IFFCO Kalol Internship Report

May 26, 2018 | Author: Siddhant Dhiman | Category: Urea, Natural Gas, Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, Boiler
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IFFCO kalol summer 6 Week Internship report PDPU...





Raisan, Gandhinagar Gandhinagar - 382007

Training Period

05/06/2017 to 20/06/2017



It gives me pleasure in submitting this in-plant training report at the end of training period period from 05/06/2017 to 20/06/2017 at IFFCO IFFCO Kalol unit.

I would like to express my heartily gratitude to all those who gave me that valuable opportunity to understand and complete my industrial training at IFFCO, Kalol. I would like to thank Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited, KALOL for  providing me this training t raining and for guiding gu iding throughout the training and also allowing me to work in this premier organization and helped to make me stand in this competitive area. I would like to present my heartiest thanks to the JGM (Technical), Shri O.P. Dayama Sir and

Sr. Manager (Training) Shri M. Srinivas at IFFCO Kalol.

I also thank Dr. Pravin Kodgire Sir (H.O.D. of our department) and Training & Placement Cell of Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University for permitting me to pursue summer internship at IFFCO, Kalol. With the support o f Operators of different different plants p lants and most helpful library of IFFCO, I was able to complete the Training Report in due time.




It gives me pleasure in submitting this in-plant training report at the end of training period period from 05/06/2017 to 20/06/2017 at IFFCO IFFCO Kalol unit.

I would like to express my heartily gratitude to all those who gave me that valuable opportunity to understand and complete my industrial training at IFFCO, Kalol. I would like to thank Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited, KALOL for  providing me this training t raining and for guiding gu iding throughout the training and also allowing me to work in this premier organization and helped to make me stand in this competitive area. I would like to present my heartiest thanks to the JGM (Technical), Shri O.P. Dayama Sir and

Sr. Manager (Training) Shri M. Srinivas at IFFCO Kalol.

I also thank Dr. Pravin Kodgire Sir (H.O.D. of our department) and Training & Placement Cell of Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University for permitting me to pursue summer internship at IFFCO, Kalol. With the support o f Operators of different different plants p lants and most helpful library of IFFCO, I was able to complete the Training Report in due time.



PREFACE It is true that studies cannot be perfect without practical training and perfection is the  basic necessity necessity of o f technical students. He must be technically sound as well as enrich with  practical knowledge.

In practical training a person deals with many technical problems. Aim of in-plant training is to learn process and technology as real and also to learn industrial management and discipline.

We got a chance to improve life skills like communica co mmunication tion skills, self esteem, team work, creative thinking thinking etc. which are very important for making career.

Thus it is important for every person to be exposed to training in some kind of an industry or others to enhance enhance their knowledge.




Chapter no.



Page no.






Production Performance


Overview Of Iffco- Kalol Units


Various Plants


About training plant 2.1

Ammonia Plant


Raw Materials


Products 2.3


Process Details



Various Process For Ammonia Production


At IFFCO Kalol


Catalyst Used in Process


Process Description


Chemical Reaction


Urea Plant


Equipments And Instrumentation 4.1

Equipments Detail




Primary Reformer


Secondary Reformer


Primary Waste Heat Boiler


Secondary Waste Heat Boiler


Shift Convertor


HT Shift Conversion


LT Shift Conversion


CO2 Absorber


Process utilities 5.1



Utility Plant

Health, hazards & safety



Introduction Of Industrial Safety






Accedent Factors


List Of Safety Equipments


Safety Precaution


Fire Hazards


Principles Of Fire Extingushing


Color Coad For Pipeline


Fire Protection



Bagging And Material Handling 7.1


There Are Different Types Of Conveyors, Machines, Heavy Equipments in This Plant


Detailed Description


Effluent Treatment And Disposal


Type Of Liquid Effluent


Environment & Pollution 8.1

Control Air Pollution


Solid Waste


Water and Noise Pollution




Fig. 1.1 View of IFFCO

1.1 About IFFCO

The total investment for the plant is around Rs.1150 crores. IFFCO has modern fertilizer plants, 

At Kalol in Gujarat

At Kandla In Gujarat

At Phulpur in Utter Pradesh

At Aonla in Utter Pradesh

They have total annual production capacity of 56.63 lakh tons of fertilizer.

1.2 Production Performance

The production records for all four four units are excellent. Since inception, inception, the capacity capacity utilization achieved is always higher than the national average. IFFCO IFFCO has won several awards for  the Fertilizer  Association of India (FAI),  National productivity Council 7

and national and international safety councils for outstanding production performance and in safety measures.

1.3 Overview Of IFFCO - Kalol K alol Units

The IFFCO Kalol Unit , spread over on 96 hectors of land is located 26 Kms. away from Ahmedabad on the Ahmedabad Mehsana state highway. The unit started commercial  production in April 1975. The unit consists of plant to produce ammonia, ammonia, urea, liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice along with offsite. Originally the 910 tpd ammonia plant was  based on natural gas steam reforming process pro cess of M/s. M.W. Kellong, USA US A and 1200 tpd urea plant was based on co 2  stripping process of M/S Stamicarbon, The Netherlands. Both the plant have revamped in 1997 to enhance capacity to 1100 tpd ammonia and 1650 tpd urea. RLNG is used as feed stock for ammonia and associated gas as fuel. Water is supplied from Narmada Canal from Jaspur. Power is supplied by GEB.

1.4 Various Plants

1.4.1 Ammonia plant The plant is being designated to produce 1100 tonnes to nnes of ammonia ammonia per day based on M.W. Kellogg Steam Reforming Process of USA. RLNG is used for ammonia production is supplied by Reliance Petrochemicals. From total production, about 950 tonnes ammonia  per day is used used in the urea plant and remaining remaining is stored in atmospheric atmospheric storage tank.

1.4.2 Urea plant The 1650 tonnes per day plant is based on Stamicarbon CO2 Stripping processs engineered by Humphreys and Glasgow, U.K. The main raw material ammonia and carbon dioxide are from ammonia plant.

Utility plant: 1.4.3 Utility 

Water Treatment Plant

Cooling Towers

Air Compressor and Inert Gas Generation Generation

`Steam Generation 8

1.4.5 Offsite Plant 

Storage(naphtha,LSHS,NH3)  Narmada Water Water Treatment Plant Plant Effluent Treatment Plant



2.1.1 Introduction: The plant was commissioned in November, 1974. It was the first large capacity single stream plant in India.  Name of Process

: Steam Hydrocarbon Reforming Process

Designed By

: M.W. Kellogg


: 1100 Tons/Day




: Natural Gas

2.2 Raw Materials

2.2.1 Raw Materials: Raw materials involved are: 

RLNG: Source: GSPL---Gujarat State Petronet Ltd. State: gaseous Pressure: 37 kg Temperature: 20 deg C

Utility: Fuel: associated gas  Naphtha: 71915 kg/hr

 NAPHTHA Source: IOCL State: liquid Mol.wt.: 92.24 Quantity: 14733 kg/hr Composition: 100%(mol%) Sulfur: 100 ppm


CHEMICAL a-MEDA solution: 40%



2.3 Products

Products produced are: 


Carbon Dioxide

2.3.1 Ammonia Physical and Chemical properties: At Atmospheric temperature & Pressure Ammonia is a sharp colorless gas. 




Specific Gravity






Critical temperature


132.14 °C

Auto ignition temperature


651 °C

Boiling Point


-33.3 °C

Freezing point


-77.7 °C






Colorless Chemical Structure:

Fig. 2.1: Ammonia Structure


Anhydrous NH2 is present both in the gaseous and liquid under atm pressure and temperature condition it is present in gaseous foam.

Ammonia readily dissolves in water forming aq. NH3 with liberation of heat.

Ammonia vapor is colorless & has pungent o dor NH3 with its own warning agent.

Ammonia is lighter than air & therefore, in open atm it will by dispersed by virtue of its own  burgundy. However, air NH3 vapor form liquid may form NH3 air mixture heavier than air, which may stay close to the ground for sometimes. Hazardous Properties 

When Ammonia stored in closed container NH 3 exert to vapor which increase rapidly with rising temperature.

 NH3 will explosive mixture with air and Oxygen.

Moist NH3 will react rapidly with Cu & Zn.

The use of the Hg in contact with NH 3  should be avoided since under certain condition explosive chemical compounds resulting.

 NH3 is an irritating gas & will affect muscles, membrane & eye. Hazards Identification: 




Physical form


gas, liquid



pungent odor

Physical hazards


Containers may rupture Uses of Ammonia: 

Ammonia is used directly as fertilizer.

Formulating different nitrogenous & phosphoric fert ilizer 

For liquid and solid nitrogenous fertilizer like urea, ammonia sulphate, DAP, NaNO 3,  NHNO3, etc.

For chemical compound like crylonitrile, Caprolactum, nylon-6.

A refrigerant for large-scale air conditioning & refrigeration. 12

Formulating granular mixed fertilizer.

Ammonia blue print machine.

2.3.2 Carbon Dioxide Properties of Carbon Dioxide: 

At atmospheric temperature and pressure CO2 is colorless gas.




: 44


: Acidic in water


: Odorless


: Colorless Uses of Carbon Dioxide: 

Refrigerant in ice-cream industries, dairies, food product industries, bear industries, in cold industries etc.

Fire extinguisher 

Mfg of salicylic acid, urea, various carbamates etc.


CHAPTER 3 :- PROCESS DETAILS 3.1 Various Processes For Ammonia Production

For ammonia production synthesis gas is produced by following pro cess. 

Low temperature  Non catalytic partial oxidation

Catalytic partial oxidation

Steam hydro carbon reforming process

And ammonia from synthesis gas is produced by following methods: 

The Claude Process

The Forster Wheeler-Casale process

The M.W. Kellogg process

Foster Montecatini process

3.2 At IFFCO Kalol

“Steam Hydrocarbon Reforming Process” is selected for process synthesis and “The M.W. Kellogg Process” is selected for ammonia production.

