October 12, 2017 | Author: Nabil Mosharraf Hossain | Category: Printer (Computing), Authentication, Random Access Memory, Personal Identification Number, Read Only Memory
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Information and Communication technology...


INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (0417) IMPORTANT QUESTIONS IN PAPER 1 (By Ankur Verma) Q1) Definition of file field and record. A file is a collection of records/all the students names, addresses, phone numbers and dates of birth A field is one item of information/name/address/phone number/date of birth A record is all the information about one student/name, address, phone number and date of birth of one student Q2) Difference between RAM and ROM ROM cannot be changed/RAM can be changed RAM can be read from and written to ROM is read only memory and RAM is random access memory ROM holds instructions that need to be unchanged such as BIOS/program cycles in a washing machine/program instructions in games RAM holds the work that is being currently done by the user ROM is non-volatile/RAM is volatile Q3) Maintaining Privacy Security Measures Authentication technique/User ID and Passwords/PIN/memorable data Advantage Only person who knows password can access data Disadvantage Key logging software can detect key presses/passwords can be intercepted by expert hackers/user can forget password Encryption Advantage Data is scrambled into unreadable form/only person/computer with key can understand data Disadvantage Data can still be deleted from system Firewall Advantage Only allowed users/computers can access data Disadvantage It is not necessarily the hacker that is excluded but the computer/hackers might use an acceptable computer Digital certificates Advantage Only computer with certificate can access data Disadvantage Can be expensive to purchase

Anti Spyware Advantage Prevents spyware from invading your computer and gaining personal information Disadvantage Doesn’t work for all invasions/needs to be continually updated TANs Advantage Is a double layer of security Disadvantage PIN can be forgotten/if misused can generate wrong TAN Q4) What user documentation contains? How to load software/install/run software How to save a file How to search How to sort How to print How to add records How to delete/edit records Purpose of the system/program (only if not mentioned in technical documentation) Input format or example (only if not mentioned in technical documentation) Output format or example (only if not mentioned in technical documentation) Hardware requirements (only if not mentioned in technical documentation) Software requirements (only if not mentioned in technical documentation) Sample runs (only if not mentioned in technical documentation) Error messages Error handling Tutorials Troubleshooting guide/Contact details/help line/FAQ Q5) Technical Documentation Program listing Programming language Flowchart/algorithm List of variables File structure Purpose of the system/program Input format or example Output format or example Hardware requirements Software requirements Sample runs/test runs Known bugs/possible errors Validation rules Q6) Roles of Proxy Servers in LAn And WaN Can act as a web server

Can act as a buffer (between internet and LAN) Server passes on requests to the internet Passes the requested web pages to individual computers Can cache/store the webpages Subsequent requests for that/those web page(s) are responded to more quickly Can be used to monitor internet usage Can block certain sites Q7) normal abnormal and extreme data defined Normal data – data within a (given) range/appropriate for that data type (1) Abnormal data – data outside the range/of the wrong data type (1) Extreme data – data on the boundaries of the range Q8) Why computer model are used than the real? Cheaper to make than the real thing Real thing may represent too large a time scale (genetics etc.) Real thing may be wasteful of materials Real thing may be on too vast a scale Easier to change data/variables Costs less to change data/variables The real thing may be impossible to access/create Q9) Stock reordering The stock file is searched Until a match is found with the entered bar code The number in stock of the matching record is read One/number purchased is subtracted from the number in stock The number in stock is compared with the re-order number If it is equal to/less than the re-order number then more goods are automatically re-ordered The new value of number in stock is written back to the file Next bar code is read Q10) Implementation Direct changeover – new system replaces existing system immediately/overnight Parallel running – new system runs alongside/together with existing system Phased implementation – new system is implemented part by part Pilot running – system is implemented in one branch/one office (at a time) Q11) OCR/OMR/micr (a) Two from: Optical Mark Recognition Pencil/pen marks are read by scanner/Reader Position of marks are identified [2] Exam papers/school registers/lottery/multiple choice questionnaires [1] (b) Two from: Optical Character Recognition

