COMMUNICATION The characteristic feature that differentiates human beings from other animals is the ability to communicate by words. The term communication can have many meanings in the context in which it is used. The word communication is derived from the latin word ‘Communicare’ which means to share, divide out, impart, inform, unite or participate in. To some communication is the interchange of information between two or more people or the exchange of thoughts. Communication and education are interworks. Communication strategies can enhance learning Ultimate goal of all communication is to bring about a change in the desired direction of the person who receive communication. It may be cognitive level in terms of increase in knowledge, affective in terms of changing existing patterns of behavior and attitudes and psychomotor in terms of acquiring new skills. The newer trend in communication revolution to put today’s health information at the deposal of families to help people to achieve health by their own action and efforts.
DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION Communication has various definitions: “Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that persons needs, decides, perception, knowledge or affective states. It may be international or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms and may occur through spoken or other models”.
-National Joint committee for the communicative Needs of persons with severe disability, 1992. ‘Communication is a process where people send stimulus in purpose to change or to make behavior of other people’ -
Horal, Janis, Kelly – 1953.
Communication is a process of sending information, idea, emotion, ability etc by using symbols such as words, pictures, numbers etc. -
Berelson dan stainer 1964
Communication is a process which explains who, says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. -
Communication is a process which make something which belong to one person becomes belong to 2 persons or more. -
Gode - 1959
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION According to the methods used for communication and also the flow of information, there are many types of communication. The main types are; 1) One way communication (didactic) 2) Two way communication (Socratic) 3) Verbal communication 4) Non verbal communication 2
5) Formal and informal communication 6) Visual communication 7) Telecommunication and internet One way communication (Didactive method) The flow of communication is one way from communicator to audience. There are many
limitations such as imposing of knowledge, authoritative learning, decreased
audience participation, lack of feedback and absence of influence on human behavior. 2) Two way communication Both the communicator and audience take part in this. The audience may raise questions and add their own information, ideas and opinions to the subject. It is more likely to influence the behavior. 3) Verbal communication Communication using words it is persuasive. 4) Non verbal communication Communication that occur without words. It includes body movements, positives, gestures, facial expressions and even silence. It can actually convey more than that in verbal means. 5) Formal and informal communication Formal communication follows the lines of authority and informal does not informal communication exists in many settings. Informal channels may be more active if formal ones are not catering the needs.
6) Visual communication: It is the type which helps in conveying messages to people who can understand the verbal message very less. The visual form of communication comprise charts, graphs, pictograms, tables, maps, posters etc.. 7) Telecommunication and Internet Telecommunication is the process of communicating over distance using electromagnetic instruments designed for the purpose. Radio, TV and internet are very effective most communication media.
HEALTH COMMUNICATION Health is the concern of everyone for everyone. Health communication is therefore an important area of communication. Health information can be communicated through many channels to increase awareness and assess the knowledge of different problems about various issues, products and behaviors. Functions of health communication : Health communication has to cater to the following needs, 1) Information
6) Raising morale
7) Health development
8) Organization 1) Information The primary function of health communication is to provide scientific knowledge or information to people about health problems and how to maintain and promote health. 4
2) Education Education of the general public in an integral part of a prevention – oriented approach to health and disease problems and basis of all education in communication. Education can bring about changes in life styles and thus risk factors of diseases also. Knowledge determines attitudes and attitudes determine behavior. 3) Motivation It is the power that drives a person from within to act. One of the goals of health communication is to motivate individuals to translate health information to personal behavior and life style for their own health. Motivation includes the stages of interest, evaluation and decision making. The best channels of success involve programmes directed at individuals who are already having some strong motivation, in patients with chronic illness or a disability those facing acute crisis etc. 4) Persuasion It is the art of winning friends and influencing people. It is a conscious attempt by one individual to change or influence the general beliefs, understanding, values and behavior of another individual or group of individuals in some desired ways. 5) Counseling It is a process that can help people understand better and deal with their problems and communicate better with those with whom they are emotionally involved. It can improve and reinforce motivation to change behavior. It can provide support at the time of crisis. 6) Raising morale Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently or consistently communication is the first step in raising morale. 5
7) Health Development Communication can play a powerful role in health development by helping to diffuse knowledge in respect of the goals of development and preparing the people for the goals expected of them. 8) Health Organization Communication is the life and blood of an organization. In a health organization communication can flow in vertical or horizontal direction. Vertical can be from downward to upward or viceversa. Horizontal is between equals at any level. The direction in which communication flows in an organization suggest the degree of freedom in the internal communication network.