Reasons for Selection Of Steam Reforming Process

From the steam reforming process generate more hydrogen the partial oxidation  process.

Steam reforming process requires less feed than partial oxidation process.

Production of ammonia from coal plants is more costly than fro, conventional gas  based processes, because of the extensive solids handling and effluent treatment facilities required.

From steam reforming process generation of pollution is less than other processes.

3.2.1 Advantages of This Process 

Intensive heat recovery

Generation of steam which can be imported.

Less dependency on electricity 14

Capital cost is least

3.3 Catalyst Used In Process





Primary Reformer



Secondary Reformer


(i) Chromium (top)

Activated Carbon

(ii) Nickel (bottom) 

Shift Converter  H. T. Section


Iron Oxide

L. T. Section


Copper and Zinc Oxide

Synthesis Converter


Iron Oxide







3.4 Process Description

Fig. 3.1: Flow Diagram of Ammonia and Urea


3.4.1 Steam reforming process The manufacturing of AMMONIA involves following operations/processes. 

Raw synthesis gas preparation. RLNG Primary reformer Secondary reformer Co-shift conversion

Synthesis gas purification.

Compression of synthesis gas and ammonia synthesis.

Refrigeration system.

Purge gas recovery system.

Raw Synthesis Gas Preparation

Raw synthesis gas is produced from R-LNG. 

Desulphurizing the R-LNG Feed

L.N.G. is supplied at a pressure of 40kg/cm2. It contains sulfur compounds which are removed by passing the gas through Desulfurizer containing activated carbon. The gas exit the desulphuriser is expected to contain less than 0.25 RPM of Sulphur. The sulphur free feed gas is mixed with process steam and the combined stream enters and feed  preheat coil in the convection section of Primary Reformer furnace.

Primary Reformer

Desulphurised gas is mixed with steam and heated to 430 - 465 oC in HT convection zone of balanced draft reformer furnace. The gas is then passed through 336 Nos. tubes filled with nickel catalyst and heated up to790 - 815 oC by external firing from the top. Total 126 Nos. burners are provided at the top for heating the gas. The flue gas at about 1000oC is collected in tunnels and taken to HT convection zone where heat is recovered in heating the mixed feed and air used in secondary reformer. The flue gas is then mixed with the flue gas from auxiliary boiler and goes to low temperature zone where heat is further recovered in super heating the HP steam, heating fuel gas and combustion air. The 16

cooled flue gas is discharged through the stack at 140 - 180 oC. From primary reformer a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane is obtained.

Secondary Reformer

The process gas at 824Deg.C from primary reformer enters the secondary reformer via water jacketed transfer line and a chamber near the top of secondary reformer and is directed down ward through a diffuser ring to enter the combustion zone. Preheated air is introduced through a nozzle located just below the diffuser ring. The oxygen of the air  burns with hydrogen of process gas and raises the gas temperature. At higher temperature  balance methane reacts- with steam and its content is reduced from 10.3% to 0.32% approx. The gas enters the chromium and nickel catalyst for reforming. The gases leave the secondary reformer at 1000Deg.C and split to pass through the shell sides of two "bayonet type" primary waste heat boiler. From these waste heat boilers the gas at 452Deg.C enters secondary waste heat boiler. The flow through the tube sides of the waste heat boiler is boiler water. The process gas from waste heat boiler at 371Deg.C goes to H.T. shift convertor. 

CO Shift Conversion

The cooled gas at 330-340OC passes through HT shift converter containing copper  promoted iron catalyst. Part of CO is converted to CO2 and heat of exothermic reaction is utilized for HP steam generation and process gas / BFW heating. The cooled gas then passes through LT Guard and LT shift reactors, both containing copper- zinc catalyst. LT Guard is meant for protecting the LT shift catalyst from  poisoning and thereby increasing its life. CO conversion reaction almost reaches equilibrium in this reactor. The heat of hot gas leaving the LT shift reactor is utilized for BFW heating. The exit gas from the LT shift converter contains mainly Hydrogen, CO 2 and Nitrogen with small quantity of CO.

Synthesis Gas Purification

Carbon Dioxide Removal and Recovery 17

Removal of CO2 from raw synthesis gas is carried out in two stages of absorption by counter current contacting of the gas with 30 to 40% by wt. MDEA solution in packed  bed tower. The gas pass through a distributor in the bottom of CO2 absorber. The up flowing gas passes through four beds of packing and comes out from the top of absorber. The top two beds contain 38mm. stainless steel slotted (Hypack) rings. The bottom two layers consists of 50mm. S.S. slotted rings (hypack). As the gas flows up the packing it contacts down flowing semi lean and lean 30 to 40% by wt. MDEA solution which absorbs the CO2. The process gas leaving the absorber contains 0.1% CO2. Absorber operating at 26-29 kg/cm2  pressure and then stripping of CO2  rich solution at 1.6-1.4 kg/cm2  pressure. CO2  free raw gas is fed to methanator and recovered CO 2  is sent to Urea plant after cooling. Methanation Of Unconverted CO And Unabsorbed CO2

Unconverted CO (about 0.15- 0.3%) and unabsorbed CO2 (400-1100 ppm) in the raw gas are converted to methane at 275- 300 OC in the methanator. The process gas enters at the top of methanator after being heated up to 316 C . Methanator contains a bed of nickel catalyst where traces of CO and CO 2 in process gas react with hydrogen to form methane and water. The temp. of effluent gas leaving the methanator at bottom is raised to 347 C due to exothermic nature of reactions. The total amount of (CO+CO 2) leaving the methanator will be about 1 ppm. The cooled gas now called synthesis gas is then compressed. The purified gas exits the methanator at 310- 318O C.

Compression of Synthesis Gas And Ammonia Synthesis

The purified, cooled synthesis gas is compressed in a four stage centrifugal compressor. At the fourth suction gas is mixed with recycled gas from the ammonia synthesis section. The compressed gas is heated up to 130 OC and the same is sent to ammonia converter. The converter has three beds of iron catalyst. The synthesis gas enters top bed at 350 OC after being heated in the convector. Before entering to the second and third beds, the gas is quenched to control the rise in temperature due to exothermic ammonia conversion reaction.


The exit gas contains about 16% ammonia, which is recovered by cooling the gas in chillers. After recovery of ammonia, synthesis gas containing about 2.5% ammonia is recycled. The separated liquid ammonia is warmed and sent to Urea plant at 15-30 OC or it is chilled and sent to storage at  – 30 to -33 OC . 

Refrigeration System

Four-stage centrifugal refrigeration compressor is provided for refrigeration in the ammonia synthesis section. The primary purpose of this is to condense product ammonia for separating it from the converter feed. Further it is used to cooled make up gas for separation of water, to condense and recover liquid ammonia from purge gas, to cool the  product to – 33 OC and degassing inert. Letting down its pressure in steps purifies the separated ammonia. A refrigerant compressor is provided to compress the vapor ammonia used in chillers to cool high pressure synthesis gas process. The product ammonia is sent to plant at 40o  C and/or storage tank at -33o C.

Purge Gas Recovery System

As the ammonia conversion is very less, large quantity of unconverted gas is recycled. In order to avoid buildup of inert in the loop about 10,000 NM3/hr of gas is purged. The  purged gas contains hydrogen, nitrogen, methane and argon. In order to recover hydrogen and ammonia purge gas recovery plant has been installed The ammonia is recovered by absorbing and then stripping whereas hydrogen is recovered by cryogenic cooling. Purge gas after recovery of ammonia and hydrogen is used as fuel.


3.5.1 Primary Reforming CH4

+ H2O

CO+ H2





+ 5H2







7H2 19

n- C4H10

+ 4H2O

4CO +


3.5.2 Secondary Reforming 2H2


O2 + 3.715N2

→ 2 H2O + 3.715N2

2CH4 + 3.5O2 + 13.003N2 → CO2 + 4 H2O + CO + 13.003N2 3.5.3 Shift Conversion + CO2

CO+ H2O→H2

3.5.4 Absorption CO2

+ H2O→H2 CO3

3.5.5 Stripping H2CO3



3.5.6 Methanation CO + 3H2

→CH 4


+ 4H2

+ H2O CH4+ 2H2O

3.5.7 Ammonia Synthisis  N2

+ 3H2


3.6 Urea Plant

The plant was commissioned in January 1975. It was the first large unit manufacturing  plant in India & plant was further upgraded in 1997. Now a day the plant capacity is 1650 tons/day.

 Name of the process

: Stamicarbon Stripping Process


: 1650 tones/day

Feed stock

: Ammonia & CO2

3.6.1 The urea process consists of the following steps: 

CO2 supply and compression  NH3 supply and pumping

Reaction/High pressure synthesis

Recirculation system 20

Evaporation and prilling system

Prills cooling system

Urea hydrolyser and desorber 

Steam and condensate

Formation of ammonia carbamate, at 25 0 C:2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g)


-38,086 cal/ g mole

Dehydration of ammonia carbamate to urea, at 25 0C: NH4COONH2 (S)

NH2CONH2 (l) + H2O (l)

+10,330 cal/g mole

Overall reaction at 25 0C:2NH3 (g) +CO2 (g) 

NH2CONH2 (l) + H2 O (l)

-27,756 cal/g mol

CO2 Supply and Compression

The CO2  gas is available from ammonia plant at normal pressure of 0.14 to 0.22 kg/cn2 g and at

a temperature

CO2 spray water.


of 50* to 60* C. This gas is cooled and saturated in

and water flows counter currently through packed

 polypropylene pall rings for cooling. A demister pad above the distribution  provided the carryover along with exit CO2

tray is

from spray cooler.

