February 4, 2018 | Author: Abdelkader Fattouche | Category: Fires, Scaffolding, Fuse (Electrical), Insulator (Electricity), Demolition
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Workplace Hazards And Risk Control Health & Safety Effects Of Inadequate Lighting:     

Eye Strain Headaches Poor Posture Tripping Over Unseen Objects Increased Likelihood Of Error Increased Time To Evacuate

Factors To Consider In The Provision Of Adequate Lighting:         

The Task Being Undertaken The Layout And Size Of Work Area The Equipment Being Used Availability Of Natural Lighting Suitability Of Artificial Lighting The Shift Patterns Glare From Computer Screens Areas In Shadow Maintenance/Replacement Of Faulty Lighting Requirement For Emergency Lighting

Working In Hot Environment:Health Effects        

Skin Burns Dehydration Heat Exhaustion Heat Cramps Heat Cataracts Heat Strokes Heat Stress Radiant Heat Burns

Protective Measures   

Medical Pre-Selection Acclimatisation Cold Drinks

        

Mininise Exposure Shielding And Refuges Regular Work Breaks Ventilation Control Of Humidity Suitable Clothing Heat Surveillance Reducing Hot/Cold At Source Mechanical Aids

Working In A Cold Environment:Health Effects      

Onset Of Fatigue Shivering Loss Of Dexterity Cold Burns Frostbite Hypothermia

Precautions     

Thermal Clothing Reduced Exposure Monitoring Follow Safe Mechanisms Alarms For Cold Stores Workstations And Seating

The Health Effects Of Working In A Seated Position:  

Vertebral And Muscular Damage High Blood Pressure Circulation Problems E.G. Thermobasis

Suitable Seat For Sedentary Work:    

Good Lumber Support Ability To Adjust The Seat Back And Seat Height Provision Of Foot Rest Stability Of The Seat Base Swivel Ability

 

Provision Of Arms Rest Suitable Seat Material For The Environment

Welfare Requirements      

Sanitary Conveniences Washing Facilities Drinking Water Accomodation For Clothing Facilities For Changing Clothing Facilities For Eating Meals

Working Environment Factors That Can Cause Stress:       

Inadequate Lighting Cramped/Dirty/Untidy Conditions Poor Layout(Privacy/Security) Glare,Temperature/Humidity Inadequate Ventilation/Stale Air Noise,Viberation Inadequate Welfare Facilities Inclement Weather Conditions Violence At Work

Hse Definition:Any Incident In Which A Person Abused,Threatened Or Assulted In Circumstances Relating To Their Work. Areas Of Violence At Work 

Internal Violence:By Fellow Employees And This Can Involve Bullying.

External Violence:Physical,Verbal Aggressionand Assult By People Outside The Organisation.

Persons At Risk(Violence)    

Work Involving Direct Contact With Public(Hospitals/Shops) Work Where Money Or Valuables Stores Stressful And Emotive Circumstances Exist Retail Petrol And Late Night Shopping Mall And Other Similar Operations

 

Work With People Suffering Mental Impairments(Illness,Injury) Working Alone(Taxi Drivers,Police And Security Guards)

Preventing Measures:        

Queue Management And Information Less Face To Face Contact Use “Cashless Systems” I.E. Direct Debit Or Card Payment Check Credentials And Locations Avoid Lone Working In High Risk Areas Call In Systems For Lone Workers,Video Cameras,Alarms Arrangements For Staff Working Late And Employee Training Change Public Waiting Areas,Wider Counters Provide Staff With Escape Routes And Protective Screens/Security Codes

Signs Of Drug Misuse Which You Might Look For Include:        

Sudden Mood Changes Unusual Irritabilit Or Aggression A Tedenvcy To Become Confused Abnormal Fluctuactions In Concentration And Energy Impaired Job Performance Poor Time Keeping Increased Short Term Sickness Absence A Detrioration In Relationships With Collegues,Customers Or Management Dishonesty And Theft

Establing Drugs And Alcohol Policy At Work:       

All New Applicants Will Be Screened Random Testing Will Be Applied Automatically Test Will Apply To All Staff Testing Will Be Carried Out After Specific Incidents Training For Supervision To Recognise The Problem What Help The Employer Will Make Available To The Employee If An Employee Brings To The Attention Of The Employer They Have A Problem It Will Be Treated With Confidence What Are The Disciplinary Actions The Employer Will Take

Movement Of The People In Workplace: 

Falls From Height Falls On The Same Level

Factors Contributing To Slips,Trips:      

The Floor Surface:-Slippary Surface,Holes,Uneven Surface Etc. Contaminations:-Spillages,Leakes Obstructions:-Rubbish,Trailing Cables,Rugs Etc. The Task:-Carrying Loads,Space To Work Enironment:-Lighting Footwear:-Unsuitable Foot Wear The People:-Unaware Of The Dangers

Slips And Trips Precautions:      

Designated Walkways Where Possible Ensure Walkways Are Level Ensure Walkways Are Non Slip Well Lit And Clearly Marked Walk Ways Procedures To Identify Problems Quickly Eliminate Need To Carry Loads Make Employer Aware Of The Hazards

Employees Precautions To Avoid Slips:     

Follow Designated Walking Routes Wear Appropriate Footwear Avoid Walking On Uneven Surfaces Avoid Areas Where Spillages Have Occured Avoid Poorly Lit Areas Report Any Problems Immediately

Causes Of Slips On Stairs:     

Inadequate Design Poor Housekeeping Poor Lighting Slippary Surfaces Or Unsuitanle Footwear Damaged Flooring Or Coverings Manual Handling/Rushing

Action To Prevent Slips On Stairs:   

Adequate Width Of Walkways/Stairs And Handrails Fitted Remove Obstructions/Trailing Cables Improve Lighting Level And Install Emergency Lighting Non Slip Surfaces/Spillages Procedures/Covered Stairs

 

Maintenance/Repair And Report Defects Use Lifts For Loads/Site Rues Working At Height

Precautions:    

All Work At Height Is Properly Planned And Organised Those Involved In Work At Height Are Competent Work At Height Is Risk Assessed And Appropriate Work Equipment Is Selected Risk From Fragile Surfaces Are Properly Controlled Equipment Is Properly Inspected And Maintained Working At Height Hierarchy

  

Avoid Working At Height Wherever Possible Use Work Equipment Or Other Measures To Prevent Falls Where Working At Height Cannot Be Avoided Where The Risk Of Falls Cannot Be Eliminated Use Work Equipment Or Other Measures To Minimise The Distance And Consequences Of A Fall Should One Occur

Hazards To Pedestrains   

Struck By Moving,Falling Or Flying Objects Striking Against Fixed Or Stationary Objects Housekeeping Issues Housekeeping

A Place For Everything,Everything In Its Place. Hazards:       

Someone Could Trip Or Fall Increased Risk Of Fire Fire Exits Could Be Blocked There Is A Risk Of Infection Chemicals Are Being Used Infestation(That Allows Breeding Of Rats,Cockroaches Etc) Vehicle Collosions Falling Materials


Identify Housekeeping Requirements

   

Responsibilities For Housekeeping Resources For Good Housekeeping Train Staff In Use Of Equipment Regular Inspections

Controlmeasures For Pedestrain Hazards:      

The Floor Surface Contamination Obstructions The Task Environment Footwear The People

Construction-Effective Management:-

Management Of Significant Construction Project The Five Key Parties Are:1. 2. 3. 4.

The Client Consultants Designers The Principal Contractor

5. Other Contractors Client’s Duties:   

Appoint Competent Consultant Appoint Competent Designers Appoint Competent Principal Contractor Ensure Those Appointed Have Adequate Resources

Consultant’s Duties:    

Advise Client On Selection Of Designers,Contractors Etc Collect Pre-Construction Information Ensure Co-Operation Between Different Designers Give Advice To Clients And Contractors Provide Client With Relevent Documentation

Designer’s Duties:     

Ensure Clients Kept Informed Structures Designers To Avoid Risks To Health And Safety While Being Built And Maintained Ensure To Avoid Or Minimise Risks Provide Information About Materials Co-Operate With Other Designers Provide Information To Consultants

Principal Contractor’s Duties:      

Provide Information To Client And Consultant Consider Health And Safety When Preparing Tender Develop Safety Plan For Construction Co-Ordinate Activities Of All Contractors Ensure All On Site Company With Health And Safety Rules Take Steps To Ensure Only Authorised Persons On Site Provide Health And Safety Information To All Necessary

Sub-Contractor’s Duties:   

Must Co-Operate With Principal Contractor Provide Relevent Infotrmation To Principal Contractor Comply With Directions Given By Principal Contractors Should Provide Principal Contractor With Information On Accidents

Other Requirements (Client/Management)

    

Pre Construction Information Construction Phase Of The Project The Project File Site Precautions Additional Precautions For Children

Site Security:Precautions For Preventing Children To Gain Access Include:     

Fencing Hoardings Warning Signs Security Boards Visiting Schools Viewing Panels

Precautions To Be Taken Should Access Be Gained By Unauthorised Trespassers:      

Covering Or Fencing Excavations Removing Ladders Immobilising Plant/Machinery Locking Away Chemicals/Tools Reducing Height Of Materials Isolating Services Clearing Away Rubbish And Debris

Construction Hazards:             

Falls From Height Fragile Roofs Falling Objects,Slips,Trips Excavations Demolition Explosives Working In Or On Water Working In Tunnels Vehicles Traffic Movements Plant And Equipment Doors And Gates Lighting And Weather Stability Fire

Material Storage

Methods Of Demolition:1. 2.    3.     