Text is read by scanner image compared with characters stored in computer Converted to text for use with other software [2] Utility bill/turnaround documents/word processors/mail/passports/id cards/car number plates (c) Two from: Magnetic Ink Character Recognition characters read by magnetic reader characters compared with characters stored in computer Converted to text for entry into system [2] Bank cheques Q12) Double Entry / Proof Reading Two from: Visual verification/checking Read through data on screen Compare with source document [2] Two from: Double data entry Data is typed in twice by one typist Data is typed in by two operators Computer compares versions If different freezes/sounds buzzer Q13) Describe navigation aids that would be part of a well designed on-screen input form. Back/previous record button/arrow/facility Forward/next record button/arrow/facility New record button/arrow/facility Submit/save button/facility First record button/facility Last record button/facility Exit button/return to homepage button/facility Move to top of page if long form Search facility Q14) Parallel running/implementation A Information is not lost/always a second copy/training can be gradual D Expensive to run two systems together/expense of paying two sets of workers Q15) Phased implementation A Still have most of system if things go wrong/no expense of running two systems together/no expense of paying two sets of workers/if latest phase fails only need to go back to that point/training can be gradual D Lose some data if things go wrong/more expensive than direct as each phase has to be evaluated before moving to next phase. Q16) Direct implementation/changeover

A Benefits are immediately available/do not have expense of running two systems together/less likelihood of errors as system will have been fully tested/It is the quickest method of implementation D If things go wrong lose all data/old system is not available/training is more difficult to organize Q17) Pilot running A Still have most of system if things go wrong/no expense of running two systems together/Can train staff in one area only/have to pay fewer workers than parallel D More expensive than direct changeover as more workers are needed/slower method than direct/takes time to implement for whole company Q18) Give advantages and disadvantages of using a mobile telephone rather than using a PC to access the internet. advantages from: Usually have mobile phone in your possession Easy to carry/are portable Can access internet almost anywhere disadvantages from: Easily lost May have poorer signal Display is smaller/keyboard is smaller Content is more limited Can be slower to access internet Batteries might run out No mouse so can be more difficult to navigate Q19) Give advantage and disadvantage of using a Blog. advantage from: She can update it more regularly More personal Can be used as a diary More interactive disadvantage from: Has to be continually updated Animation/video/sound more difficult to incorporate It’s possible for people she might not want (e.g. outside school) to see her blog Not everyone she would want to see it might have the internet Q20) There are many microprocessor controlled devices in the modern home. Describe the effects of these on people’s lifestyles. Microprocessor controlled devices do much of housework Do not need to do many things manually

Do not need to be in the house when food is cooking Do not need to be in the house when clothes are being washed Can leave their home to go shopping/work at any time of the day Greater social interaction/more family time More time to go out/more leisure time/more time to do other things/work Are able to do other leisure activities when convenient to them Can lead to unhealthy eating due to dependency on ready meals Can lead to laziness/lack of fitness Can encourage a healthy lifestyle because of smart fridges analyzing food constituents Microprocessor controlled burglar alarm provides a sense of security Do not have to leave home to get fit Manual household skills are lost

Q21) Designing Expert Systems Data is gathered/collected from experts Knowledge base is designed/created A structure to relate each item in the database / knowledge base is created An interrogation technique to access the data is created A user interface/method of displaying the results/method of inputting data/ input screen/output screen is designed/created The inference engine is designed/created The rules base is designed/created The system is tested Q22) Copying Down a formula Right clicked on C7 select copy from menu Selected C8 to C18 Right click and click on paste Highlight cells C7 to C18 Click on Fill Click on down Q23) e-Magzine Vs Manual Advantages of DTP Can be sure every local family gets to see it Not everybody has a computer/internet/modem Can read it anywhere/not limited to where computer is. Disadvantages of website Can’t be sure every local family gets to see it Not everybody has a computer/internet/modem Can’t read it anywhere/ limited to where computer is. Disadvantages of DTP