Information Education & Communication (IEC) According to UNFPA Information Education and communication (IEC) combines strategies approaches and methods that enable individuals, families, group, organizations and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health. Characteristics of IEC IEC is a combination of various activities. It also has many characteristics. As this is the problem used in the health it has the characteristics needed for meeting the goals. The main characteristics of IEC program are; It is the process of learning that empowers people to make decisions. It helps in modifying behavior and changing social conditions. Activities are developed based on needs assessment. 6
It is based on sound educational principles. There is periodic evaluation The whole process is based on a clear set of goals or objectives. Health service providers must be prepared for responding to any demand that may be created as a result of IEC activities. Influence of social, culture, economic and environmental conditions are taken into consideration.
Components of IEC The components of IEC are simply information, education and communication. Counseling is also a key components of IEC programme. Information Correct information is a basic part of health education. Exposure to right kind of health information can eliminate social and psychological barriers of ignorance, prejudice and misconception people have about health matters. It increases the awareness of people to the point that they are able to perceive their health needs. Also it influences people to the extend that unfelt needs become felt needs and felt needs become demands. Education Education in IEC is health education. It is indispensible in achieving individual and community health. It can help to increase knowledge and to reinforce desired behavior patterns.
DEFINITION OF HEALTH EDUCATION Health education is the translation of what is known about health, into desirable individual and community behavior patters by means of an educational process -
The process by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance or restoration of Health. -
John M. Last
Any combination of learning opportunities and teaching activities designed to facilitate voluntary adaptations of behavior that are conducive to health -
Green L.W (1979)
Health education is a process that informs, motivates and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and lifestyles, advocates environmental changes as needed to facilitate this goal and conducts professional training and research to the same end. -
preventive medicine USA Health education is the part of health case that is concerned with promoting healthy behavior. -
A process aimed at encouraging people to want to be healthy, to know how to stay healthy to do what they can individually and collectively to maintain health and to seek help when needed. -
Alma-Afa Declaration (1978)
Definition by Alma-Afa is the dynamic definition of health education. 8
AIMS & OBJECTIVE OF HEALTH EDUCATION Definition adopted by WHO in 1969 and Alma-Afa declaration adopted in 1978 provide a useful basis for formulating the aims and objectives of health education. They are as follows: 1) To encourage people to adopt and sustain health promoting lifestyle and practices. 2) To promote the proper use of health services available to them. 3) To arouse interest, provide new knowledge, improve skills and change attitudes in making rational decisions to solve their own problems and 4) To stimulate individual and community self-reliance and participation to achieve health development through individual and community involvement at every step from identifying problems to solving them.
PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION Health education brings together the art and science of medicine and the principles and practice of general education. Certain principles of learning can be abstracted and applied to health education. They include; 1.
Credibility : - It is the degree to which the message to be communicated is
perceived as trustworthy by the receiver. Good health education must be consistent and compatible with scientific knowledge and also with the local culture, educational system and social goals. 2.
Interest – health educators must find out the real health needs of the people. If the
health programme is based on felt-needs people will gladly participate in the programme and only then it will be a people’s programme. The health educator will have to bring about a recognition of the needs before he proceeds to tackle them. 9
Participation – It is a keyword in health education. It is based on the psychological
principle of active learning. Health education should aim at encouraging people to work activity with health workers and others in identifying their own health problems and also developing solution and plans to work them out. The Alma- Afa declaration states “The people have a right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care”. If community participation is not an integral part, health progrmme are unlikely to succeed. 4.
Motivation : - In every person there is a fundamental right to learn. Awakening
their desire is called motivation. In health education motivation should be used. Motivation is contagious. One motivated person may spread motivation throughout a group. 5.
Comprehension :- In health education we must know the level of understanding,
education and literacy of people to whom teaching is directed. One barrier of communication is using words which cannot be understood. Avoid words which are unfamiliar to the people. Also teach within the mental capacity of the audience. 6.