By Hand By Machine Pusher Arm Demolition Ball Impact Hammer By Chemical Agent Demolition By Explosives Hydraulic Bursters Hot Cutting Expanding Demolition Agents High Pressure Water Jetting

Hazards Of Demolition:           

Falling Debris,Masonary Premature Collapse Of Building Falls From Height Or On Same Level Services E.G. Gas And Water Explosion And Fire Chemical Contamination E.G. Lead Dust,Silica Dust Asbestos Biological Hazards Manual Handling The Use Of Explosives Collision With Heavy Plant Noise E.G. Neumatic Drills,Power Tools

Safe System Of Work (Demolition):1.    2.     

Protection Of Public Restricted Areas Safe Distances Airbone Contamination Protection Of Workforce Sequence Of Demolition Permit Systems Existing/Temporary Services Flammables Segeration


Precautions During Demolition:        

Identification And Isolation Of Services Barriers,Fences Restricted Access Means Of Preventing Falls Means Of Suppressing Dust Identification/Removal Of Hazardous Substances Competent Staff-Clear Responsibilities Preventing Premature Collapse Sequence Of Demolition Followed Properly Maintained Equipment

Hazards Of Roof Work:       

Fragile Roof Materials Roof Edges Slippary Sloping Roof Surfaces Materials Falling From Roof Contact With Overhead Electricity Cables Hot Bitumen Liquified Patroleum Gases Manual Handling

Types Of Roofs:  

Pitched Roofs Flat Roofs Fragile Roofs Roof Work

  

Falling Off

Falling Through

No Edge Protection Slippary Surfaces Handling Materials

Fragile Materiaals No Crawling Boards

Pitched Roof Precautions:-

        

Carry Out Survey Safe Means Of Access Roof Edge Barriers Roof Ladders/Crawling Boards Facilities To Raise And Lower Materials Protection For Persons Below Provision Of Harness No Work In Severe Weather Competent Workers

Bitumen Flat Roof Precautions:  

Safe Use Of Bitumen Boilers Safe Use Of Burning Gases Training In Manual Handling

Fragile Roof Precautions:    

Crawl Boards Running Line And Safety Harness Barriers Or Covers To Roof Roof Edge Protection Covers To Roof Lights

Fall Arrest Equipment:    

Harness And Running Line Netting Safety Belt Fall Arrester Full Body Harness

Ladder’s Hazards:       

Over Reaching From Ladder Unsecured/Unstable Ladder Ladder Not Extended Above Step Off Point Using A Damaged/Worn Ladder Metal Ladder Contact With Electrical Cables Falling Material Being Carried Up Ladder Vehicle Collision With Base Of Ladder Manual Handling

Unsuitable Use Of Ladder:-

     

Don’t Use Maake Shift Ladder Don’t Use A Ladder Which Is Too Short Don’t Stand A Ladder On A Drum,Box Or Other Unsteady Base Don’t Overload A Ladder Over Reaching Don’t Use Ladders With Cracked Or Broken Rungs

Minimise Hazards Of Ladder Use:-(Preventions)                

Ladder Rested On A Firm Level Base Use Of Stabilization Devices Or Otherwise Footed Secure Ladder By Correct Angle 75* Or 1:4 Ratio Tied Off At Top Extend Suitable Distance Above Step Off Point (1 Metre Min) The Top Of The Ladder Against A Solid Surface Use Wooden Ladder Near Overhead Cables Provide Equipment Raise Materiaals Provide Holsters To Carry Loads Only One Person At One Time On A Ladder Rungs Should Be Clear Of Grease,Oil Or Other Slippary Substance Barriers Of Base And Display Warning Signs Use Of Ladder By Only Trained Users Assistance When Moving/Erecting Ladder Inspection And Maintenance Of Ladders Ladder Register

Step Ladder Precautions:         

Inspected For Defects Before Use Correctly Positioned On Even Ground Suitable For Task Footed If Necessary Avoid Over Reaching Not Overloaded Positioned On Even Ground No Work Carried Off Top Step Worker Maintains Three Point Contact Properly Errected And Legs Fully Extended

Tied Scaffold

 

Through Tie Reveal Tie

Scaffold Types And Spacings:Duty Very Light Duty

Use Of Platform Inspection,Painting,Stone Cleaning, Access Light Duty Plastering,Painting,Glazing,Pointing General Purpose General Building E.G. Brick Work Heavy Duty Block Work,Brick Work, Heavy Cladding Masonary Or Special Duty Masonary,Concrete,Block,Very Heavy Cladding Reasons For Scaffold Collapse:        

Wrong Materials Unstable Foundations Improperly Designed Improper Irection Overloading Modified Incorrectly Undermined By Excavations Hit By Machinery Excessive Winds/Rain

Inspection Of Scaffold:         

Base-Firm Ground And Sole Plates Line Of Standards And Ledger Spacing Of Transoms To Support Boards Boards Good Condition Guardrails And Toe Boards Bracing Means Of Access Ties-Number And Position Correct Couplers Joint Staggered

Scaffold Towers

Max. Bay 2.7m 2.4m 2.1m 2.0m 1.8m

Hazards     

Overturning Collapse Fall From Height Falling Objects Overhead Obstructions

Scaffold Tower Stability Affected By:     

Sheeted In Strong Winds Overload With Equipment Or Materials Used To Hoist Heavy Materials Or Support Rubbish Chutes Used For Operations Such Ass Grit Blasting Or Water Jetting Climbed From The Outside Used To Support Ladder

Precautions Scaffold Tower:         

Mobile Towers Only Be Used On Firm And Level Ground Towers Only Be Moved By Pulling Or Pushing At Base Working Platform Be Clear Of Men And Materials When Scaffold Is Being Moved Wheels Be Turned Outwards And Locked When Tower Being Used Correct Height To Width Ratio Diagonal Bracing Platform Must Be Fully Boarded With Guardrail And Toe Boards Not Overload Access Be On The Inside Of The Narrowest Side Inspected Every 7 Days

Mobile Elevating Working Platforms   Hazards     

Equipment Failure Unsuitable Ground Conditions Defective Or Unused Outriggers Overloaded Carrier Carrier Struck By A Slung Load

Mewp Struck By Another Vehicle

Precautions:        

Trained And Competent Guardrails And Toeboards Firm/Level Ground Not Overloaded Clear Of Overhead Obstructions Area Cordoned Off Outriggers Extended Procedures If Machine Fails Well Fit

Self Propelled Awp (Arial Work Platform)      

Will Pass Through Standard Door Ways 1.36 M Long 0.76 M Wide Turns 360* In 1.5 M Radius Max. Height 5.8 M Swl 227 Kg

Do Not (Awp)    

Work Close To Overhead Cbles Allow Arm To Portrude Into Traffic Route Move With Platform Raised Check Lomitations Suspended Access Equipment

Precautions:         

Regular Inspection Safe Working Load Competent Staff Safety Equipment Working Platform Edge Protection Guard Rails And Toe Boards Fitted Adverse Weather Rules Protected Electricity Supplies Communication Emergency Procedures

Excavation Hazards          

Collapse Of The Sides Over Running Of Vehicles Persons Falling Into The Excavation Materials Falling Into Excavations Underground Services Access And Egress Hahardous Atmospheres Undermining Adjacent Structures Flooding Buried Services Excavation Assessment

          

Soil Types And Conditions Existing Structures And Tools Underground Services Flooding Protection Of Public Depth-Support Surcharge Loads Access And Egress Lighting Experienced Operations Ppe

Precautions To Prevent Trench Collapse: 

