in 1801. Questions are asked about a wide range of aspects of people’s lives, for example who they live with, their work, their qualifications, their ethnicity and their religion. By law every householder (someone who owns or rents a dwelling and is responsible for paying bills) has to complete a census form. The punishment for not doing so is a fine of up to £1,000. The information is used by governments and others for a wide range of purposes, including planning for social changes; for example an increase in the number of births may mean that more classrooms or schools will be needed in the future. The data from completed forms are published only as statistics. The completed forms are stored securely for 100 years before being made public. 2 Strengths: gathers information about very large numbers of people, in statistical form which enables councils and governments to plan. Questions are standardised and data are reliable. Weaknesses: does not give any information about reasons for changes. Respondents are not asked to give explanations or reasons; e.g. the census may show that people are having more children, but not why. Not everyone is included in the census; e.g. homeless people or people who are abroad may be missed out, making the findings less representative.

Case study (page 27)

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Because the interviewer is able to spend time putting the respondent at ease, e.g. about confidentiality, and winning their trust. The respondent is more likely to give truthful, honest answers. 2 Focus groups create a group dynamic. The women were from different parts of the UK and would not know each other. They might have to travel a long distance and would not want to be away from their family. They might be wary of each other and the discussion might be dominated by one woman, with others feeling unable to speak up. The researcher would have to work hard to ensure that all the women felt at ease and joined in. 1

Case study (page 28) 1

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The children would be aware that they were being observed, so might not have behaved as they ‘normally’ would – the Hawthorne Effect.



The children may have been trying to please the observers by doing what they thought they were meant to do.



The experiment seems to have tried to get the intended results by frustrating the children by depriving them of toys.



Bobo dolls are intended to be hit.

Because it would involve real people being victims of violence, and it might seem to the children that they were being encouraged to be violent or to think that violence might be a good thing. These are ethically unacceptable.

Case study (page 29)

To find out how important teacher expectations of children were in deciding how well children did – to investigate the ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’. 2 That there was a self-fulfi lling prophecy. The random selection of children as potential ‘high attainers’ means that their success can be attributed to their teachers knowing that they had been identified as such. The way that the teachers then worked with those pupils must have improved their progress. 3 Some children made more or less progress than they would otherwise have done. The teachers were victims of a deception and would almost certainly have been distressed when they discovered what had been done. 4 Because it is ethically unacceptable. It is also likely that teachers or parents would sue the researchers for damages. 1

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Case study (page 30)

Longitudinal research makes it possible to track changes over time, rather than at a single moment in time, and to see what factors may have changed people’s lives. 2 They have been involved in sociological research all their lives so will know a lot about the survey, and will have thought a lot about the issues and data. They may have been influenced by what they have learned through being involved – the Hawthorne Effect. 1

Case study (page 31)

The case study provides detailed information about the people involved at different stages in their lives, showing change and continuity over time. The participants became committed to the project and were likely to provide valid information. 2 a Being involved in 7 Up would make people think more about their lives and decisions they made, knowing that a large television audience would be interested in them. They might therefore make different decisions than had they not been involved. b Over time, some participants might decide they did not want to continue. None of the participants has yet died, but this will inevitably happen at some point. 1

Case study (page 33)

Problems: Venkatesh had a problem getting access; he had to be vouched for by J.T., who acted as a gatekeeper. The gang may not be representative of other gangs. The behaviour of the gang may have been different because of his presence (the Hawthorne Effect). We only have Venkatesh’s account so it is difficult to check whether his observations are accurate. Advantages: because he was accepted by the gang, Venkatesh was able to go around with them and to observe their behaviour in different situations. His observations are likely to have been valid. 2 A covert researcher would spend a lot of time and effort maintaining their cover. It would be very difficult to make notes, as this would be suspicious. If the covert researcher was discovered, they would be in danger, as gang members would feel they had been deceived.