Water from the bottom of the spray cooler is sent to the cooling tower spray cooler sump pump. The

bed of

 by CO2

exit saturated CO 2  with water vapour enters CO2

knock out drum where the moisture is knocked out and drained.

Anticorrosion air is injected to

maintain the oxygen level of 0.60% in the CO2

stream for HP equipments activation to prevent corrosion. The CO 2  leaving knock out drum is compressed in Hitachi make CO2 centrifugal compressor. Hitachi CO2  compressor consists of two casings LP and HP casings each having two stages of compression. LP case is directly coupled with turbine running at 7160 21

rpm and HP casing runs at 14153 rpm through a step up gearbox. The CO2 is compressed from 0.16kg/cm2g to 157 Kg/cm2g. Drive turbine extraction cum admission condensing type is installed to run compressor with minimum governor speed of 6375 rpm and maximum speed of 7875 driven by 60 ata steam and 4 ata steam as induction steam.60 ata steam is supplied by generation plant at about 61.5 ata and 410*C. The steam after passing through exhaust end section of the turbine is condensed at a  pressure of  0.94 Kg/cm2g at turbine outlet in the surface condenser. Noncondensable from the condenser are removed by steam ejector system operating by 4 ata steam. The steam exit of the ejectors is condensed in the heat exchangers with cooling water flowing in the tubes and is pumped to the dearator of the steam generation plant by the surface condensate pumps, The vacuum in the surface condensers is maintained by a set of two ejectors in two stages. 

 NH3 supply and pumping

Liquid ammonia directly from ammonia plant enters the urea plant battery limit at 20Kg/cm2 g and 40*C. The alternate source from ammonia supply is from atmospheric ammonia storage tank. The cold liquid ammonia is preheated at 40*C in the ammonia  preheater Liquid ammonia from filter outlet enters the ammonia suction vessel which serves the  purposes of providing a suction volume for HP ammonia pumps and acting as a pulsation dampener. The liquid ammonia from the ammonia suction vessel is pumped at reaction  pressure of 153 Kg/cm2. Out of total ammonia discharged by pumps , 90-95% ammonia goes to HP carbamate condenser and 5-10% goes to autoclave.

Reaction/High Pressure Systems HP stripper


CO2 gas with 0.60% oxygen and inert discharged from CO 2 compressor at 157 Kg/cm2 and 115 to 120*C enters the stripper. Autoclave overflow line leads to HP stripper at the top channel. The liquid dividers are fitted over each tube having ferrule. Each ferrule in the liquid divider has three holes each of 2.6mm diameter through which the liquid flows into the tubes. This exchanger acts like a falling film counter-current heat exchanger. The efficiency of exchanger depends on the formation of liquid film. Liquid d istribution in the tube is very important. Liquid starvation in tube may happen when there is loss of liquid level in autoclave or blockage of ferrules holes. Stripper tubes under this condition will  be over heated resulting in heavy corrosion and tube failures. CO2 while rising through the tubes picks up heat from falling solution and strips off NH 3  and CO2  from the carbamate. From HP stripper top channel CO 2 along with liberated NH 3  is taken to HP carbamate condenser. Saturated steam at 21.8 Kg/cm2g and 216*C is introduced at the shell side of the HP stripper to provide the heat required for stripping.

Urea carbamate solution is collected at the bottom channel of the HP stripper. This solution is let down from 153Kg/cm2g to 2.3 Kg/cm2g across the level control valve. It is imperative that to maintain the stripper working efficiency, both gas and liquid flow through each tube must be continuous and even.

HP condenser

The vapour (NH3 & CO2  ) liberated from the HP stripper flows upwards to the top channel of HP carbamate condenser

below the packed bed. Liquid

HP ammonia pump at a pressure

of 153 Kg/cm2g

channel. HP stripper exit gas is rich

in CO2 and the  NH3/ CO2 mole ratios around

1.7. The presence of 2.5% water and slightly higher

ammonia from

and 45*C enters the


system  pressure makes the

optimum mole ratio to around 3.0.

Dilute carbamate solution generated in LP system is pumped with HP carbamate pumps to HP condenser and HP scrubber. Dilute carbamate line joins the inlet liquid ammonia line to HP condenser. About 65% of the carbamate solution is fed to HP condenser. The remaining carbamate is fed to HP scrubber. 23

Carbamate solution joins the liquid ammonia stream and enters HP condenser. The mixed stream flows through the packed bed, located above the liquid distribution tray. Some of the vapors (NH3 & CO2  ) enter the packaging and a part of it condensed within the  packaging .Uncondensed vapors flow through the tubes and are condensed to carbamate Boiler feed water/condensate enters the shell side

from 4 ata steam drum through

the four down comers and generated steam rises

up through the steam risers and

enters the steam drum. Liquid carbamate solution and uncondensed gas leaves HP condenser from separate nozzles at the bottom and enters the bottom channel of autoclave.

At the operating condition  prevailing in HP condenser  , the rate of carbamate formation is proportional to the rate of removal of

heat of exothermic reaction.

The pressure prevailing in the steam drum should not be brought down certain value otherwise the crystallization temperature

below a

of carbamate (153C) would

 be reached. 90%(v/v) of the vapors condense in high pressure

condenser and the

remaining 10% are

necessary heat for

condensed in autoclave there by supplying

urea formation from carbamate.

Autoclave Reactor 

The carbamate solution and  uncondensed   NH3 and  CO2  from the HP carbamate condenser are introduced at the bottom of the autoclave .A part of liquid ammonia from HP

ammonia pump is also


Quantity of ammonia required to be introduced

at the

bottom of the autoclave.

into the autoclave is determined

from the process condition and plant load.

Autoclave receives liquid ammonia , carbamate solution and uncondensed  NH3, CO 2 ,

O2  and inert from HP condenser and carbamate the four streams join at 4 different

solution from HP scrubber .All

nozzles at the  bottom of autoclave and rises to


top through

11 sieve trays . Liquid

mixture of urea, carbamate , and water

overflows to the down corner to the HP stripper. A radioactive source (Cobalt-60) is provided for level measurement of autoclave. Loss of liquid level in autoclave will evidently create a

number of problems in the system

. Due to loss of liquid level, CO 2 will flow in

reverse direction to autoclave via

down comer & pressure rise will be very quick

& HP condenser temperature will

fall sharply.

The inert and unconverted NH3 and CO2  exit

the autoclave through an overhead

line to HP scrubber. Control Valve, located on

the autoclave gas exit line , controls

the autoclave  pressure and consequently high  pressure system in emergency . To  protect high pressure system from over pressurization , relief values set at 161 ata

are installed on the autoclave 

top exit gas line.

HP Scrubber:

Uncondensed NH3 and CO2  and non-condensable from the

reactor top enter the

 bottom of high pressure scrubber, Dilute carbamate through HP carbamate pumps fed to

HP scrubber condensing media in the shell side. NH3

and CO2

condensed while bubbling up through the head. A small amount of uncondensed and CO2

and the inert

leave the HP scrubber through inert vent valve to

get  NH3


absorber. CO2 is injected above packed bed for purging so as to prohibit any explosion that may occur due to presence of H 2 .

Heat of carbamate formation is removed by a closed condensate circulation system (CCS) .Carbamate solution formed overflows through a nozzle located above the „U‟ tube bundle to autoclave

LP Absorber And Scrubbing System:

Uncondensed NH3 , CO2 and incondensable from the HP scrubber enter the bottom of LP absorber. NH3  and CO2  get scrubbed with lean ammonia water while rising up through the two packed beds. The lean water is supplied by process


water pumps from lean ammonia water tank .A small amount o f uncondensed NH3 , CO2 and the inert leaves the LP absorber to ammonia scrubber. Final scrubbing of the vapors is achieved in ammonia scrubber with lean ammonia water or DM water before being vent to atmosphere. 


Rectifying Column / Separator :-

The urea

carbamate solution from the HP

stripper is let down to

across stripper level control valve. As a result of

3.3 kg/cm2 g

pressure letdown, part


carbamate in the solution is vaporized to  NH3 & CO2 & solution gets cooled up to 170 to 120 0C. the liquid vapour mixture flows into the top of rectifying column/separator. The liquid vapour mixture is sprayed over the packed bed of rushing rings through nozzle

& spray breaker in rectifying column.

The upper portion of rectifying column consist of

rushing rings bed & the lower

half of the column

separator. The urea



a vapour liquid


solution is collected over the cone & flows to the bottom channel of the recirculation heater. The recirculation heater is essentially a thermo syphoning heater. It is design to provide min. Residence time to urea solution At the elevated temperature level, so that biuret formation is limited. All the carbamate is decomposed & the urea solution Vapour  mixture flows to the bottom of rectifying column/separator. Vapour  is stripped  off  from liquid  & rises upwards via  packed   bed  where it meets descending urea carbamate solution thus rectification of carbamate solution takes  place. Rising vapors are enriched. Heat of vaporization is supplied by the hot rising vapour. Vapour leaves the rectifying column & enters falling film type LP carbamate condensers.

Absorber, Condenser & Separator:

The overhead vapours leaving from rectifying column are introduced at the bottom of falling film type LP carbamate condensers. Part of the NH 3 & CO2  are condensed to form ammonium carbamate. Lean ammonium carbamate formed in 26

the flask tank condenser is introduced in to the gas inlet line of the LP carbamate condensers through a sparker by lean carbamate pumps. The carbamate formed in reflux condenser  of  hydrolyser  system is also taken top of  LP condenser. Provision is also made to introduce measured  quantity of  liquid  nh3 to maintain  NH3/CO2 mole ratio.