Slope Or Bench The Sides Of The Excavations Support The Sides Of The Excavation,Or Place Ashield Between The Side Of The Excavation And The Work Area

Construction Health Hazards     

Noise Vibration Solvent And Cleaners Fumes And Radiation Biological Hazards Dusts: Saw Dust  Lead Dust

 

Silica Dust Asbestos Fibres

Cement:  

Irritant Dermatitis Allergic Dermatitis Skin Burns And Ulcers

Storage Of Materials    

Sand And Aggregate Bricks,Blocks,Rooftiles Roof Trusses Various Pipes

Hazards:    

Falling From Lorries Tripping Hazards Obstructing Traffic/Walkways Materials Falling From Piles Causing Dust Hazards

Precautions     

Minimum Quantities Effective Storing Low Or Possible Clearly Marked Areas Ensure Good Housekeeping

Storage Of Flammable Materials (Precautions)         

Keep Quantities To A Minimum Secure Storage Area Storage Area Properly Ventilated Containers And Cylinders Returned To Storage At End Of Day Prohibit Smoking And Other Ignition Sources From Storage Area Suitable And Properly Labelled Containers For Decanted Materials Protection Of Storage Area From Vehicle Impact Inspection Of Gas Cylinders To Ensure Valves Fully Closed Correct And Right Number Of Fire Extinguishers

Safe Practices For The Use,Collection And Removal Of Skips From Site:        

Suitable Skip From Reputable Supplier/Contractor Hazardous Waste Stored Separately Skip In Good Condition Skip Not Overloaded Located On Firm Level Ground Adequate Room For Delivery/Removal Chutes For Filling Netting Or Sheeting For Removal Ppe For Staff

Safe Use Of Portable Tools On Site:         

Ensuring Suitable Equipment Reduced Voltage 110 Volt Supply System Extra Low Voltage For Wet Locations Use Of Residual Current Devices (Rcds) Double Insulated Tools Battery Operated Tools Suitable Connections Pre-Use Inspections Inpection,Testing And Maintenance Competence Of Workers

Precautions For Electricity On Construction Site:  

Use Cat Scanner (Cable Detector Scanner Upto 3m) Use Of Crossing Parts Use Of Goal Posts Overhead Power Cables

The Minimum Recommended Safe Working Distance Is 6 Metres From The Nearst Part Of The Crane.If The Minimum Distance Cannot Be Maintained The Electricity Supply Should Be Disconnected. Overhead Electrical Services(Precautions):     

Isolation Of Power If Possible Safe Path Marked (Use Of Barriers,Fencing) Height Restrictions Marked By Goal Posts Working Notices Ban Equipment Cabable Of Reaching Overhead Lines Limiters Fitted To Cranes


Underground Services Controls:   

Planning The Work Locating The Services Identifying The Services Safe Digging Practices

Plid All Services Should Be Assumed Live Unless Proven Otherwise. Safe Digging Practice:      

Trial Holes Using Suitable Hand Tools Special When Digging Above Or Close To The Line Of A Service No Non-Held Power Tools Or Mechanical Excavators Close To Underground Services Excavtions Along Side The Service Rather Than Directly Above It Final Exposure By Horizontal Digging Using Hand Tools Shovels With Curved Edges/Gentle Foot Pressure Proprietary Air Digging Tools

Element-2 Transport Hazards And Risk Control Workplace Transport Accidents

Majority Involve:     

People/Vehicle Collision Collisions With Other Vehicles Falling From Vehicles Being Struck By Insecure Loads Vehicles Overturning Associated Activities,Battery Charging

Site Vehicles (Qualities)      

Suitable For The Environment Suitable For The Task Provided With Warning Aids Protection From Falling Materials Checked Daily Properly Maintained

Precautions When Organising Traffic Routes:            

Segeration If Possible Seperate Routes High Visibility Clothing Clearly Marked/Signed Routes Gangways Suitable Width And Clearance Speed Limits Adequate Lighting Clear Direction Signs And Door Marking Sharp Bends Avoided Good Floor Conditions/Gentle Gradients Sufficient Parking Avoid Reversing Alerting People To Hazards

Precautions When Pedestrains Working In Areas Where Vehicles Are Moving:      

Segregation Of Vehicles And Pedestrains Appropriate Road Markings Maintaining Good Visibility (Mirrors/Lighting) Audible Warning On Vehicles Drawing Up And Enforcement Of Site Rules Wearing Of High Visibility Clothing Good Standard Of Housekeeping

Training And Supervision

Reversing Of Vehicles:Avoid Reversing   

One-Way Systems Drive Through Systems Turning Circles

If Must Reverse        

Seperation Suitable Design Audible Alarms Mirrors Adequate Lighting Banksmen High Visibility Clothing Site Rules/Training

Driver Selection:       

Reliable And Mature Pre-Employement Medical Physically Fit Routine Medicles Licensed Trained And Competent Supervised And Monitored Given Refresher Training

Training Programme For Vehicle Drivers In Workplace:Should Include:       

Personal Responsibilities Safe Working Load Estimations Pre-Use Vehicle Inspection Suitable Maintenance Safe Parking And Security Speed Restrictions Safe Rules And Signs Floor Conditions

Vehicle Reversing

Vehicle Fuels Hazards:     

Petrol,Diesel,Lpg Hazards Flames Or Sparks Exhaust Fumes Including Carbon Monoxide Surface Temperature Of Exhaust System/Hot Surfaces Noise Manual Handling Of Lpg Cylinders

Battery Charging:Hazards    

Give Off Hydrogen Gas Electrical Short Circuits Corrsive Effect Of Acids Manual Handling

Precautions     

Ensure Good Ventilation No Sources Of Ignition/Smoking Suitable Ppe Insulated Tools Lifting Equipment

Long Distance Delivery Vehicles 1. 2. 3. 4.

The Job:-Duration Of Journey,Road Condition,Means Of Communication,Security The Driver:-Physical And Psychological Capabilities,Level Of Training The Vehicle:-Suitable For The Load,Design And Layout Of Cab,Maintenance The Load:-Properly Labelled If Hazardous,Spillages Procedures,Weight,Value

Fork Lift Truck Mounted Working Platform:     

Small As Possible Not To Carry More Than Two People Edge Protection Locked Gate Guard To Protect Against Moving Parts Safety Harness And Fitting Points

Reasons Of Fork Lift Truck’s Overturn:-

         

Travelling On Gradients Too Steep Travelling Towards When Descending Slopes Being Overloaded,Unevenly Loaded Or Carrying Unsuitable Loads Travelling On Soft/Uneven Ground Travelling Too Fast Especially Arround Corners Travelling Over Curbs,Steps Etc Poor Maintenance Of Trucks/Roads Poor Driving/Driver Training Not Suitable For The Task Carrying Loads At Dangerous Heights

Hazards To Drivers:        

Fumes (Diesel/Petrol) Fire/Explosion Collision With Building Manual Handling Falling Objects Noise Vibration Ergonomics Electrical Hazards

Pre-Use Check On Fork Lift Trucks:        

Condition And Pressure Of Tyres Functioning Of Lights,Horns,Brakes Warning Devices Working Suitable Mirrors Engine For Oil Leaks Water Leaks Seat Securely Fixed/Suitable Restraints Damage To Bodywork/Lifting Mechanisms Security Of Equipment Fitted I.E Lpg Tank

Parking Of Fork Lift Trucks:    

Designated Parking Area Applying Brakes Controls In Neutral Position Switch Off Engine Removing Key And Returning To Responsible Person

   

Forks Resting On Floor Mast Titled Slightly Forward Not Obstructing Walkways Not Obstructing Fire Exits/Fire Points

Examination Of Fork Lift Trucks:Fork Lift Trucks Should Be Inspected:    

Before Its First Use Daily By The Driver 12 Monthly Intervals (6 Months If Carrying Persons) By A Competent Person Comply With Schedule Circumstances That May Compromise Safety Of The Truck

Element-3 Fire Safety Fire Triangle Of Fire


Heat (Source Of Igniion)



Fuel (Starving)

Sources Of Ignition:         

Naked Flames Electricity (Overheating/Arcing) Smoking Materials Hot Work (Welding,Burning) Chemical Appliances (Hot Surfaces) Friction (Inadequate Lubrication) Static Electricity Lightning Improper Storage Of Flammable Materials Lack Of Supervision And Inspection

Harm To Persons From Fire:Main Effects    

Being Burnt Inhaling Toxic Fumes Effects Of Smoke Inhalation Deplemention Of Oxygen Supply

Other Effects  

Collapse Of Building Crush Or Other Injury Sustained While Escaping

Some Important Definitions:    

Flash Point Fire Point Auto-Ignition Temperature:-Temperature At Which Gasses Or Vapour Will Ignite Without Any External Source Of Ignition. Flammable:-Which Flash Point B/W 32 Degree Celcius And 55 Degree Celcius Highly Flammable:-Liquids With A Flash Point Below 32 Degree Celcius

Principle Causes Of Spread Of Fire:1)Conduction


Movement Of Heat

Movement Of Hotter Gasses Up

Through Materials 3)Radiation Transfer Of Heat Through The Air

Deliberate(Arson) Electrical Faults Misuse Of Electrical Equipment Smoke Materials Smoking In Prohibited Areas Loss Of Control Burning Rubbish Heating Equipment Unsafe Storage Of Materials Flammable Liquids/Gases Welding/Hot Work Mechanical Heat(Friction)

Classification Of Fires:     

4)Direct Burning Combustial Materials In Contact With Naked Flame

Causes Of Fire:          

Through The Air

A:-Combustible Solids B:-Flammable Liquids Or Liquified Solids C:-Flammable Gases D:-Flammable Metals F:-Combustible Cooking Media Fires Involving Electrical Equipment:-

Electrical Classified According To The Source Of Ignition Rather Than Fuel Source.