Reinforcement : - Repetition at intervals is necessary if there is no reinforcement,
there is every possibility of individual going back to pre-awareness stage. 7.
Learning by doing : - The universe proverb “If I hear I forget, If I see, I remember,
If I do I Know” illustrates the importance of learning by doing. 8.
Know the unknown: In the health education work we must proceed from concrete
to abstract, particular to general, simple to more complicated and known to unknown. We use the existing knowledge of people as the pegs on which to hang new knowledge. 9.
Setting an example: - The health educator should set a good example of the things
he is teaching. Talking about one thing and behaving in opposite way will cause lack of trust by the people. 10
Good human relations : - Sharing of information, ideas and feelings happen most
easily between people who have a good relationship. Building good relationship with people goes hand in hand with developing good communication skills. 11.
Feed back:- The health educator can modify the elements of the system in the light
of feedback from his audience. Feedback is of Paramount importance in effective communication. 12.
Leaders: - We learn best from people whom we respect and regard. Leaders are
agents of change and they can be made use of in health education. Eg: village leader, school teacher, political leader.
AGENCIES FOR HEALTH EDUCATION Health education is a global subject because without change in behavior the highest standard of health cannot be achieved. So there is a need of wide network of health education agencies from international to grassroots level.
INTERNATIONAL LEVEL: i. International Union for health Education – Its headquarters are at Paris. The main aim of this agency is to encourage the countries for creation of national societies for health education. South East Asia Regional Bureau (SEARB) is the part of International Union for Health Education. Its headquarters is at banglore. ii. Health Education and Health promotion - HEHP (WHO) – Adivision of WHO, HEHP division supports regional office of WHO is strengthening national capabilities in health education and promotion. It also develops and identifies new ideas and tools for health education and promotion. iii. Division of public Information and Public relation (WHO) – It provides information about health and support health education programmes and activities. 11
NATIONAL LEVEL i. CHEB ii. Ministry of Information andf Broadcasting – Various units are working under this. Press Information Bureau – It provides information to press or media. Directorate of field Publicity – creates awareness among people about the social programmes sponsored by union government. Directorate of advertising and visual Publicity (DAVP) – Provides health education by means of advertisements, posters, pictures and other tools of publicity. Prasar Bharati – Doordharshan and All India Radio are two divisons of Prasar Bharati. Songs and Drama Division – Performs Line shows. National Medical Library – It is the Apex body regarding library and information services related to health sciences. It provides valuable information and health education materials. It is situated in Delhi. Other than the above Human Resource Department, Youth Development, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence.
State Level: State Level education bureau and IEL bureau under the health ministry are present. The state agencies, divisions/wings/units of central health education agencies are also running at state level.
District Level: The district level units of central and state health agencies extends the work and fulfils the activities of health education programmes. District information centre also propagate health messages and provide support in health education.
Local Level: In cities municipality, municipal corporation, devloment authorities etc and in village panchayath, block development office etc. take up this responsibility.
Central Health Education Bureau It is the apex organization of Health education in the country t was established in 1956 under the ministry of health. Its objectives are; To make available facilities of communication for health education. To carry out training and research in health education. To exchange latest information about development and programmes. To publish and distribute various health bulletins, magazine and information’s. To provide technical support to central and state health services and various health organizations.