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Case study (page 35)

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They had to decide how to record data, e.g. whether to note the length of items, and what to do about news items that referred to several countries or to developing countries generally; how to describe and analyse the ‘tone’ of an item and which non-news programmes to include. 2 To measure ‘tone’, the researchers would probably have considered the use of particular words, the angle or emphasis of the report and the tone of voice used by reporters. 3 Content analysis could also be used for radio broadcasts, newspapers and magazines, and news websites. 1

Test yourself (page 36)

Structured interviews involve standardised questions with a limited range of answers. They differ from questionnaires because answers are recorded by the researcher. With unstructured interviews there is no list of questions, and the interviewer can follow up what the interviewee says. 2 Longitudinal research allows changes over time to be observed. If a panel is used, the involvement of the sample over a long period is likely to increase the validity of the findings. 3 Practical issues: With participant observation (PO) there are difficulties in access and acceptance; it is time-consuming and expensive; and it is difficult to make field notes while observing. Non-participant observation (NPO) does not have these problems to the same extent; acceptance by the group is less of an issue as the group may not even be aware they are being observed. Ethical issues: Covert PO involves deception and informed consent will not be possible. With overt research, informed consent may be difficult because of the size or nature of the group. The researcher must ensure that no harm comes from the group’s involvement in the research; NPO involves fewer risks. Theoretical issues: Representativeness of the group and its behaviour is an issue with both types of research. PO is not very reliable because it is difficult to repeat, but NPO can often be repeated. Both are high in validity but this can be limited by the Hawthorne Effect. 4 Encourage creativity, but look for whether the student has seen and made clear the connections between the different research methods. 1

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Test yourself (page 37)

Student’s own answer. The case studies in the Coursebook give enough information for students to be able to make basic points that show their understanding of the concepts. 2 Participant observation and unstructured interviews, as these depend to a large extent on the researcher. Who the researcher is should make no difference in most experiments and in social surveys; in these, the participants may not meet or see the researcher. 1

Activity: evaluation (page 37) Points may include: ■

cost and source of funding



time, access and availability of a sample



ethical issues, such as whether a method might risk harm to respondents or the researcher



the theoretical stance of the researcher, e.g. positivist or interpretivist



the appropriateness of the method for obtaining the type of data required.

Activity: discussion (page 37) Points may include the following:

Positivists insist that research should be free of bias, that sociologists should be neutral.



Interpretivists argue that being free of bias is probably not possible, because sociology is about people and their social lives.



Experiments (the most positivist of methods) can be free of bias in the sense that the researcher can ensure that they do not themselves affect the outcome.



Other methods in sociology show bias to some extent; for example, in participant observation research the researcher sometimes develops a strong bond with the group. Interpretivists see this as strength rather than a problem.

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Activity: data interpretation (page 40)

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Graphs 1 UK 2 Sierra Leone

Tables 1 Highest: Italy; lowest: The Gambia 2 The Gambia

Bar charts 1 Tokyo 2 Mumbai 3 Tokyo, Osaka, Los Angeles, New York

Pie charts 1 a Asia and the Pacific; b developed countries 2 The total population of each region, the number of undernourished people in each region.

Activity: evaluation (page 44)

Quantitative secondary data: official statistics are readily available, often free of charge. Governments have spent more time and resources collecting these statistics than a sociologist could. They are usually produced by well-planned research with large samples, but they may be incomplete or inaccurate, and they are social constructions. They are probably not the exact data the sociologist wants and may be affected by political bias. Qualitative secondary data such as diaries and personal documents may be high in validity. They offer first-hand accounts and provide descriptive detail missing in statistical sources. But we often do not know if the accounts are representative or biased. The usefulness of media depends on factors such as possible bias and selectivity, and whether there is an accurate representation.

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Test yourself (page 44)

Primary data are data collected by the researcher. Secondary data are data that already exist, having previously been gathered by an earlier researcher (at which time they were primary data). 2 Encourage students to think about statistics that are meaningful to them, e.g. football league tables, or scores in computer games, or exam and test results. 3 By asking questions about their origin and context: who wrote this? What do we know about them? What were their personal circumstances when they wrote this? What was it written for? etc. They can also be compared to similar sources. 1

Exam practice questions

To protect the anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents. Note: This might alternatively be worded along the lines of, “so that no one could work out who the women were.” b Types of interview include: a



Structured



Unstructured



Semi-structured



Group/focus group



Face to face



Telephone

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One mark for each correct type of interview identified (up to a maximum of two) Answers are expected to give two reasons why sociologists might question generalisations from this research. They might suggest that; The sample is too small; the sample was drawn from only one town, which may not be typical of other towns. The researchers would probably not have known about all the young women who became pregnant at that age and at that time in that town, and so we cannot know if the sample is representative One mark for each reason correctly identified (up to a maximum of two) One mark for development of each reason (up to a maximum of two) d Answers are expected to give two strengths of group interviews, such as:

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answers are more likely to be valid, because we form our opinions as members of social groups rather than as individuals



the interview can bring out what members of the focus group think is important



answers can provide depth/detail/understanding of respondent’s point of view



save time and money



individuals tend to be less shy in a group than in a one-to-one interview

One mark for each strength correctly identified (up to a maximum of two) One mark for development of each strength (up to a maximum of two) e Answers are expected to give two strengths and two limitations of questionnaires, such as: Strengths: ■

all respondents answer the same questions with the same answer (the questionnaire is standardised)



easy to analyse and compare results



reliability/replication



can be used with large samples



respondents can be geographically distant from researcher (questionnaire can be conducted by post)



should be possible to generalise findings to a wider population

Limitations: ■

Researcher decides possible answers



Respondent cannot always give the answer they want to give

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

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Low response rate



Lack of validity



Respondent cannot usually explain in their own words

One mark for each strength correctly identified (up to a maximum of two) and one mark for description of each strength (up to a maximum of two) One mark for each limitation correctly identified (up to a maximum of two) and one mark for description of each limitation (up to a maximum of two) Answers need to demonstrate an understanding of the interpretivist tradition and the preference for methods that produce qualitative data, for example referring to validity, understanding the point of view of social actors and the depth and detail of data.

Band 0 No creditworthy response Band 1 (1–3) Answers at this level are likely to show limited understanding and be based on common sense or demonstrate little in the way of clear sociological knowledge or terminology. At the top of the band answers may begin to use some appropriate knowledge or terminology.

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Band 2 (4–7) At the bottom of the band, answers demonstrate basic understanding of the issue and begin to use some appropriate knowledge and terminology. Supporting explanation may be weak or over simplistic. At the top of the band, answers use appropriate knowledge and terminology but may not fully focus on the question. Answers are likely to offer more than one reason.

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Band 3 (8–10) The answer is fully focused on the question. There is evidence of good use of sociological terms and candidates make clear reference to theoretical issues such as validity. They may also refer to different methods that produce qualitative data (such as unstructured interviews and participant observation) and may use terms such as Verstehen or empathy. At the top of the band they should offer a range of reasons why interpretivists prefer methods that produce qualitative data, as well as demonstrating accurate use of sociological concepts. g Answers should show an awareness of what is meant by ethical issues and the extent to which they influence ethical issues (for example, compared to theoretical and practical issues). Ethical issues that could be discussed include informed consent, deception, anonymity and confidentiality, risk/harm (physical and psychological) to researcher and to participants. Reference may be made to any sociological research methods, and examples of research studies raising ethical issues should be credited. Answers might talk about: For: ■

informed consent



deception



anonymity and confidentiality



risk/harm (physical and psychological) to researcher and to participants



codes of practice/guidelines

Against ■

Practical issues such as time, cost, access to respondents/data



Theoretical issues such as positivism/interpretivism, types of data, validity, reliability and representativeness



Absence or relative unimportance of ethical issues in some methods (e.g. use of secondary data)

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology Band 0 No creditworthy response Band 1 (1–4) Answers in this band may be largely based on common sense showing limited or no knowledge of sociological terms and concepts. Answers are unlikely to show understanding of ethical issues. Band 2 (5–8) In this band answers will tend to offer some basic discussion of one or two ethical issues. Alternatively, they may offer an answer which is list like in nature but there will be no real attempt to address ethical issues. At the top of the band, candidates may offer a description of more than one method or issue. Band 3 (9–12) Answers in this band will show good use of sociological language and will make some attempt at addressing ethical issues but this may be weak or focus only on asserting that they are important. At the bottom of the band, answers may provide a good range of points but there might be a lack of focus on ethical issues. At the top of the band, answers are likely to show either strong agreement or disagreement with clear focus on the question, but are unlikely to discuss both sides.

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Band 4 (13–15) Answers in this band will be clearly focused on the question and address the ‘extent’ of the importance of ethical issues. Answers will offer a range of arguments both for and against but this need not be balanced. They will show excellent grasp of sociological terms and knowledge. At the top of the band there will also be an evaluative conclusion.