Class A B C D F Electrical

Types Of Extinguishers Water,Dry Powder, Co2, Foam Foam,Co2,Dry Powder Dry Powder,Water Mist,Foam Sand,Soda Ash,Talc The Foam Congeals On The Top Of The Oil Co2,Dry Powder

Minimising Risk Of Electrical Fire:         

Pre-Inspection By Users Suitability Of Equipment Inspection/Maintenance By Competent Person Avoid Misuse Of Equipment Prevent Overloading Of Circuit Correct Design And Rating For Task Isolate If Not In Use Improved Means Of Protection E.G. Rcd High Standards Of Housekeeping Staff Awareness Training

Fire Risks Assessment:1. Identify Hazards:- The Three Elements Of Fire Triangle. 2. Identify Who Could Be Harmed:- Persons At Risk Particularly The Disabled Etc. 3. Evaluate The Risk And Adequacy Of Precautions:- Considering Prevntion,Protection And Precautions. 4. Record Finding:- Prepare An Emergency Plan 5. Review:- If No Longer Valid.

Factors To Consider In Fire Risk Assessment:  

Construction And Use Of Building Flammable Materials Sources Of Ignition

       

Work Activities Generating Heat Methods Of Control Means Of Fire Detection Means Of Raising The Alarm Means Of Fighting Fire/Maintenance Of Equipment Evacuation Routes/Protection Of Routes Numbers Of Persons At Risk Pre-Prevention Trailing/Fire Drills.

Terms:  

Fire Prevention:-Control Measures To Reduce The Risk Of Fire. Fire Protection:-Structural Measures To Reduce The Risk Of Fire Spreading. Fire Precautions:-Measures Taken To Reduce The Risk In The Event Of Fire.

Fire Preventions:Aim To Keep The Three Sides Of The Fire Triangle Apart:           

Eliminate Or Reduce The Storage Of Flammable Materials Control Of Ignition Sources Control Smoking Materials Good Housekeeping Lubrication Of Machinery To Prevent Friction No Overloading Of Electrical Systems Ventilation Outlets Not Obstructed Controlling Hot Work With Permits Etc Proper Storage Of Flammable Materials Segeration Of Incompatible Chemicals Security To Prevent Arson Regular Inspection And Supervision

Storage Of Highly Combustible (Flammable) Liquids And Gases:        

Minimum Quantities Suitable Fixed Storage Tanks Keep Upright In Well Ventilated Area Clear Making Of Containers Clearly Marked Storage Area Spillage Controls Adequate Ventilation Suitable Fire Fighting Equipment Trained Competent Staff

Adequate Warning Signs

Fire Protection:Compartmentation:-Splitting A Building Into Separate Sealed Areas Made Of Fire-Resisting Materials. Restricts The Spread Of Fire And Smoke Within A Building Depends Upon:   

The Use Of The Building Building Height Floor Area Compartment Volume

Fire Resistant Materials:  1. 2. 3.

Primary Construction:-The Main Fabric Of The Building. Secondary Construction:-Internal Partitioning Bricks Concrete Structural Steel

Fire Precautions:    

Fire/Smoke Detection Fire Alarms Means Of Escape Means Of Fighting The Fire Emergency Evacuation Procedures

Fire Alarms:

Gongs,Bells Etc

-Break Glass Points 

Automatic Systems

-Continuous Detection -Alarm Sounding 

Call The Fire Brigade

-Indicate Location Of Fire -Trigger Extinguishers

Means Of EscapeDefinition) A Means Of Escape Is A Continuous Path Along Which A Person Can Travel From Wherever He/She May Be In The Building And Reach Safely By His Own Unaided Efforts. Suitability Of A Means Of Escape:      

Number Of Employees To Use It Any People With Special Needs Fire Resistance Of Structure Position/Number Of Escape Routes Contents Which Are Readily Ignitable Open Weels,Open Staircases Use Of Building

Means Of Escape-Main Requirements:            

Multiple Exits Fire Resistance Of Structure Adequate Size Of Numbers Travel Distance Clearly Marked Exits Emergency Lighting Exit Free Of Obstructions Final Exit Door Unblocked Openings Outwards Fire Smoke Doors Self Closing Fixed Stairs To Upper Floors Exit To Safe Place Suitable Assembly Point

Fixed Fire Fighting Equipment  

Hose Reel Sprinkler

Hose Reel:Permanently Connected To The Main Water Supply.Should Be Sitted In A Location Which Covers The Whole Area. Advantages: 

Inexpensive,Effective Harmless To Health

  

Unlimited Supply Of Water At Good Pressure Greater Force Than Sprinkler Operators Need Not To Be Too Close To The Fire

Disadvantages:    

Only Suitable For Class A Fires Poor Sitting May Cause Inadequate Coverage Hose Could Be Kinked Could Stop Fire Doors Closing May Create Trip Hazards

Automatic Sprinkler Systems:A Network Of Water Pipes With Spray Heads Normally At Ceiling Height Is Installed In Vulnerable Areas. Advantages:

Large Coverage Of Water To Prevent The Spread Of Fire In Large Open Plan Buildings Where Compartmentalisation Is Not Practical.

Disadvantages: 

Only Suiatable For Class A Fires Causes Damage To Equipment And Furnishings

Total Flooding Systems:

A High Concentration Of An Extinguishing Gas (Usually Co2) Is Automatically Dumped In An Enclosed Area.


Exxtinguishes Fire Without Causing Unnecessary Damage To Important Equipment Such As Electrical Equipment And Computer Rooms

Disadvantages: 

Harmful To Health System Must Be Disconnected When People Enter The Protected Area

Fire Extinguishers:1.   

Water:-Class A Lowers The Ignition Tempertature Prevents Re-Ignition Only To Be Used On Class A Fires

2.    3.   4.   

Foam:-Class B Excludes Oxygen-Blanket Effect Suitable For Class B Fires Aqueous Film Forming Foam Dry Powder:-Class A,B,C Powder Has A Smothering Effect But No Cooling Properties Can Be Used On All Types Of Fire Carbondioxid:-Class B,E High Pressure Cylinder Containing Liquified Co2 Liquid Vapourises In Contact With Air Safe To Use On Electrical Fires And Burning Liquids

Inspection And Maintenance Of Fire Extinguishers Inspection:Routine (Perhaps Monthly) Visual Check To Ensure Extinguishers Are Place,Not Been Discharged Or Damaged. Maintenance:Involves An Annual Examination By A Competent Person With The Removal And Replacement Of Equipment Found Faulty And The Date Af The Inspection Recorded.    

Daily Checks (Fire Warden) Weekly Inspection (Fire Warden) Annualy Serviced (Competent Person) Five Yearly Extended Service/Discharge

Sitting Of Fire Extinguishers:     

Accessibility Proximity To Exits/Escape Routes Visibility And Signage Locate Off Ground With Adequate Support Suitable Type Protection Against Damage And Weather

Emergency Evacuation Procedured:   

Means Of Raising The Alarm Contacting The Emergency Services Fire Evacuation Routes Fire Evacuation Signs

   

Who Are And The Role Of Fire Marshals Type Of Fire Extinguishers Not To Use Lifts Evacuation In An Orderly Fashion

Practice Drills:Practice Drills Should Be Undertaken To:    

Checking Alarm Can Be Heard Throughout The Premises Testing The Effectiveness Of Evacuation Procedure Familiarising Employees With The Alarms Etc Giving Fire Awards To Practice Their Roles Satisfy A Legal Requirement

Element-4 Electrical Safety Ohms Law:The Higher The Electrical Pressure (V) Or The Lower The Circuit Resistance (R),The Higher Is The Current That Flows In An Electric Circuit.

