Igcse and Gcse Tourism
IGCSE and GCSE Tourism Specification: 3.3 Leisure activities and tourism Candidates should be able to: • Describe and explain the growth of leisure facilities and tourism in relation to the main attractions of the physical and human landscape in an area or areas selected for study. • Demonstrate an understanding that the effects of a growth in tourism are generally positive and that careful management is needed if problems are to be avoided. Reference could be made to advantages accruing from tourism such as growth in income, an increase in foreign exchange, employment opportunities, the development of infrastructure and facilities which may be used by the local population, the encouragement of other developments to take place in an area, cultural advantages, etc. Disadvantages might include seasonal unemployment, under-use of facilities at certain times of the year, increased congestion, pollution, a shortage of services e.g. water supplies, social/cultural problems, damage to the physical landscape, etc. A selected sample study should be used to illustrate both the benefits and disadvantages associated with the growth of tourism. Leisure: Any freely chosen activity that takes place in non-work time (IB definition). Tourism: The business or industry of providing information, accommodations, transportation, and other services to tourists. Domestic Tourist: Someone who goes on holiday in the country that they are resident in (live in). International Tourist: Someone who goes on holiday to a country they are not resident in e.g. they live in El Salvador but go to the US for holiday. Resort: A type of large hotel that offers extra facilities like swimming pools, spas, restaurants, bars, activities, etc. Package Holiday: This is when all aspects of a holiday e.g. flights, hotel, transfers, etc. are included in one overall price. All-inclusive: A hotel or resort that includes everything e.g. food, activities and drink in one overall price. Low-cost or Budget Airline: Airlines that provide cheap flights by removing all add-ons as standard and charging people if they want then. For example if you want to check in at the airport or check a bag into the hold, reserve a seat or even eat food on the flight, you have to pay extra.
Growth of Tourism Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and is considered by many countries to be an important
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development strategy. Currently the majority of international tourists go to MEDCs, but many LEDCs are also seeing rapid growth in tourism. I will mention the growth in LEDC destinations a little later.
Reasons for Growth in Tourism
Leisure Time: Most workers now enjoy a two day weekend and in addition are entitled to several weeks holiday. This holiday time can be spent going on holiday. Paid Holiday: Not only do an increasing amount of workers receive holiday, they are also paid for it. This means that people do not lose their weekly income by going on holiday.UK workers get least paid leave - BBC article Income: More and more people are working in the secondary and tertiary sectors, where pay is generally higher. Also many more females are now working. This means that more people now have money to spend on holidays (higher disposable income). Transport: Air travel has become relatively cheaper and there are now more airports open for holiday flights. In addition road and rail networks have opened up new tourist destinations. Airbus and AirAsia announce record deal for 200 planes - BBC article Advertising: People are now bombarded by holiday adverts on the internet, television, radio, mobile phones, billboards, etc. This makes people more aware of holiday destinations and possibly more tempted to book them. Travel Programs: There are a huge amount of travel programs on television so people are able to view destinations that they have not heard of, tempting them to go. Tourist facilities: Tourist facilities have generally improved and increased in number. There are now many more hotels of all sizes and most have fairly standard services. Freedom: More people, especially women and the elderly are free to travel and go on holidays. In addition formerly closed countries like China now allow most of their citizens to travel. Range of holidays: There is now a much greater variety of holidays that can attract potential tourists e.g. golf holidays, diving holidays, walking holidays, cooking holidays. Ease of Booking: The internet has now made booking holidays much more straightforward. Also package holidays allow people to pay one price but have all aspects of their holiday paid for e.g. flights, hotels, etc. Credit Cards: More and more people now own credit cards which makes booking holidays and paying for things in a foreign country much easier. Passport Ownership and Visa Regulations: More people now own passports so are able to travel and the process of obtaining visas is now much more straightforward. Retirement and Life Expectancy: People are now living longer and remain healthier longer. An increasing amount of people also retire with a pension. This means that more people are fit enough and healthier enough to go on holiday.