Takes time to physically distribute by hand Might need to pay somebody to distribute by hand Costs of ink/paper/printing Not as easy to update Not interactive/hyperlinks No animation/video No sound Advantages of website No costs of ink/paper/printing Easier to update Interactive/hyperlinks Animation/video Sound Q24) Doctors Diagnosing Illnesses Symptoms are entered using the user interface User interface displays questions... ...based on previous responses User answers questions using user interface inference engine compares symptoms compares symptoms with those in the knowledge base compares symptoms using rules base… …matches of symptoms are found User interface/screen displays possible diagnoses/illnesses/probabilities Q25) A bank uses a chip and PIN system at its ATMs. A customer withdraws cash by inserting their bank card. Write down the steps involved in the computer processing of the transaction. The customer is asked to type in their PIN The (ATM) checks to see if the card is valid The customer is asked which language/currency they require The bank account details are read from the chip Customer is asked if they want a receipt The typed PIN number is compared with that stored in the chip If they are the same the transaction proceeds If they are not the same the customer is asked to re-enter PIN If three failed attempts transaction rejected and card withheld The customer is asked which service is required The customer selects required service (cash) The customer is asked how much money they want to withdraw The customer’s account is checked to see if it has sufficient funds The amount is checked against the card limit If there are sufficient funds (and the amount is within the card limit) the transaction is authorized/if not transaction is rejected The amount is deducted from the customer account The bank notes are issued The card is returned (by the computer) If required receipt is printed.

Q26) Sensors Recquired in Burglar Systems Temperature sensor Infra red sensor/Movement sensor/camera/motion sensor light sensor Pressure sensor/pad Contact switch Sound sensor/microphone key pad/touch screen Biometric devices Q27) Control of the microprocessor in burglars Microprocessor checks input from the user is authentic Microprocessor (continually) monitors sensors. If light/infra red sensor reading changes If movement sensor activated... If contact switch activated... If pressure greater than pre-set value..... If sound greater than pre-set value..... If temperature greater than pre-set value.... Microprocessor sends signal to sound alarm Microprocessor sends signal to flashing light/house lights. Microprocessor sends signal automatically to police Microprocessor automatically sends message/calls/texts owner Q28) Discuss Validation Verification Validation is the checking that data is reasonable or acceptable Verification is checking that data has been accurately copied from one medium to another. Verification does not check that data is correct If original data is incorrect it will still be incorrect after it has been copied accurately Validation does not check that data is correct If, for example, data is incorrect but within a given range, a range check won’t reject it Validation will pick up errors that verification does not Verification will pick up errors that validation does not Verification can sometimes be carried out by the user Validation is always carried out by the computer Q29) Spreadsheets are often used to produce computer models. Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of computer modeling. Benefits Real thing may be too expensive to build Real thing requires too large a time scale Real thing would be too wasteful of materials Real thing is too vast a scale Easier to change data/variables Costs less to change data/variables The real thing may be impossible to access/create Real thing may be too dangerous

You can test predictions more easily/model can make predictions more accurately you can ask many whatif questions which would be impractical in real life Drawbacks Can never allow for all eventualities Difficult to exactly recreate a lifelike situation Hardware and software may be expensive Workers will need to be trained to use the system Q30)

Green house workings

Computer monitors sensors Temperature is compared with preset value If lower than preset value computer switches on heater If lower than preset value computer shuts windows If higher than preset value computer switches heater off If higher than preset value computer switches fan on If higher than preset value computer opens windows Humidity is compared with preset value Moisture level is compared with preset value If lower than preset value computer switches on sprinkler If higher than preset value computer switches off sprinkler Light is compared with preset value If lower than preset value computer switches on light bulb If higher than preset value computer switches off light bulb Q31) Give advantages to the bank of using online banking Fewer cashiers/security staff needed – less spent on wages Fewer branch offices needed – less spent on rates/rent/utilities Less actual cash handled – fewer robberies Cheaper to advertise Lower postal charges Have access to a wider customer Q32) Give advantages to the customer of using online banking Less danger of mugging Don’t have to waste time travelling to bank Don’t have to spend money on travelling Can bank at any time of day or night/can bank when banks are closed Can use it anywhere if there’s an internet connection Can ask for a loan over the Internet without being embarrassed Q33) List four items which would need to be included in this design of the file structure of the new system. Field name Field type Key field Field length Validation check/rules