Divisions : Training Publicity 13
Editorial Health education Regional study Exhibitions centre Professional health syllabus Research & Evaluation
material should be designed to focus attention to provide new
knowledge to facilitate interpersonal and group discussion and to reinforce and clarify poor knowledge and behavior. Communication in this context is health communication. There are many varieties of methods that can be used for facilitating communication. The methods used can be used selectively at different times, depending upon the objectives to be achieved, the behavior to be influenced and available funds. Methods vary accordingly to approach to communication. It can be individual, group or mass communication. Usually mass approach is used for the IEC activities to attain the goal at a more vast population. There are many methods which can be used in mass approach. Mass media are a one way approach for effectiveness they should be used in combination with other methods. Power of mass media in creating a political will in favor of health, raising the health consciousness of the people, selling norms, delivering technical messages, popular rising health knowledge and fostering community 14
involvement are well recognized. The following are some of the mass media used in health communication; 1. Television The most popular of all the media. It is effective note only in creating awareness, but also to an extend influencing public opinion and introducing new ways of life. It is raising level of understanding and helping people familiarize things, they have not seen before. 2. Radio It can reach illiterate population not accessible through printed word. It is purely didactic medium. It is useful in health information in the form of straight talks, plays, questions and answers and quiz programmes. Doctors and health workers may speak out on radio. Health issues may be identified and discussed leading to general awareness. 3. Internet The new means of computer based common system has opened vast capability of transfer of knowledge and has made it possible to get into direct and instant common across the world by means of E-mails and online chats. Vast amount of health related literature from WHO and other health agencies is available online. 4. Newspapers They are the most widely disseminated of all form of literature. But they are effective only on the literate people of the community. 5. Printed materials Magazines, pamphlets, booklets and hangouts, have long been in use for health communication. They are aimed at those who can read. They can be produced in bulk for very little cost and can be circulated. 15
6. Direct mailing This is a new method of communication in India. The intension is to reach remote areas of the country with printed word. These are sent directly to village leaders, literate persons, panchayath and local bodies and other who are considered as opinion leades. 7. Posters Bill Boards and Signs: They are intended to catch the eyes and create awareness. So the message must be simple and artistic. Motives such as humor and fear are introduced into posters in order to hold the attention of the public. In places where people will be spending sometime, the posters can be present more information. Right amount of matter should be put at the right place and right time. They have much less effect in changing behavior. 8. Health museum and exhibitions. If properly organized health museum and exhibition can attract large number of people. By presenting a variety of ideas, they do increase knowledge and awareness. In exhibitions there is a big element of personal communication there workers who explain each item on exhibit. 9. Cinema This is a very effective and extreme medium of health education. It is possible to deliver effective message through films on health. Brief introduction before the beginning, while keeping the interest alive and discussion with the audience after the end of film can be useful. 10. Puppet show In the rural areas, health education can be imparted through this medium along with recreation woven around with some song and dancing to the tune of the artist fingers and voice, singing and enjoying colorful puppet touch the core of the public and the health message enter their heart. 16
11) Street plays or Nukkad Natak. These are arranged in any crowded place, traffic crossroads, corridors of outdoors or street corners. The message of family planning, malnutrition and other health programmes can be send to the public through these media.
Measures for successful communication: The following measures are necessary to make communication successful Clarity of thought with simple and understandable language. Use of two way communication Usefulness of health message Proper use of audio visual aids, gestures, words and pictures. Credibility and geniuses of communication Topic for health education according to requirement feelings, beliefs and experience of people. Latest and reliable information. Correct medium or method for communication Appropriate attention to verbal as well as non verbal messages. Increase communication skill for the following steps may be fruitful: Be confident in your ability to relate to people. Be sensitive to the needs of others. Be consistent and know yourself 17
Recognize symptoms of anxiety Recognize anxiety Recognize differences Use words carefully Recognize and evaluate your own actions and responses. Be careful in non verbal communication.
Steps in Developing IEC Activities:
The information gathered through the needs assessment provides the framework for the development of suitable IEC activities the major steps are;
Conduct a needs assessment
Set the goal. This is a broad statement of what you would like to see accompanied with the target audience in the end.
Estimate behavioral objectives that will contribute to achieving the goals.
Develop IEC activities and involve as many other partners as possible. After their successful implementation, you should be able to have a significant impact on achieving the behavioural objectives.
Identify potential barriers and ways of overcoming them
Identify potential partners, resources and other forms of support for your activities and gained their sustained commitment.
Establish and evaluation plan.
IEC Activates in India Public policy and communication strategies influence both individual and collective change. The interface between these two components provides the framework to position behavior change.
Evolution IEC training scheme was launched by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare with functional assistance from USAID. It was started on Nov 17, 1987 in 4 hindi speaking states of UP, MP, Rajasthan & Bihar. Through US AID assistance was no longer available, the government decided not only to continue it beyond march 1993 but also to extend it to other districts of the 4 states. Ministry of Health and family welfare approved the scheme to continue as a plan scheme under the VIII plan and made budgeting provisions as part of the IEC decision of the Ministry.
Activities being carried out under the IEC programme in India. 1) Social Mobilization for the Pulse polio Immunisation (Ppi) Programme : Wide publicity through electronic and print media was organized. This resulted in successful campaign under the programme. The Ppi programme was formally launched by the Honorable President of India on 10-10-2004 at Rashtrapathy Bhavan where he administered Polio drops to a few children.