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Reasons for Growth in LEDCs
New Destinations: People are getting increasingly bored of traditional locations and want to experience new and exotic destinations. Exchange Rates: LEDCs often have weaker currencies making going on holiday to them a lot cheaper. Advertising/Ease of Booking: LEDCs now advertise themselves much better and it is easier to book these destinations online. Transport: Many countries have upgraded their transport infrastructure making travel to them easier. Security: Many LEDCs are now much more stable with less security worries so more people are prepared to go on holiday to them. Although the graph above shows that international tourism is generally increasing (with maybe the exception of 2007) regions can suffer temporary or even permanent declines. A region may experience a decline because of:
Terrorism e.g. Bali bombing or Mumbai terror attacks Crime e.g. Mexico or even El Salvador Natural disasters e.g. tsunami in Indian Ocean or hurricanes in the Caribbean Economic downturn e.g. recessions and debt crisis in Europe War e.g. Afghanistan Also some destinations may become run down or people simply get bored of going to the same location. The table above shows that France is the number one destination for international tourists. France is popular because:
It is surrounded by MEDCs e.g. Germany, Belgium, UK, Italy and Spain It has an excellent transport network It has developed tourists facilities e.g. hotels and tour agencies It has many historical attractions e.g. Eiffel Tower and Carcassonne It is famous for its food and wine It has good weather in the south nearly all year It attracts many different holiday makers e.g. skiers, beach lovers, surfers and rafters. China is currently only 8th on the list, but it probably already has the most domestic tourists and in the future will probably attract many more international tourists. Although tourism is seen as a development strategy by many countries, it does not solely create advantages, but can also create some disadvantages:
ADVANTAGES Local people can perform
DISADVANTAGES An increase in tourists may
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traditional dance and music to tourists therefore protecting their local culture. Tourists may pay to visit museums protecting local artifacts. Historical ruins may be protected or rebuilt to attract tourists. May improve countries reputation and create cross-cultural links. Encourages education in order to work in tourist sector and should improve linguistic skills Jobs are created for local workers in hotels, restaurants, etc. Secondary jobs are also created in shops, maintenance firms, etc. Workers and companies pay taxes to the government. This money can then be invested. People learn new skills that can then be transferred to other parts of the economy. New equipment or technology may be introduced to the country which again can be used in other sectors of the economy. Local infrastructure like roads and electricity may be improved. National Parks may be created protecting areas of natural beauty Animals obtain an economic value if people are willing to pay to see
cause greater congestion, leading to longer periods spent away from families. Also increased transport may increase problems of asthma and traffic accidents. Tourism can increase certain crimes, like prostitution and theft People may become more materialistic and homogenised with the arrival of international tourists. May create racial tensions between tourists and locals Many of managerial jobs go to overseas workers. Local workers often get low paid jobs There is economic leakage (loss of money overseas) because many of the tourist companies are TNCs and the profit is sent elsewhere Many jobs are only seasonal so workers are only paid half of the year e.g. the ski season is less than 6 months long. The increased demand for products and services may cause inflation Countries or regions may become dependent on just one industry. May place pressure on infrastructure e.g. electricity and water supply Sometimes tourist developments may cause the destruction of forests, sand dunes, etc. Noise and light pollution created by tourist
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them. If the value of the animal is greater alive than dead people will protect them. One good example of this is Mountain Gorillas which tourists will pay $500 to see.
developments may also interfere with animals.
Butler's Product Cycle The Butler's model attempts to show the cycle that all products go through from them being launched to them flourishing or being discontinued. People have applied the Butler's model to tourist destinations. The models shows that products or destinations go through six stages. The six stages are: Exploration: A newly discovered tourist location that only receives a very small amount of tourists. Involvement: An area that becomes better known. Tourism is supported by the local population and they start to build basic tourist infrastructure. Development: Tourism becomes an important sector of the economy. There is more investment from foreign tour firms. Infrastructure becomes developed. Consolidation: Growth continues with resources diverted to the tourism sector. Areas may change to the exclusive use of tourists, possibly alienating locals. Stagnation: There is increased opposition to tourism, tourist facilities may become tired and the number of tourist arrival plateaus or even declines. Rejuvenation: A tourist destination rebrands itself or improves tourist facilities, offers promotions or improves transportation. Decline: No improvements are made to the tourist destination and the number of tourists continues to declines. The document below shows how the Spanish resort region of Costa del Sol has more or less followed Butler's product cycle.