Heat of condensation is removed by condensate circulation


Carbamate solution

From LP carbamate condenser overflows into the LP

carbamate separator which also acts as a suction vessel for HP carbamate pumps. The pressure control valve on gas exit line to controls the

recirculation system

atmospheric vent scrubber

atmosphere scrubber & effectively

by pressure by sending vapours to the

for further recovery

of NH3.

Pressure control in the recirculation system requires a the system is happens that


special operating

pressure of

2.5 to 2.8 kg/cm2 g & controlled by control valve. It so

system pressure is raised when the

condensation is


Uncondensed gases are taken to reflux condenser of hydrolyser system. Higher pressure in the recycle system is caused by incomplete condensation co2 & nh3.

Carbamate Solution Recycles:

Carbamate solution from LP carbamate separator  is recycled  to HP synthesis section via HP carbamate  pumps. Around 35% of  solution is  pumped  to HP scrubber &

the rest to HP carbamate

reciprocating pumps driven by variable speed


Carbamate pumps are

motors via gearbox.

Flash Tank Condenser 

Urea solution From rectifying column separator at 135 & 2.3kg/cm2 g pressure is flashed to flash tank separator, which is maintained at pressure of 1.06 kg/cm2 g. Urea solution from rectifying column is let down across the level control valve to flash tank separator. Liquid & gas phase are separated in flash tank separator. A considerable amount o f water & NH3 is liberated from the urea solution & this 27

liquid Vapour mixture enters the flash tank separator. Urea solution from the bottom of separator flows to

pre evaporator. Urea solution from the flash tank can be taken

directly to the urea

storage tank bypassing pre evaporator.

Vapours from the flash tank  separator  flows to the flash tank scrubber  where residual urea, NH3 is scrubbed with ammonia water supplied by urea recovery circulation  pups. The vapours leaving the scrubber are sent to the flash tank condenser where remaining NH3 & CO 2 are condensed by

cooling water to form

lean carbamate solution Heat of

of water formation is

reaction & latent heat

removed by circulating cooling water in the tube side of the condenser. Vapours leaving the flash tank condenser are sent to atmosphere Vent scrubber for further recovery of  NH3  or can be removed by the flash tank ejector when flash tank is operated under vacuum when pre evaporator section is bypassed. 4 ata steam is used in the ejector. The air in bleed isolation valve is provided to the flash tank condenser for releasing the vacuum when prilling section is shut down.

Pre Evaporator:

The urea solution from the flash tank separator about 104 0C & about 1.06 kg/cm2 g vacuum pressure is flashed to pre evaporator which is maintained at 0.4 kg/cm2 g vacuum pressure. Urea solution Is heated up to 98.6 0C in two separate heat exchangers, which are parts of pre evaporator. Temperature of the exit urea solution is controlled by 4ata steam control valve provided on 4 atm steam inlet line. Exit urea solution at concentration of 82.6%. Temp 9.6 0C is drawn to urea solution. Storage tank. The vapour leaving he pre evaporator mainly consist of water & NH 3 are condensed in  pre evaporator condenser with the help of cooing water passing through tube side the condensed Uncondensed

vapour from the

water is drawn to the rich ammonia water tank. condenser are connected to first evaporator off


gases there by vacuum in pre evaporator is maintained with the help of first evaporator ejector system.

Urea Solution Storage Tanks:

Two urea solution Storage tanks are installed to receive urea solution tank. Urea solution

from the pre evaporator is received

 pumping to



the evaporator. Urea storage tank is maintained under atm. Pressure urea

solution Tank also receives recycle solution of

& urea

in urea solution tank for

evaporation section during


dust dissolved solution From prill cooling system & bagging & from handling plant via prill cooling system.

Evaporation And Prilling System:

Urea solution having a concentration of 82.6% is pumped from tank to the first evaporator separator by urea solution pump.

the urea solution The evaporator

separator operates under vacuum of 0.31 kg/cm2 g. Urea solution is heated in

the shell

& tube type heat exchanger with urea solution flowing in the

& 4 atm


0 steam on the shell side the urea solution is heated from 98.6 to 130 C to achieve

urea solution concentration of 95%.

The urea solution From the climbing film single pass e vaporator flashes into the separator mounted directly on the evaporator. The water vapour together with some ammonia is separated

0 Urea solution at a temp of about 13 C having concentration of 95.5 % then flows from first evaporator, it is further concentrated to over 98.5% urea melt for prilling

it is

heated on tube

side by 9 at a steam


shell side. Urea from the second

evaporator flashes directly to the separator. The overhead from it condensed & collected in ammonia water tanks.

Prills Cooling System:


Urea from the second evaporator enters in suction of urea melt pump. Urea melt is  pumped to the prilling equipment on top of prilling tower.

urea in fine droplets. Air is drawn from the  bottom of prilling tower, via fixed openings by 4 prill tower induced fans situated

at the prilling tower

top & flows

counter current to the flow of urea prills.

During the free fall in the tower the heat of crystallization is being carried away  by air entering at the bottom of tower. The droplets of urea first



0 cooled to a temp 80 to 90 C. The hot urea prills fall on the scraper at bottom & there fed to prill tower conveyer.

Material handling :

Urea prills after discharging from product conveyer flows into the fluidized bed cooler through inlet nozzle. atm air is supplied by inlet air fan for cooling. During fluidization on perforated plate of fluidized  prills is taken away by air & cooled urea prills

bed cooler heat of hot urea flows over discharged nozzle.

Exhaust air along with some fines of prills to dust removal systems after removing dust clean air is

exhausted to atm. by chimney. Dust separated is collected in three

silos. 

Urea Hydrolyser & Desorber :

Process water containing 6.2% NH 3, 4.3% CO2 & 1.3% urea by wt from strong ammonia water tank is pumped with desorber feed pump via desorber heat exchanger to the first desorber. The first desorber is having 20 nos. of sieve trays in order to provide uniform contact between liquid & vapour. In the first desorber bulk of NH 3 & CO2 is stripped off  by means of overhead vapours from second desorber & hydrolyser.

Pre desorber feed water desorber is

pumped by

containing about 1% NH3 from the bottom of the first hydrolyser feed pump through the tube side hydrolyser 30

 preheater, where its temp. is raised  & fed  to the top of  the hydrolyser. In the hydrolyser urea in feed water is converted to NH 3 & CO2  according to hydrolysis reaction :


2NH3 + CO2

The hydrolyser is operated at temp. Of 190 at top & 200 0C at bottom. Heat required for hydrolysis of urea & raising temp. to

200c is supplied by 23

ata superheated

steam fed into hydrolyser bottom through sparker. The flow of vapour in hydrolyser is counter current. In the short pipe down comer are fixed at

hydrolyser 20 nos. of sieve tray with a spacing of 1100mmm to provide

contact between. Liquid & vapors. The pressure of NH3 retards The ammonia produced as a result

& solution

of hydrolysis


hydrolysis reaction.

reaction is simultaneously

stripped by the uprising vapours. The urea concentration of less than 10 ppm in effluent can be achieved in counter current type of hydrolyser. 0 0 Effluent leaving hydrolyser bottom is cooled from 200 C to 146 C in the

hydrolyser  preheater with the hydrolyser feed

for final striping vapour leaving at top of

water & is fed to second desorber hydrolyser are fed to first desorber

 below 5th tray as supplementary stripping medium & for recovery of ammonia & CO 2.

The overhead vapors from the first desorber are taken to vertical reflux condenser where it is in

almost completely condense in shell side the cooling water  is

supplied at tube side of reflux condenser. Ammonia water from the outlet of flash tank scrubber is pumped by pump & introduced in the of gas line. This will help condensation in the reflux condenser. Uncondensed gases are separated & fed to the atm vent scrubber for recovering NH3. Liquid from the reflux level tank is transferred by means of reflux  pump to LP carbamate condenser. A small part of liquid is fed at top of first desorber as reflux

to control the water  content I top

 product by controlling top temperature of first desorber around 115 0C


In second desorber the remaining NH3 & CO2 means of saturated LP

the overhead vapours bearing NH3 &

steam available &

CO2 are fed to the first desorber bottom as

in the effluents stripped off by

stripping medium.

The effluent from second desorber bottom containing less than 10 ppm NH3  ,urea 0

is cooled from 137 to 47 C in the desorber heat exchangers by exchanging heat with first desorber bottom cooler. The final effluent can be diverted to effluent is sent to cooling tower directly or it is along with spray cooler

taken to CO2  spray

water with help of

cooler & then to cooling tower

spray cooler pumps.

And Steam Condensate System

Urea plant uses steam at five pressure levels 60ata, ata steam is

received in urea plant battery limit from

40ata, 23ata, 9ata & 4ata. 60 steam generation plant.

23 atm steam requirement is met by letting down 60 atm steam from turbines of CO 2 compressors. 9 atm steam is produced by letting down 23 atm steam. 4 atm steam is generated from the HP condenser & turbines of steam generation plant additional

from back pressure steam

requirement of 4 ata steam if any, is met

 by letting down 9 atm steam.

60 atm steam is generated in BHEL boiler & supplied

to urea plant at 60 atm &

the steam is utilized in urea plant turbines plant needs

about 78

tones of 60 atm

steam to run Hitachi CO2 compressor turbine.

40 atm steams available from utilities at urea plant battery limits

for driving the

turbine of main lube oil pump for NP/PB CO2 compressor turbine. It is generated through letting down 60 ata steam through control valve. 23 atm steam is extracted from CO2 compressor turbine is used in HP stripper. 32

9 atm steam is generated by flashing 23 atm steam condensate from 23 atm steam saturator. A part of this flashed to form 9

ata steam which flows to


station. A small quantity of 23 atm steam is also spurged into 9 atm saturator to meet the additional demand for 9 atm steam. It is mainly used in second evaporator.