I=V/R I=Is Measured In Ams (A),Which Is The Electron Flow Or Current V=Is Measured In Voltas (V),Potential Difference Or Pressure R=The Resistance Is Measured In Ohms Electrical Power=Voltage*Current Main Dangers Of Electricity:1. Electric Shock:-Contact With Live Parts.  Direct Contact:Coming Into Contact With A Conductor That Is Supposed To Be Live. 

Indirect Contact:Coming Into Contact With A Conductor That Is Not Live In Normal Conditions But Has Become Live Due To A Fault.

2. Arcing 3. Fire And Explosion 4. Burns Severity Of Electric Shock:        

Current In Amperes Length Of Contact Time Path Through The Body Conductivity/Resistance Of The Body The Voltage Conductivity Of The Environment Nature Of The Current Nature Of Contact Age And Health Status Of Victim

If A Person Hass Received An Electric Shock:  

Don’t Touch Injured Person Until The Current Is Switched Off If The Current Cannot Be Switched Off,Stand On Some Dry Insulating Material And Use A Wooden Or Plastic Implement To Remove The Injured Person From The Electric Source Administer First-Aid If Qualified

Call Professional Help

Causes Of Electric Fire:        

Inadequate Circuits For The Current Overloaded Circuits Incorrect Fuses Damaged Wiring And Insulation Loose Connections Overheating Of Cables Overheating Due To Thermal Insulation Overheating Due To Lack Of Ventilation Flammable Materials Too Close To Electrical Equipment

Effects Of Electricity On Body:       

Damage To The Nervous System Fibrillation (Irregular Heartbeat) Tissue Burns At Entry And Exit Damage To Internal Organs Muscular Contractions Physical Trauma Stopping Breathing Stopping The Heart Secondary Effects:    

Falls From Height Unintentional Movement Of Machinery Failure Of Control Measures And Security Systems Corporate Reputation Throw Off

Electricity Protection Devices:       

Fuses Circuit Breaker Earthing Isolation Reduced Voltage Battery Operated Tools Residual Current Devices (Rcd) Double Insulation

Fuse:A Specialy Designed Weak Link Which Is Designed To Melt At A Predetermined Value Of Current. Advantages: 

Cheap And Rapidly Available Protects Equipment

Disadvantages:     

Will Not Protect Individuals Slow To Operate Inaccurate Unsuitable Or Wrong Fuse May Be Used Easy To Overwide Needs Tool To Replace

Circuit Breakers:Electromagnetic Devices Which Perform The Same Function As Fuses But Operate Faster. Advantages:   

Automatically Trip Under Fault Conditions No Tools Required To Reset Not Easy To Defeat Protects Equipment From Overload

Disadvantages: 

May Be Mistaken For An Rcd Do Not Protect The Individual

Earthing:Electricity Will Always Try To Reach Earth And Earthing Is Means Of Providing A Low Resistance Path To Earth. Advantages: 

Prevent Indirect Electric Shock Readily Identified


Specialist Testing And Maintenance,Professional Installation

No Protection If Removed

Isolation:Shutting Off The Electric Supply To An Item Or Equipment And Preventing The System From Being Mistakenly Reconnected. Advantages: 

Safest Option As It Eliminates Electricity May Be Physically Locked Off

Disadvantages:  

May Be Isolate Other Equipment May Be Reconnected Without Lock Off Prevents Live Fault Finding

Reduced Voltage System:Reducing The Mains Voltage By Means Of A Transformer To A Lower Safer Voltage E.G. 110 Volts Or 55 Volts. Advantages: 

At 55v-Injury Is Highly Unlikely Colour Coded Cabling System For Easy Recognition

Disadvantages: 

Specialist Equipment E.G. Transformer Required Lead From Supply To Transfer At Highr Voltages,Needing Protection With Rcd

Battery Operated Tools:Advantages:  

Little Risk During Normal Use Not Restricted By Cable Not Trailing Cable

Disadvantages:  

Limited Use Low Power Output Constant Charging Required

Residual Current Device (Rcd):Compares The Electricity Flow To The Equipment With The Return Flow And If A Difference Is Detected The Equipment Is Isolated. Advantages:   

Rapid And Sensitive Difficult To Defeat Easy To Use,Test And Reset Cannot Be Reset With A Fault On The Circuit

Disadvantages:  

May Isolate Crucial Equipment If One Rcd Covers A Number Of Distribution Points E.G. Freezers And Computers Mechanical Device Which Could Fail No Overload Protection

Double Isolation:Two Separate Layers Of Insulation Are Provided Which Allows For Fault Detection Where One Layer Has Failed The Other Still Provides Protection. Advantages: 

Two Layers Of Insulation Prevent User Contact With Any Live Parts No Earth Required

Disadvantages: 

Physical Damage May Defeat Double Insulation No Earth Therefore No Protection If Used With Equipment That Requires Earth

Portable Electrical Equipments:Accidents Caused By:      

Using Unsuitable Apparatus Inadequate Maintenance Or Misuse Using Defective Apparatus Modifications By Unauthorised Person Modifications Whilst The Appliance Is Live Using Equipment In Unsuitable Environments No System Of Inspection Or Removal Of Damaged Equipment

Precautions (Portable Equipments):        

Reduced Voltage Operation Use Of Residual Current Circuit Breakers Protected Against Overload Cables Insulated Sufficient Socket Outlets Use Of Cable Drums Properly Trained Staff Regular Inspections And Checks Correct Sheathing

Types Of Inspection:  

User Checks Formal Visual Inspection Combined Inspection And Test (Pat)

Frequency Of Inspections And Test:         

Manufacturer’s Recommendations Age Of Equipment Robustness Of Equipment Double Insulated Or Earthed Type Of Cable Extent Of Use Users Of Equipment Environment Abuse Or Misuse History Of Equipment

Reasons To Keep Records Of Inspection And Testing Of Electrical Equipment:   

Inspection By Authorised Person In Case Test Label Removed Test Frequencies Maintained Record Actions Of Faults Rectified

Electrical Safety In Office Environment:   

Equipment Of Approved Standard Maintenance Of Fixed Electrical Installations There Is A Means Of Isolation Connections,Wiring Free From Defects

       

Correct Fuses Plugs Correctly Wired No Overloading Of Sockets Appliances Switched Off When Not In Use Pat Testing In Date Cables Correctly Routed Rcds Used System For Reporting Of Defects

Precautions For On Working Live Parts:        

Trained And Competent Staff Accompanied By Another Person Adequate Information About The Risks Suitable Insulated Tools Insulated Barriers On Screens Suitable Instruments And Test Probes Ppe Permit To Work Restricted Access

Element-5 Musculaskeletal Hazards And Risk Control 

Ergonomics:Study Of Relationship Between A Worker And The Working Environment.

People Vary Enormously In Height,Weight,Strength Etc.

 

The Equipment Designed To Avg. Man This Leads To Physical Injuries

Ergonomic Assessment 

Organisation:Supervision,Procedures,Breaks,Shift Patterns.

Equipment Or Process:Human Limitations,Analyse Task Etc.

The Individual:Physical Capabilities,Knowledge Attitude.

Environment:Temperature,Noise,Space,Lighting Etc.

Causes Of Wrulds:W=Work R=Related U=Upper L=Limb D=Disorders Wrulds Are Caused By:     

Repetitive Finger,Hand Or Arm Movements,E.G. Assembly Line Work,Keyboard Operators Twisting Movements,E.G. Meat And Poultry Preparation Squeezing,E.G. Using Pliers,Scissors Pushing,Pulling,Lifting Or Reaching Movements,E.G. Assembling Packing Boxes Work On A Production Line Bricklying

Symptoms Of Wrulds    

Numbness Or Tingling In Fingers Etc. Pain Restriction In Joint Movement Saft Tissue Swelling

In Addition To Symptoms:-Redness,Swelling And Limitation Of Movement.

Wrulds Prevention:         

Identify Of Risk Jobs Reduce The Force Frequency And Duration Design Of The Equipment Automate The Process Design Of The Work Station Job Rotation Regular Breaks Training Employees In Correct Use Of Tools Medical Surveillance Assessment Of Individual For The Task

Health Effects Of Dse:D=Display S=Screen E=Equipments       

Musculoskeletol Disorders (Hand,Arm,Shoulder) Eye And Eyesight Problems Fatigue And Stress Epilespy Facial Dermatitis Radiation Effects On Pregnant Women

D.S.E Assessment 

Organisation:Job Rotation,Breaks.