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Costa de Sol - Butler's Model.docx
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Primary Tourist Resource: Pre-existing attractions that were not specifically built for the tourism industry e.g. churches, beaches, mountains, museums. Secondary Tourist Resource: Facilities that are built specifically for the tourist industry e.g. hotels, restaurants, museums. Human Attraction: An attraction that has been built or made by humans e.g. castles, churches, museums. Physical Attraction: Natural attractions e.g. rivers, mountains, beaches or even the weather.
El Salvador Case Study El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America. Its capital city is San Salvador. It has a population of just over 6 million and a GDP per capita of about $7,500. El Salvador has a long pacific coast, ideal for surfing. Inland there is a chain of active volcanoes followed by mountainous areas along the Honduran border. El Salvador's tourism industry has grown dynamically over recent years as the Salvadoran government focuses on developing this sector. Last year tourism accounted for 4.6% of GDP; only 10 years ago, it accounted for 0.4%. In this same year tourism grew 4.5% worldwide. Comparatively, El Salvador saw an increase of 8.97%, from 1.15 million to 1.27 million tourists. This has led to revenue from tourism growing 35.9% from $634 million to $862 million. As a reference point, in 1996 tourism revenue was $44.2 million. Also, there has been an even greater increase in the number of excursionists (visits that do not include an overnight stay). 222,000 excursionists visited El Salvador in
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2006, a 24% increase over the previous year. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Salvador)
HUMAN ATTRACTIONS The Orange Route San Salvador Cathedral Suchitoto and Ataco (colonial towns) The Flower Route Mayan attractions e.g. Tuzamal, Casa Blanca La Palma Perquin and El Mozote (war memorials) Joya de Ceren (the Pompeii of Central America)
ADVANTAGES OF TOURISM Create jobs directly and indirectly e.g. Decameron resort Improves the image and reputation of the country (important after the civil war) Tourist companies and local pay taxes to the government Attracts foreign investment e.g. Intercontinental and Hilton hotels Improved road signage Improved language skills, especially English catering for US tourists Diversification of the economy Increased protection of national parks and biodiversity
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIONS Lago de Ilopango Lago de Coatepeque El Impossible National Park Volcanoes (Santa Ana, San Miguel, Izalco, San Vicente, etc.) Pacific coast El Pital mountain Montecristo Forest
DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM Crime - theft of tourists, but also extortion of tourist companies. Increased congestion on roads Inflation in tourist areas Privatisation of some beaches Air and noise pollution from increased amount of flights and tourist resorts Money diverted into tourism from other services.
National Park: An area of land and water that is protected by law. Areas are normally made national parks because of their natural beauty and/or biodiversity. Honeypot: A location that attracts a large amount of tourists. Second homes: A house that is not a person's main residence. A person's second home is normally their holiday home. Rural depopulation: The movement of people out of the countryside. Service decline: The reduction in the amount of services provided e.g. closure of bus routes, post offices, etc.