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Answers to Coursebook activities

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Teaching ideas Research

Content analysis (AO1, AO2, AO3) Choose a topic such as ‘How are young people represented in the media?’. Explain to students that the main research tool used in content analysis is a grid. Show them examples, either ones you have devised yourself or from the internet or from books. Ask students to devise their own grid and then try to use it, for example analysing one newspaper or magazine. They will almost certainly find that some information is hard to fit in their grid. Allow them to revise the grid; explain that they have piloted their grid, and now have an improved version. They can then investigate the topic in more detail. Different students could be given different media texts to analyse, and the results could be put together.

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Presentations

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Survey design (AO1, AO2) Students should decide on a topic of sociological relevance about their classmates, for example how much time they spend using social media, or how much time they spend on homework. This should be suitable for survey research. In small groups, ask students to design a questionnaire based on advice from the Coursebook (see page 21). Where appropriate, they could include different types of questions (such as closed, scaled and open). The questionnaire should be piloted and revised, then distributed to a sample and the results collated and analysed. This will take students through the main stages of a research project.

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Research methods (AO1, AO2) Individually or in pairs, ask students to prepare a presentation for the rest of the class on one of the research methods (experiments, surveys, unstructured interviews, participant observation, longitudinal studies, content analysis, and so on. They should aim to make the presentation memorable and informative, and should cover issues such as time and money, validity, reliability and representativeness, ethical issues and examples. Sampling methods (AO1, AO2) Ask students to prepare computer presentations (using PowerPoint or similar presentation software) with at least one slide on each of the main methods of producing samples (random, stratified, systematic, cluster, opportunity, quota and snowball samples). They should include examples and illustrations (e.g. a random sample could be illustrated with a lottery) and make sure that they use the terms population, sampling frame and representativeness.

Discussions and debates

Class debate: ‘Sociologists cannot be unbiased.’ (AO1, AO2, AO3) Introduce the topic by reminding students of the theoretical context, that this point of view is held by interpretivists and contested by positivists. Students should then be allocated to one side of the debate or the other and should gather ideas and information, wherever possible using examples from the Coursebook (such as the case study on participant observation: Gang Leader for a Day, page 33). Group discussion: ‘Can statistics be trusted?’ (AO1, AO2, AO3) Students should research and discuss this in groups, putting together a range of ideas covering different types of statistics (such as hard and soft) and different examples (such as demographic data and crime rates). They should consider points both for and against the credibility of statistics. Their ideas could be displayed in poster form.

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Teaching ideas

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Pair and group work

Functionalist, Marxist and feminist viewpoints (AO2, AO3) Provide students with suitable news items from newspapers or websites. In pairs or small groups, ask them to try to explain what a functionalist, a Marxist and a feminist would say about the item. This exercise could also use research findings. Sociological topic (AO2, AO3) In pairs or small groups, give students a sociological topic, for example the way boys and girls behave in school, or how people use their leisure time. Ask them to work out in detail how this might be researched using positivist methods such as a survey, and then how it might be researched using interpretivist methods such as unstructured interviews or participant observation. Then ask them to decide which would be best for this topic and to justify their choice.

Written work

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Exam-style question: To what extent are practical issues the most important factors when sociologists are choosing which method to use? (AO1, AO2, AO3) To help students come to terms with the demands of this type of question, it is a good idea to break the task down into a series of stages. Allow students first to see the generic mark scheme (provided in the syllabus by Cambridge International Examinations) and discuss this with them, giving ideas about how they can meet its demands. Stage 1 – students identify relevant material. Stage 2 – students compile two lists, one containing ideas about why practical issues (such as time, money and access) might be the most important and the other containing ideas about why ethical and theoretical issues might be more important. Stage 3 – students reach a judgement based on stage 2. Stage 4 – students formulate the argument to be pursued in the answer. Stage 5 – students decide how they will ensure balance in their answers. Stage 6 – students produce a plan containing: an introduction



a conclusion



brief details of the composition of each of the other paragraphs, showing how they will link together.

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Stage 7 – students write an essay. At each stage there should be interaction between students (in pairs or small groups) and between student and teacher. Students should then write their complete answers. You should mark the answers and provide feedback. Any problems identified should be set as targets for improvement in the next practice exam question.