Q34) Advantages of Internet Shopping tp customers Less danger of mugging Can shop when shops are closed Doesn't have to spend time queuing/going around different shops/travelling to shop/can compare prices at different shops more easily Can look at wide range of shops No travelling expenses/don’t waste fuel Easier to search and find what you’re looking for Q35) Disadvantage of Internet Shopping for Customers Lack of socializing/social contacts Hackers may intercept data and defraud customer/steal identity Deprived of personal touch Phone bills can increase Without broadband other family members cannot use the phone Cannot see/feel goods in reality/goods delivered may not be the same standard as those ordered More vulnerable to phishing/pharming More vulnerable to viruses Goods may not be delivered/can’t check the standard of goods before buying May be hidden costs such as delivery charges Q36) Examples of Other Computer Models Financial Model Simulations Mathematical models Scientific models Civil engineering models Q37) Give advantages to bank customers of using ATMs rather than going to the bank to withdraw cash. No embarrassment of not having sufficient funds Less time spent queuing Can get money any time of day or night Own bank may be further to travel to than nearest ATM Can use most ATMs/does not have to be own bank Have choice of languages so is easier to understand/be understood Q38) Give reasons why employeer may not want his workers to access the internet They may waste time playing games/going on social network sites/updating their blog/ online shopping/banking/surfing They could access undesirable sites They could download viruses/malware Could make the company susceptible to hackers

Q39) Give three advantages to the company of internet shopping. Fewer staff needed – less spent on wages Fewer shops needed – less spent on rates/rent/utilities Less actual cash handled – fewer robberies Less money spent on security staff Potentially larger customer base Q40) Give three disadvantages to the company of internet shopping. Initial cost of hardware/software is expensive Need to retrain staff Less customer loyalty/loss of customers/more difficult to sell other services/product due to lack of personal touch Costs of system maintenance Greater costs due to more delivery staff Q41) Stock Level Re-ordering Every time a product is bought, number in stock reduces by 1 Number in stock of Kollege Corn Flakes falls to 150 Compare number in stock with Re-order level Is equal so needs re-ordering Kollege Corn Flakes now needs re-ordering Read off re-order quantity (which is 50) Read off supplier code L93512 Use suppliers’ database Lookup supplier code (L93512) Read off supplier’s name, address - Lu Chen, Kinshasa Highway, Box 41324 Print off re-order request Print off address label Q42) Reliability of Internet Internet is not policed so information is not necessarily reliable Anybody can have a website so information is not necessarily reliable Anybody can publish their understanding of a topic so information is not necessarily reliable If site has excessive advertising it could be unreliable If the advertising is related only to its own products it could be unreliable The final part of a URL can help to identify reliability… … .ac, .gov, .org are usually fairly reliable Can compare information from sites to see if it is reliable If site is endorsed by reliable/reputable people/organisations it can be accepted as being reliable If it has links to other reliable sites it is usually reliable If it has testimonials it is likely to be reliable If the author’s credentials are good it is likely to be reliable If information is comparable to information from reliable/authenticated/text books it is likely to be Reliable/ If the date of the last update was a long time ago it is likely to be unreliable


Laser printer/Inkjet printer higher quality output than Dot matrix printer Laser printer/Inkjet printer faster output than Dot matrix printer Laser printer/Inkjet printer are relatively quiet compared to Dot matrix printer Laser printer has limited sizes of paper available/Inkjet has greater sizes of paper available/ Dot matrix is unlimited in size in one direction only Laser printer/Inkjet printer is susceptible to break down in oily/dirty conditions/Dot matrix printer less likely to break down in oily/dirty conditions Laser printer/Inkjet printer more expensive running costs than dot matrix Laser printer/Inkjet printer cheaper to buy than dot matrix Inkjet printer cheaper to refill ink than laser/more expensive to refill than dot matrix printer Laser printer/Inkjet printer needs regularly refilling with paper/Dot matrix printer has continuous paper feed available Dot matrix printer/Laser printer – ink needs changing less often than Inkjet printer Dot matrix printer has fewer colour options than laser printer/Inkjet printer Dot matrix printer produces instantaneous copies Noise is not a problem in this environment

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