4 atm steam is produced by natural circulation of condensate to shell side of HP condenser. It is mainly used in first evaporator, recirculation heater, CO 2  centrifugal compressor turbines, second desorber & pre evaporator. 63 t/h of 4 atm steam is produced from HP condenser



4.1.1 Natural Gas Desulphuriser 


To remove sulfur compounds, which are poisonous for the catalysts, from LNG with activated carbon by absorption. 

Operating conditions:

LNG contains about 0.5 to 3ppm sulfur. Sulfur is absorbed by activated carbon. The outlet gas should contain 0.2ppm sulfur. 


The feed gas contains about 0.5 to 3ppm sulfur compounds in the form of sulphides, disulphides, thiophenes etc, and these should be removed as they are poisonous for the  process to follow. There are two desulpharisers out of which one is online while the other is a stand by which is used when the first one is regenerations.

The process employed here is adsorption. For desulphurization activated carbon catalyst is used. There are two beds of catalyst-at the top and bottom. It adsorbs the sulphur compound. RLNG enters the desulpharisers at the top and is removed from the bottom with a sulphar impurity of about 0.2ppm. The gas then enters the Knock-out drum in which the liquid hydrocarbons, if any are knocked out.

4.2 Primary Reformer 

Purpose: To react liquefied natural gas with steam in presence of nickel catalyst to get H 2 for synthesis of NH3. Pressure: 31.3 kg Temperature:818 de 34

Fig. 4.1 Primary Reformer 


Reforming is an initial process of forming Hydrogen and Nitrogen in ammonia plant after the process of desulphurization. The primary reforming is carried out in the primary reforming(furnace). The gas from the desulphuriser is first preheated in the feed  preheated in the convection section. The inlet and outlet temperatures are 93°C and 232°C respectively. The above natural gas is mixed with super- heated steam to get a steam to carbon ratio of 3.5:1. The mixer at 295°C is then passed through the second feed pre heater coil in the convection section to achieve a temperature up to 525°C. The final mixer goes to the  primary reformer.

The primary reformer is rectangular in shape. Outside is consisting of S.S body and there are insulator bricks inside. It consists of tubes packed with nickel which is used as catalyst. These tubes are vertically with the help of spring suspension and between the vertical rows of these tubes the burners are installed which use natural gas and associated gas as a fuel for heating the tubes. The spring suspensions are made provide for the 35

expansions and contractions of the tube material. There are in total 336 tubes and 126  burners.

Inside primary reformer endothermic reaction takes place at about 818°C. The product each raw of tubes is connected at the bottom. The product from each of 42 tubes meets at the centre and forms the single line called „Transfer line‟ which rises upward. The temperature of the gases inside the tube is 852°C. The „Transfer Line‟ directs the flow to

the secondary reformer.

4.3 Secondary Reformer: 


To complete the reforming of methane, which comes out from primary reformer. Also nitrogen is introduced in the process by burning a part of reformed gas with oxygen contained in the air at the top section of secondary reformer. Pressure: 31.0 kg Temperature: 820 deg C


Fig. 4.2 Secondary Reformer


The partially reformed gas from primary reformer entered the secondary reformer at a temperature of 820°C. The flow is downward a centrally located air inlet pipe, air supplied by process. Air compressor is preheated with steam. A small quantity of steam is mixed at air inlet to the air pre heater coil to ensure continuous flow into the secondary reformer

The process is namely exothermic and the temperature in the combustion zone is about 995°C. In the secondary reformer the working pressure is about 31 kgf/cm 2. The purpose of the secondary reformer is to complete the reforming of methane which comes out from 37

the primary reformer. Also nitrogen is introduced in the process by mixing a part of reformed gas with oxygen contained in air the section of secondary reformer.

The hot gases pass through the bed of nickel catalyst and their temperature is around 992°C. The heat is recovered from the reformed gas by use of waste heat boiler and the steam produced is again used in the other operations.

4.4 Primary Waste Heat Boiler:


Steam generation from secondary reformer effluent gases. Pressure: 30.9 kg Temperature: 996.7 deg C

4.5 Secondary Waste Heat Boiler: 

The reformed gas from primary reformers enters the top of the secondary reformer, which is mixed with air by “John Zive Air Mixer”.

 Nitrogen is introduced in the process by burning of part of the performed in the air at HT top section.

The heat of combustion is made available for the endothermic reaction of the methane reforming at elevated temperature at bottom

section. Pressure: 105.4 kg Temperature: 313.90 deg C 4.6 Shift Convertor: 


To convert CO of reformer gas to gain one mole of H2 per mole of CO for ammonia synthesis. 

Design And Operating Details:

Table 4.1 High Pressure Section 31.8 kg/cm2

Operating pressure


Design pressure

34.1 kg/cm2

Vessel design temperature


Inlet gas temperature


Outlet gas temperature


Table 4.2 Low Pressure Section Operating pressure

29.1 kg/cm2

Design pressure

34.1 kg/cm2

Vessel design temperature


Inlet gas temperature


Outlet gas temperature


Max. allowable pressure drop through beds(total)


4.7 Ht Shift Conversion: 

The reformed gas enters the HT section of the shift convertor at a temperature of 345°C and flows through the catalyst bed. The bypass is provided to control the HT shift converter feed inlet temperature. The catalyst used here is iron oxide.

By the reaction most of the carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide also gives out heat. Above reaction is reversible and carbon monoxide is converted back into carbon dioxide which is favored at low temperature.

4.8 Lt Shift Conversion:

The gas coming out of the HT shift converter still contains about 2.5% carbon monoxide. The removal of this CO is done in this section. The temperature of the gas in the LT shit converter is about 200°C. The catalyst used here is copper. The heat is recovered from the gas before it is sent to the carbon dioxide removal section at low temperature.

The gas is first cooled by a desulphur heater with a spray of recycled process condensate  pumped by pump from the raw gas separator. The quenching is done with the desulphur heater as the excessive high temp. can cause degradation of a-MDEA(aqueous-Methyl Diethanol Amine) 39

4.9 CO2 Absorber: 


To remove the carbon dioxide contained in the raw synthesis gas by scrubbing it with 30% to 40% MDEA solution. Pressure: 27.4 kg Temperature: 75 deg C 


In this section the bulk of CO 2 in the raw synthesis gas is removed by absorption using 40% MDEA solution at high pressure and low temperature. The absorption of CO 2 involves the reaction of dissolved CO2 in water.

With a-MDEA to form a loose chemical compound which can be easily dissolved at high temp. and low pressure. The raw synthesis gas at a pressure of 27.3 kg/cm2 .g and a temp. of 63°C contains about 18% dry volume of CO2  is introduced at the bottom of CO2 absorber.

4.10 CO2 Stripper: 


To regenerate rich MDEA solution by steam stripper with the help of reboiler and there  by realizing CO2. Pressure: 0.74 kg Temperature: 75 deg 


In this section the bulk of CO 2 in the raw synthesis gas is removed by absorption, using at 40% aqueous methyl ethanol amine solution at relatively high pressure and low temperature. The CO2 is sent to urea plant , dry ice and balance if any is vented by atmosphere. The lean a-MDEA solution form the bottom of strippers is reused after cooling , for absorption of CO2 in absorber. 40

4.11 Methanator: 


To convert small quantity of CO and CO2 to methane by reacting with hydrogen in  presenc4e of highly active nickel catalyst. Pressure: 26.7 kg Temperature: 375.6 deg C

4.12 Synthesis Convertor: 


In synthesis converter, H2 and N2 contained in the converter feed combine to form ammonia in presence of promoted iron catalyst at the prevailing temperature and pressure of 420°c and 135 kg/cm2 respectively. Pressure: 146.2 kg Temperature: top head=283.9 deg C Startup heater outlet=537.8 deg C Others part=146.1 deg C 4.13 Ammonia Separator: 


To separate and remove maximum amount from recycle gas and slight traces of water, CO, CO2 contained in the makeup gas which are chilled to 28.9 C.

Table 4.3 Operating Condition




147.7 kg/cm




5.1.1 Narmada Water System:

Generally fertilizer plants require a lot of water have raw water supply from river , lake , pond , sea

for the process. An industry may or subsoil resources, canal.

 Narmada Water System In IFFCO (Kalol Unit):

IFFCO Kalol plant is away from the river and no lake is available in the nearby vicinity. Thus the water required is received from SSNNL (Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited) Dholka branch canal near Jaspur village. Raw water is required in the plant mainly for. 

Cooling tower (CT) make up water after partial treatment in WTP.

Blending to cooling tower make up water.

Boiler feed water make up tower after treatment in WTP.

Drinking water.

Fire water.

Service water & other miscellaneous uses.

Water to township.

This plant is designed for the treatment of 4 MGD = 1800M 3/Day water which is received from SSNNL (Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Ltd.) Dholka branch canal near Jaspur village. The water from Narmada canal is stored in raw water reservoir capacity 4900 M3 is pumped to site in water treatment plant. This water is again stored in raw water reservoir capacity 20000 M3. From this reservoir we are treating the water in water treatment plant. Turbidity, suspended solids and microbiological growth is controlled by addition of Poly aluminum chloride and chlorine and then it pass to clarifoculator and sand filter. The clear water from sand stored in clear water sump capacity 10000 M3 is supplied to DM plant, cooling tower and for the domestic water us 42

5.1.2 Water Treatment Plant:  Narmada water is supplied by Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited from Jaspur village to pre-treatment plant and then to water treatment plant. The water treatment plant consists of cation, anion, storage base anion (SBA) and secondary mixed bed (SMB) units. The advantage of property of resin material to exchange in ion in its structure, for an ion in solution is utilized in the process of water treatment plant

The Water Treatment Process Consists Of Following Five Steps:

1. Exchange of Cations in Strong acid cation exchangers 2. Exchange of anions in weak base anion exchangers 3. Dissociation of carbonic acid in degasser unit. 4. Strong base anion (SBA) exchangers and 5. Degassing:

For removing the carbonic acid formed by the removal of cations of carbonates a degasser is provided which will remove H 2CO3 by the process of stripping with air.