Individual:Physical Characteristics,Training.

Environment:Noise,Lighting,Glare,Temperature,Space Etc.


Height/Position Of Keyboard And Screen,Seating Posture,Design Of Chair,Screen Definition And Colour,Adjustibility Of Equipment. Dse Workstation Layout           

Good Lighting No Glare,Distracting Reflection Noise To Minimum Aple Legroom To Allow Postural Movement Minimise Glare (Windows) Suitable Software Screen Suitable Position Ample Work Surfaces Suitable Chair/Adjustable Footrest If Necessary Suitable Environment

Other D.S.E Requirements 

Plan Work With Breaks -Provision Of Eye/Eyesight Test

Training And Information -Risks From Dse Work -Importance Of Good Posture Laptops(Design,Usage) The Mouse(Good Posture And Technique)

Manual Handling Supporting Or Any Transport Of A Load By Hand Or Body Force,Including:      

Pulling Putting Down Pushing Lifting Carrying Moving Holding

Manual Handling Aids

     

Pallet Jack Pallet Jack Scissor Lift Coil Lifting Jig Tilting Barrel Lifting Hydraulic Jack Conveyer

Causes Of Accidents From Manual Handling      

Slips,Trips And Falls Poor Lifting Techniques Loads Which Are Too Heavy For The Individual Undertaking The Task Unexpectedly Heavy Loads Poor Posture The Environment

Employees At Risk Of Manual Handilg Injuries    

Construction Workers Ware House Care And Health Workers Postmen,Refuse Collectors,Furniture Movers Etc.

Types Of Injuries Caused By Manual Handling External  

Cuts And Abrasions,Mostly Involving The Upper Body And Libs Bruises,Crush Injuries,Lacerations

Internal   

Fractures,Either As A Result Of Falls Or Dropping Heavy Objects Onto The Body Strains And Muscle Injuries Involving The Spine Strains And Muscle Injuries Involving Other Parts Of The Body

General Guidelines On Safe Manual Handling Of Loads 1. Filters Twisting:Guidance Weights Should Be Reduced By10% If Thee Work Involves A Twisting Action Through 45 Degree Or More By 20% If A Twist Through 90 Degree Or More Is Involved.A Seated Person Should Not Attempt To Lift More Than 5kg. 2. Filters Pushing And Pulling

Pushing/Pulling Motion Starting A Load Keeping The Load In Motion (But Not Exceed To 20m) Manual Handling Assessment L=Oad I=Ndividual T=Ask E=Nvironment Load Factors:      

Physical Weight (Heavy) Size (Bulky) Shape (Difficult To Grasp) Rigidity (Contents Liable To Shift) Outside Surfaces (Sharp) Stability Of Contents (Unstable) Other Hazards (Hot/Cold/Sharp Etc)

Individual Factors:      

Sex Physical Health Stature (Physique,Height Etc) State Of Health Level Of Training Hazards To Prgnant Women Person’s Perception Of Their Ability

Task Factors:      

Holding Loads Away From Trunk Twisting/Stooping/Reaching Large Vertical Movements Distances Involved Strenuous Pulling And Pushing Loads Repetitive Handling Unpredictable Movement Of Load

Men 20kg 10kg

Women 15kg 7kg

 

Insufficient Rest Or Recovery Period A Work Rate Imposed By The Process

Environment Factor:      

Lighting (Poor) Ventilation (Strong Air) Obstacles Height Of Work Surface Temperature (Hot/Cold) Floor Conditions Space Available

Practical Measures To Avoid Manual Handling Injuries:       

Avoid Manual Handling Risk Reduction Automation And Mechanism Team Handling Training Smaller/Lighter Load Selection (Individual And Mechanical Aid) Good Environment (Spacing,Flooring,Temperature)

Elements Of Mechanical Handling And Lifting Equipment:   

The Load The Workplace The Handling Equipment The Employees Involved

Precautons In Mobile Crane:         

Crane Suiablity For The Task Stable Ground Conditions Outriggers Fully Extended Avoid Obstructions Consider Overhead Power Lines Assign Designated And Protected Area Properly Tested And Maintained Lifting Tackl Use Of Correct Slinging Competenc Of Personal Load Near Ground If Travelling

 

Good Vivibility,Communications Monitoring Wind Speed

Main Hazards In Crane Operations:       

Crane Overturning Overloading Collision With Other Crane,Overhead Cables Crushing B/W The Load And Another Object Or B/W The Sling And The Load Or The Sling And The Hook Failure Of Support I.E. Outriggers Not Fully Extended Loss Of Load Due To Rope,Chain Or Sling Failure Failure Of Load Bearing Part I.E. Jib Breaking Heavy Wind And Rain

Precautions Needed For Employees Safety During Lifting:           

Not Exceed Safe Working Load Trained Person (Operator,Slinger) Good Communication B/W All Operatives Properly Maintained Equipment Equipment Has Undergone Statutory Inspection All Lifting Accessories Free From Defect Make Sure Load Is Secured And Lifted Vertically Up To Correct Hight Warning Of Lift Taking Place Moved At Appropriate Speed Ensuring Path Free From Obstacles Consider Overhead Power Lines Put Down In Safe Position And Tension Released Under Close Supervision Wear Your Helmets,High Visibility Cloth

Lifting Accessories (Tackle) Hazards:        

Overloading Incorrect Slinging Arrangements Damaged Attachments Textile Slings Damaged,Cut,Abraded Or Stretched Chains-Deformed,Cracked Or Streched Links Broken Wires Or Kinks No Examination Or Pre-Use Inspection Damage To Accessories During Use Lack Of Training

Conveyor System And Its Hazards:-

Types:  

Belt Roller Screw Conveyors

Hazards:         

Trapping Contact Entaglement Striking Impact Items Falling Off Slips Manual Handling Noise And Vibration Sharp Edges

Precautions When Using Lifting Accessories:        

All Accessories Properly Certified/Tested Properly Inspected By A Competent Person Safe Working Load Clearly Marked Inspection Prior To Use No Repair To Accessories On Site Not To Be Used For Unintended Purpose Packing B/W Accessory And Load Properly Stored After Use Training For Staff In Safe Use

Hazard Control Measures (Conveyor)         

Fixed/Interlocked Guards On Drum Side Guards,Enclosing Items To Be Conveyed Trip Wires With Conveyor For Full Length Emergency Stop Buttons Safe Access At Regular Intervals Avoiding Loose Clothing,Rings Etc Restricted Access To The Running Conveyor Head Protection Regular Maintenance By Competent Person

Safety In Lifting Operations:Lifting Equipment:   

Sufficient Strength,Tested Through Examination Inspected At Regular Intervals Suitably Marked

Lifting Operations:   

Planned And Supervised Correctly Positioned Loads Not Carried Over Persons Good Visibility And Communication

Hoist:  

Chain Hoist Goods Hoist Patient Hoist

Control Measures On Use Of Hoist:      

Regular Maintenance Training And Refresher Training For All Operators Carry Out Hoist Operation From One Position Driver Must Have Good Visibility Of Landings Clear Signals/Audible Warning Be Given Prior To Lifting Operation Goods Properly Secured,No Loose Items Of Material In Goods Lift Gates Correctly And Properly Secured Before Lifting

Precautions When Using Hoist:         

Controls Only Operated From One Position Clear Visibility Of Landings Clear Signals Secure Objects Being Carried On Goods Hoists Items Not Overfilled Do Not Carry Loose Items No Passengers On Goods Lift Safe Working Loads Clearly Marked Hoist Properly Examined And Tested Suitable Fancing And Gates At All Levels

Training Staff In Use Of Hoists

Element-6 Physical And Psychological Health Hazards And Control Noise:-Sound Is Propagated By Compressions And Rarefactions In The Air.  

Pressure Changes Are Detected By The Human Ear Speed Of Sound Is Around 330m/S In Air

Unwanted Sound:Sound Travels A Pressure Wave Which Has Two Characteristics. 



Db (Decible)=Unit Of Measure Of Loudness Lepd=Daily Personal Noise Exposure Health Effect Of Noise:Chronic   

Tinnitus Permanent Threshold Shift Loss Of Frequency

Acute    

Trauma From Loud Noise Temporary Threshold Shift Short Term Tinnitus Secondary Effects

How Does Noise Get To Us:  

Direct:-Through The Air From Noise Source To Receiver. Reflected:-Via Walls,Ceilings And Other Structures. Ground And Structure:-Structure Borne Through Wall Or Floor.