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Teaching ideas

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Revision handout Key terms

Make sure that you understand the key terms and can explain them in your own words. Below is a list of key terms for this unit, with their Coursebook page numbers. Respondent 20 Response rate 20 Sampling frame 15 Sampling methods (random/snowballing/quota/ stratified) 16, 17 Secondary data 38 Self-completion questionnaires 20 Semi-structured interview 24 Social survey 19 Structuralism 7 Structured interview 21 Subjectivity 27 Survey population 15 Telephone questionnaires 21 Trend 38 Triangulation 35 Unstructured interview 24 Validity 23

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Interviewer effect 27 Laboratory experiments 27 Longitudinal survey 30 Macro/micro approaches 7 Non-participant observation 34 Objectivity 12 Official/non-official statistics 38 Open/closed/pre-coded questions 20 Overt participant observation 32 Perspectives 9 Pilot study 15 Positivism 12 Postal questionnaires 20 Primary data 38 Qualitative data/research 20 Quantitative data/research 12 Questionnaires 19 Reliability 23 Representativeness 36

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Bias 12 Case study 29 Causation 8 Comparative study 39 Conflict 9 Consensus 9 Content analysis 34 Correlation 8 Covert participant observation 32 Ethical issues 18 Field experiments 28 Focus group 24 Generalisability 16 Group interview 24 Hawthorne/Observer Effect 28 Historical documents 42 Hypothesis 14 Identity 8 Interpretivism 8 Interviewer bias 27

Key revision points

The main points that you need to cover in your revision are: ■

Structuralist approaches focus on social structures and institutions and how these influence how people behave; interpretivist approaches focus more on how individuals make sense of society.



Functionalism is a consensus theory.



Marxism and feminism are conflict theories.



Positivists and interpretivists have different approaches to carrying out research, with positivists preferring a more scientific and objective approach.



Each stage of the research process involves choices and decisions involving a range of practical, ethical and theoretical issues.



Sociologists use different types of research methods, including surveys, interviews and participant observation and experiments.



Other types of research include case studies, longitudinal studies and triangulation.



All methods and types of research have strengths and limitations.



Sociological methods and their findings can be evaluated in terms of their validity, reliability and representativeness.



Research can produce quantitative or qualitative data.



Sociologists also use both primary data and a range of secondary data, including official and unofficial statistics, documents such as diaries and letters, media and published sources.

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Revision handout

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Things that often cause confusion Some things that confuse students are:

Validity and reliability: Many students use these terms interchangeably, as if they had the same meaning. It is important that students understand the difference between the two terms.



Sampling methods: Only four sampling methods are on the syllabus: random, snowballing, quota and stratified. In wider reading, students may come across others, such as systematic, purposive and cluster sampling. It can be helpful to know these additional methods but questions will not be asked about them in examination.



Interpretivism: This term is similar in meaning to interactionism; students are now only expected to know the term ‘interpretivism’.



Representativeness and generalisability: Students sometimes do not appreciate the difference between these related terms. If a sample is representative of a wider population, then generalisations to that wider population can be made from it.



Strengths and limitations: When a question asks for these, your answer should be as specific as possible. For example, if a question asks for the strengths or limitations of covert participant observation, credit is unlikely to be given for points that apply to all participant observation (overt as well as covert). Being cheap and quick as strengths (or time consuming and expensive as limitations) are not usually good points to make, especially as students tend to apply these indiscriminately to all methods, without explanation.

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© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Revision handout

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Worksheet 1 Methods: key terms

Sociologists use a range of different terms when discussing the methods used to study society. Draw a line linking each of the methods below with its correct definition. the extent to which a method gives consistent and repeatable results

Interpretivism

the extent to which a research method represents the social phenomenon it claims to measure

Reliability

when two variables are related to each other

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Positivism

how a researcher may influence the behaviour of respondents

Validity

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Generalisability

using several methods to check the findings

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Response rate

this is carried out at intervals over a long period

Triangulation

the view that the social world is very different from the natural world, and should be studied using non-scientific methods

Correlation

the view that the social world is made up of facts which can be studied in a scientific way

Sampling frame

the proportion of survey forms that are returned to the researcher

Longitudinal survey

carrying out a small-scale test of a research tool such as a questionnaire

Hawthorne/Observer Effect

whether the results of research can be said to apply to a wider group than those directly taking part