The reaction is as follows. No additional chemical is used in this process. H2CO3 

H2O + CO2

Strong Bed Anion Exchange:

Degassed water passes through a bed of strong base anion exchange resin. Strong basic anion exchangers will remove silica, sulphides and carbonates as well as the other common anions. For this reasons, direct silica removal is possible. The removal of silica  by strong basic anion exchanger resin can be represented as follows.


ReOH + H2SiO3



At IFFCO (Kalol), water treatment plant (WTP) is broadly divided into two 43

categories: 1. Water treatment plant consisting of five units of strong acidic cation exchangers and weak base anion exchangers (DM Stream) for partially treated water as cooling tower makeup water. 2. Boiler feed water (BFW) treatment plant consisting of one co mmon degasser unit, four units each consisting of one strong basic anion bed exchangers (MB Steams).

Mixed Bed Exchange Unit:

In MB exchange unit water is passed through a bed of mixed resin i.e. cation resin and strong base anion resin. Here any residual cation and anion of the salts in water are removed. Chemical reaction for service and regeneration are sane as in case of cation and strong base anion (SBA) exchangers. 

Cation Exchange Resin:

Some synthetic resins acts as cation exchange resins. These resinous substances reacts with water containing salts, replace the metallic cation of these salts by hydrogen ions n the resinous substance. Such resinous substance when exhausted can again be regenerated  by acids having hydrogen ions. 

If such a resinous substance is expressed as H 2Re, the chemical action can be written as follows: H2Re + CaSO4 H2Re + MgCl2

CaRe + H2SO4

MgRe + 2HCl

H2Re + Ca (HCO3)2  H2Re + 2NaNO3


+ 2H2CO3

 Na2Re + 2HNO3

In the equation, Ca, Ma and Na are retained in the cation exchange resins and respective mineral acids are provided, separating thereby Ca, Ma and Na from the water. At kalol, Unit steam of 4% HCI is passed through the bed of cation resin and following reactions will take place. Ca-Re+2HCI

H2Re + CaCl2 44

Mg-Re + 2HCI

H2Re + MgCl2

Anion Exchange Resin:

Some synthetic resins act as anion exchange resins. These resins remove negative ions such as chlorides, nitrates and sulphates from water by replacing OH ions. If we represent these resins as OH-Re, the chemical equation can be represented as follows.

OH-Re + HCI Cl

Re + H2O

SO4Re2+ 2H2O

2OH-Re+  NO3Re + H 2O


OH-Re + HNO3 

When alkali is passed through the bed of anion unit, the following reaction take  place.  NH4OH + Cl-Re




2NH4OH + SO4Re2




 NaOH + Cl-Re




2NaOH + SO4Re2




The original resin from OH-Re is regained by regeneration of the anion unit with alkali and so the resin is ready for, further anion ion exchange.

Cooling Tower Make-Up Water Generation:

The Narmada water from pre-treatment plant is pumped to cation exchanger. The water first enters the cooling tower makeup-boiler feed water pretreated section consisting of five nos. of DM streams. In cation exchanger, where the water first enters, the salts  presents in the raw are converted to their corresponding acid e.g. sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid. The acidic water then passes through t he resin trap where the entrained resin is retained. Water then enters the exchanger where all the anions are removed by the weak basic anion exchanger resin. The water is again passed through a resin trap for removing any carry over of resin. The demineralized water, as it comes out of the trap after anion exchanger, contains 45

chlorides less than 0.5 ppm and suitable for consumption as cooling tower make up. This water is stored. in cooling tower make up water sump from where it is taken to the cooling tower through a cooling tower makeup water pump. The cooling tower make up water is degassed in a degassing cell of cooling towers.

The strong acid cation exchanger is filled with strongly acidic cation exchange resin, suitable for regeneration with 4% hydrochloric acid. The weak base anion exchanger is filled with weak base anion exchange resin, suitable for regeneration with 4% ammonium hydroxide or 4 % sodium 


When water equivalent to the designed capacity if one stream has passed through one stream, as indicated by the flow integrator mounted on the panel, or the conductivity of the service water increases as indicated by the conductivity indicator mounted on the top  panel, the unit will be shut down for regeneration purpose.

Up BFW Make Water Generation:

The water required for boiler feed purpose is

to be degassed before introduction into

the SBA units of the mixed bed section. The

outlet water from the weak base anion

unit goes to the top of an air blown degasser. The carbonic acid formed in the strong  base cation exchanger is removed from the water in the degasser.

The degassed water from the degasser sump is pumped by degasser pumps to boiler feed water section consisting of four streams of strong basic anion & secondary mixed bed unit.

The strong acid cation resin is suitable for regeneration with 4 % hydrochloric acid and strong base anion exchange resin is suitable for regeneration with 4 % sodium hydroxide. The cation exchange resin exchanges hydrogen (H+) ions with positive charges contained in the water, while the anion exchange resin exchanges hydroxyl (OH') ions for the ions with negative charges. The net result for this process is the replacement of the dissolved salts with an equivalent quantity of water. The residual salts from cooling 46

water  –   boiler feed water section and silica in water is removed in the strong base anion  bed and secondary mixed bed (SMB) unit.

When an equivalent quantity of water to the designed figure, as indicated by the flow integrator, has passed through the mixed beds, or the conductivity/silica exceeds the set limit, the stream will be manually shut down for regeneration.

5.1.3 Cooling Towers 

Most industrial processes need cooling medium for efficient and proper operation. Water is the most effective cooling medium used today because,

It is normally plentiful

It is easy to handle and can carry large amount of heat per unit volume

It does not decompose

It is normally readily available and is in-expensive

The system using water as coolant is called as cooling water systems. During process, the cooling water gets heated up and must be either cooled before it can be used again or replaced with fresh water. In most industrial localities fresh water is too scarce to permit its unlimited use as a cooling medium.

The tendency of water tables for the bore wells is forcing the industries to conserve the water wherever possible and reusing the water to a maximum extent.-For reusing the cooling after, it must be cooled back to nearly ambient direct contact cooling tower where it is cooled with air In the cooling tower, ordinary the fresh cooling water requirement is  by about 1.5 to 2.5 % of the circulation rate.

There are three basic cooling water systems.

1. Closed Recirculating System: 2. This system uses the same cooling water repeatedly in continuous cycle. First the water absorbs heat from process fluid, and then releases it in another heat exchanger. In this system, an evaporative cooling tower is not included. 3. Once Through Systems: 47

In these systems, the cooling water passes through heat exchanger equipment only once. The mineral content of the cooling water remains practically unchanged, as it passes through the systems 

Open Recirculation System:

It consists of cooling tower, pumps and heat exchangers. The pumps keep the water circulating through heat exchangers where it picks up heat in the cooling tower heat is released from the water through evaporation. Thus the heated water gets cooled in the cooling tower with naturl or mechanical draft provided in the tower. Because of evaporation, the water in open recirculation system undergoes changes in its basic. 

Spray pounds

Cooling tower 

Evaporative condensers

This system permits great economy in makeup water requirement and average operating temperature range is 5 C to 17 C.

Principle Of Cooling Tower:

The cooling tower is one type of heat exchanger which cools hot water with air. It is  basically a tower containing treated wood as feeling material. Filling material is piled up in the tower from the distribution basin. Water falls on the filling and breaks into fine droplets. The function of the filling (internals) is to increase the contact surface between the water and air. The filling at IFFCO-Kalol is replaced arranged in such a way that the water entering the distribution trays near the top of the tower. Fan mounted on top of the tower induces air into the tower through air inlet, placed on either side of the tower. Across this air flow, water drops fall through fillings.

When the water droplets existing in air evaporates, the quantity of heat about 540 kcal/kg is taken from the surrounding as latent heat of evaporation. In case that the temperature of hot water is higher than that of surrounding air, the heat removed from water and transferred to air is the sum of the sensible heat and latent heat of evaporation. The sensible heat is less as compared to latent heat. 48

Types Of Cooling Tower:

Cooling towers are classified according to the means by which air is supplied to the tower and the method of contact between water and air. There are two types of coo ling towers. 1. Atmospheric and natural draft cooling tower 2. Mechanical draft tower

Atmospheric cooling tower:

The atmospheric tower works on the atmospheric wind current. The air blows through the lower sides in one direction at a time, which shifts as per the season of the year and other atmospheric conditions. Since the atmospheric currents must penetrate the e ntire width of tower, the towers are made very narrow in compression with other type and must be very long to afford equal capacity.

 Natural draft cooling towers:

These types of cooling towers operate in same way as a furnace chimney. Air is heated in the tower by hot water, so that its density is lower. The difference between the density of the air in the tower and outside the tower causes a natural flow of cold air into the tower must be tall for sufficient buoyancy and must have large section because of low rate at which the air circulates. Natural draft towers consume more pumping power.

The mechanical draft towers is subdivided into two types:

(i) Forced draft towers (ii) Included draft towers

Forced Draft Towers:

Forced draft cooling towers are the oldest types of mechanical draft towers. The fan  being-located at the base of the tower so that they force the air into the sides of the tower and flows upwards through the falling water and out at the top of the tower.

The air Distribution is poor since the air must make a 90 deg turn while at high velocity. 49

In forced draft tower the air is discharged at low velocity from a large opening at the top of the tower. Under this condition the air possess a small velocity head and t ends to settle into the path of fan intake. This means that fresh air is contaminated by partially saturated air which has already passed through the tower. This condition is known as recirculation and reduces the performances of cooling tower.