2) Activities through media units of I & B ministry. The media units of the ministry of Information & Broadcasting provides communication support to the family welfare programmes as per the requirement and guidelines of the IEC Division. The focus is on mother and child health issues, population growth, status of women, small family and the community needs assessment approach. a) Doordarshan – Dooradarshan telecasts video spots at prime time on a range of RCH issues. Sports are telecast on regional channels as well. It also telecasts various programmes including panel discussions, films, interviews and covers important occasions like observation of world population day, pulse polio Immunization programme, etc. Some programmes like ‘Kalyani’, the teleserial ‘Atmaja’, film ‘Aparajita’ etc. were broadcasted. Phone in programme were also telecasted video spots on Emergency contraception, NSV, Copper –T etc. are also examples. b) All India Radio – Communication support has been provided through AIR. The commercial broadcasting Services (CBS) of AIR has been broadcasting the programme ‘Khustiya Bhara Aangan’ regularly. c) Folk song based Programmes through radio – Lok Jhankar, Sushakar etc are some programmes Audio speak about Mala –D/Deluxe Nirodh are being broadcasted. d) Directorate of advertising and visual publicity – DAVP issued press advertisements and developed electronic software for various programmes in Hindi and other regional languages. DAVP organizes publicity for the Department of family welfare through bus back panels, hoardings, posters, leaflets etc. e) Directorate of field publicity – It organizes film shows, photo exhibitions and oral communication program special programs were organized to sensitive people about pulse polio programme in weak district all over the country. 20
f) Press information bureau – It provides media coverage on important occasions, events activities, policies and programmes of the department PIB arrangement for coverage of family welfare, melas world population day function, Pulse Polio programmes and other important events. g) Song and Dramma Division – to educate the people about family welfare issues, songs & drama division organizes live entertainment programs like puppet shows, dance, drams, folk *****, mythological ***, traditional plays, magic shows etc. h) Films division – Films division produces films on themes related to family welfare, National Population Policy, RCH issues etc.. It also undertakes distribution of fils to filed organization and cinema circuit throughout the country for exhibiton. Examples of fils are Dharini, Pukar, Puthiya Yudam etc. 3. Activities in the state /Union territories Activities were given multidimensional and integrated thrust to increase the outreach and impact of reproduction and child health and family welfare messages with the objectives of bridging the gap between awareness and acceptance. a) Mahila Swasthya Sangh – Greater emphasis being laid on inter personnel communication to encourage community participation, particularly for the women folk through Mahila Swasthya Sangh in villages with a population of over 1000 or 2000 households in plain area and for population of 500 or more in hilly terrain. The Auxillary Nurse Midwife (ANM) is the member secretary of MSS. The field level functionaries of the educational department are also member of the MSS. Mahila Swasthya Sangh members are given short –term training, supplied with information’s material and guided by local health workers/BEE/Block Medial Officers. b) Training of IEC personnel – The IEC division organized a series of capacity building programmes for IEC and personnel through NIHFW, New Delhi and other state Training
centers. The awareness generation training co-ordinated by the National Institute of the State and District level include a module on interpersonal communication.