Noise Control Techniques:1. Source:-Design,Maintenance/Lubrication,Reduce Speed,Energy. 2. Path:-Location,Enclosure,Silencers,Absorption,Damping,Isolation,Screens. 3. Receiver:-Ear Protection,Job Protection. Source Reduction On Plant:        

Tighten Loose Equipment Regular Lubrication Eliminate Unnecessary Leaks Properly Adjust Machinery Padded Containers For Catching Components Switch Equipment Off Especially Fans Use Rubber Or Plastic Bushers Specify Noise Emissions Levels In Orders Check Conditions And Performance Of Installed Noise Control Equipment

Path Of Noise Prevention Techniques:-

       

Location Enclosure Silencers Absorbers Damping Isolation Lagging Screens

Practical Measures To Reduce Eposure To Excessive Noise:         

Lubrication And Maintenance Change The Process/Design Reduce Energy Isolation Silencing Enclosure Absorption Damping Reduce Time Of Exposure Ppe

Types Of Hearing Protection:

Ear Plugs -Comfort -Hygiene

Ear Defenders -Comfort -Reusable

Reasons For Lack Of Wearing Ofhearing Protection:     

Poorfit Resistance To Use Uncomfortable Incompatibility Interfence Hygiene

  

Supervision Deterioration Abuse

Health Effects Of Vibrating Tools 1. Acute:-Tingling Or Pins Needles In Hands And Extremities 2. Chronic: Numbness And Balancing Of The Fingers  Swollen Painful Joints  Reduction In Manual Dexterity  Reduction In The Sensation Of Touch Risk Factors Of Vibrating Tools       

Frequency Of The Equipment Magnitude Of The Energy Strength Of The Grip And Other Forces Time Of Exposure Frequency Of Exposure Low Temperature Individual Factors

Control Measures For Vibrating Tools        

Eliminate The Use Of Vibrating Tools Selct The Low Vibration Equipment Maintenance Of Equipment And Tools Reducing Grip Force Required Reducing Exposure Time Introducing Health Surveillance Orovision Of Gloves And Heated Pads Information And Training On Risks And Indication Of Injury

Types Of Ionising Radiation     

Alpha Beta Gamma X-Ray Neutron

Penetration Power Of Radiation

  

Skin Or Paper Stops Alpha Thin Alluminium Stops Beta Thick Lead Stops Gamma

Why Is Radioactivity So Useful?   

Easy To Detect Radiation Can Be Very Penetrating Radiation Can Destroy Living Cells

Harmful Effects Of Ionising Radiation Acute Effects 1.      2. 

Somatic:Mild Nausea To Severe Illness Diarrhoea Headaches Hair Loss Redness Of Skin Genetic:Damage To Reproductive Cells

Chronic Effects 1.   2. 

Somatic:Complete Hair Loss Lungs Cancer Etc Genetic:Damage To Offspring Of Exposed

Protection Against Ionising        

Time-Reduce Exposure Distance-Increase Distance Shielding-Use Barriers Ppe Environmental And Personal Monitoring Training And Supervision Correct Disposal Of Radiation Material Good Hygiene Practices

Employer May Have To Appoint 

Radiation Protection Advisor

Radiation Protection Supervisor

Non-Ionising Radiation    

Ultra-Violet Infra-Red Lasers Microwave

Ultra-Violet Welding,Sun Rays.Two Main Hazards Effects On Skin And Eyes. Infra-Red Hot Metal E.G. Foundaries.Heat And For Eyes Risk Of Cataracts. Lasers In Use  

Cutting Surgery

Hazards 

Eyes Are More Vulnerable To Damage From Mild Retina Burns To Permanent Blindness

Protection Against Non-Ionising Radiation     

Shielding Distance B/W Suorce And Person Reducing Duration Of Exposure Ppe Protective Creams

Stress Stress Is Defined As The Reaction People Have To Excessive Pressures Or Other Types Of Demands Placed Upon Them. Home:    

Sickness Children Marital Financial Travel

Work:    

Kind Of Work Physical Conditions Uncertainty Conflict Kind Of Jobs

Health Effects Of Stress 1.         2.      

Physical Effects Raised Heart Rate Increased Sweating Headaches Dizziness Blured Vision Arching Neck Skin Rashes Lower Resistance To Infection Behavioural Effects Increased Anxiety Irritability And Sudden Mood Changes Drink Or Smoke More Difficulty Sleeping Poor Concentration Inability To Deal With Tasks

Work Problems Of Stress Results       

Lack Of Motivation Lack Of Commitment Poor Time Keeping Increases In Mistakes Poor Decision Making Poor Planing Increases In Absense

This Reflects In Relationships At Work As    

Tension B/W Collegues And Supervisors Poor Service To Clients Individual Relationship Problems Increase In Discipline Problems

Problems That Lead To Stress            

Culture Of The Organisation Shift Work,Unsociable Hours,Excessive Overtime Job Insecurity Repetitive /Monotonous Work Lack Of Breaks And Control Over Job Work Rate Too High Or Too Low The Working Environment Relationships Harassment And Bullying Fear Of Violence Lack Of Communication Personal And Social Factors

Management Action To Avoid Stress         

Clear Company Objectives Good Communication Realstic Work Schedules Close Employee Involvement Training And Development Of Staff Impartial Investigation Of Stress Policies To Recognise And Deal With Stress Good Management Support Consistency Of Treatment

Welding Hazards        

Electric Shock Oxygen Enrichment Manual Handling Fire Risk Eye Damage Burns Fume Inhalation Tripping Over Cables

Hazards Of Busy Hotel Kitchen  

Electrical And Mechanical Hazards Associated With Machinery Such As Food Mixers And Processors Hot Surfaces

     

Sharp Implements Wet Or Obstructed Floors Increasing The Risk Of Slips,Trips And Falls Boiling Water And Hot Cooking Oils Causing Burns Manual Handling Hazards Hot,Busy Environment Of A Commercial Kitchen Health Hazards

Element-7 Working Equipment Hazard & Risk Control Suitability Of Work Equipment    

Initial Integrity And Properly Designed Fit For Purpose For Which It Is Being Used Meets Safety Requirements Used For Purpose Manufacturer Indeeded

Factors To Be Considered When Installing New Machines 1. Hazards  Heat Or Cold Problems

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

 Chemicals  Biological Suitability Guarded The Location Cable Of Being Isolated/Lock Off Safe Access And Egress Personnel Trained And Competent Any Other Specified Risks

Safe Operation Of Work Equipment         

Appropriate Protection People Not Come Into Contact Clear Layout Of Controls Means Of Isolation Stable Adequate Lighting Maintenance Appropriate Markings Warning Devices

Responsibilities Of Users     

Information And Instructions Training Not Put Them Or Others At Risk Because Of Their Actions Making Use Of Any Safe System Of Work And Precautions Provided For Them,E.G. Machene Guards,Eye Protection Etc Reporting Any Problems With The Work Equipment To Their Employer

Safety In Maintenance Operations     

Safe Working Procedures Should Be Planned Personnel Should Receive Training Suitable Safety Equipment To Be Provided Management Organisation Adequate Sources

Maintenance Hazards   

Entry Into Vessels,Confined Spaces/Machines Hot Work Which May Cause For Or Explosion Construction Work Such As Work On Roofs In Excavations

  

Cutting Into Pipework Carrying Hazardous Subtances Mechanical Or Electrical Work Requiring Isolation Of Power Or Fuel Supplies Fumes,Gas,Liquids Or Steam

Machinery Hazards           

Unintentional Starting Of Machinery Release Of Stored Energy Movement To Gravity Residual High Or Low Pressure Restricted Access/Egress Residues E.G. Toxic,Flammables,Corrosives Mechanical Hazards Heat Or Cold Biological Hazards Confined Spaces Working At Heights

Factors To Consider Prior To Maintenance          

Location Of Equipment Capable Of Being Isolated? Can Stored Energy Be Dissipated? Can We Segeregate? Is There Safe Access And Egress? Is Ppe Required? Are Personnel Trained? Are There Heat Or Cold Problems? Are There Chemical Residues? Are There Biological Hazards?