Induced Draft Towers:

This tower efficiently and thoroughly eliminates the difficulties experienced from the forced draft type. The fan being located at the top of the tower, flows upwards through the falling water and discharges to atmosphere. In induced draft tower, air is discharged through the fan at a high velocity and thus prevents air from settling of the induced draft tower causes entrainment loss or drift loss of water.

In these induced draft towers, air flow may be either cross flow counter current. At IFFCO-Kalol unit cooling towers are induced draft, cross flow type.

5.1.4 STEAM GENERATION PLANT: The modem steam generator is an integrated assembly of several essential components its function is to convert water into steam at a predetermined pressure and temperature. It is a physical change of state, accomplished by transferring heat produced by combustion: of a fuel, to water. Commonly it is a constant pressure process. The steam generator is  pressure vessel into which liquid water is pumped at the operating pressure. After heat has vaporized the liquid, the resulting steam is then ready either for delivery to the use or for flirter heating in a super heater. 

At IFFCO-Kalol plant, a BHEL make boiler of 80 t/h (net) capacity was commissioned on 5th October 1982 and is in operation since then.

The BHEL boiler is water tube, bid rum, forced draft furnace. It is o il and/or gas fired boiler of 80 t/h capacity at 61.5 Kg/cm 2g pressure and 410(+/-5) C temperature.

Principles Of Steam Generation And Circulation: 50

Within the steam generation, the steam formation of steam is hinged upon a successful transfer of heat. Once this transfer is made, steam formation will start. Steam formation can describe by use of a simple drum heated from beneath. Steam forms in bubbles to the surface where .the steam is released into the space above. Here in simplest form, three  part cycles is common to every steam generator. 

Flow water to the heated areas

Flow of steam and heated water to upper areas

Release of steam

There is a drum which has connected to it a loop of tubing, one of which is heated and the other unheated. Steam bubbles from in the heated leg, generally called a riser. The resulting steam water mixture is displaced by the re latively heavy water in the unheated leg or down comer and circulation flow of water is established. Under  operating conditions, there is a continuous flow of water from the drum where steam releases. The factors influencing circulation are that the column of water in the down comer leg weight more than equal column of steam water mixture in the down comer leg. This difference represents the force available to overcome friction and maintain circulation.

As actual steam generator consist of many tubular circuits, with a drum or drums acting as a distributing and collecting device and releasing point for steam. However, actual steam, generators are not built up by merely multiplying the number of simple individual loops, the circuits are more complex and the number o f individual paths for steam water flow varies from po int to point. The three system of circulation adopted in boiler are

 Natural circulation system

Controlled circulation system

Combined circulation system

  Cooling tower make up water is

drawn after weak base anion exchangers and

the boiler feed makeup water is supplied after removal of silica and traces o cation

and anions mixed bed

insulator instead if

units. The deposit layer is non-conductive and

good. conductor which is very essential for maximizing

thermal efficiency of the

boiler and heat' exchangers. Modem high pressure 51

 boilers need feed water, which should be of high degree of conditioned with certain chemicals. 

The water

from Narmada contains turbidity but contains mineral



chlorides, sulphates, and carbonates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron salts & sand in suspension. The level

of chlorides in water is very less. The

hardness is classified into two viz. temporary hardness and permanent hardness. 

The temporary hardness due to carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. Permanent hardness is caused by chlorides and sulphates of calcium magnesium. Bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium and sulphate of calcium from hard scales on boiler tubes resulting in

tube failure. Also, silica present

in the water has

higher pressure and temperature.

property of volatizing at

Chlorides and carbonates are responsible for corrosion in boiler system. 

Water treatment plant (WTP) is required to treat Narmada water for producing specified  quality of  cooling tower  make-up water  and   boiler  feed  make up water. A demineralization  based water  treatment  plant has  been  provided  to generate the entire quality of make-up water for cooling tower and boiler feed water of high quality for high pressure from the raw water

5.1.5 Offsite Plant: 1. Ammonia Storage & handling 2.  Naphtha storage 3. E.T.P. (Effluent treatment plant) 4. Diesel power generating set (DG SET)

1. Ammonia Storage & Handling: 

10,000 tone ammonia storage tank:

10,000 tone liquid NH3  storage tank was built by M/s Vijay tanks & vessels Pvt. Ltd. It is a single wall cylindrical vessel with a fixed self- supporting cone roof & insulated with polyurethane foam. Its diameter is 30m & height is 21.5m. The tank is provided with refrigeration system & sufficient safety gadgets.


CHAPTER 6 :- HELTH.HAZARDS AND SAFETY 6.1 Introduction To Industrial Safety:

Safety is becoming very important with every management as it has come to play a very vital role in the modern development. Before many years, accidents were considered as acts of God and nature.

Scientific minded people have analyzed accidents and developed a separate engineering  branch of accident prevention. This analysis was required due to 

Rising trend of accidents

Increased use of machinery

Increased material handling

Lack of safety standard

Lack of training

Better reporting of accidents

6.2 Safety: 

Safe use of man, material and machine by safe system method of work is to achieve zero accidents which results in higher productivity.

6.3 Accident: 

An accident is unplanned and unexpected events which interfere or interrupts the  planned process of work and results in personal injury.

6.4 Accident Factors: 

A personal accident injury occurs as a result of an accident

An accident due to unsafe act and/or unsafe condition

Unsafe act/unsafe condition exists due to fault of persons

Fault of persons are due to negligence. Thus, if we can remove fault of persons we can prevent 98% accidents.

6.5 List Of Safty Equipments:


6.5.1 Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments 

Self-contained breathing apparatus sets of 30 minutes and 10 minutes

Continuous airline masks.

Trolley mounted self-contained breathing apparatus set 2.5 hours

Canister gas mask. Dust mask/cloth mask. (Air purifying respirator)

6.5.2 Non-Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments 


Ear muff and ear plugs


Face shield 

Hand gloves


Safety Shoes


Safety harness

6.5.3 Warning Instruments 

Oxygen, carbon dioxide, chlorine, ammonia indicator with replaceable sensors. Explosive meters for measuring explosive range.

Fire fly instrument for confined space entry.

6.5.4 Gas Leakage Protection Installation 

Safety Showers

Manual water sprinklers

Communication systems

6.5.5 First Aid Boxes 

IFFCO kalol is maintaining the dispensary around the clock at plant over & above we have provided first aid boxes at all shop floor where employees are working 54

6.6 Safety Precautions: 

When taking samples of anhydrous ammonia and when operating or working on ammonia valves, equipment containing ammonia such as ammonia feed pumps, operators, laboratory and maintenance personnel must wear overalls, safety goggles and rubber gloves. If any part of the skin has been exposed to ammonia, wash immediately and thoroughly with water.

Work on the ammonia equipment should be done from the upwind side of the equipment to avoid or minimize contact with escaping ammonia.

The location of fire hydrants, safety showers, eyewash fountains ammonia canisters gas mask, emergency air breathing apparatus should be well known to all person.

Instruments containing mercury must not be used if ammonia is likely to come in contact with the mercury.

Heavy leakage of ammonia can be dealt by spraying large quantity of water with spray nozzles.

6.7 Fire Hazards: 

The general types of fire are encountered in the process plants. One involves common combustible material such as wood, rags, paper, etc. (Class „A‟ fire s), the

next flammable liquids and gases such as lubrication oils and solvents, ammonia vapors etc. (Class „B‟ fires) and the third involve electrical equipment (Class „C‟

fires). 

In general three things are required to make a fire

Something which will burn egg., a combustible material


A source of ignition or existence of a temperature at or above which a material will start burning spontaneously.

6.8 Principles Of Fire Extinguishing:


Fire may be extinguished by withdrawing of flammable contents, interrupting flammable flow, isolating fuel from air, heat removal to below reaction temperature or by dispersal.

In the event of fire on electrical mains or apparatus, the affected part shall be immediately isolated from its source of supply of electrical energy.

Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers and Carbon dioxide extinguishers are intended mostly for use on electrical fires and may be used on energized electrical equipment without danger to operator provides. They are properly maintaining no moisture.

It is dangerous to throw a stream of water, a wet blanket or a stream from an ordinary soda acid or foam type fire extinguishers on line main apparatus. When found necessary to use them, have all neighboring mains or apparatus made dead.

In case of fire, it is the duty of the operating personnel to protect life and property and to extinguish the fire as quickly as possible.

The greatest cause of fire is welding which may be required during plant operation. It should be a stringent rule of the plant that no welding without permission of the supervisor.

Fire and safety equipment, under conditions of extreme exertion provide protection only for a few minutes. Equipment must be cleaned, replenished and inspected for damage before being returned to service. Equipment should be maintained in excellent condition and inspected frequently so that they are available in case of emergency.

6.9 Color Code For Pipeline: 

Green---ordinary hazard 

Red---high level hazard 

Black---foam 6.4 Fire Fighting Appliances: Type of

Class A

Class B

Class C


Suitable for surface

Suitable. Does not

Suitable. Non-


fires only

leave residue or

conductor and



affect equipment or

does not damage

food stuff.



Suitable for small

Suitable. Chemical




releases smothering

Chemical is non-

gas and shields

conductor or dry

operator from heat.

chemical shields operator from heat.



Suitable. Has both


Unsuitable. Foam

smothering effect

Smothering blanket

being a conductor

and wetting action.

does not dissipate,

should not be

floats on top of

used on live

spilled liquid.


Suitable. Water

Unsuitable. Water

Unsuitable. Water

saturates material a

will spread and not

being conductor

6.10 Fire Protection: 

Segregation buildings, fire resistant walls, flame arrestor, automatic fire extinguishers.

Portable extinguishers, hydrants, sprinklers, fire water and trailer pump, firefighting team and drills.

Safe access for firefighting, protection against lightening and ignition and detailed  provisions of fire exists.