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The Peak District National Park The Peak District National Park is an upland area located in Central England. It became the UK's first National Park in 1951. The Peak District covers an area of 1,440 km2. The Peak District is the world's second most visited National Park after Mount Fuji National Park in Japan. The Peak District is visited so much because it is surrounded by many large urban populations e.g. Sheffield, Derby, Stoke, Manchester and Nottingham. The Peak District has numerous human and physical attractions. Attractions include: Human Attractions
Chatsworth Hose Peveril Castle Castleton (beautiful rural village) Bakewell (beautiful rural village and home of a local delicacy - Bakewell tart) Reservoirs (including Ladybower) Physical Attractions
Natural moorland environment, including the parks highest peak (Kinder scout) Limestone feature e.g. Dovedale Valley Rivers e.g Dove Cave networks e.g. Blue John Cavern (some networks have been enlarged by mining) The Roaches (limestone cliff face that attracts climbers) Natural springs at Buxton
Problems caused by Tourism in Peak District The Peak District's roads are small and have become heavily congested. Some tourists drop littering which is unsightly and can harm animals Many tourists do not stay on the footpaths
Benefits of Tourism in Peak District Job creation (it is estimated tourism creates 14,200 jobs in the Peak District Income (it is estimated tourism generates over $600 million in income) Improved infrastructure (roads, electricity)
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causing erosion either side of the path and Improved facilities e.g. restaurants, golf damaging crops courses, etc. Some tourists leave farm gates open allowing Protection of historical landmarks e.g. animals to escape. Peveril Castle A lot of the employment is only seasonal Protection of natural beauty Many tourists have purchased second homes. Improved reputation and image This means many houses are vacant for long periods leading to rural depopulation and service decline. Tourists create air, noise and water pollution The large demand from tourists has caused local inflation (increase in prices) Because tourism bring advantages and disadvantages, many people disagree over how the land should be used. You can look at these disagreements by completing a conflict matrix. If you think a group will agree on how to use the land you can put a tick, if you think that they will disagree you can put a cross.
National Park Conflict Matrix.docx
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A number of solutions have been suggested in the Peak District to try and reduce the impacts of tourism. The suggested solutions include:
A charge to be placed on people entering the national park (entrance fee) A quota on the number of people visiting the national park e.g. 10,000 a day. Improved footpaths and improved footpath signs Increased fines for people littering and more bins. Improved public transport, especially park and rides so people leave their cars outside the national park A redistribution of tourists. Advertise different sites with in the park better so people are spread out more evenly. However, a lot of these solutions are hard to implement because the Peak District National Park is a working park. This means people live and work within the park so any restrictions on movement or charges will be difficult to enforce. Sustainable tourism: Tourist activities that are socially, environmentally and economically sustainable.
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Ecotourism: Holidays that involve eco-related activities and are sustainable e.g. hiking, bird-watching, horse riding, etc. Ecological Footprint: This is a measure of your demand on the earth's resources. Global Footprint Network
Tambopata Ecolodge The Tambopata National Reserve (TNR) and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park join to create an area of sub-tropical rainforest covering 3,000,000 acres. The original Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone (TCRZ) was created by a ministerial resolution in 1990. Both reserves are located in the Amazon rainforest in south east Peru. Founded back in 1991, the Tambopata Eco Lodge is one of the most established eco-tourism lodges on the banks of the Tambopata River. With a capacity of only 59, it is one of the smallest lodges in the reserve. The lodge employs about 20 local Peruvians. All buildings are made from local materials, wood and thatch. There is no mains electricity, all rooms are lit by candlelight. However, some buildings are now powered by solar energy. Local Peruvian food is served in the dining room using local products. All transportation is by boat and the local guides aim to educate all guests about the importance of protecting the local flora and fauna. Tambopata Ecolodge
Typical Ecotourism Activities Hiking Kayaking Bird watching Safari (animal watching) Cycling
How Ecotourist Resorts Can Be Eco-friendly Use renewable energy sources e.g. wind and solar Build using only local products Serve only local food, using locally sourced products
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Beach cleaning Tree planting Completing bird and animal surveys
Employ only local staff Recycle all waste Treat and clean all water Educate guests about the importance of protecting the environment Promote local culture Despite the aims of ecotourism caring for the environment and the local culture and environment, it still has its critics. Critics argue that most tourists still travel long distances to reach ecotourist destinations, thus releasing large amounts of greenhouse gases when they fly. Critics also argue that the building of any lodges will cause the destruction of the natural habitat and disturb local flora and fauna. Also guests, however careful will create waste that needs to be disposed of.
Tourism tick sheet.doc
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