IGCSE Revision notes for History subject, Cold War, World War II...
Great Leap Forward (1958—1961) Aims of the GLF: 1. Make China an industrial equal to the west 2. Strengthen bonds between people and the gov’t
Impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966—1976) Social
• • Summary: • People’s communes were set up. Everyone was involved in the production of steel, the • aim was to produce as much steel as possible. The steel produced was useless. When heated they cracked and leaked. “Everything made from iron and steel taken from every family was made useless.” Shows the peoples’ devotion to Mao -> “ living god” • Whilst people were producing steel agricultural output fell and the people were setting • impossible targets this lead to inflated figures and the gov’t took grain based on false figures the people had no food and suffered from starvation. How did the GLF affect China? 1. Starvation -> deaths (Officials demanded more grain than the peasants could give) 2. Famine (1959-62 over 20 million died in famine) [“Mao’s revolution fought to give the people a better life, but it helped create the largest famine in history” - DVD “Mao Years” Zoe Williams] 3. End of 1959 Mao steps down as head of state. Why did Mao launch the CR? 1. Power Struggle: felt he lost control of CCP 2. Permanent Revolution to achieve “Communist Utopia” 3. Accused Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping of going down the “capitalist road” 4. Communism and Revisionism (Moderates and Radicals) 5. Achieve revolutionary immortality -> wanted to save the revolution for the next generation Summary: Mao encouraged the Red Guards to attack party officials and replace them with “true revolutionaries.” Young people felt it was their job to “give [their] blood and life to Chairman Mao.” (Quote from student during the CR “ as long as we were doing what Mao said, we were doing the right thing.” ) Universities were closed. Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi was demoted in the party. Attack the ‘four olds’ was also another campaign aimed to eliminate old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits. RG looted people’s homes and destroyed and attacked people which were considered to be “Capitalist” or “Bourgeois.” CR entered a new stage 1967 factional warfare -> “rebels” and Red Guard clashed over local power and ideology. Foreign embassies were invaded and destroyed. In addition intellectuals were forced to do manual labour such as “cleaning toilets” and faced physical abuse.
Re-education of city youths Political education University exams ‘cultural tests’ ‘Five Loves’ (CCP, PLA, Chinese people, motherland, “and love our great Chairman Mao” Loyalty dance Schools held ‘criticism meetings’ CR blamed on Jiang Qing
“the Cultural Revolution set us back twenty years” Professor during the CR
• Crippled the economy • Industrial output fell 12%
• Radicals came to power • China isolated from world
• Profit motive condemned
• 1972 Nixon visits Beijing
“Capitalist” ““Chaos on a grand scale” “Mao Years” DVD Zoe Williams “utter chaos and all out civil war” - Mao
“The violence Mao had unleashed had spiraled beyond his control” DVD “Mao Years” Zoe Williams “to rebel is justified” - Mao
After Mao’s Death Under Deng Xiaoping, economic growth rapidly increased. Transformed from a planned economy to a free market economy as Deng believed “to get rich is glorious.” ‘Special Economic Zones’ and the Shanghai stock exchange was set up to encourage foreign trade as well as improved national relations. (Free Market Economy = inequality) People have more freedom and China has adopted many western influences. Schools now have a dual education system which consists of traditional and international courses. However the ‘one-child policy’ has increased the rate of child infanticide and abortion in China in contrast to Mao’s Marriage Law of 1960 which made women feel liberated. Politically there has not been much change as China is still a one party state and the government has immense control over the people although the people have more freedom now then they did during Mao’s China.
Gang of Four (Radicals): Jiang Qing (Mao’s Wife) “[Liu Shaoqi] should be put to death with 1000 cuts” Zhang Chunqiao Yao Wenyuan Wang Hongwen
The Gang of Four was blamed for the Cultural Revolution, they were arrested and went on trial. Jiang Qing was mainly blamed. The “chaos of the Cultural Revolution was due to Jiang Qing, Mao Overall the people have been better off should divorce her.” They went on trial and after Mao’s death in terms of socially claimed they were following Mao’s orders. “I was and economically as the people are Mao’s dog; I bite whom he said to bite” - Jiang allowed to become rich. Whilst politiQing. They were given long sentences and soon cally there has not been much imlater Jiang Qing committed suicide in prison. provement since Mao’s death.
League of Nations Aims: Discourage aggression from any nation Encourage countries to co-operate, especially in business and trade Encourage nations to disarm Improve the living and working conditions of people all over the world Structure of the League: Council: All members had to agree on a decision Permanent members had a veto they could stop the Council acting even if all other members agreed on the decision. Court of Justice: could only give advice to countries during disputes but had no power to make countries follow its rulings. Health Committee: Later was known as the World Health Organization and worked hard to defeat the disease leprosy. Started a global campaign to exterminate mosquitoes this reduced cases of malaria and yellow fever. Labour Committee: Was successful as 400,000 prisoners were able to return to their home country due to the league’s help. When the refugee crisis hit Turkey the league was quick to act and defeated cholera, small pox and other diseases in the camps. Failure of League in the 1930s: Depression - Countries turned to “Protectionism” / “Economic Nationalism” - Lead to Japanese Invasion of Manchuria - Abyssinian Crisis - Rearmament of Germany Manchurian Crisis 1931—1933 Problem: Japan invaded Manchuria Response: Long delay, no action was taken (Japan was a member of the LON, but then left in 1931 -> Effect: Made League seem weak and ineffective Disarmament Conference 1932—1934 Problem: Germany was the only country which had to disarm Response: Other countries were unwilling to disarm to the same level as Germany Effect: Germany left the League and began to rearm openly in 1935. League members did not try to stop them. Abyssinia Crisis 1934—1936 Problem: Italy invaded Abyssinia
Response: League members could not agree effective sanctions against Italy. Britain and France made a secret pact to give Italy most of Abyssinia. The League condemned Italy. Effect: League was seen as powerless and irrelevant Why did the League Fail? 1. Self interest of leading members (Protectionism) Countries were not willing to abandon their self interest to support the league. 2. America and important countries absent Without major powers the league lacked authority and sanctions were ineffective 3. Economic sanctions did not work Members were not willing to impose them, but when imposed they were easily broken 4. Treaties were seen as unfair Peace treaties were harsh and unjust and needed amending 5. Decisions were slow All members had to agree on the course of action 6. Lack of troops LON had no armed forces and relied on its members however members were not willing to commit troops. How successful was the League of Nations in the 1920s? Vilna 1920: League did nothing. Poland kept Vilna -> unsuccessful Upper Silesia 1921: Both Germany and Poland wanted control, LON organized a Plebiscite for the Silesians, both countries accepted the decision. -> successful Aaland Islands 1921: Both Sweden and Finland wanted control. Sweden accepted the League’s ruling and war was avoided. -> successful Corfu 1923: Italy convinced countries to change the League’s ruling as a result Greeks had to apologize and pay compensations to Italy. -> unsuccessful