Pilot study

a list of people from whom a sample is chosen

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Worksheets and Answers

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Worksheet 2 Theory and methods A to Z

The missing words each start with the letter given. Sometimes when there is no word beginning with that letter, it is elsewhere in the word, but the first letter is given to help you. A

Respondents are this if their identities are not known

B

When the respondent is not neutral

C

Observation is this if those studied are unaware of the observation

D

A variable that is changed (causally influenced) by another variable

E

These issues are about what is acceptable g

F

An interview with several people at the same time When findings about a sample can be applied to a larger group of people sharing the same characteristics

H

A statement which research sets out to prove or disprove

I

Perspective that argues against using scientific methods

PL

E

G

Rosenthal’s partner in the Pygmalion in the Classroom experiment

J

Marx’s first name

K

Can be studied using content analysis

M (R)

O P

SA M

A controlled environment in which an experiment can be carried out

L

N

A sampling method in which all in the sampling frame have an equal chance of being selected. (N is the third letter.) When the researcher watches people’s behaviour

A small-scale trial of a research tool A standardised list of questions

Q R

r

The proportion of distributed surveys which are completed and returned (two words)

S

A sample is this if the sampling frame is sorted by characteristics such as age

T

A survey can be carried out at a distance using this

U

An interview without a set list of questions

V

The extent to which the findings accurately reflect reality

(I)

W

Can be structured or unstructured. (W is the last letter.)

(E)X

Seen as the most positivist of methods. (X is the second letter.)

(S)Y

A sampling method selecting every nth person on a list

(M)

Z

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Content analysis may be used to study the content of this

Unit 1: Worksheets and Answers

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Worksheet 3 Case study: Eileen Barker – triangulation

Barker studied a religious sect, the Unification Church, popularly known as ‘Moonies’. This Church had received some bad publicity in the news media, being accused of recruiting students by ‘brainwashing’ them. The Church invited Barker, a sociologist of religion, to come and research the Church. They hoped the research report would reveal that it was not the sinister sect portrayed in the media. Barker used a variety of different methods to collect as much information as she could about how the Church was organised and how this affected the day-to-day lives of its members. She lived with a community of Moonies, sharing in their everyday lives. Although senior Moonies knew who she was, most people assumed she was a new member; she did not tell them she was not a member. She found that helping with washing up dishes was a good way of overhearing people talk about life as a Moonie, and after a while she felt able to ask questions. She interviewed people in depth, and also interviewed some ex-Moonies about why they had left. She used the interview findings to develop hypotheses which she tried to test in a questionnaire sent to all members of the Church in the UK; the response rate was high because the Church leaders told members to complete it. Barker concluded that the Church did not ‘brainwash’ new members. What three methods did Barker use?

2

Why was it useful to use different methods?

3

How was Barker able to gain access to do this research? How could the research have been done if she could not get access in this way? What problems would there be?

SA M

PL

E

1

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Worksheets and Answers

3

Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

How is being neutral a problem in research like this?

5

Why do you think Barker did not ask questions straight away?

SA M

Unit 1 worksheet 3 case study

PL

E

4

The source of information for the case study in the worksheet is: Barker, E. (1984), The Making of a Moonie, Blackwell, Oxford.

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Unit 1: Worksheets and Answers

4

Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Theory and Methods Answers to worksheets Worksheet 1 the view that the social world is made up of facts which can be studied in a scientific way

Interpretivism

the view that the social world is very different from the natural world, and should be studied using non-scientific methods

Reliability

the extent to which a method gives consistent and repeatable results

Generalisability

whether the results of research can be said to apply to a wider group than those directly taking part

Validity

the extent to which a research method represents the social phenomenon it claims to measure

Response rate

the proportion of survey forms that are returned to the researcher

Triangulation

using several methods to check the findings

Correlation

when two variables are related to each other

Sampling frame

a list of people from whom a sample is chosen

Longitudinal survey

this is carried out at intervals over a long period

Hawthorne/Observer Effect

how a researcher may influence the behaviour of respondents

PL

SA M

Pilot study

E

Positivism

carrying out a small-scale test of a research tool such as a questionnaire

Worksheet 2

Anonymity Biased Covert Dependent Ethical (issues) Focus group Generalisability Hypothesis Interpretivism