Safety from gas cylinders and flammable liquids, dust gas, vapor and waste.


CHAPTER 7 :- BAGGING & MATERIAL HANDELING Storage silo with a capacity of 30,000 tones urea has been provided to ensure continuous operation in the event of non-availability of wagons or irregular seasonal demand for the fertilizer. Urea is bagged in polyethylene laminated jute bags. Bagging and material handling plant is a section of the production department. This is the plant where packing of urea product is done in bags and then it is loaded in trucks / wagons and sent to the market.

7.1 Types Of Conveyors, Machines, Heavy Equipments In This Plant


Product conveyor


Silo ingoing conveyor


Silo outgoing conveyor


Dust conveyor


Mini conveyor


Bagging plant conveyor


Hopper conveyor


UBM hopper conveyor.

7.1.1 Conveyors They are made up of 4 ply Dunlop rubber joined by vulcanization. There are carrying rollers, return rollers, idlers, guide rollers and impact rollers. The conveyors are driven by a motor or gear box. There are rope switches for immediate stopping of the belt. There are skirt guards to prevent spillage and scrappers to clean the conveyor belt. 

Product Conveyor:

This conveyor is inclined. It takes material from the urea plant and delivers to silo ingoing conveyor or bagging plant conveyor through a flap valve.

Silo Ingoing Conveyor:

This conveyor receives material from the product conveyor through a flap valve and delivers in silo. 58

Silo Outgoing Conveyor:

This conveyor is used to transfer reclaimed material from silo to bagging. 

 plant conveyor through vibrator screens.

Dust Conveyor:

This conveyor is used to deliver dust received from vibrator screen to silo. 

Mini Conveyor:

This conveyor is used to feed material on bagging plant conveyor. 

Vibrating Screens:

There are 4 screens to carry out screening of reclaimed material. Screen overflow (good material) is fed to bagging plant conveyor. The screens are manufactured by Pennwalt India Ltd. Screen size is 84”. The screens have a capacity of 26 ton per hours.

Transfer Tower:

The area where product conveyor material is delivered on the bagging plant conveyor tail end and the screens are located is called the transfer tower.


It is a go down where urea material is stored. Shape





Storage of loose urea prills



30000 tons



210 meters



37 meters



18.5 meters

7.2 Detailed Description:

7.2.1 Conveying System: 

The conveying section consists of three routes which are listed below: 59

From prill tower to urea storage building.

From urea storage to bagging machines.

From prill to bagging machines.

The control circulation for the control gear provides for remote starting of any of the pre-selected route for prilled urea all the drives of the conveying system are electricity inter locked.

7.2.2 Empty Bag Handling: 

Empty bag bales are lifted through two openings in the floor of empty bag store. Bags with the help of two half tones cranes M-2133 A & B and one crane is second empty bag store. Besides lifting the bag bales, these cranes can be used for stacking empty bag bales in empty bag store.

7.2.3 Reclaim Machine: 

This machine is used to reclaim the material from the silo and deliver it to the silo outgoing conveyor. The main parts of the reclaim machine are the scrapper  bottom, bucket elevator and link conveyor. By using scrapper bottom, material is scrapped and delivered to the buckets from where the material is transferred to the link conveyor from the vertical bucket elevator.

The reclaim machine length of bulk urea storage building. Bulk urea is reclaimed via scrapper, bucket elevator and belt conveyor and discharge on the reclaim conveyor M-2117.travels along the


There are 6 packer scale (P/S) or Bagging and Weighing machine along with six hoppers. Each hopper has a capacity of 12 Ton. One new P/S known as UBM (Universal Bagging Machine) which is fully automatic has also been installed.

When the machine is stopped, 45kg material is fed in the bucket through opening of two feed gates. Then one gate is closed which has a hole in the centre through which remaining 5 kg material is fed. 60

Then the second gate closes. When the bag is applied to the sock gap assembly, the  bottom flapper of the bucket opens and the material is fed in the bag. The bag is then released and it moves on the slat conveyor. Stitching of the bag is done and then the bag falls on the platform through chutes. The bag is then loaded into bucket / wagons or stacked on platform. 

Specification Of The Empty Bag



915 mm



610 mm



130 gm (+ or –  3%)






Milky white with blue ton



Inside laminations with 100 gauge thick. This is done to protect urea from moisture as it is a hygroscopic material.



stitching thread green in colour



Width wise

Bottom seam


32 kgf

Fig.7.1: Urea Bag


Rail tanker loading:

The surplus liquid NH3  from tanks is dispatched to IFFCO (Kandla Unit) through rail tankers. For loading into rail tankers, five loading points are provided. At a time batch of five tankers wagons, each having capacity of 32 tone can be loaded to NH3  loading  pumps each having discharge capacity o f 105 tone/hr at a pressure of 21.00 kg/cm2 are installed.

Refrigeration system:

The NH3  storage tanks are fully & designed for maximum boil off of 0.04% per day. Vapor pressure of NH3  is high even at atmospheric condition. To maintain nearly atmospheric pressure in tank, the vapour generated has to be condensed. This is done by taking the generated vapour from storage tank to the refrigeration system where the vapour are compressed, liquefied & returned to the tank in liquid form.

One refrigeration compressor having capacity of 540 kg/hr was installed with 10,000 tone  NH3  storage tank. Two more NH3  refrigeration compressors having identical capacity were added with installation of 5000 tone NH 3  storage tank. These three refrigeration compressors are integrated to draw vapour from both the storage t anks. Also 150 mm NB  pipe line is provided to take about 200 kg/hr vapour from both the storage tanks to NH3  plant refrigeration system through pressure control valve.

7.3 Effluent Treatment & Disposal:

Approximately 18000m3/day of  raw water  is utilized  at IFFCO kalol mainly for  process water &  boiler feed

water generation. Effluent treatment facilities have

3 3  been installed to handle the 3500-4000m /day bulk & 50-600m /day strong effluent coming out of various out of various plants every day.

Equipment specification:

Strong effluent tanks

Bulk effluent tanks 62

Balancing ponds

Effluent pit

H2SO4 storage tanks

Effluent treatment system is installed to control the undesirable element in the liquid effluent before discharging outside IFFCO premises.

Effluent discharge outside IFFCO should statutory requires norms imposed by state & central pollution control boards.

7.4 Types Of Liquid Effluent:

The total effluent generated within the plants is divided into t wo categories & treated separately 

Strong effluent: - Having higher concentration of dissolved compounds.

Bulk effluent: - Having comparatively less amount of concentrated dissolved solids.

This effluent is collected either into strong effluent tanks or bulk effluent tanks. Water  from urea plant

drains & washing is


in separate tanks known as

 balancing ponds diverted to bulk or strong effluent as per its analysis.

Strong effluent & disposal:

The concentrated effluent from water plant is collected in strong effluent tank & discharged to solar evaporation lagoons inside IFFCO premise with the help of strong effluent pumps. Nearly 600m3/day of strong effluent is generated, collected in strong effluent storage tanks, mixed & then pumped to  polythene lined   solar evaporation lagoons having area about 15 hecters.

Bulk effluent treatment & disposal:

Effluent water containing comparatively very low concentration of pollutant is called  bulk effluent. The effluent from following source is collected in bulk effluent storage tank.

 Water treatment plant with low concentration of salts

Inert gas generation plants 63

Cooling water blow down From hydrolyser system during upset condition Sand filter backwash oil separator Domestic effluent HCL fumes scrubber water Open channels domestic water collected at effluent pit is diverted to bulk effluent. Bulk effluent segregated from the water treatment plant is collected only in bulk effluent tank B & allowed to mix into tank A for better neutralization effect. Weak effluent collected & mixed in weak effluent storage tanks to form bulk/combined effluent. Bulk effluent elements are controlled by adjusting the dilution water flow in normal operation. About 3000m3/day combined effluent is pumped outside IFFCO premise. The effluent quality is continuously monitored within plant before final discharge to meet statutory requirement of pollution control board.


CHAPTER 8 :- ENVIROMENT & POLLUTION CONTROL It accepts its duty to exercise care for health of employees & others which may be affected by operation & pollution. It gives equal importance to pollution control as any other activity.

8.1 Air Pollution:

The main source of air pollution from ammonia plant at IFFCO kalol are emition from stack of furnaces & boiler. 

Primary reformer 

Secondary reformer 


The concentration of sulphur being negligible in the RLNG & associated gas obtained from nearby well & flue gas remains below specified limit. However unit has SO 2, NOx, CO analyzer for analyzing flue gas quality of ammonia plant & utility 8.2 Solid Waste: 

Waste means any substance which constitute scrap material or an effluent oran other unwanted surplus sub. arising from app. o f any process

In ammonia plant at kalol mainly two types of solid waste are generated 

Spent catalyst from plant

ETP sludge

8.2.1 Disposal Of Solid Waste: 

Spent catalyst are stored in drum & sell too gather company who has GPSB authorized 

ETP sludge collected from strong effluent tank mainly salt of Ca & Mg are filled in  bags & damped in GPSB approved site

Waste can also be removed by other methods like dilution ,incineration,  bioremediation, stabilization

8.3 Water & Noise Pollution: 65

To control the water pollution a centralized effluent treatment plant is installed. All the streams are collected in pond. After treatment & confirming by GPSB norms & s tandards it is discharged outside plant premise this water is utilized by farmers for irrigation Mainly 18000m3/d Narmada water is utilized in plant for process water & boiler feed water generation. effluent facilities have been installed to handle 3500-4000m3/d bulk & 500-600m3/d strong effluent coming out of various plants every day

ETP contains

Strong effluent tanks

Bulk effluent tanks

Balancing ponds

Effluent pit

H2SO4 storage tanks

ETP is installed to controlled the undesirable element in the liquid effluent before discharging outside IFFCO


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