4) Media Advocacy through NGOs a) Indian Association of Parliamentarians on population & development (IAPPD) – The project involvement of Elected Representatives for advocacy on population, Reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, reproductive rights and women empowerment being implemented by Indian Association of Parliamentarians on Population and development was launched in November 1999. The goal of the project was to sensitize/ mobilize and to involve elected representatives towards effective population stabilization approach, reproductive health programme including awareness of HIV/AIDS etc. at district level. IAPPD is one of the partners in the media advocacy and communication project in UNFPA’s VI country programme. They have also undertaken Inter state study tour of MPs/MLAs from Northern states to southern states for their better exposure on population stabilization and RCH issues. b) Press Institute of India (PII) – The development media and Advocacy project on population Development and gender Issues being implemented by PII, was operationalised in May 2000 for a period of two years to involve journalists, media and communication experts in creating greater awareness and played active role in changing population development scenario and highlight reproductive health and quality care issues. PII is publishing population and development News letter –“People” in English and “Humlog” in Hindi regularly for media persons. c) Population foundation of India – Population foundation of India is one of the partners of our National communication and Advocacy Project under contrary Programme VI which has started functioning from January, 2004. They had also organized – National consultation on Law, Policy and Rights. 22
5) Population Education a) Population Education in the School sector – Population Education Programme in School stream Project has been implemented as “Population and development Education in Schools”. The Project has been implemented by NCERT at the National Level and by SCERTs/State Institute of Education at the State /UT level. This is now the regular activity of the MOHRD (Dept. of Education) NCERT has also developed module on adolescent heart education in school sectors. 6) Adolescent health Porgramme. It may be mentioned that adolescent development is a broad issue of which ministry of youth affairs and sports is the nodal ministry. The population education programme supported by this department being implemented by NCERT has made a beginning in the concern of Reproductive Sexual Health (RASH) in curriculum and teachers training. 7) Promotion through Print Media. a) Press Advertisement - The most intensive print media campaign was for in the Pulse Polio Programme, which was made systematically through a series of press advertisements in numerous newspapers on all India basis, on and before all the National and sub-national rounds of the PPI Programme. A Number of advertisements on different issues and important events such as Rashtriya Janani Suraksha Divas, different Health Sratus, IITF, world Population day, No Scalpel Vasectomy, Service NGO Scheme, Regional Resource Centre for MNGO, mother NGO scheme etc were designed in house and issued for publicity through DAVP to major newspapers in all languages in the country. b) Print Software – A number of publications/print software such as the Handbook on PNDT Act, Handbook diary for Health functionaries, guidelines for various procedures in community. Immunization cards with plastic jacket for the routine immunization 23
programme are being made. New Year greeting cards are prepared and sent to the members of parliament, members of legislative assemblies and Health functionaries etc. c) RCH News letter – A 16 page quarterly RCH newsletter is brought out in many languages. The news letter gave details of new schemes and services highlighting efforts of individuals and non-government organizations working in the field of family welfare and health. A number of issues in the form of readers Response, have been discussed throughout this news letter. d) Annual wall calendar – Calendar designed in house, has come out with innovative design on polio eradication, save the girl child, small family norm, checkups during pregnancy safe delivery, breast feeding, balanced diet, contraception, Indian systems of medicine and yoga, and HIV/AIDS issues. This calendar is circulated to all the health setups in the country. e) Other Print Software’s -
hindi journals ‘Hamara Ghar’ and an number of print
software are designed and printed for health functionaries at the PHL level. f) Distribution of
Materials – The distribution
wing mails audio-video and print
software/material to various audience groups all over India working in the centre/StateUTs.
ROLE OF IEC IN VARIOUS NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMMES IEC is an integral part and essential component of all national health programmes. IODINE DEFICIENCY CONTROL PROGRAMME Lots of emphasis is given on information’s education & communication activities using appropriate methods and channels of communication to promote awareness. Plays, songs, drams, seminars, film shows, group discussions etc. are conducted. Spots of IDD are telecasted through doordarshan at prime time before news. Messages from the 24
Honorable Union Health Minister of state for health appealing to masses for regular consumption of iodated salt are published in leading newspapers on IDD Global day – Oct. 21.
NATIONAL AIDS CONTROL PROGRAMME (PHASE II ) Objectives of the Strategy in NACP are, to raise awareness improve knowledge and understanding about AIDS infection and STD routes of transmission and method of prevention, to promote desirable practice like avoiding multiple sex partners, use of condoms, sterilization of needles and syringes and voluntary blood donation. Massive use of dooradharshan, private channels, FM, radio, ‘Jiyo Aur Jeene Do’ the radio program and NACO film parade are done. Other stratergies are Advocacy of campaign for civil society to promote momentum to efforts. School AIDS programme Newsletter called AIDS in India by NATO. Website Helpline Celebrating worlds AIDS day. OTHER PROGRAMMES The other progammes which utilize this are blindness control Program, UIP, National mental health programme etc.
The main focuses are on safe motherhood, oral rehydration, STDs, family planning & reproduction Health. ROLE OF NURSE IN IEC: Nurses have a major role to act in IEC programme. They are responsible for helping the smooth conduct of the programme. Distribution of teaching aids and giving information, informing regarding new programmes etc. are the important roles. Nurses help in the programme by motivating people to participate.