Jacobson Karl Laboratory Media (accept mass media or magazines) Random Observation Pilot Questionnaire Response rate

Stratified Telephone Unstructured Validity Interview Experiment Systematic Magazine

Worksheet 3

Participant observation, questionnaires and unstructured interviews. Using three different methods (methodological pluralism) means that the researcher can get more data and answer different questions. The data can also be used to check validity; findings from different methods may corroborate (support and confirm) each other or there may be contradictions which suggest that one set of answers is invalid. Findings from one method can also be used to develop ideas that can be tested using another method; Barker used interview findings to help her develop hypotheses to test in a survey. 3 Barker was only able to gain access because she was invited to do the research by the Unification Church. Without this, she would not have been able to live with Moonies, or be able to contact all the members for a survey. She would probably have been able to find some ex-members. Without permission, she would have had to carry out covert participant observation which would be unethical and very demanding in terms 1 2

© Cambridge University Press 2014 Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Unit 1: Worksheets and Answers

5

Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

SA M

PL

E

of maintaining a cover. Barker would have had to behave at all times as a believing Moonie. Making notes without arousing suspicion would have been difficult, as would leaving the research situation. 4 Barker had an initial problem in that the Unification Church invited her to research. She would therefore have to insist that she be given access to all areas of Moonie life. Without this, her research would be compromised; she might not be able to give a full account and could be accused of allowing herself to be used by the Moonies to present a misleadingly positive account. She would also face a problem when carrying out her participant observation because, living with the Moonies, she would not have access to other ideas and might find herself ‘going native’ – accepting Moonie ideas and becoming a Moonie herself. Even if this did not happen, she would, as usually happens in participant observation, become so close to the Moonies that she would see things from their perspective and so it can be questioned whether her account is unbiased. 5 Because at first she was a stranger, and also she would not know what to ask. After listening in for a while, she would be able to ask meaningful questions.

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Unit 1: Worksheets and Answers

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Cambridge IGCSE Sociology

Paper 1 exam-style questions Answer Question 1 and one question from Sections B and C. Disclaimer: Please note that this exam practice material has not been produced by Cambridge International Examinations and it should not be assumed that Cambridge examinations will follow this exact pattern.

Section A: Theory and Methods Question 1 To research whether the number of people in poverty in the UK was being reduced, Palmer, MacInnes and Kenway used data from a wide range of official statistics and government-funded surveys. These covered the whole population, so there was not a problem with representativeness. They used information about home ownership, income, pensions and child poverty over a period of eight years. They found that there had been progress in reducing poverty but this had not been enough for the government to reach the targets it had set itself.

E

c d e f g

Explain what is meant by ‘representativeness’. [2] Identify two types of secondary data other than official statistics. [2] Describe two reasons why sociologists use official statistics. [4] Describe two limitations of using postal questionnaires in sociological research. [4] Describe two strengths and two limitations of covert participant observation. [8] Explain why positivists see the use of experiments as a good research method in sociology. [10] To what extent do qualitative methods lack reliability? [15] Total marks available 45

PL

a b

Section B: Culture, Identity and Socialisation

SA M

Question 2 Most people conform to the norms of their culture most of the time. When they do not conform, the society may use formal or informal social control to regulate their behaviour. A wide range of rewards and sanctions can be applied. Norms can vary between age groups; for example, the behaviour expected of an older person is not the same as that for a teenager. What is meant by the term ‘informal social control’? [2] Describe two sanctions that can be applied to those who break norms in schools. [4] c Explain how rewards and sanctions are different in modern industrial societies compared to traditional societies. [6] d Explain why age can be described as ‘socially constructed’. [8] e To what extent does gender influence social identity? [15] Total marks available 35 a b

Section C: Social Inequality Question 3 Gender is an important form of stratification in all societies. Although women are often said to have become more equal to men in modern industrial societies, they still face disadvantages. Women do not earn as much on average as men, and many women experience the ‘glass ceiling’ as they approach the higher levels in their employment. a b c d e

What is meant by the term ‘glass ceiling’? [2] Describe two reasons why women may find it difficult to break through the ‘glass ceiling’. [4] Explain what measures governments can take to reduce gender inequality. [6] Explain why working-class people may find it difficult to move into the middle class. [8] To what extent does social class decide life chances? [15] Total marks available 35

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