Precautions When Undertaking Machinery Maintenance         

Isolate Electrical Power Permit To Work Isolate Pipelines Release Loads Allow Hot Machinery To Cool Provide Adequate Lighting Means Of Access Providing Suitable Ppe Provide Barriers Ventilate Work Area

Adequate Supervision

Hand-Held Tools Hand Tools:-Tools Which Are Entirely Powered Manually. I.E.Axes,Wrenches Etc. Portable Power Tool:-Tools Which Have An External Power Sources Such As Electricity,Compressed Liquid,Air Etc. I.E. Pneumatic Drill,Electric Screw Driver. Hazards Of Hand Held Tools    

Hitting Hammer On One’s Thumb Using A Chisel As Screw Driver Flying Particles Sharp Edges

Hazards Of Portable Power Tools Mechanical Hazards:   

Entanglement Cutting Abrasions Ejected Material

Non-Mechanical Hazards:    

Dust Electricity Ergonomics Manual Handling Noise Vibration

Precautions Portable Power Tools         

Do Not Use Power Tools You Are Not Trained On Do Not Lift Or Carry Power Tools By Their Power Cord Keep Power Cords Out The Paths Of The Power Tool Do Not Leave Tools Unattended Do Not Stand In Water Or Wet Surfaces When Running A Power Tool Hold All Power Tols By The Plastic Hand Grips Or Other Conductive Areas Do Not Plug Multiple Electrical Cords Into A Single Outlet Do Not Use Power Tools Or Extension Cords With A Missing Prong Ground All Tools Unless Double Insulated

Mechanical Hazards (Acronym-Entice) En=Entanglement T=Traps:Shearing,Crushing,Drawing In I=Impact C=Contact:Cutting,Friction And Abrasion,Puncture E=Ejection (Flying Particles) Entanglement:-Where Hair,Clothes,Jewellary Etc. Are Caught In Parts Of A Revolving Machine. Traps:-Where Parts Of The Body (As Hands Or Finger) Are Caught Or Trapped In Parts Of Moving Machines. Impact:-Where The Body Is Impacted By Moving Parts Or Processed Items. Contact:-Contact Lead To Following Injuries:    

Burns Lacerations Abrasions Puncture Cuts

Ejection:-Where The Parts Of The Machine Or Materials Being Used Fly Out And Hit The Body. Other Machinery Hazards Office Machinery Common Hazards:   

Electrical Ergonomic Noise Stability


Drawing Into Rollers

   

Trap B/W Moving Parts Chemicals Uv Light/Heat Manual Handling

Document Shredders:  

Drawing Into Cutters Contact With Cutters Dust

Manufacturing/Maintenance Machinery Bench Top Grinder Hazrds     

Contact With Rotating Wheel Drawing Into Trap Ejection Of Parts Of Wheel Fire And Sparks Vibration/Noise

Pedestal Drill Hazards     

Entanglement (Hair/Clothing) Contact (Stabbing/Puncture) Impact (Unsecured Workpiece) Cutting From Swarf Ejection (Drill Bit/Material)

Agricultural/Horticultural Machinery Hazards (Note-Same Mechanical Hazrds) Cylinder Mover Hazrds  

Contact With Rotating Blades Entanglement In Blades

Strimmer/Chainsaw  

Contact With Cutter/Saw Entaglement Cutter/Saw

Associated Hazards With Retail Machinery

Waste Compactor Hazards    

Impact Crushing Noxious Substances And Fumes Biological Infection

Check Out Conveyor    

Drawing In Traps Non-Ionising Radiation Crushing Spillages And Breakages Of Material

Construction Machinery Associated Hazards Circular Saw Hazards     

Drawing Into Blade Contact Ejection Of Materials Vibration Saw Dust

Cement Mixer Hazards    

Entaglement Chemicals Noise Manual Handing

Methods Of Machine Safe Guarding The Features Of Guards Includes:      

Suitable For Purpose And Compatible With Process Good Construction,Sound Material,Adequate Strength Maintained In Efficient State/Working Order And Good Repair Not To Be Easily By Passed Or Disabled At Sufficient Distance From The Danger Zone Not To Unduly Restrict The View Of The Operating Cycle Of The Machinery,Where Such A View Is Necessary Not Increase Risk To Health And Safety

Continue,If Poosible,To Protect Even When Maintenance Is In Progress I.E. Allow Maintenance Without Guard Removal

Hierarchy Of Control For Machinery Guards    

Fixed Enclosing Guards Other Guards Or Protection Devices Protective Appliances Such As Jigs,Holders,Push Sticks Provision Of Information,Instruction,Training And Supervision

Order Of Guarding (Remember-Fiat) F=Fixed I=Interlock A=Automatic T=Trip (Safety Devices) Methods Of Machine Safeguarding 1.     2.      3. 4. 5.   

Guards Fixed Interlocked Adjustable Self-Adjusting Devices Presence Sencing Safety Controls(Trip Wire Cable,Two Hand Control) Gates Pullback Location/Distance Feeding And Ejection Methods Miscellaneous Aids Awareness Barriers Protective Shields Hand-Feeding Tools

Fixed Guard

   

It Is A Physical Barrier That Prevent Access To Danger Area Its Not Connected Machine Motion Controls With Out Any Moving Parts Fixed On Any Part That It Requires A Special Tool To Remove It

Fixed Guard Advantages     

Creats A Physical Barrier Require A Tool To Remove It No Moving Parts Little Maintenance Easy To Inspect

Disadvantages    

No Protection If Removed Requires A Tool To Remove If Solid Hampers Visual Inspection If Solid May Cause Heat Problems

Interlock Guard     

It Have Movable Parts That Are Interconnected With The Control System Usually Electrical,Mechanically Or Pneumatic Interconnections Machinery Will Not Operate Unless Guard Is Closed Less Likely To Slow Production Generally Move Expensive And Require More Checking And Maintenance

Advantages Of Inter-Lock Guards   

Convenient For Access Give Flexibity Of Design A Time Delay Can Be Built In

Disadvantages      

More Complex Difficult To Inspect Difficult To Maintain Subject To Wear Subject To Operator Abuse If A Gateoperator Can Step Inside

Automatic/Pushaway Guards   

Removes Person From Hazard Automatically Operated Operated By Electrically,Hydraucally Or Air

Adjustable Guards Provides A Barrier Which May Be Adjusted To Facilitate A Variety Of Production Operations. Self Adjusting Guards Provides A Barrier Which Moves According To The Size Of The Stock Entering The Danger Area. Pullback Devices    

Utilizes A Series Of Cables Attached To The Operator’s Hands,Wrists And/Or Arms Primarly Used On Machines With Stroking Actions Allow Access To The Point Of Operation When The Slide/Ram Is Up With Draws Hands When The Slide/Ram Begins To Descend

Gate  

Movable Barrier Device Which Protects The Operator At The Point Of Operation Before The Machine Cycle Can Be Started If The Gate Does Not Fully Close Machine Will Not Function

Safe Guarding By Distance/Location   

Locate The Machine Or Its Dangerous Moving Parts So That They Are Not Accessible Or Do Not Present A Worker During Normal Operation Maintain A Safe Distance From The Danger Area

Element-8 Chemical & Biological Health Hazards And Risk Control Classification Of Occupational Health Hazards   

Physical:-Machinery,Electricity,Heat,Noise Chemical:-Acids,Alkalis,Asbestos Biological:-Hiv Virus,Legionella,Bacteria

 

Ergonomic:-Posture Problems,Fatigue Psychological:-Stress,Shock,Anxiety

Biological Hazards     

Legionnaires Disease Hepatitis Weils Disease Anthrax Rabies

Biological Hazards Control Measures         

Cleaning/Disinfecting Water Treatment Programmes Vermin Control Procedures For Handling,Containment And Disposal Personal Hygiene Immunisation Health Surveillance Specific Training Ppe

Physical Forms Of Hazardous Substances         

Gases Vapour Mists And Aerosols Smoke Fumes Dusts Liquids Solids

Toxicology:-The Study Of How Different Materials Will Affect The Human Body. Factors:  

Route Of Entry Toxicity Dose And Response

Routes Of Entry    

Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Injection (Direct Entry)

Toxicity:-The Potential Of A Substance To Cause Harm To Living Things. Dose:-How Much Of A Substance You Are Exposed To And How Long The Exposure Lasts. Response:-How The Body Reacts To The Exposure. Factors Affecting Response      

Body Weight Age Skin Type Sex Diet Health

Toxic Effects Acute       

Headaches Dizziness Nausea Inflammation Eye Irritation Unconsciousness Death

Chronic    

Cancers Death Local Systemic Sensilisation

Dermatitis:-Removal Of Natural Oils From Skin Which Causes Reddening,Soreness,Cracking And Bleeding Of Exposed Skin,Usually Occurs To Arms And Hands.

Causative Agents:     

Solvents Detergents Mineral Oils Diesel Fuel Cement Dust Etc.

Measures To Prevent Dermatitis 

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